US20080220397A1 - Method of Firearms and/or Use of Force Training, Target, and Training Simulator - Google Patents

Method of Firearms and/or Use of Force Training, Target, and Training Simulator Download PDF

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Publication number
US20080220397A1
US20080220397A1 US11/950,954 US95095407A US2008220397A1 US 20080220397 A1 US20080220397 A1 US 20080220397A1 US 95095407 A US95095407 A US 95095407A US 2008220397 A1 US2008220397 A1 US 2008220397A1
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Prior art keywords
image
situation
training
target
further comprises
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Abandoned
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US11/950,954
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Ralph Capone
Steven Rubino
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LIVESIGHT TARGET SYSTEMS Inc
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LIVESIGHT TARGET SYSTEMS Inc
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Priority to US91663907P priority
Priority to US93971907P priority
Application filed by LIVESIGHT TARGET SYSTEMS Inc filed Critical LIVESIGHT TARGET SYSTEMS Inc
Priority to US11/950,954 priority patent/US20080220397A1/en
Publication of US20080220397A1 publication Critical patent/US20080220397A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41JTARGETS; TARGET RANGES; BULLET CATCHERS
    • F41J9/00Moving targets, i.e. moving when fired at
    • F41J9/14Cinematographic targets, e.g. moving-picture targets
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N13/00Stereoscopic video systems; Multi-view video systems; Details thereof

Abstract

A three-dimensional imaging technique is used to create the illusion of depth in an image or in a video in order to present a more realistic training experience for a person undergoing firearms and/or use of force training. The three-dimensional image can be used in a target, a shoot house, and/or a training simulator.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • This application claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) of my provisional application No. 60/869,017 filed Dec. 7, 2006, of my provisional application No. 60/916,639 filed May 8, 2007, and of my provisional application No. 60/939,719 filed May 23, 2007. As far as possible under the rules, the prior applications are herewith incorporated by reference in their entirety.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The invention relates to a method of firearms and/or use of force training for preparing a person, for example, a law enforcement officer and/or a military officer to react to a dangerous situation. The invention also relates to targets used for firearms and/or use of force training, and to a training simulator used for firearms and/or use of force training.
  • 2. Description of the Related Art
  • It is conventional to use a two-dimensional image printed on a sheet of paper as a target for firearms and/or use of force training. Such an image typically is in the form of concentric circles with a bulls-eye in the center or is an outline of a person or an animal. The image is attached to a frame in a shooting range such that a person can practice his/her marksmanship skills.
  • It is also conventional to use training simulators that project two-dimensional images of various scenarios on a screen for training purposes.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • It is an object of the invention to provide an improved method of firearms and/or use of force training, an improved target, and an improved training simulator. In accordance with that object, a three-dimensional (3-D) imaging technique is used to create the illusion of depth in an image or in a video in order to present a more realistic training experience for a person undergoing firearms and/or use of force training.
  • It is an additional object of the invention to use a three-dimensional imaging technique to depict one or more images of real people in scenarios or situations that would create the need for a law enforcement and/or military officer to react.
  • With the foregoing and other objects in view there is provided, in accordance with the invention, a method of firearms and/or use of force training. The method includes steps of using a three-dimensional imaging technique to create an illusion of depth in an image, and providing the image as a target for firearms and/or use of force training.
  • In accordance with an added mode of the invention, the person undergoing training acquires the target with an actual firearm and pulls the trigger of the firearm.
  • In accordance with an additional mode of the invention, the person undergoing training views the image through 3D lenses.
  • In accordance with another mode of the invention, the image is formed from photographic images of a real-life situation in which a law enforcement officer or a military officer will have to react. The real-life situation could be, for example, a traffic stop, an armed robbery, a hostage situation, a domestic disturbance, an abduction, a shoot/don't shoot situation, and/or a terrorist situation. The person undergoing training acquires the target with an actual firearm and pulls the trigger of the firearm.
  • In accordance with a further mode of the invention, the image is provided in a shooting range.
  • In accordance with a further added mode of the invention, the image is provided in a training simulator.
  • In accordance with a further additional mode of the invention, the image is provided in a shoot house.
  • In accordance with yet a further mode of the invention, the image is mounted in a shooting range, and the image is moved while the shooter acquires the target.
  • In accordance with yet a further added mode of the invention, a stereographic video is displayed in a training simulator. The 3-D image is a part of the video. An actual firearm is modified to fire blanks. During training the actual firearm can be aimed and shot at the video.
  • In accordance with another added mode of the invention, the image is printed on a carrier as an anaglyph image.
  • In accordance with another additional mode of the invention, the person undergoing training decides whether or not to use an actual defensive weapon depending on the real-life situation depicted by the image.
  • In accordance with another additional mode of the invention, the image depicts a person holding a weapon, and the image is printed on a carrier such that the weapon is directed towards a person viewing the image even as an angle at which the person views the image changes. In other words, if the person undergoing training moves in a manner that changes the angle of view, the weapon tracks the person undergoing training so that the person continues to sense a threat.
  • With the foregoing and other objects in view there is also provided, in accordance with the invention, a target for firearms and/or use of force training. The target includes a carrier and a stereoscopic image formed on the carrier. The stereoscopic image depicts a real-life situation in which a law enforcement officer or a military officer will have to react.
  • In accordance with an additional feature of the invention, the image includes at least two spatially offset photographic images.
  • In accordance with an added feature of the invention, the image includes a weapon aimed at a direction tracking a viewing angle even as the viewing angle changes. The image is printed on a carrier such that the weapon is directed at a person viewing the image even as an angle at which the person views the image changes
  • With the foregoing and other objects in view there is provided, in accordance with the invention, a training simulator for firearms and/or use of force training. The training simulator includes a display screen, a projector projecting a three-dimensional video for firearms and/or use of force training on the display screen, and a controller controlling the projector. The video includes at least one real-life situation in which a law enforcement officer or a military officer will have to react.
  • In accordance with an additional feature of the invention, the three-dimensional video includes a plurality of stereoscopic images.
  • Other features which are considered as characteristic for the invention are set forth in the appended claims.
  • Although the invention is illustrated and described herein as embodied in a method of firearms and/or use of force training, a target, and a training simulator, it is nevertheless not intended to be limited to the details shown, since various modifications and structural changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit of the invention and within the scope and range of equivalents of the claims.
  • The construction of the invention, however, together with additional objects and advantages thereof will be best understood from the following description of the specific embodiment when read in connection with the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWING
  • FIG. 1 is a diagram of a target for firearms and/or use of force training;
  • FIG. 2 is a perspective view showing an example of a shoot house;
  • FIG. 3 is a diagram showing an example of a training simulator for firearms and/or use of force training;
  • FIG. 4 is a perspective view showing an example of a pair of 3-D safety glasses; and
  • FIG. 5 is a flow diagram for explaining a method of firearms and/or use of force training.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION
  • Referring now to the figures of the drawing in detail and first, particularly, to FIG. 1 thereof, there is seen a diagram of a target 12 for firearms and/or use of force training. The target 12 includes a carrier 14, for example, a sheet of paper or plastic, upon which an image 10 can be projected or printed. When the image 10 is printed on the carrier 14, the carrier 14 serves as a base material that is physically attached to the ink forming the image. When the image 10 is projected on a carrier 14, the carrier 14 serves as a display screen receiving the projected image 10.
  • The image 10 is made using a three-dimensional (3-D) imaging technique in order to create the illusion of depth in the image 10. By creating the illusion of depth in the image 10, a more realistic training experience is presented for the person, for example, a police officer or a military officer, undergoing firearms and/or use of force training.
  • Although not previously utilized or known in the field of firearms and/or use of force training, the field of 3-D imaging is a developed technical field. A commonly used 3-D imaging technique is stereoscopic imaging in which a slightly different image is presented to each eye to create the illusion of depth. Many different stereoscopic imaging techniques are known for providing the eyes with slightly different images of the same object, scene, or scenario. It should be understood that the invention is not necessarily limited to any particular 3-D imaging technique. It should also be understood that the invention is not necessarily limited to any of the particular stereoscopic imaging techniques discussed herein below and that these techniques are merely provided to present general information.
  • The image 10 may be a stereoscopic image that is made from two images 16, 18 in which one image 16 is perceived by one eye and the other image 18 is perceived by the other eye. In order to present a more realistic training experience, the image 10 can be produced using stereoscopic photography from photographs or video of real people in real-life situations, rather than by artistic or computer animation techniques. For example, as shown in FIG. 1, the image 10 may be formed from two photographs or photographic images 16, 18 showing real people in a real-life situation.
  • The real-life situation, for example, may be a traffic stop, an armed robbery, a hostage situation, a domestic disturbance, an abduction, a shoot/don't shoot situation, and/or a terrorist situation. The list is not meant to be exhaustive since one of ordinary skill in the art should now be enabled to conceive of other scenarios or situations that would create the need for a law enforcement and/or military officer to react. In this manner, a 3-dimensional scene of a real-life situation is presented and a more realistic training experience is presented for the person undergoing firearms and/or use of force training.
  • A reaction to the real-life situation or scenario shown in 3-D in the image 10 could include, for example, the decision whether or not to use a defensive weapon. Well-known defensive weapons include firearms, such as, for example, handguns, rifles and machine guns. Other well-known defensive weapons could alternatively or additionally be used to test a person's reaction to the real-life situation shown in the image 10. Examples of other defensive weapons include TASERS™, which are manufactured by TASER International, and pepper spray canisters.
  • The real-life situation or scenario shown in 3-D in the image 10 can be used in many ways to enhance the training experience. For example, the image 10 can be shown on a target 12, the image 10 can be shown in a shoot house, and/or the image 10 can be shown in a training simulator. The image 10 could, of course, be used in additional situations and the preceding list is not meant to limit the invention in any way.
  • In FIG. 1, the image 10 is shown on target 12. One option in this case is to print the image 10 on the carrier 14 and to attach the carrier 14 to a frame in a shooting range. If the image 10 is printed using a 3-D imaging technique requiring viewing through 3-D glasses, the person undergoing training will view the image 10 through a pair of 3-D safety glasses 100 (FIG. 4). The target 12, which is formed by the carrier 14 and the printed image 10, could be used as a stationary target or could be linearly moved or rotated in a shooting range. The image 10 could alternatively be projected onto the carrier 14 in the shooting range. In this case the image 10 could be a stationary image or a moving image, such as a video.
  • FIG. 2 is a perspective view showing an example of a shoot house 20. The shoot house 20 can be constructed using several panels 21 and 22 in which each panel 21 and 22 has an image 10 or 23 formed thereon. The images 10, 23 could be formed, for example, as anaglyph images. These panels 21 and 22 can then be affixed to the inside of a shoot house 20 and when used with the 3D safety glasses 100, it will appear as if entry is being made into an actual room 24 without the expense of having to furnish the shoot house 20. In this manner, the shoot house 20 can be made to appear as if the training is taking place inside an actual location. Another possible option is to create the images 10, 23 as lenticular images using lenticular printing.
  • FIG. 3 is a diagram showing an example of a training simulator 30 for firearms and/or use of force training. In this case, the image 10 will really be just one image of a sequence of images or of a video projected on the carrier 14, which is a display screen 36. This is advantageous because a 3-dimensional simulation is presented to the person undergoing training. The training simulator 30 includes a controller 32 that controls a projector 34 projecting the images 10 on the display screen 36. The person undergoing training will use a firearm 38 to acquire the “target” or “bad person” in the sequence of images or video being shown by the training simulator 30. The firearm 38 could be an actual firearm firing actual rounds or the firearm 38 could be modified to fire blanks in a manner such that the firearm 38 has a realistic response when the trigger 40 is pulled. The firearm 38 could also be modified, for example, to fire a laser beam, another type of optical beam, or an electronic signal at the sequence of images or video being shown by the training simulator 30.
  • Not all 3-D imaging techniques require the person viewing the image 10 to wear special 3-D glasses, however a significant number of these techniques do require such glasses. FIG. 4 is a perspective view showing an example of a pair of 3-D safety glasses 100. The safety glasses 100 have been constructed for use in a shooting range by making the lenses 102 and 103 from a sufficiently strong material. Additionally, the lenses 102 and 103 extend to the side to protect the eyes of the person viewing the image 10 from flying debris that could potentially come towards the person from a side angle. Alternatively, a clip on attachment could be constructed to attach the lenses 102 and 103 to a pair of prescription eyeglasses or to an existing pair of safety glasses.
  • The image 10 is also particularly suitable for use with laser sights for target acquisition. During combat training, the person will not typically be able to aim through a sighting system. The target acquisition becomes considerably more dependable with a laser beam, and the image 10 of the target retains its 3-D appearance because both eyes of the shooter remain open.
  • FIG. 5 is a flow diagram for explaining an exemplary embodiment of a method 200 of firearms and/or use of force training. It should be understood that this embodiment is provided as an example only and not all method steps illustrated need to be performed. Only certain portions of the exemplary embodiment can be used when they are determined to be appropriate for particular training situations. Step 210 includes using a 3-D imaging technique to create the illusion of depth in an image. Step 220, which is preferably performed, includes forming the image from photographic images of a real-life situation in which a law enforcement officer or a military officer will have to react. Step 230, which is also preferably performed, includes selecting the real-life situation to be, for example, a traffic stop, an armed robbery, a hostage situation, a domestic disturbance, an abduction, a shoot/don't shoot situation, and/or a terrorist situation. Step 240 includes providing the image as a target for firearms and/or use of force training and preferably includes providing the image in a shooting range, a training simulator, or a shoot house. If the image is provided in a shooting range, the image may be moved while the person undergoing training or the shooter acquires the target. If the image is provided in training simulator, the image may be a part of a displayed three-dimensional video. For example, the video may be constructed using stereographic photography. Step 250, which may or may not be performed, depending on the particular 3-D imaging technique used, includes viewing the image through the lenses of a pair of 3-D lenses. Step 260 includes deciding whether or not to use an actual defensive weapon depending on a real-life situation depicted by the image. Typically, the person undergoing training will already be aiming the defensive weapon at an assailant in the image before and during the time needed to make the decision whether or not to use the defensive weapon. If the person undergoing training has decided that use of force is not appropriate in the depicted situation, then the person will not actuate the defensive weapon as shown in step 265. If the person undergoing training has decided that use of force is appropriate in the depicted situation, then in step 270 the person will actuate and use the defensive weapon. If the defensive weapon is a firearm, for example, the person will pull the trigger of the firearm to shoot the firearm. Other actual defensive weapons that may be used include TASERs™ and pepper spray canisters. If such defensive weapons are provided and if the person undergoing training decides that use of force is appropriate in the depicted situation, the person undergoing training will actuate the TASER™ or the pepper spray canister. In the case where the image is provided in a training simulator, an actual firearm can be modified to fire blanks, to fire a laser beam, to fire a different type of optical beam, or to fire an electronic signal. The person undergoing training will aim the firearm at the video and shoot the firearm. Alternatively, the person could actuate another type of defensive weapon.
  • Several examples of 3-D imaging techniques will now be discussed. As has been previously stated, the invention should not be construed to being limited to any particular 3-D imaging technique.
  • One option for forming the image 10 is to create an anaglyph image in which two images from the perspective of the left and right eyes are projected or printed on the carrier 14 together as a single image. In this case, the lenses 102, 103 of the 3-D safety glasses 100, which are shown in FIG. 4, will be constructed with special color filters so that each eye of the viewer will obtain the appropriate image. One of the two images 18 is viewed with one eye through a lens 103 formed with a red color filter and the other image 16 is viewed with the other eye through a lens 102 with a contrasting color filter such as blue, green or cyan. In this manner, each eye obtains the appropriately color filtered image. It may alternatively be possible to create the images 16, 18 using other color combinations and to construct the lenses 102, 103 using color filters corresponding to these other color combinations. Good results have been obtained by forming the image 10 as an anaglyph image. One particularly useful application is to print the image 10 as an anaglyph image on the carrier 14 and to use the image 10 as a target 12 for firearms and/or use of force training.
  • One advantageous feature that occurs when the image 10 is created as an anaglyph image is that the weapon 15, which is shown as a firearm in FIG. 1 will appear to track the person viewing the image 10. In other words, if the weapon 15 is directed towards the person who is viewing the image 10, the aiming direction of the weapon 15 may appear to change as the person moves so that the weapon remains at least somewhat pointed at the person as the person changes the viewing angle. In this way, the person obtains a training experience that more closely approximates what the person will experience in an actual real-life situation.
  • Another possible option for forming the image 10 is to use the technique of polarization. In this case, the image 10 is projected on the carrier 14 using two projectors with different porarizations. Linear polarization or circular polarization could be used. In the linear polarization case, one of the projectors projects the image through a lens polarized at a +45 degree angle and the other one of the projectors projects the image through a lens polarized at a −45 degree angle. In this case, the lenses 102, 103 of the safety glasses 100 will be provided with similarly polarized filters. The person wearing the safety glasses 100 with the lenses 102, 103, that have been polarized, will see the light coming from one projector with one eye, and will see the light coming from the other projector with the other eye. This will enable the person to see a 3D image.
  • In the circular polarization case, one of the projectors projects the image through a right-handed circular polarizing lens and the other one of the projectors projects the image through a left-handed circular polarizing lens. In this case, the lenses 102, 103 of the safety glasses 100 will be provided with similarly right-handed and left-handed polarizing filters.
  • Another well-known 3-D imaging technique that may possibly be used is based on the Pulfrich effect. This 3-D effect is based on fact that an image viewed through a darker lens arrives at the brain with a slight delay relative to an image viewed through a clear or lighter lens. When one eye views the image through a dark tinted lens and the other eye views the image through a clear lens, the brain “sees” the image as being temporally offset. If there is relative movement between the image and the viewer, the illusion of three dimensions is created. Pulfrich optics, therefore, may be more suitable for a picture series, such as, video. In this case, one of the lenses 102, 103 of the safety glasses 100 will be tinted while the other is clear.
  • Another possible option is to create the image 10 as a lenticular image using lenticular printing. In fact, many other three-dimensional imaging techniques could also be used if desired to form the image 10. Two other well-known 3-D imaging techniques include autosteograms and wiggle stereoscopy.
  • One advantageous feature that occurs when using a target 12 that requires the person undergoing training to view the image 10 through both lenses 102, 103 of the glasses 100 is that it forces the person to use both eyes when evaluating the scene and when using the weapon 15. Encouraging the person to use both eyes when encountering a real situation is desired because this enables the person to better evaluate the entire scene or situation being presented. This also helps in avoiding tunnel vision, which is the undesirable trait of focusing on the offensive weapon, and the tendency of shooting at the weapon, rather than at the person or people in the situation.
  • Another advantageous feature is that high definition photography is used to form the image 10. This produces a very realistic approximation or simulation of what the person might encounter in a real life situation.

Claims (20)

1. A method of firearms and/or use of force training, which comprises:
using a three-dimensional imaging technique to create an illusion of depth in an image; and
providing the image as a target for firearms and/or use of force training.
2. The method according to claim 1, which further comprises:
acquiring the target with an actual firearm and pulling a trigger of the firearm.
3. The method according to claim 1, which further comprises:
viewing the image through 3D lenses.
4. The method according to claim 1, which further comprises:
viewing the image through 3D lenses; and
acquiring the target with an actual firearm and pulling a trigger of the firearm.
5. The method according to claim 1, which further comprises:
forming the image from photographic images of a real-life situation in which a law enforcement officer or a military officer will have to react;
the real-life situation selected from a group consisting of a traffic stop, an armed robbery, a hostage situation, a domestic disturbance, an abduction, a shoot/don't shoot situation, and a terrorist situation.
6. The method according to claim 1, which further comprises:
depicting a person holding a weapon in the image;
printing the image on a carrier such that the weapon is directed towards a person viewing the image even as an angle at which the person views the image changes.
7. The method according to claim 1, which further comprises:
forming the image from photographic images of a real-life situation in which a law enforcement officer or a military officer will have to react;
viewing the image through 3D lenses; and
acquiring the target with an actual firearm and pulling a trigger of the firearm.
8. The method according to claim 1, which further comprises:
providing the image in a shooting range.
9. The method according to claim 1, which further comprises:
providing the image in a training simulator.
10. The method according to claim 1, which further comprises:
providing the image in a shoot house.
11. The method according to claim 1, which further comprises:
mounting the image in a shooting range; and
moving the image while a shooter acquires the target.
12. The method according to claim 1, which further comprises:
displaying a three dimensional video in a training simulator, the image being a part of the video; and
modifying an actual firearm to fire blanks, aiming the firearm at the video, and shooting the firearm.
13. The method according to claim 1, which further comprises:
printing the image on a carrier as an anaglyph image.
14. The method according to claim 1, which further comprises:
deciding whether or not to use an actual defensive weapon depending on a real-life situation depicted by the image.
15. A target for firearms and/or use of force training, comprising:
a target including a carrier and a stereoscopic image formed on said carrier;
said stereoscopic image depicting a real-life situation in which a law enforcement officer or a military officer will have to react.
16. The target according to claim 15, wherein:
the real-life situation is selected from a group consisting of a traffic stop, an armed robbery, a hostage situation, a domestic disturbance, an abduction, a shoot/don't shoot situation, and a terrorist situation.
17. The target according to claim 15, wherein:
said image includes at least two spatially offset photographic images.
18. The target according to claim 15, wherein:
said image is printed on said carrier and said image includes a weapon aimed at a direction tracking a viewing angle as the viewing angle changes.
19. A training simulator for firearms and/or use of force training, comprising:
a display screen;
a projector projecting a three-dimensional video for firearms and/or use of force training on said display screen; and
a controller controlling said projector;
the video including at least one real-life situation in which a law enforcement officer or a military officer will have to react.
20. The training simulator according to claim 19, wherein:
the real-life situation is selected from a group consisting of a traffic stop, an armed robbery, a hostage situation, a domestic disturbance, an abduction, a shoot/don't shoot situation, and a terrorist situation.
US11/950,954 2006-12-07 2007-12-05 Method of Firearms and/or Use of Force Training, Target, and Training Simulator Abandoned US20080220397A1 (en)

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US86901706P true 2006-12-07 2006-12-07
US91663907P true 2007-05-08 2007-05-08
US93971907P true 2007-05-23 2007-05-23
US11/950,954 US20080220397A1 (en) 2006-12-07 2007-12-05 Method of Firearms and/or Use of Force Training, Target, and Training Simulator

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