US20090112197A1 - Devices configured to facilitate release of nitric oxide - Google Patents

Devices configured to facilitate release of nitric oxide Download PDF

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Publication number
US20090112197A1
US20090112197A1 US12/005,136 US513607A US2009112197A1 US 20090112197 A1 US20090112197 A1 US 20090112197A1 US 513607 A US513607 A US 513607A US 2009112197 A1 US2009112197 A1 US 2009112197A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
nitric oxide
embodiments
light
light sources
sensors
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
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US12/005,136
Inventor
Roderick A. Hyde
Muriel Y. Ishikawa
Lowell L. Wood, JR.
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Gearbox LLC
Original Assignee
Searete LLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US11/981,743 priority Critical patent/US8642093B2/en
Priority to US11/998,864 priority patent/US8221690B2/en
Application filed by Searete LLC filed Critical Searete LLC
Priority to US12/005,065 priority patent/US7862598B2/en
Priority to US12/005,132 priority patent/US7897399B2/en
Priority to US12/005,045 priority patent/US20090110933A1/en
Priority to US12/005,136 priority patent/US20090112197A1/en
Priority to US12/005,170 priority patent/US7975699B2/en
Priority claimed from US12/008,694 external-priority patent/US8349262B2/en
Assigned to SEARETE LLC reassignment SEARETE LLC ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: WOOD, JR., LOWELL L., ISHIKAWA, MURIEL Y., HYDE, RODERICK A.
Priority claimed from US12/148,283 external-priority patent/US8877508B2/en
Publication of US20090112197A1 publication Critical patent/US20090112197A1/en
Priority claimed from US12/927,610 external-priority patent/US10080823B2/en
Priority claimed from US12/928,028 external-priority patent/US20110190604A1/en
Priority claimed from US12/928,029 external-priority patent/US20110182970A1/en
Priority claimed from US12/930,351 external-priority patent/US20110275978A1/en
Assigned to GEARBOX, LLC reassignment GEARBOX, LLC ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: SEARETE LLC
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F6/00Contraceptive devices; Pessaries; Applicators therefor
    • A61F6/02Contraceptive devices; Pessaries; Applicators therefor for use by males
    • A61F6/04Condoms, sheaths or the like, e.g. combined with devices protecting against contagion
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L31/00Materials for other surgical articles, e.g. stents, stent-grafts, shunts, surgical drapes, guide wires, materials for adhesion prevention, occluding devices, surgical gloves, tissue fixation devices
    • A61L31/14Materials characterised by their function or physical properties, e.g. injectable or lubricating compositions, shape-memory materials, surface modified materials
    • A61L31/16Biologically active materials, e.g. therapeutic substances
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L2300/00Biologically active materials used in bandages, wound dressings, absorbent pads or medical devices
    • A61L2300/10Biologically active materials used in bandages, wound dressings, absorbent pads or medical devices containing or releasing inorganic materials
    • A61L2300/114Nitric oxide, i.e. NO
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S128/00Surgery
    • Y10S128/917Body fluid, devices for protection therefrom, e.g. aids, hepatitus
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S128/00Surgery
    • Y10S128/917Body fluid, devices for protection therefrom, e.g. aids, hepatitus
    • Y10S128/918Condoms and shields

Abstract

The present disclosure relates to devices that facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • The present application is related to and claims the benefit of the earliest available effective filing date(s) from the following listed application(s) (the “Related Applications”) (e.g., claims earliest available priority dates for other than provisional patent applications or claims benefits under 35 USC §119(e) for provisional patent applications, for any and all parent, grandparent, great-grandparent, etc. applications of the Related Application(s)).
  • RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • For purposes of the USPTO extra-statutory requirements, the present application constitutes a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/981,743, entitled Methods and Systems for Use of Photolyzable Nitric Oxide Donors, naming Roderick A. Hyde as inventor, filed 30 Oct. 2007, which is currently co-pending, or is an application of which a currently co-pending application is entitled to the benefit of the filing date.
  • For purposes of the USPTO extra-statutory requirements, the present application constitutes a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/998,864, entitled Systems and Devices that Utilize Photolyzable Nitric Oxide Donors, naming Roderick A. Hyde as inventor, filed 30 Nov. 2007, which is currently co-pending, or is an application of which a currently co-pending application is entitled to the benefit of the filing date.
  • For purposes of the USPTO extra-statutory requirements, the present application constitutes a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. UNKNOWN, entitled Systems and Devices Related to Nitric Oxide Releasing Materials, naming Roderick A. Hyde, Muriel Y. Ishikawa and Lowell L. Wood, Jr. as inventors, filed 21 Dec. 2007, which is currently co-pending, or is an application of which a currently co-pending application is entitled to the benefit of the filing date.
  • For purposes of the USPTO extra-statutory requirements, the present application constitutes a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. UNKNOWN, entitled Devices and Systems that Deliver Nitric Oxide, naming Roderick A. Hyde, Muriel Y. Ishikawa and Lowell L. Wood, Jr. as inventors, filed 21 Dec. 2007, which is currently co-pending, or is an application of which a currently co-pending application is entitled to the benefit of the filing date.
  • For purposes of the USPTO extra-statutory requirements, the present application constitutes a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. UNKNOWN, entitled Nitric Oxide Sensors and Systems, naming Roderick A. Hyde, Muriel Y. Ishikawa and Lowell L. Wood, Jr. as inventors, filed 21 Dec. 2007, which is currently co-pending, or is an application of which a currently co-pending application is entitled to the benefit of the filing date.
  • For purposes of the USPTO extra-statutory requirements, the present application constitutes a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. UNKNOWN, entitled Condoms Configured to Facilitate Release of Nitric Oxide, naming Roderick A. Hyde, Muriel Y. Ishikawa and Lowell L. Wood, Jr. as inventors, filed 21 Dec. 2007, which is currently co-pending, or is an application of which a currently co-pending application is entitled to the benefit of the filing date.
  • The United States Patent Office (USPTO) has published a notice to the effect that the USPTO's computer programs require that patent applicants reference both a serial number and indicate whether an application is a continuation or continuation-in-part. Stephen G. Kunin, Benefit of Prior-Filed Application, USPTO Official Gazette Mar. 18, 2003, available at http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/com/sol/og/2003/week11/patbene.htm. The present Applicant Entity (hereinafter “Applicant”) has provided above a specific reference to the application(s) from which priority is being claimed as recited by statute. Applicant understands that the statute is unambiguous in its specific reference language and does not require either a serial number or any characterization, such as “continuation” or “continuation-in-part,” for claiming priority to U.S. patent applications. Notwithstanding the foregoing, Applicant understands that the USPTO's computer programs have certain data entry requirements, and hence Applicant is designating the present application as a continuation-in-part of its parent applications as set forth above, but expressly points out that such designations are not to be construed in any way as any type of commentary and/or admission as to whether or not the present application contains any new matter in addition to the matter of its parent application(s).
  • All subject matter of the Related Applications and of any and all parent, grandparent, great-grandparent, etc. applications of the Related Applications is incorporated herein by reference to the extent such subject matter is not inconsistent herewith.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The present disclosure relates to devices that facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors.
  • SUMMARY
  • In some embodiments one or more devices are provided that include one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors. The devices may optionally include one or more control units that are operably associated with the one or more light sources. The devices may optionally include one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units. In addition to the foregoing, other aspects are described in the claims, drawings, and text forming a part of the present disclosure.
  • In some embodiments one or more systems are provided that include circuitry for operating one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors. The systems may optionally include circuitry for operating one or more control units that are operably associated with the one or more light sources. The systems may optionally include circuitry for operating one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units. In addition to the foregoing, other aspects are described in the claims, drawings, and text forming a part of the present disclosure.
  • In some embodiments one or more systems are provided that include means for operating one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors. The systems may optionally include means for operating one or more control units that are operably associated with the one or more light sources. The systems may optionally include means for operating one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units. In addition to the foregoing, other aspects are described in the claims, drawings, and text forming a part of the present disclosure.
  • In some embodiments one or more systems are provided that include one or more instructions for operating one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors. The systems may optionally include one or more instructions for operating one or more control units that are operably associated with the one or more light sources. The systems may optionally include one or more instructions for operating one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units. In addition to the foregoing, other aspects are described in the claims, drawings, and text forming a part of the present disclosure.
  • In some embodiments, means include but are not limited to circuitry and/or programming for effecting the herein referenced functional aspects; the circuitry and/or programming can be virtually any combination of hardware, software, and/or firmware configured to effect the herein referenced functional aspects depending upon the design choices of the system designer. In addition to the foregoing, other system aspects means are described in the claims, drawings, and/or text forming a part of the present disclosure.
  • In some embodiments, related systems include but are not limited to circuitry and/or programming for effecting the herein referenced method aspects; the circuitry and/or programming can be virtually any combination of hardware, software, and/or firmware configured to effect the herein referenced method aspects depending upon the design choices of the system designer. In addition to the foregoing, other system aspects are described in the claims, drawings, and/or text forming a part of the present application.
  • The foregoing summary is illustrative only and is not intended to be in any way limiting. In addition to the illustrative aspects, embodiments, and features described above, further aspects, embodiments, and features will become apparent by reference to the drawings, claims, and the following detailed description.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • FIG. 1 illustrates an example system 100 in which embodiments may be implemented.
  • FIG. 2 illustrates embodiment 200 of device 102 within system 100.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates alternate embodiments of embodiment 200 of device 102 within system 100.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates embodiment 400 of device 102 within system 100.
  • FIG. 5 illustrates alternate embodiments of embodiment 400 of device 102 within system 100.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates alternate embodiments of embodiment 400 of device 102 within system 100.
  • FIG. 7 illustrates embodiment 700 of device 102 within system 100.
  • FIG. 8 illustrates alternate embodiments of embodiment 700 of device 102 within system 100.
  • FIG. 9 illustrates alternate embodiments of embodiment 700 of device 102 within system 100.
  • FIG. 10 illustrates alternate embodiments of embodiment 700 of device 102 within system 100.
  • FIG. 11 illustrates a partial view of a system 1 100 that includes a computer program for executing a computer process on a computing device.
  • FIG. 12 illustrates a partial view of a system 1200 that includes a computer program for executing a computer process on a computing device.
  • FIG. 13 illustrates a partial view of a system 1300 that includes a computer program for executing a computer process on a computing device.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • In the following detailed description, reference is made to the accompanying drawings, which form a part hereof. In the drawings, similar symbols typically identify similar components, unless context dictates otherwise. The illustrative embodiments described in the detailed description, drawings, and claims are not meant to be limiting. Other embodiments may be utilized, and other changes may be made, without departing from the spirit or scope of the subject matter presented here.
  • While various aspects and embodiments have been disclosed herein, other aspects and embodiments will be apparent to those skilled in the art. The various aspects and embodiments disclosed herein are for purposes of illustration and are not intended to be limiting, with the true scope and spirit being indicated by the following claims.
  • FIG. 1 illustrates a system 100 in which embodiments may be implemented. System 100 may include one or more devices 102 that include one or more light sources 104. In some embodiments, device 102 may include one or more control units 106. In some embodiments, device 102 may include one or more sensors 108. In some embodiments, one or more electromagnetic receivers 112 may be associated with device 102. In some embodiments, system 100 may include one or more electromagnetic transmitters 116 that transmit electromagnetic energy 114 that may be received by one or more electromagnetic receivers 112. In some embodiments, the one or more electromagnetic receivers 112 may be associated with one or more light sources 104 such that the one or more light sources 104 may be powered through receipt of electromagnetic energy 114. In some embodiments, system 100 may include one or more remote sensors 120. In some embodiments, system 100 may include one or more remote sensors 120 that are configured to transmit one or more signals 118. In some embodiments, system 100 may include one or more remote sensors 120 that are configured to receive one or more signals 118. In some embodiments, system 100 may include one or more management units 122. In some embodiments, one or more management units 122 may be associated with one or more user interfaces 124. In some embodiments, one or more user interfaces 124 may be configured such that a user 126 may enter input into one or more management units 122 through one or more user interfaces 124. In some embodiments, system 100 may include one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110.
  • Device
  • System 100 includes one or more devices 102. A device 102 may be configured in numerous ways. In some embodiments, a device 102 may be configured for implantation into a user 126. For example, in some embodiments, a device 102 may be configured for implantation into the genital region of a user 126. In some embodiments, a device 102 may be configured for application to an inside surface of a user 126. For example, in some embodiments, a device 102 may be configured for insertion into the urethra of a user 126. In some embodiments, a device 102 may be configured for vaginal insertion into a user 126. In some embodiments, a device 102 may be configured for application to an outside surface of a user 126. For example, in some embodiments, a device 102 may be configured for application to the skin of a user 126. Accordingly, a device 102 may be configured in numerous ways to facilitate delivery of nitric oxide to a surface or region of a user 126. In some embodiments, a device 102 may be configured to facilitate delivery of nitric oxide as a therapeutic agent. In some embodiments, a device 102 may be configured to facilitate delivery of nitric oxide as a sanitizing agent. For example, in some embodiments, a device 102 may be configured to facilitate delivery of nitric oxide to the surface of a table, a chair, to surgical instruments, and the like. In some embodiments, a device 102 may be incorporated into clothing. For example, in some embodiments, one or more devices 102 may be incorporated into a glove, a mitten, a hood, a mask, a sock, a shirt, a sheet, a bandage, tape, a condom, a penile sleeve, and the like.
  • Light Source
  • Numerous light sources 104 may be used within system 100. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be used to facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light of multiple wavelengths. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light that is selected to facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit one or more wavelengths of light that are selected to facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more identified photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may emit one or more wavelengths of light that are selected based on the absorption spectrum of one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may emit one or more wavelengths of light that are selected based on decomposition of one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit one or more wavelengths of light that cause decomposition of one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 without causing injury to adjacent structures and/or tissues. In some embodiments, a first light source 104 may be configured to emit one or more wavelengths of light that cause a first photolyzable nitric oxide donor 110 to release nitric oxide and a second light source 104 may be configured to emit one or more wavelengths of light that cause a second photolyzable nitric oxide donor 110 to release nitric oxide. Accordingly, numerous light sources 104 may be coupled with numerous types of photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 to provide for selective release of nitric oxide.
  • In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may include one or more quantum dots (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 7,235,361; herein incorporated by reference). For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit one or more wavelengths of light that are absorbed by one or more quantum dots. In some embodiments, one or more quantum dots may be configured to absorb light and then emit one or more wavelengths of light that cause release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. Accordingly, in some embodiments, emission from one or more first quantum dots may be tuned to facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more first photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 and emission from one or more second quantum dots may be tuned to facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more second photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110.
  • In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to be used internally to illuminate one or more regions of a user 126. A light source 104 may be configured in numerous ways. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured for insertion into the urethra of a male and/or a female (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,248,214; herein incorporated by reference). In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured for vaginal insertion into a female. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured for implantation into a user 126. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured for implantation into the genital region of a male and/or a female. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured for implantation within the corpus cavernosa of a penis. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured for implantation into the scrotal sack of a male. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to include one or more energy sources (e.g., one or more batteries), one or more light emitters (e.g., one or more light emitting diodes), and one or more optical fibers to deliver light to a selected region of a user 126. In some embodiments, such light sources 104 may be implanted such that the energy sources and the light emitters are implanted into the scrotal sack of a male and optical fibers may be operably coupled to the one or more light emitters and implanted within the corpus cavernosa of the associated penis.
  • In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to externally illuminate a user 126. Accordingly, one or more light sources 104 may be configured in numerous ways. For example, in some embodiments, a light source 104 may be associated with a lamp, a flashlight, a wand, a ring, a glove, a sheet, a condom, a penile sleeve, and the like. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be associated with clothing.
  • In some embodiments, light sources 104 may be remotely controlled. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to receive one or more signals 118 that include instructions for operation of the one or more light sources 104. Such instructions may be associated with emission of light, non-emission of light, time when light is emitted, length of light emission, intensity of light emission, wavelengths of emitted light, and the like.
  • In some embodiments, light sources 104 may be configured to include one or more control units 106. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to include a switch that may be used to turn the light source 104 on and off. For example, in some embodiments, a light source 104 may be configured to include a push button switch to turn the light source 104 on and off.
  • In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may include one or more light emitters that are coupled to one or more electromagnetic receivers 112. The one or more electromagnetic receivers 112 may be configured to couple with one or more electromagnetic transmitters 116 that produce one or more electromagnetic fields that induce an electrical current to flow in the one or more electromagnetic receivers 112 to energize the light emitters (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,571,152; herein incorporated by reference). Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured such that they are not directly coupled to an energy source.
  • A light source 104 may be configured to emit numerous types of light. In some embodiments, emitted light may be visible light. In some embodiments, emitted light may be infrared light. In some embodiments, emitted light may be ultraviolet light. In some embodiments, emitted light may be substantially any combination of visible light, infrared light, and/or ultraviolet light. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may emit fluorescent light. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may emit phosphorescent light.
  • In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light continuously. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light as a pulse. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light as a flash. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light continuously, as a pulse, as a flash, or substantially any combination thereof.
  • In some embodiments, one or more light emitters and/or light sources 104 may be configured to provide for upconversion of energy. In some embodiments, infrared light may be upconverted to visible light (e.g., Mendioroz et al., Optical Materials, 26:351-357 (2004). In some embodiments, infrared light may be upconverted to ultraviolet light (e.g., Mendioroz et al., Optical Materials, 26:351-357 (2004). In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may include one or more rare-earth materials (e.g., ytterbium-erbium, ytterbium-thulium, or the like) that facilitate upconversion of energy (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 7,088,040; herein incorporated by reference). For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be associated with Nd3+ doped KPb2Cl5 crystals. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be associated with thiogallates doped with rare earths, such as CaGa2S4:Ce3+ and SrGa2S4:Ce3+. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be associated with aluminates that are doped with rare earths, such as YAlO3:Ce3+, YGaO3:Ce3+, Y(Al,Ga)O3:Ce3+, and orthosilicates M2SiO5:Ce3+ (M:Sc, Y, Sc) doped with rare earths, such as, for example, Y2SiO5:Ce3+. In some embodiments, yttrium may be replaced by scandium or lanthanum (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,812,500 and 6,327,074; herein incorporated by reference). Numerous materials that may be used to upconvert energy have been described (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,956,172; 5,943,160; 7,235,189; 7,215,687; herein incorporated by reference).
  • Control unit
  • Numerous types of control units 106 may be used within system 100. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may be operably coupled with one or more light sources 104, one or more sensors 108, one or more remote sensors 120, one or more electromagnetic receivers 112, one or more electromagnetic transmitters 116, or substantially any combination thereof. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may be operably coupled to other components through use of one or more wireless connections, one or more hardwired connections, or substantially any combination thereof. Control units 106 may be configured in numerous ways. For example, in some embodiments, a control unit 106 may be configured as an on/off switch. Accordingly, in some embodiments, a control unit 106 may be configured to turn a light source 104 on and/or off. In some embodiments, a control unit 106 may be configured to control the emission of light from one or more light sources 104. For example, in some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may regulate the intensity of light emitted from one or more light sources 104, the duration of light emitted from one or more light sources 104, the frequency of light emitted from one or more light sources 104, wavelengths of light emitted from one or more light sources 104, or substantially any combination thereof. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may be configured to receive one or more signals 118 from one or more remote sensors 120. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may be configured to control one or more light sources 104 in response to one or more signals 11 8 received from one or more remote sensors 120. For example, in some embodiments, one or more remote sensors 120 may sense a low concentration of nitric oxide in one or more tissues and send one or more signals 118 to one or more control units 106. The one or more control units 106 may then turn one or more light sources 104 on to facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more remote sensors 120 may sense a high concentration of nitric oxide in one or more tissues and send one or more signals 118 to one or more control units 106. The one or more control units 106 may then turn one or more light sources 104 off to end release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may be programmed to control one or more light sources 104. For example, in some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may be programmed to turn one or more light sources 104 on for a predetermined amount of time and then turn off. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may be preprogrammed. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may be dynamically programmed. For example, in some embodiments, one or more management units 122 may receive one or more signals 118 from one or more remote sensors 120 and program one or more control units 106 in response to the one or more signals 118 received from the one or more remote sensors 120. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include one or more receivers that are able to receive one or more signals 118, one or more information packets, or substantially any combination thereof. Control units 106 may be configured in numerous ways. For example, in some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may be operably coupled to one or more light sources 104 that include numerous light emitting diodes that emit light of different wavelengths. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may control the wavelengths of light emitted by the one or more light sources 104 by controlling the operation of light emitting diodes that emit light of the selected wavelength. Accordingly, control units 106 may be configured in numerous ways and utilize numerous types of mechanisms.
  • Sensor/Remote Sensor
  • Numerous types of sensors 108 and/or remote sensors 120 may be used within system 100. In some embodiments, a device 102 may include one or more sensors 108. In some embodiments, a device 102 may be associated with one or more remote sensors 120 that are remote from the device 102. In some embodiments, a sensor 108 and/or remote sensor 120 may be configured to detect nitric oxide. In some embodiments, a sensor 108 and/or remote sensor 120 may be configured for implantation into a user 126 (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 7,181,261). For example, in some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or remote sensors 120 may be configured to be implanted into the genital region of a user 126. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or one or more remote sensors 120 may be used to determine the presence of nitric oxide in one or more tissues. In some embodiments, a sensor 108 and/or remote sensor 120 may be configured for use on the outside surface of a user 126. For example, in some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or one or more remote sensors 120 may be configured to detect the concentration of nitric oxide on the surface of skin. In some embodiments, a sensor 108 and/or remote sensor 120 may be configured to utilize fluorescence to detect nitric oxide. For example, in some embodiments, a sensor 108 and/or remote sensor 120 may detect nitric oxide through use of one or more fluorescent probes, such as 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (EMD Chemicals Inc., San Diego, Calif.). In some embodiments, a sensor 108 and/or remote sensor 120 may detect nitric oxide through use of one or more electrodes. For example, in some embodiments, a sensor 108 and/or remote sensor 120 may utilize an electrode that includes a single walled carbon nanotube and an ionic liquid to detect nitric oxide (e.g., Li et al., Electroanalysis, 18:713-718 (2006)). Numerous sensors are commercially available and have been described (e.g., World Precision Instruments, Inc., Sarasota, Fla., USA; U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,100,096; 6,280,604; 5,980,705).
  • In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or remote sensors 120 may be configured to detect one or more nitric oxide synthases. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or remote sensors 120 may be configured to detect nitric oxide synthase activity. Nitric oxide synthase detection kits are commercially available (e.g., Cell Technology, Inc., Mountain View, Calif.). In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or remote sensors 120 may be configured to detect nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Methods that may be used to detect such mRNA have been reported (e.g., Sonoki et al., Leukemia, 13:713-718 (1999)). In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or remote sensors 120 may be configured to detect nitric oxide synthase through immunological methods. Methods that may be used to detect nitric oxide synthase been reported (e.g., Burrell et al., J. Histochem. Cytochem., 44:339-346 (1996) and Hattenbach et al., Ophthalmologica, 216:209-214 (2002)). In some embodiments, micro-electro-mechanical systems may be used to detect nitric oxide synthase. In some embodiments, antibodies and/or aptamers that bind to nitric oxide synthase may be used within one or more micro-electro-mechanical systems to detect nitric oxide synthase. Methods to construct micro-electro-mechanical detectors have been described (e.g., Gau et al., Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 16:745-755 (2001)). Accordingly, sensors 108 and/or remote sensors 120 may be configured in numerous ways to detect one or more nitric oxide synthases.
  • In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or one or more remote sensors 120 may be configured to detect one or more nitric oxide donors. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or one or more remote sensors 120 may include one or more surface plasmon resonance chemical electrodes that are configured to detect one or more nitric oxide donors. For example, in some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or one or more remote sensors 120 may include one or more surface plasmon resonance chemical electrodes that include antibodies and/or aptamers that bind to one or more nitric oxide donors. Accordingly, such electrodes may be used to detect the one or more nitric oxide donors through use of surface plasmon resonance. Methods to construct surface plasmon resonance chemical electrodes are known and have been described (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,858,799; Lin et al., Applied Optics, 46:800-806 (2007)). In some embodiments, antibodies and/or aptamers that bind to one or more nitric oxide donors may be used within one or more micro-electro-mechanical systems to detect one or more nitric oxide donors. Methods to construct micro-electro-mechanical detectors have been described (e.g., Gau et al., Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 16:745-755 (2001)).
  • In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or one or more remote sensors 120 may be configured to detect strain. For example, in some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or one or more remote sensors 120 may include one or more strain gauges. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or one or more remote sensors 120 may be configured to detect penile rigidity. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or one or more remote sensors 120 may be configured to detect blood pressure. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or one or more remote sensors 120 may include one or more transmitters. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 and/or one or more remote sensors 120 may transmit one or more signals 118 to which one or more light sources 104 that are associated with a device 102 will respond.
  • Photolyzable Nitric Oxide Donor
  • Numerous photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be used within system 100. Examples of such photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 include, but are not limited to, diazeniumdiolates (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,105,502; 7,122,529; 6,673,338; herein incorporated by reference), trans-[RuCl([15]aneN4)NO]+2 (Ferezin et al., Nitric Oxide, 13:170-175 (2005), Bonaventura et al., Nitric Oxide, 10:83-91 (2004)), nitrosyl ligands (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,665,077; herein incorporated by reference, Chmura et al., Nitric Oxide, 15:370-379 (2005), Flitney et al., Br. J. Pharmacol., 107:842-848 (1992), Flitney et al., Br. J. Pharmacol., 117:1549-1557 (1996), Matthews et al., Br. J. Pharmacol., 113:87-94 (1994)), 6-Nitrobenzo[a]pyrene (e.g., Fukuhara et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 123:8662-8666 (2001)), S-nitroso-glutathione (e.g., Rotta et al., Braz. J. Med. Res., 36:587-594 (2003), Flitney and Megson, J. Physiol., 550:819-828 (2003)), S-nitrosothiols (e.g., Andrews et al., British Journal of Pharmacology, 138:932-940 (2003), Singh et al., FEBS Lett., 360:47-51 (1995)), 2-Methyl-2-nitrosopropane (e.g., Pou et al., Mol. Pharm., 46:709-715 (1994), Wang et al., Chem. Rev., 102:1091-1134 (2002)), imidazolyl derivatives (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,374,710; herein incorporated by reference).
  • In some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be used in association with additional nitric oxide donors that are not photolyzable. In some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be used in association with additional agents. Examples of such additional agents include, but are not limited to, enzyme inhibitors (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 6,943,166; herein incorporated by reference), agents that increase the effects and/or concentration of nitric oxide 106 (e.g., methylene blue and N(w)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) (see Chen and Gillis, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 190, 559-563 (1993) and Kim et al., J. Vet.Sci., 1:81-86 (2000)), L-arginine (e.g., U.S. Published Patent Application No. 20020068365 and U.S. Pat. No. 6,635,273; herein incorporated by reference), agents that stabilize nitric oxide donors (e.g., dimethly sulfoxide and ethanol), agents that increase the half life of nitric oxide (e.g., U.S. Published Patent Application No. 20030039697; herein incorporated by reference), and the like.
  • Electromagnetic Receiver
  • Numerous types of electromagnetic receivers 112 may be used within system 100. In some embodiments, one or more electromagnetic receivers 112 may be used to electromagnetically couple power to energize one or more light sources 104 from an external power supply. Methods to construct such electromagnetic receivers 112 have been described (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,571,152). Briefly, in some embodiments, one or more electromagnetic receivers 112 may be associated with one or more rectifier chips. The one or more electromagnetic receivers 112 may include one or more cores about which are wrapped an electrical conductor. In some embodiments, cores may comprise a material, such as a ferrite material, due to its relatively high magnetic permeability and low magnetic hysteresis. However, other materials can be used for this purpose. In some embodiments, the electromagnetic receiver 112 may be operably coupled to a light emitting diode.
  • Electromagnetic Energy
  • Electrical power may be electromagnetically coupled from one or more electromagnetic transmitters 116 with one or more electromagnetic receivers 112. Accordingly, electrical power that is transferred to the one or more electromagnetic receivers 112 may be used to power one or more operably linked light emitters. Methods and devices that may be used to transmit electrical power to a light emitter have been described (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,571,152).
  • Electromagnetic Transmitter
  • Numerous types of electromagnetic transmitters 116 may be used within system 100. Methods to construct electromagnetic transmitters 116 have been described (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,571,152). Briefly, in some embodiments, the electromagnetic transmitter 116 may include a ferrite core around which is wrapped an electrical conductor. Other types of material having high magnetic permeability and relatively low magnetic hysteresis may be used for the core. Insulating tape may be wrapped around the electrical conductor, or the electromagnetic transmitter 116 may be dipped in a resin to form a coating that stabilizes and fixes the electrical conductor on the core. A return lead from one end of the electrical conductor may include one of two leads that are coupled to an AC power supply.
  • Management Unit
  • In some embodiments, system 100 may include one or more management units 122. In some embodiments, a management unit 122 may be configured as a computer. Accordingly, in some embodiments, a management unit 122 may be configured to accept input and provide output. For example, in some embodiments, a management unit 122 may receive one or more signals 118 from one or more sensors 108, process the one or more signals 118, and then transmit one or more signals 118. In some embodiments, one or more transmitted signals 118 may be received by one or more control units 106. In some embodiments, one or more transmitted signals 118 may be received by one or more light sources 104. Accordingly, in some embodiments, a management unit 122 may be configured to manage nitric oxide production by a device 102. For example, in some embodiments, a management unit 122 may include and execute a set of instructions for the operation of one or more control units 106 that facilitate production of nitric oxide by one or more devices 102 at preselected times and for preselected concentrations. In some embodiments, such production may be regulated through control of the intensity of light emitted by one or more light sources 104, the duration of light emitted by one or more light sources 104, the frequency of light emitted by one or more light sources 104, and the like. In some embodiments, a management unit 122 may dynamically control the production of nitric oxide by one or more devices 102. For example, in some embodiments, a management unit 122 may be configured to maintain a nitric oxide concentration within a range of concentrations. Accordingly, the management unit 122 may receive one or more signals 118 from one or more remote sensors 120 indicating a current concentration of nitric oxide. The management unit 122 may then determine if the nitric oxide concentration is within a range of nitric oxide concentrations or out of a range of nitric oxide concentrations and then increase nitric oxide production, decrease nitric oxide production, or maintain nitric oxide production to cause the nitric oxide concentration to be maintained within a range. Accordingly, a management unit 122 may be used in numerous ways to regulate nitric oxide production.
  • Transmitter
  • The system 100 may include one or more transmitters. In some embodiments, one or more transmitters may be operably coupled to one or more sensors 108. In some embodiments, one or more transmitters may be operably coupled to one or more remote sensors 120. In some embodiments, one or more transmitters may be operably coupled to one or more management units 122. In some embodiments, one or more transmitters may be operably coupled to one or more control units 106. In some embodiments, one or more transmitters may be operably coupled to one or more sensors 108, one or more remote sensors 120, one or more control units 106, one or more management units 122, or substantially any combination thereof. Numerous types of transmitters may be used in association with system 100. Examples of such transmitters include, but are not limited to, transmitters that transmit one or more optical signals 118, radio signals 118, wireless signals 118, hardwired signals 118, infrared signals 118, ultrasonic signals 118, and the like (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. RE39,785; 7,260,768; 7,260,764; 7,260,402; 7,257,327; 7,215,887; 7,218,900; herein incorporated by reference). In some embodiments, one or more transmitters may transmit one or more signals 11 8 that are encrypted. Numerous types of transmitters are known and have been described (e.g., U.S. Patent Nos. and Published U.S. Patent Applications: 7,236,595; 7,260,155; 7,227,956; US2006/0280307; herein incorporated by reference).
  • Signal
  • Numerous types of signals 118 may be used in association with system 100. Examples of such signals 118 include, but are not limited to, optical signals 118, radio signals 118, wireless signals 118, hardwired signals 118, infrared signals 118, ultrasonic signals 118, and the like.
  • In some embodiments, one or more signals 118 may not be encrypted. In some embodiments, one or more signals 118 may be encrypted. In some embodiments, one or more signals 118 may be sent through use of a secure mode of transmission. In some embodiments, one or more signals 118 may be coded for receipt by a specific user 126. In some embodiments, such code may include anonymous code that is specific for a user 126. Accordingly, information included within one or more signals 118 may be protected against being accessed by others who are not the intended recipient.
  • Receiver
  • System 100 may include one or more receivers. In some embodiments, one or more receivers may be operably coupled to one or more sensors 108. In some embodiments, one or more receivers may be operably coupled to one or more remote sensors 120. In some embodiments, one or more receivers may be operably coupled to one or more management units 122. In some embodiments, one or more receivers may be operably coupled to one or more control units 106. In some embodiments, one or more receivers may be operably coupled to one or more sensors 108, one or more remote sensors 120, one or more control units 106, one or more management units 122, or substantially any combination thereof. Numerous types of receivers may be used in association with system 100. Examples of such receivers include, but are not limited to, receivers that receive one or more optical signals 118, radio signals 118, wireless signals 118, hardwired signals 118, infrared signals 118, ultrasonic signals 118, and the like. Such receivers are known and have been described (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. RE39,785; 7,218,900; 7,254,160; 7,245,894; 7,206,605; herein incorporated by reference).
  • User Interface/User
  • System 100 may include numerous types of user interfaces 124. For example, one or more users 126 may interact through use of numerous user interfaces 124 that utilize hardwired methods, such as through use of an on/off switch, a push button, a keyboard, and the like. In some embodiments, the user interface 124 may utilize wireless methods, such as methods that utilize a transmitter and receiver, utilize the internet, and the like.
  • User
  • A device 102 may be used to administer light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 to a user 126. In some embodiments, a user 126 may be a human. In some embodiments, a user 126 may be a human male. In some embodiments, a user 126 may be a human female. A device 102 may be used within numerous contexts. For example, in some embodiments, a device 102 may be used to treat sexual dysfunction. In some embodiments, a device 102 may be used to treat female arousal disorder. In some embodiments, a device 102 may be used to treat male erectile disorder. In some embodiments, sexual dysfunction may be due to a physical condition. For example, in some embodiments, sexual dysfunction may result from surgery, a physical injury, pharmaceutical use, age, or the like. In some embodiments, sexual dysfunction may be due to a mental condition. For example, in some embodiments, sexual dysfunction may be due to depression, lack of interest, insecurity, anxiety, or the like. In some embodiments, a device 102 may used to increase sexual performance and/or pleasure. In some embodiments, a device 102 may be used to facilitate delivery of nitric oxide to the skin of a user 126. In some embodiments, such delivery may be for cosmetic purposes. In some embodiments, such delivery may be for therapeutic purposes. For example, in some embodiments, a device 102 may be used to facilitate delivery of nitric oxide to a skin lesion, such as a skin ulcer, a burn, a cut, a puncture, a laceration, a blunt trauma, an acne lesion, a boil, and the like. In some embodiments, a device 102 may be used to facilitate delivery of nitric oxide to a skin surface to increase the expression of endogenous collagenase. In some embodiments, a device 102 may be used to facilitate delivery of nitric oxide to a skin surface to regulate the formation of collagen. In some embodiments, a device 102 may be used to facilitate delivery of nitric oxide to reduce inflammation (e.g., reduce exudate secretion) at the site of a lesion (e.g., U.S. Patent Application No.: 2007/0088316). In some embodiments, a device 102 may be used to facilitate delivery of nitric oxide to reduce the microbial burden within a wound site. For example, in some embodiments, a device 102 may be used to facilitate delivery of nitric oxide as an antibacterial agent against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A device 102 may facilitate delivery of nitric oxide to a user 126 at numerous concentrations. For example, in some embodiments, nitric oxide may be delivered at a concentration ranging from about 160 ppm to about 400 ppm. Such concentrations may be used without inducing toxicity in the healthy cells around a wound site (e.g., U.S. Patent Application No.: 2007/0088316).
  • Administration Form
  • Numerous types of administration forms 128 may be used to provide one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 to a user 126. In some embodiments, an administration form 128 may be a formulation of one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. In some embodiments, an administration form 128 may be configured for oral delivery of one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 to a user 126. For example, in some embodiments, an administration form 128 may be configured as a pill, a lozenge, a capsule, a liquid, and the like. In some embodiments, an administration form 128 may be configured for topical delivery of one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 to a user 126. For example, in some embodiments, an administration form 128 may be configured as a gel, a cream, a lotion, a lubricant, a jelly, and the like. In some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be formulated with one or more liposomes to provide for delivery of the one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 to the user 126. In some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be formulated with one or more detergents to facilitate delivery of the one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 to the user 126. In some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be formulated with one or more agents that stabilize the one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. In some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be formulated for administration to one or more users 126 through inhalation. In some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be formulated for administration to one or more users 126 through parenteral administration.
  • In some embodiments, an administration form 128 may include an implant. In some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be coupled to a structure that can be implanted within a user 126. For example, in some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be coupled to a polymeric structure for implantation into a user 126 (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,405,919; 6,451,337; 7,052,711: herein incorporated by reference, Smith et al., J. Med. Chem., 1:1148-1156 (1996)). In some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be included within a porous structure and/or matrix for implantation into a user 126 (e.g., U.S. Published Patent Application No.: 20030039697; herein incorporated by reference). Such structures may be constructed from numerous materials that include, but are not limited to, polymers, ceramics, metals, and the like. In some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be formulated for depot administration to a user 126. For example, in some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be formulated with one or more biodegradable materials that degrade within a user 126 to release the one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,736,152; 6,143,314; 6,773,714; herein incorporated by reference). Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be included within a flowable material that forms an implant upon being injected into a user 126.
  • In some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be formulated with one or more additional agents. Examples of such agents include, but are not limited to, enzyme inhibitors, additional nitric oxide donors, free radical scavengers, and the like. In some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be formulated with one or more light sources 104 (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,571,152; herein incorporated by reference). In some embodiments, one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 may be formulated with one or more quantum dots (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 7,235,361; herein incorporated by reference).
  • FIG. 2 illustrates embodiment 200 of device 102 within system 100. In FIG. 2, discussion and explanation may be provided with respect to the above-described example of FIG. 1, and/or with respect to other examples and contexts. However, it should be understood that the modules may execute operations in a number of other environments and contexts, and/or modified versions of FIG. 1. Also, although the various modules are presented in the sequence(s) illustrated, it should be understood that the various modules may be configured in numerous orientations.
  • The embodiment 200 may include module 210 that includes one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors. In some embodiments, device 102 may include one or more light sources 104 that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. A light source 104 may be configured in numerous ways. For example, in some embodiments, a light source 104 may include a chemiluminescent light source 104. In some embodiments, a light source 104 may include a phosphorescent light source 104. In some embodiments, a light source 104 may include a light emitter that is coupled to a power supply. For example, in some embodiments, a light source 104 may include one or more light emitting diodes that are coupled to one or more power supplies. Examples of power supplies include, but are not limited to, capacitors, batteries, electromagnetic receivers 112, and the like. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light that specifically facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit one or more wavelengths of light that facilitate photodecomposition of one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured such they do not emit one or more wavelengths of light that do not facilitate photodecomposition of one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light that is matched to one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 and causes photodecomposition of the one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured such that they do not emit light that cross-links biological structures (e.g., proteins) or that causes the formation of DNA adducts. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light that photolyzes one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 with reduced damage to surrounding tissue. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit visible light (λ=550 nm) to facilitate homolytic decomposition of S-nitrosoglutathione to generate nitric oxide (e.g., Singh et al., FEBS Letters, 360:47-51 (1995)). In some embodiments, ultraviolet light may be used to facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit ultraviolet light (λ=355 nm) to release nitric oxide from S-nitrosothiols (e.g., Rotta et al., Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 36:587-594 (2003)). In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light over a broad range of wavelengths that will facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. For example, in some embodiments, O2-benzyl substituted diazeniumdiolates, O2-napthylmethyl substituted diazeniumdiolates, and/or O2-napththylallyl substituted diazeniumdiolates may be photolyzed by light over a broad range of wavelengths (λ=254 nm to λ=700 nm) (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 7,122,529).
  • FIG. 3 illustrates alternative embodiments of embodiment 200 of device 102 within system 100 of FIG. 2. FIG. 3 illustrates example embodiments of module 210. Additional embodiments may include an embodiment 302, an embodiment 304, an embodiment 306, an embodiment 308, an embodiment 310, and/or an embodiment 312.
  • At embodiment 302, module 210 may include one or more light emitters that are configured to selectively emit one or more wavelengths of light that correspond to the absorption maximum of the one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may include one or more light emitters that are configured to selectively emit one or more wavelengths of light that correspond to the absorption maximum of one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. Examples of nitric oxide donors and their associated λmax (nm) are provided in Table I below. Accordingly, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit numerous wavelengths of light.
  • TABLE I
    Example Nitric Oxide Donors
    Compound Name λmax (nm)
    O2-(Acetoxymethyl) 1-(N,N-Diethylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate 230
    O2-(Acetoxymethyl) 1-(Pyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate 256
    Sodium 1-(N-Benzyl-N-methylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate 252
    O2-[(2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucosyl] 1-[4-(2,3- 232
    Dihydroxypropyl)piperazin-1
    Sodium 1-[4-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl)piperazin-1-yl-]diazen-1-ium-1,2- 248.5
    diolate
    O2-Methyl 1-[(4-Carboxamido)piperidin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate 241
    O2-(2-Chloropyrimidin-4-yl) 1-(Pyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2- 274
    diolate
    O2-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-[4-(N,N-Diethylcarboxamido)piperazin-1- 300
    yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate
    O2-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-(4-Nicotinylpiperazin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2- 300
    diolate
    O2-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-{4-[2-(4-{2- 300
    Methylpropyl}phenyl)propionyl]piperazin-1-yl}diazen-1-ium-1,2-
    diolate
    Sodium 1-(4-Benzyloxycarbonylpiperazin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2- 252
    diolate
    O2-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-[4-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1- 299
    yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate
    O2-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-(4-Acetylpiperazin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2- 394
    diolate
    O2-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-[4-(Succinimidoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1- 300
    yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate
    O2-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-(Piperazin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate, 297
    Hydrochloride Salt
    O2-(2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-D-glucopyranosyl) 1-(N,N- 228
    Diethylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate
    O2-(-D-Glucopyranosyl) 1-(N,N-Diethylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate 228
    Sodium (Z)-1-(N,N-Diethylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate 250
    1-[N-(2-Aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2- 252
    diolate
    Sodium 1-(N,N-Dimethylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate 250
    O2-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-(N,N-Diethylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate 302
    1-[N-(3-Aminopropyl)-N-(3-ammoniopropyl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate 252
    1-[N-(3-Aminopropyl)-N-(3-ammoniopropyl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate 252
    Bis-diazeniumdiolated benzyl imidate dehydrate 264
    p-Bisdiazeniumdiolated benzene 316
    Methane Trisdiazeniumdiolate trihydrate 316
    O2-(β-D-Glucopyranosyl) 1-(Isopropylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate 278
    Sodium 1-[4-(5-Dimethylamino-1-naphthalenesulfonyl)piperazin-1- 344
    yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate
    1-(2-Methyl-1-propenyl)piperidine diazeniumdiolate 246
    1-(2-Methyl-1-propenyl)pyrrolidine diazeniumdiolate 246
    O2-Vinyl 1-(Pyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate 268
    1-{N-[3-Aminopropyl]-N-[4-(3-aminopropylammoniobutyl)]}diazen- 252
    1-ium-1,2-diolate
    Disodium 1-[(2-Carboxylato)pyrrolidin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate 252
    1-[N-(3-Ammoniopropyl)-N-(n-propyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate 250
    (Z)-1-{N-Methyl-N-[6-(N-methylammoniohexyl)amino]}diazen-1-ium-1,2- 250
    diolate
    O2-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-Ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1- 300
    ium-1,2-diolate
  • At embodiment 304, module 210 may include one or more light emitters that are configured to selectively emit one or more wavelengths of light that facilitate photodecomposition of the one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may include one or more light emitters that are configured to selectively emit one or more wavelengths of light that facilitate photodecomposition of one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may include one or more light emitters that emit one or more wavelengths of light that facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 but that do not emit one or more wavelengths of light that do not facilitate release of nitric oxide from the one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. In some embodiments, one or more light emitters may be configured to emit one or more wavelengths of light that facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 and to not emit one or more different wavelengths of light that may also facilitate release of nitric oxide from the one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. For example, in some embodiments, a photolyzable nitric oxide donor 110 may release nitric oxide when illuminated with ultraviolet light and visible light. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more light emitters may be configured to emit visible light that facilitates release of nitric oxide and to not emit ultraviolet light which may cause damage to tissue associated with a user associated with the released nitric oxide. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit visible light (λ=550 nm) to facilitate homolytic decomposition of S-nitrosoglutathione to generate nitric oxide but not emit ultraviolet light (e.g., Singh et al., FEBS Letters, 360:47-51 (1995)). In some embodiments, ultraviolet light may be used to facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit ultraviolet light (λ=355 nm) to release nitric oxide from S-nitrosothiols (e.g., Rotta et al., Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 36:587-594 (2003)). In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light over a broad range of wavelengths that will facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. For example, in some embodiments, O2-benzyl substituted diazeniumdiolates, O2-napthylmethyl substituted diazeniumdiolates, and/or O2-napththylallyl substituted diazeniumdiolates may be photolyzed by light over a broad range of wavelengths (λ=254 nm to λ=700 nm) (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 7,122,529). Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more light emitters may be configured to emit light that is paired with one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 to facilitate release of nitric oxide from the one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110.
  • At embodiment 306, module 210 may include one or more light emitters that are configured to emit light that is selected to avoid damaging one or more tissues. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may include one or more light emitters that are configured to emit light that is selected to avoid damaging one or more tissues. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may emit light that is selected to avoid and/or reduce damage to one or more structures and/or one or more tissues of a user 126. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may emit light that does not include wavelengths of light that are absorbed by nucleic acids. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may emit light that does not include wavelengths of light that are absorbed by polypeptides. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may emit light that does not include one or more wavelengths of light within the following range: 250-320 nm. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may not emit 260 nm light. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may not emit 280 nm light. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may not emit 260 nm light or 280 nm light. Accordingly, numerous combinations of wavelengths of light may be excluded from emission by one or more light sources 104. In some embodiments, light may be emitted continuously. In some embodiments, light may be emitted as a flash. In some embodiments, light may be emitted alternately as continuous light and a flash. In some embodiments, light may be emitted as a pulse.
  • At embodiment 308, module 210 may include one or more light sources that are configured for implantation within a user. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may include one or more light sources 104 that are configured for implantation within a user 126. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured for implantation into the genital region of a male. In some embodiments, a light source 104 may be configured to have a power source that may be implanted into the lower abdomen of a male and a light emitter that is configured for placement in the corpus cavernosa of the penis. In some embodiments, such a light source 104 may be used to facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 within the genital region. Accordingly, in some embodiments, such an implanted light source 104 may be configured for use in association with treatment of erectile dysfunction. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured for implantation in association with the vasculature of a user 126. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured for implantation in association with an implanted vascular stent. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 in the region of the vasculator that is associated with the implanted stent. Light sources 104 may be configured for implantation in numerous ways.
  • At embodiment 310, module 210 may include one or more light sources that are configured for external use. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may include one or more light sources 104 that are configured for external use. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured as hand-held units that may be used to shine light onto a surface. For example, in some embodiments, a light source 104 may be configured as a hand-held device 102 that may be used to emit light onto the skin of an individual to facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured for association with one or more bandages, patches, body wraps, hoods, gloves, masks, clothing items, bags, and the like. Accordingly, light sources 104 may be configured in numerous ways for external use.
  • At embodiment 312, module 210 may include one or more light sources that are configured to emit one or more wavelengths of light that are between 254 nm and 700 nm. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may include one or more light sources 104 that are configured to emit one or more wavelengths of light that are between 254 nm and 700 nm. For example, in some embodiments, a light source 104 may be configured to emit ultraviolet light (λ=350 nm to 360 nm) to release nitric oxide from S-nitrosothiols and not emit other wavelengths of light (e.g., about 254 nm to about 349 nm and about 361 nm to about 700 nm). Accordingly, the emission of light from one or more light sources 104 may be coupled to wavelengths of light that facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured such that they do not emit one or more wavelengths of light that do not facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates embodiment 400 of device 102 within system 100. In FIG. 4, discussion and explanation may be provided with respect to the above-described example of FIG. 1, and/or with respect to other examples and contexts. In some embodiments, module 210 as described with respect to embodiment 200 of device 102 of FIG. 2 may correspond to module 410 as described with respect to embodiment 400 of device 102 within system 100. However, it should be understood that the modules may execute operations in a number of other environments and contexts, and/or modified versions of FIG. 1. Also, although the various modules are presented in the sequence(s) illustrated, it should be understood that the various modules may be configured in numerous orientations.
  • The embodiment 400 may include module 410 that includes one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors. In some embodiments, device 102 may include one or more light sources 104 that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. A light source 104 may be configured in numerous ways. For example, in some embodiments, a light source 104 may include a chemiluminescent light source 104. In some embodiments, a light source 104 may include a phosphorescent light source 104. In some embodiments, a light source 104 may include a light emitter that is coupled to a power supply. For example, in some embodiments, a light source 104 may include one or more light emitting diodes that are coupled to one or more power supplies. Examples of power supplies include, but are not limited to, capacitors, batteries, electromagnetic receivers 112, and the like. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light that specifically facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit one or more wavelengths of light that facilitate photodecomposition of one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured such that they do not emit one or more wavelengths of light that do not facilitate photodecomposition of one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light that is matched to one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 and causes photodecomposition of the one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured such that they do not emit light that cross-links biological structures (e.g., proteins) or that causes the formation of DNA adducts. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light that photolyzes one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 with reduced damage to surrounding tissue. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit visible light (λ=550 nm) to facilitate homolytic decomposition of S-nitrosoglutathione to generate nitric oxide (e.g., Singh et al., FEBS Letters, 360:47-51 (1995)). In some embodiments, ultraviolet light may be used to facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit ultraviolet light (λ=355 nm) to release nitric oxide from S-nitrosothiols (e.g., Rotta et al., Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 36:587-594 (2003)). In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light over a broad range of wavelengths that will facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. For example, in some embodiments, O2-benzyl substituted diazeniumdiolates, O2-napthylmethyl substituted diazeniumdiolates, and/or O2-napththylallyl substituted diazeniumdiolates may be photolyzed by light over a broad range of wavelengths (λ=254 nm to λ=700 nm) (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 7,122,529).
  • The embodiment 400 may include module 420 that includes one or more control units that are operably associated with the one or more light sources. In some embodiments, device 102 may include one or more control units 106 that are operably associated with the one or more light sources 104. In some embodiments, the one or more control units 106 may be operably associated with one or more light sources 104 through use of a hardwired connection. In some embodiments, the one or more control units 106 may be operably associated with one or more light sources 104 through use of a wireless connection. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include numerous types of receivers. Examples of such receivers include, but are not limited to, receivers that receive one or more optical signals 118, radio signals 118, wireless signals 118, hardwired signals 118, infrared signals 118, ultrasonic signals 118, and the like. Such receivers are known and have been described (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. RE39,785; 7,218,900; 7,254,160; 7,245,894; 7,206,605; herein incorporated by reference).
  • FIG. 5 illustrates alternative embodiments of embodiment 400 of device 102 within system 100 of FIG. 4. FIG. 5 illustrates example embodiments of module 420. Additional embodiments may include an embodiment 502, an embodiment 504, an embodiment 506, an embodiment 508, and/or an embodiment 510.
  • At embodiment 502, module 420 may include one or more receivers that are configured to receive one or more information packets. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include one or more receivers that are configured to receive one or more information packets. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may be configured to receive one or more information packets that include numerous types of information. Examples of such information include, but are not limited to, intensity of light to be emitted by one or more light sources 104, duration of light to be emitted by one or more light sources 104, frequency of light to be emitted by one or more light sources 104, wavelengths of light to be emitted by one or more light sources 104, and the like.
  • At embodiment 504, module 420 may include one or more receivers that are configured to receive one or more signals. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include one or more receivers that are configured to receive one or more signals 118. A control unit 106 may include a receiver that is configured to receive numerous types of signals 118. Examples of such signals 118 include, but are not limited to, optical signals 118, radio signals 118, wireless signals 118, hardwired signals 118, infrared signals 118, ultrasonic signals 118, and the like. In some embodiments, one or more signals 118 may not be encrypted. In some embodiments, one or more signals 118 may be encrypted. In some embodiments, one or more signals 118 may be sent through use of a secure mode of transmission. In some embodiments, one or more signals 118 may be coded for receipt by a specific user 126. In some embodiments, such code may include anonymous code that is specific for a user 126. Accordingly, information included within one or more signals 118 may be protected against being accessed by others who are not the intended recipient.
  • At embodiment 506, module 420 may include one or more control units that regulate the one or more light sources. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include one or more control units 106 that regulate one or more light sources 104. One or more control units 106 may regulate numerous aspects of one or more light sources 104. Examples of such aspects include, but are not limited to, intensity of emitted light, duration of emitted light, pulse frequency of emitted light, wavelengths of emitted light, and the like.
  • At embodiment 508, module 420 may include one or more control units that regulate the one or more light sources in response to one or more programs. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include one or more control units 106 that regulate the one or more light sources 104 in response to one or more programs. For example, in some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may be responsive to a programmed set of instructions. In some embodiments, the one or more control units 106 may be directly programmed. For example, in some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include a programmable memory that can include instructions. In some embodiments, the one or more control units 106 may receive instructions from a program that is associated with one or more management units 122.
  • At embodiment 510, module 420 may include one or more control units that regulate the one or more light sources in response to one or more timers. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include one or more control units 106 that regulate the one or more light sources 104 in response to one or more timers. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may be configured to include one or more timers to which the one or more control units 106 are responsive. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may be responsive to one or more timers that are remote from the one or more control units 106. For example, in some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may be responsive to one or more timers that are associated with one or more management units 122 that send instructions to the one or more control units 106.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates alternative embodiments of embodiment 400 of device 102 within system 100 of FIG. 4. FIG. 6 illustrates example embodiments of module 420. Additional embodiments may include an embodiment 602, an embodiment 604, an embodiment 606, an embodiment 608, an embodiment 610, and/or an embodiment 612.
  • At embodiment 602, module 420 may include one or more control units that regulate intensity of light emitted by the one or more light sources. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include one or more control units 106 that regulate intensity of light emitted by one or more light sources 104. For example, in some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may regulate the current flowing through a light source 104 to regulate the intensity of light emitted from the light source. For example, in some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include a potentiometer.
  • At embodiment 604, module 420 may include one or more control units that regulate one or more wavelengths of light emitted by the one or more light sources. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include one or more control units 106 that regulate one or more wavelengths of light emitted by one or more light sources 104. For example, in some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may be coupled to a light source 104 that includes numerous light emitting diodes that emit light of different wavelengths. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may regulate wavelengths of light emitted from the light source 104 by selectively illuminating light emitting diodes that emit the desired wavelengths of light.
  • At embodiment 606, module 420 may include one or more control units that regulate duration of light emitted by the one or more light sources. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include one or more control units 106 that regulate the duration of light emitted by one or more light sources 104. For example, one or more control units 106 may cause one or more light sources 104 to emit light for a period of nanoseconds, microseconds, milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, and the like.
  • At embodiment 608, module 420 may include one or more control units that regulate one or more pulse rates of light emitted by the one or more light sources. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include one or more control units 106 that regulate one or more pulse rates of light emitted by the one or more light sources 104. For example, in some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may cause a light source 104 to emit light in short pulses (e.g., nanosecond pulses, microsecond pulses). In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may cause a light source 104 to emit light in medium pulses (e.g., second pulses, minute pulses). In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may cause a light source 104 to emit light in medium pulses (e.g., hour pulses, day long pulses).
  • At embodiment 610, module 420 may include one or more control units that regulate energy associated with one or more pulses of light emitted by the one or more light sources. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include one or more control units 106 that regulate energy associated with one or more pulses of light emitted by the one or more light sources 104. For example, in some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may regulate the current flowing through a light source 104 to regulate the energy associated with one or more pulses of light emitted by the one or more light sources 104. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may regulate what wavelengths of light are emitted by a light source 104 to regulate the energy associated with one or more pulses of light emitted by the one or more light sources 104.
  • At embodiment 612, module 420 may include one or more control units that regulate one or more times when light is emitted from the one or more light sources. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include one or more control units 106 that regulate one or more times when light is emitted from the one or more light sources 104. For example, in some embodiments, one or more control units may regulate when one or more light sources 104 start emitting light. In some embodiments, one or more control units may regulate when one or more light sources 104 stop emitting light. In some embodiments, one or more control units may regulate one or more clock times (e.g., 9:30 PM) when one or more light sources 104 emit light. In some embodiments, one or more control units may regulate one or more selected times (e.g., start in 20 minutes or stop in 20 minutes) when one or more light sources 104 emit light.
  • FIG. 7 illustrates embodiment 700 of device 102 within system 100. In FIG. 7, discussion and explanation may be provided with respect to the above-described example of FIG. 1, and/or with respect to other examples and contexts. In some embodiments, module 210 as described with respect to embodiment 200 of device 102 of FIG. 2 may correspond to module 710 as described with respect to embodiment 700 of device 102 within system 100. In some embodiments, module 420 as described with respect to embodiment 400 of device 102 of FIG. 4 may correspond to module 720 as described with respect to embodiment 700 of device 102 within system 100. However, it should be understood that the modules may execute operations in a number of other environments and contexts, and/or modified versions of FIG. 1. Also, although the various modules are presented in the sequence(s) illustrated, it should be understood that the various modules may be configured in numerous orientations.
  • The embodiment 700 may include module 710 that includes one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors. In some embodiments, device 102 may include one or more light sources 104 that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. A light source 104 may be configured in numerous ways. For example, in some embodiments, a light source 104 may include a chemiluminescent light source 104. In some embodiments, a light source 104 may include a phosphorescent light source 104. In some embodiments, a light source 104 may include a light emitter that is coupled to a power supply. For example, in some embodiments, a light source 104 may include one or more light emitting diodes that are coupled to one or more power supplies. Examples of power supplies include, but are not limited to, capacitors, batteries, electromagnetic receivers 112, and the like. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light that specifically facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit one or more wavelengths of light that facilitate photodecomposition of one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured such that they do not emit one or more wavelengths of light that do not facilitate photodecomposition of one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light that is matched to one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 and causes photodecomposition of the one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured such that they do not emit light that cross-links biological structures (e.g., proteins) or that causes the formation of DNA adducts. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light that photolyzes one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 with reduced damage to surrounding tissue. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit visible light (λ=550 nm) to facilitate homolytic decomposition of S-nitrosoglutathione to generate nitric oxide (e.g., Singh et al., FEBS Letters, 360:47-51 (1995)). In some embodiments, ultraviolet light may be used to facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. For example, in some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit ultraviolet light (λ=355 nm) to release nitric oxide from S-nitrosothiols (e.g., Rotta et al., Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 36:587-594 (2003)). In some embodiments, one or more light sources 104 may be configured to emit light over a broad range of wavelengths that will facilitate release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. For example, in some embodiments, O2-benzyl substituted diazeniumdiolates, O2-napthylmethyl substituted diazeniumdiolates, and/or O2-napththylallyl substituted diazeniumdiolates may be photolyzed by light over a broad range of wavelengths (λ=254 nm to λ=700 nm) (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 7,122,529).
  • The embodiment 700 may include module 720 that includes one or more control units that are operably associated with the one or more light sources. In some embodiments, device 102 may include one or more control units 106 that are operably associated with the one or more light sources 104. In some embodiments, the one or more control units 106 may be operably associated with one or more light sources 104 through use of a hardwired connection. In some embodiments, the one or more control units 106 may be operably associated with one or more light sources 104 through use of a wireless connection. In some embodiments, one or more control units 106 may include numerous types of receivers. Examples of such receivers include, but are not limited to, receivers that receive one or more optical signals 118, radio signals 118, wireless signals 118, hardwired signals 118, infrared signals 118, ultrasonic signals 118, and the like. Such receivers are known and have been described (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. RE39,785; 7,218,900; 7,254,160; 7,245,894; 7,206,605; herein incorporated by reference).
  • The embodiment 700 may include module 730 that includes one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units. In some embodiments, device 102 may include one or more sensors 108 that are operably associated with the one or more control units 106. In some embodiments, the one or more sensors 108 may be operably associated with one or more control units 106 through use of a hardwired connection. In some embodiments, the one or more sensors 108 may be operably associated with the one or more control units 106 through use of a wireless connection. Numerous types of signals 118 may be transmitted and received by one or more sensors 108 and one or more control units 106. Examples of such signals 118 include, but are not limited to, optical signals 118, radio signals 118, wireless signals 118, hardwired signals 118, infrared signals 118, ultrasonic signals 118, and the like.
  • FIG. 8 illustrates alternative embodiments of embodiment 700 of device 102 within system 100 of FIG. 7. FIG. 8 illustrates example embodiments of module 730. Additional embodiments may include an embodiment 802, an embodiment 804, an embodiment 806, an embodiment 808, and/or an embodiment 810.
  • At embodiment 802, module 730 may include one or more sensors configured to detect nitric oxide. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include one or more sensors 108 that are configured to detect nitric oxide. Nitric oxide sensors 108 may be configured in numerous ways. In some embodiments, a sensor 108 may be configured to utilize fluorescence to detect nitric oxide. For example, in some embodiments, a sensor 108 may detect nitric oxide through use of one or more fluorescent probes, such as 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (EMD Chemicals Inc., San Diego, Calif.). In some embodiments, a sensor 108 may detect nitric oxide through use of one or more electrodes. For example, in some embodiments, a sensor 108 may utilize an electrode that includes a single walled carbon nanotube and an ionic liquid to detect nitric oxide (e.g., Li et al., Electroanalysis, 18:713-718 (2006)). Numerous sensors are commercially available and have been described (e.g., World Precision Instruments, Inc., Sarasota, Fla., USA; U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,100,096; 6,280,604; 5,980,705).
  • At embodiment 804, module 730 may include one or more sensors configured to detect one or more nitric oxide donors. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include one or more sensors 108 that are configured to detect one or more nitric oxide donors. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include one or more surface plasmon resonance chemical electrodes that are configured to detect one or more nitric oxide donors. For example, in some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include one or more surface plasmon resonance chemical electrodes that include antibodies and/or aptamers that bind to one or more nitric oxide donors. Accordingly, such electrodes may be used to detect the one or more nitric oxide donors through use of surface plasmon resonance. Methods to construct surface plasmon resonance chemical electrodes are known and have been described (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,858,799; Lin et al., Applied Optics, 46:800-806 (2007)). In some embodiments, antibodies and/or aptamers that bind to one or more nitric oxide donors may be used within one or more micro-electro-mechanical systems to detect one or more nitric oxide donors. Methods to construct micro-electro-mechanical detectors have been described (e.g., Gau et al., Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 16:745-755 (2001)).
  • At embodiment 806, module 730 may include one or more sensors configured to detect one or more nitric oxide synthases. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include one or more sensors 108 that are configured to detect one or more nitric oxide synthases. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may be configured to detect nitric oxide synthase activity. Nitric oxide synthase detection kits are commercially available (e.g., Cell Technology, Inc., Mountain View, Calif.). In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may be configured to detect nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Methods that may be used to detect such mRNA have been reported (e.g., Sonoki et al., Leukemia, 13:713-718 (1999)). In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may be configured to detect nitric oxide synthase through immunological methods. Methods that may be used to detect nitric oxide synthase directly been reported (e.g., Burrell et al., J. Histochem. Cytochem., 44:339-346 (1996) and Hattenbach et al., Ophthalmologica, 216:209-214 (2002)). In some embodiments, micro-electro-mechanical systems may be used to detect nitric oxide synthase. In some embodiments, antibodies and/or aptamers that bind to nitric oxide synthase may be used within one or more micro-electro-mechanical systems to detect nitric oxide synthase. Methods to construct micro-electro-mechanical detectors have been described (e.g., Gau et al., Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 16:745-755 (2001)). Accordingly, sensors 108 may be configured in numerous ways to detect one or more nitric oxide synthases.
  • At embodiment 808, module 730 may include one or more sensors that are operably coupled to the one or more control units. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include one or more sensors 108 that are operably coupled to the one or more control units 106. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may be physically coupled to one or more control units 106. For example, in some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may be hardwired to one or more control units 106.
  • At embodiment 810, module 730 may include one or more sensors that are configured to transmit one or more information packets. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include one or more sensors 108 that are configured to transmit one or more information packets. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include one or more transmitters. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include memory. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may gather information and then transmit the assembled information as one or more information packets. Examples of such information include, but are not limited to, nitric oxide concentrations, one or more concentrations of nitric oxide at one or more times, blood pressure, changes in blood pressure relative to time, pulse rate, and the like.
  • FIG. 9 illustrates alternative embodiments of embodiment 700 of device 102 within system 100 of FIG. 7. FIG. 9 illustrates example embodiments of module 730. Additional embodiments may include an embodiment 902, an embodiment 904, an embodiment 906, and/or an embodiment 908.
  • At embodiment 902, module 730 may include one or more sensors that are configured to transmit one or more signals. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include one or more sensors 108 that are configured to transmit one or more signals 118. Accordingly, in some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may transmit one or more signals 118 that include information associated with nitric oxide.
  • At embodiment 904, module 730 may include one or more sensors that include one or more electrochemical sensors. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include one or more sensors 108 that include one or more electrochemical sensors 108. Sensors 108 may include numerous types of electrochemical sensors 108. For example, in some embodiments, an electrochemical sensor may be configured as a nitric oxide specific electrode. In some embodiments, a nitric oxide specific electrode may include ruthenium and/or at least one oxide of ruthenium. Methods to construct such electrodes are known and have been described (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,280,604; 5,980,705). In some embodiments, a sensor 108 may include an amperometric sensor that includes a sensing electrode that is configured to oxidize nitric oxide complexes to generate an electrical current that indicates the concentration of nitric oxide. Methods to construct such electrodes are known and have been described (e.g., U.S. Patent Application No.: 20070181444 and Ikeda et al., Sensors, 5:161-170 (2005)). Numerous types of electrochemical sensors 108 may be associated with one or more sensors 108 (e.g., Li et al., Electroanalysis, 18:713-718 (2006)). Electrodes that may be used to detect nitric oxide are commercially available (World Precision Instruments, Sarasota, Fla.). In some embodiments, such electrodes may be used to detect nitric oxide at concentrations of about 0.5 nanomolar and above, and may be about 100 micrometers in diameter (World Precision Instruments, Sarasota, Fla.).
  • At embodiment 906, module 730 may include one or more sensors that include one or more semiconductor sensors. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include one or more sensors 108 that include one or more semiconductor sensors 108. In some embodiments, the sensor 108 may be a molecular controlled semiconductor resistor of a multilayered GaAs structure to which a layer of multifunctional NO-binding molecules are adsorbed. Such nitric oxide binding molecules may include, but are not limited to, vicinal diamines, metalloporphyrins, metallophthalocyanines, and iron-dithiocarbamate complexes that contain at least one functional group selected from carboxyl, thiol, acyclic sulfide, cyclic disulfide, hydroxamic acid, trichlorosilane or phosphate (e.g., U.S. Published Patent Application No.: 20040072360). In some embodiments, a semiconductive sensor 108 may employ a polycrystalline-oxide semiconductor material that is coated with porous metal electrodes to form a semiconductor sandwich. In some embodiments, the semiconductor material may be formed of SnO2 or ZnO. The porous electrodes may be formed with platinum and used to measure the conductivity of the semiconductor material. In some embodiments, the conductivity of the semiconductor material changes when nitric oxide is absorbed on the surface of the semiconductor material (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,580,433; International Application Publication Number WO 02/057738). One or more sensors 108 may include numerous other types of semiconductor sensors 108.
  • At embodiment 908, module 730 may include one or more sensors that include one or more chemical sensors. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include one or more sensors 108 that include one or more chemical sensors 108. For example, in some embodiments; one or more sensors 108 may include one or more chemical sensors 108 that include a reagent solution that undergoes a chemiluminescent reaction with nitric oxide. Accordingly, one or more photodetectors may be used to detect nitric oxide. Methods to construct such detectors are known and have been described (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 6,100,096). In some embodiments, ozone may be reacted with nitric oxide to produce light in proportion to the amount of nitric oxide present. The light produced may be measured with a photodetector. In some embodiments, sensors 108 may include one or more charge-coupled devices to detect photonic emission.
  • FIG. 10 illustrates alternative embodiments of embodiment 700 of device 102 within system 100 of FIG. 7. FIG. 10 illustrates example embodiments of module 730. Additional embodiments may include an embodiment 1002, an embodiment 1004, and/or an embodiment 1006.
  • At embodiment 1002, module 730 may include one or more sensors that include one or more fluorescent sensors. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include one or more sensors 108 that include one or more fluorescent sensors 108. In some embodiments, a fluorescent sensor may include one or more fluorescent probes that may be used to detect nitric oxide. For example, in some embodiments, 4,5-diaminofluorescein may be used to determine nitric oxide concentration (e.g., Rathel et al., Biol. Proced. Online, 5:136-142 (2003)). Probes that may be used to detect nitric oxide are commercially available (EMD Chemicals Inc., San Diego, Calif.).
  • At embodiment 1004, module 730 may include one or more sensors that include one or more micro-electro-mechanical systems. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include one or more sensors 108 that include one or more micro-electro-mechanical sensors 108. In some embodiments, micro-electro-mechanical systems may be used to detect nitric oxide synthase. In some embodiments, antibodies and/or aptamers that bind to nitric oxide synthase may be used within one or more micro-electro-mechanical systems to detect nitric oxide synthase. Methods to construct micro-electro-mechanical detectors have been described (e.g., Gau et al., Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 16:745-755 (2001)). Accordingly, nitric oxide sensors may be configured in numerous ways to detect one or more nitric oxide synthases.
  • At embodiment 1006, module 730 may include one or more sensors that include one or more Raman sensors. In some embodiments, one or more sensors 108 may include one or more sensors 108 that include one or more Raman sensors 108. Methods to use Raman spectroscopy to detect nitric oxide are known and have been described (e.g., U.S. Patent Application No.: 20060074282). In addition, Raman spectrometers are commercially available (e.g., Raman Systems, Austin, Tex. and B&W Tek, Inc., Newark, Del.).
  • FIG. 11 illustrates a partial view of a system 1100 that includes a computer program 1104 for executing a computer process on a computing device. An embodiment of system 1100 is provided using a signal-bearing medium 1102 bearing one or more instructions for operating one or more light sources 104 that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110. The one or more instructions may be, for example, computer executable and/or logic-implemented instructions. In some embodiments, the signal-bearing medium 1102 may include a computer-readable medium 1106. In some embodiments, the signal-bearing medium 1102 may include a recordable medium 1108. In some embodiments, the signal-bearing medium 1102 may include a communications medium 1110.
  • FIG. 12 illustrates a partial view of a system 1200 that includes a computer program 1204 for executing a computer process on a computing device. An embodiment of system 1200 is provided using a signal-bearing medium 1202 bearing one or more instructions for operating one or more light sources 104 that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110 and one or more instructions for operating one or more control units 106 that are operably associated with the one or more light sources 104. The one or more instructions may be, for example, computer executable and/or logic-implemented instructions. In some embodiments, the signal-bearing medium 1202 may include a computer-readable medium 1206. In some embodiments, the signal-bearing medium 1202 may include a recordable medium 1208. In some embodiments, the signal-bearing medium 1202 may include a communications medium 1210.
  • FIG. 13 illustrates a partial view of a system 1300 that includes a computer program 1304 for executing a computer process on a computing device. An embodiment of system 1300 is provided using a signal-bearing medium 1302 bearing one or more instructions for operating one or more light sources 104 that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors 110, one or more instructions for operating one or more control units 106 that are operably associated with the one or more light sources, and one or more instructions for operating one or more sensors 108 that are operably associated with the one or more control units 106. The one or more instructions may be, for example, computer executable and/or logic-implemented instructions. In some embodiments, the signal-bearing medium 1302 may include a computer-readable medium 1306. In some embodiments, the signal-bearing medium 1302 may include a recordable medium 1308. In some embodiments, the signal-bearing medium 1302 may include a communications medium 1310.
  • With respect to the use of substantially any plural and/or singular terms herein, those having skill in the art can translate from the plural to the singular and/or from the singular to the plural as is appropriate to the context and/or application. The various singular/plural permutations are not expressly set forth herein for sake of clarity.
  • While particular aspects of the present subject matter described herein have been shown and described, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that, based upon the teachings herein, changes and modifications may be made without departing from the subject matter described herein and its broader aspects and, therefore, the appended claims are to encompass within their scope all such changes and modifications as are within the true spirit and scope of the subject matter described herein. Furthermore, it is to be understood that the invention is defined by the appended claims. It will be understood by those within the art that, in general, terms used herein, and especially in the appended claims (e.g., bodies of the appended claims) are generally intended as “open” terms (e.g., the term “including” should be interpreted as “including but not limited to,” the term “having” should be interpreted as “having at least,” the term “includes” should be interpreted as “includes but is not limited to,” etc.). It will be further understood by those within the art that if a specific number of an introduced claim recitation is intended, such an intent will be explicitly recited in the claim, and in the absence of such recitation no such intent is present. For example, as an aid to understanding, the following appended claims may contain usage of the introductory phrases “at least one” and “one or more” to introduce claim recitations. However, the use of such phrases should not be construed to imply that the introduction of a claim recitation by the indefinite articles “a” or “an” limits any particular claim containing such introduced claim recitation to inventions containing only one such recitation, even when the same claim includes the introductory phrases “one or more” or “at least one” and indefinite articles such as “a” or “an” (e.g., “a” and/or “an” should typically be interpreted to mean “at least one” or “one or more”); the same holds true for the use of definite articles used to introduce claim recitations. In addition, even if a specific number of an introduced claim recitation is explicitly recited, those skilled in the art will recognize that such recitation should typically be interpreted to mean at least the recited number (e.g., the bare recitation of “two recitations,” without other modifiers, typically means at least two recitations, or two or more recitations). Furthermore, in those instances where a convention analogous to “at least one of A, B, and C, etc.” is used, in general such a construction is intended in the sense one having skill in the art would understand the convention (e.g., “a system having at least one of A, B, and C” would include but not be limited to systems that have A alone, B alone, C alone, A and B together, A and C together, B and C together, and/or A, B, and C together, etc.). In those instances where a convention analogous to “at least one of A, B, or C, etc.” is used, in general such a construction is intended in the sense one having skill in the art would understand the convention (e.g., “a system having at least one of A, B, or C” would include but not be limited to systems that have A alone, B alone, C alone, A and B together, A and C together, B and C together, and/or A, B, and C together, etc.). It will be further understood by those within the art that virtually any disjunctive word and/or phrase presenting two or more alternative terms, whether in the description, claims, or drawings, should be understood to contemplate the possibilities of including one of the terms, either of the terms, or both terms. For example, the phrase “A or B” will be understood to include the possibilities of “A” or “B” or “A and B.”
  • Those having skill in the art will recognize that the state of the art has progressed to the point where there is little distinction left between hardware and software implementations of aspects of systems; the use of hardware or software is generally (but not always, in that in certain contexts the choice between hardware and software can become significant) a design choice representing cost vs. efficiency tradeoffs. Those having skill in the art will appreciate that there are various vehicles by which processes and/or systems and/or other technologies described herein can be effected (e.g., hardware, software, and/or firmware), and that the preferred vehicle will vary with the context in which the processes and/or systems and/or other technologies are deployed. For example, if an implementer determines that speed and accuracy are paramount, the implementer may opt for a mainly hardware and/or firmware vehicle; alternatively, if flexibility is paramount, the implementer may opt for a mainly software implementation; or, yet again alternatively, the implementer may opt for some combination of hardware, software, and/or firmware. Hence, there are several possible vehicles by which the processes and/or devices and/or other technologies described herein may be effected, none of which is inherently superior to the other in that any vehicle to be utilized is a choice dependent upon the context in which the vehicle will be deployed and the specific concerns (e.g., speed, flexibility, or predictability) of the implementer, any of which may vary. Those skilled in the art will recognize that optical aspects of implementations will typically employ optically-oriented hardware, software, and/or firmware.
  • The foregoing detailed description has set forth various embodiments of the devices and/or processes via the use of block diagrams, flowcharts, and/or examples. Insofar as such block diagrams, flowcharts, and/or examples contain one or more functions and/or operations, it will be understood by those within the art that each function and/or operation within such block diagrams, flowcharts, or examples can be implemented, individually and/or collectively, by a wide range of hardware, software, firmware, or virtually any combination thereof. In one embodiment, several portions of the subject matter described herein may be implemented via Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), digital signal processors (DSPs), or other integrated formats. However, those skilled in the art will recognize that some aspects of the embodiments disclosed herein, in whole or in part, can be equivalently implemented in integrated circuits, as one or more computer programs running on one or more computers (e.g., as one or more programs running on one or more computer systems), as one or more programs running on one or more processors (e.g., as one or more programs running on one or more microprocessors), as firmware, or as virtually any combination thereof, and that designing the circuitry and/or writing the code for the software and or firmware would be well within the skill of one of skill in the art in light of this disclosure. In addition, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the mechanisms of the subject matter described herein are capable of being distributed as a program product in a variety of forms, and that an illustrative embodiment of the subject matter described herein applies regardless of the particular type of signal-bearing medium used to actually carry out the distribution. Examples of a signal-bearing medium include, but are not limited to, the following: a recordable type medium such as a floppy disk, a hard disk drive, a Compact Disc (CD), a Digital Video Disk (DVD), a digital tape, a computer memory, etc.; and a transmission type medium such as a digital and/or an analog communication medium (e.g., a fiber optic cable, a waveguide, a wired communications link, a wireless communication link, etc.).
  • In a general sense, those skilled in the art will recognize that the various embodiments described herein can be implemented, individually and/or collectively, by various types of electro-mechanical systems having a wide range of electrical components such as hardware, software, firmware, or virtually any combination thereof; and a wide range of components that may impart mechanical force or motion such as rigid bodies, spring or torsional bodies, hydraulics, and electro-magnetically actuated devices, or virtually any combination thereof. Consequently, as used herein “electro-mechanical system” includes, but is not limited to, electrical circuitry operably coupled with a transducer (e.g., an actuator, a motor, a piezoelectric crystal, etc.), electrical circuitry having at least one discrete electrical circuit, electrical circuitry having at least one integrated circuit, electrical circuitry having at least one application specific integrated circuit, electrical circuitry forming a general purpose computing device configured by a computer program (e.g., a general purpose computer configured by a computer program which at least partially carries out processes and/or devices described herein, or a microprocessor configured by a computer program which at least partially carries out processes and/or devices described herein), electrical circuitry forming a memory device (e.g., forms of random access memory), electrical circuitry forming a communications device (e.g., a modem, communications switch, or optical-electrical equipment), and any non-electrical analog thereto, such as optical or other analogs. Those skilled in the art will also appreciate that examples of electro-mechanical systems include but are not limited to a variety of consumer electronics systems, as well as other systems such as motorized transport systems, factory automation systems, security systems, and communication/computing systems. Those skilled in the art will recognize that electro-mechanical as used herein is not necessarily limited to a system that has both electrical and mechanical actuation except as context may dictate otherwise.
  • In a general sense, those skilled in the art will recognize that the various aspects described herein which can be implemented, individually and/or collectively, by a wide range of hardware, software, firmware, or any combination thereof can be viewed as being composed of various types of “electrical circuitry.” Consequently, as used herein “electrical circuitry” includes, but is not limited to, electrical circuitry having at least one discrete electrical circuit, electrical circuitry having at least one integrated circuit, electrical circuitry having at least one application specific integrated circuit, electrical circuitry forming a general purpose computing device configured by a computer program (e.g., a general purpose computer configured by a computer program which at least partially carries out processes and/or devices described herein, or a microprocessor configured by a computer program which at least partially carries out processes and/or devices described herein), electrical circuitry forming a memory device (e.g., forms of random access memory), and/or electrical circuitry forming a communications device (e.g., a modem, communications switch, or optical-electrical equipment). Those having skill in the art will recognize that the subject matter described herein may be implemented in an analog or digital fashion or some combination thereof.
  • Those skilled in the art will recognize that it is common within the art to implement devices and/or processes and/or systems in the fashion(s) set forth herein, and thereafter use engineering and/or business practices to integrate such implemented devices and/or processes and/or systems into more comprehensive devices and/or processes and/or systems. That is, at least a portion of the devices and/or processes and/or systems described herein can be integrated into other devices and/or processes and/or systems via a reasonable amount of experimentation. Those having skill in the art will recognize that examples of such other devices and/or processes and/or systems might include—as appropriate to context and application—all or part of devices and/or processes and/or systems of (a) an air conveyance (e.g., an airplane, rocket, hovercraft, helicopter, etc.), (b) a ground conveyance (e.g., a car, truck, locomotive, tank, armored personnel carrier, etc.), (c) a building (e.g., a home, warehouse, office, etc.), (d) an appliance (e.g., a refrigerator, a washing machine, a dryer, etc.), (e) a communications system (e.g., a networked system, a telephone system, a voice-over IP system, etc.), (f) a business entity (e.g., an Internet Service Provider (ISP) entity such as Comcast Cable, Quest, Southwestern Bell, etc), or (g) a wired/wireless services entity (e.g., such as Sprint, Cingular, Nextel, etc.), etc.
  • Although the user interface 124 is shown/described herein as a single illustrated figure that is associated with an individual, those skilled in the art will appreciate that a user interface 124 may be utilized by a user 126 that is a representative of a human user 126, a robotic user 126 (e.g., computational entity), and/or substantially any combination thereof (e.g., a user 126 may be assisted by one or more robotic based systems). In addition, a user 126 as set forth herein, although shown as a single entity may in fact be composed of two or more entities. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that, in general, the same may be said of “sender” and/or other entity-oriented terms as such terms are used herein.
  • The herein described subject matter sometimes illustrates different components contained within, or connected with, different other components. It is to be understood that such depicted architectures are merely exemplary, and that in fact many other architectures can be implemented which achieve the same functionality. In a conceptual sense, any arrangement of components to achieve the same functionality is effectively “associated” such that the desired functionality is achieved. Hence, any two components herein combined to achieve a particular functionality can be seen as “associated with” each other such that the desired functionality is achieved, irrespective of architectures or intermedial components. Likewise, any two components so associated can also be viewed as being “operably connected”, or “operably coupled”, to each other to achieve the desired functionality, and any two components capable of being so associated can also be viewed as being “operably couplable”, to each other to achieve the desired functionality. Specific examples of operably couplable include but are not limited to physically mateable and/or physically interacting components and/or wirelessly interactable and/or wirelessly interacting components and/or logically interacting and/or logically interactable components.
  • All publications, patents and patent applications cited herein are incorporated herein by reference. The foregoing specification has been described in relation to certain embodiments thereof, and many details have been set forth for purposes of illustration, however, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the invention is susceptible to additional embodiments and that certain of the details described herein may be varied considerably without departing from the basic principles of the invention.

Claims (41)

1. A device comprising:
one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors.
2. The device of claim 1, wherein the one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors comprise:
one or more light emitters that are configured to selectively emit one or more wavelengths of light that correspond to the absorption maximum of the one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors.
3. The device of claim 1, wherein the one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors comprise:
one or more light emitters that are configured to selectively emit one or more wavelengths of light that facilitate photodecomposition of the one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors.
4. The device of claim 1, wherein the one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors comprise:
one or more light emitters that are configured to emit light that is selected to avoid damaging one or more tissues.
5. The device of claim 1, wherein the one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors comprise:
one or more light sources that are configured for implantation within a user.
6. The device of claim 1, wherein the one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors comprise:
one or more light sources that are configured for external use.
7. (canceled)
8. The device of claim 1, further comprising:
one or more control units that are operably associated with the one or more light sources.
9. (canceled)
10. The device of claim 8, wherein the one or more control units that are operably associated with the one or more light sources comprise:
one or more receivers that are configured to receive one or more signals.
11. (canceled)
12. The device of claim 8, wherein the one or more control units that are operably associated with the one or more light sources comprise:
one or more control units that regulate the one or more light sources in response to one or more programs.
13. The device of claim 8, wherein the one or more control units that are operably associated with the one or more light sources comprise:
one or more control units that regulate the one or more light sources in response to one or more timers.
14. (canceled)
15. The device of claim 8, wherein the one or more control units that are operably associated with the one or more light sources comprise:
one or more control units that regulate one or more wavelengths of light emitted by the one or more light sources.
16.-18. (canceled)
19. The device of claim 8, wherein the one or more control units that are operably associated with the one or more light sources comprise:
one or more control units that regulate one or more times when light is emitted from the one or more light sources.
20. The device of claim 8, further comprising:
one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units.
21. The device of claim 20, wherein the one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units comprise:
one or more sensors configured to detect nitric oxide.
22. The device of claim 20, wherein the one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units comprise:
one or more sensors configured to detect one or more nitric oxide donors.
23. The device of claim 20, wherein the one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units comprise:
one or more sensors configured to detect one or more nitric oxide synthases.
24.-25. (canceled)
26. The device of claim 20, wherein the one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units comprise:
one or more sensors that are configured to transmit one or more signals.
27. The device of claim 20, wherein the one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units comprise:
one or more sensors that include one or more electrochemical sensors.
28. The device of claim 20, wherein the one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units comprise:
one or more sensors that include one or more semiconductor sensors.
29.-30. (canceled)
31. The device of claim 20, wherein the one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units comprise:
one or more sensors that include one or more micro-electro-mechanical systems.
32. The device of claim 20, wherein the one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units comprise:
one or more sensors that include one or more Raman sensors.
33. A system comprising:
circuitry for operating one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors.
34.-39. (canceled)
40. The system of claim 33, further comprising:
circuitry for operating one or more control units that are operably associated with the one or more light sources.
41.-51. (canceled)
52. The system of claim 40, further comprising:
circuitry for operating one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units.
53.-64. (canceled)
65. A system comprising:
means for operating one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors.
66. The system of claim 65 further comprising:
means for operating one or more control units that are operably associated with the one or more light sources.
67. The system of claim 66, further comprising:
means for operating one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units.
68. A system comprising:
a signal-bearing medium bearing:
one or more instructions for operating one or more light sources that are specifically configured to emit light that facilitates release of nitric oxide from one or more photolyzable nitric oxide donors.
69. The system of claim 68, further comprising:
one or more instructions for operating one or more control units that are operably associated with the one or more light sources.
70. The system of claim 69, further comprising:
one or more instructions for operating one or more sensors that are operably associated with the one or more control units.
71.-73. (canceled)
US12/005,136 2007-10-30 2007-12-21 Devices configured to facilitate release of nitric oxide Abandoned US20090112197A1 (en)

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US11/981,743 US8642093B2 (en) 2007-10-30 2007-10-30 Methods and systems for use of photolyzable nitric oxide donors
US11/998,864 US8221690B2 (en) 2007-10-30 2007-11-30 Systems and devices that utilize photolyzable nitric oxide donors
US12/005,065 US7862598B2 (en) 2007-10-30 2007-12-21 Devices and systems that deliver nitric oxide
US12/005,132 US7897399B2 (en) 2007-10-30 2007-12-21 Nitric oxide sensors and systems
US12/005,045 US20090110933A1 (en) 2007-10-30 2007-12-21 Systems and devices related to nitric oxide releasing materials
US12/005,136 US20090112197A1 (en) 2007-10-30 2007-12-21 Devices configured to facilitate release of nitric oxide
US12/005,170 US7975699B2 (en) 2007-10-30 2007-12-21 Condoms configured to facilitate release of nitric oxide

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US12/005,170 US7975699B2 (en) 2007-10-30 2007-12-21 Condoms configured to facilitate release of nitric oxide
US12/005,136 US20090112197A1 (en) 2007-10-30 2007-12-21 Devices configured to facilitate release of nitric oxide
US12/008,694 US8349262B2 (en) 2007-10-30 2008-01-11 Nitric oxide permeable housings
US12/008,708 US7846400B2 (en) 2007-10-30 2008-01-11 Substrates for nitric oxide releasing devices
US12/148,283 US8877508B2 (en) 2007-10-30 2008-04-16 Devices and systems that deliver nitric oxide
US12/927,610 US10080823B2 (en) 2007-10-30 2010-11-17 Substrates for nitric oxide releasing devices
US12/928,028 US20110190604A1 (en) 2006-12-22 2010-11-30 Nitric oxide sensors and systems
US12/928,029 US20110182970A1 (en) 2007-10-30 2010-11-30 Nitric oxide sensors and systems
US12/930,351 US20110275978A1 (en) 2007-10-30 2011-01-03 Devices and systems that deliver nitric oxide
US16/119,574 US20190076584A1 (en) 2007-10-30 2018-08-31 Substrates for nitric oxide releasing devices

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US12/005,132 Continuation-In-Part US7897399B2 (en) 2007-10-30 2007-12-21 Nitric oxide sensors and systems

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US12/005,132 Continuation-In-Part US7897399B2 (en) 2007-10-30 2007-12-21 Nitric oxide sensors and systems

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