US20070088077A1 - Appetite stimulation and reduction of weight loss in patients suffering from symptomatic hiv infection - Google Patents

Appetite stimulation and reduction of weight loss in patients suffering from symptomatic hiv infection Download PDF

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Publication number
US20070088077A1
US20070088077A1 US11/537,914 US53791406A US2007088077A1 US 20070088077 A1 US20070088077 A1 US 20070088077A1 US 53791406 A US53791406 A US 53791406A US 2007088077 A1 US2007088077 A1 US 2007088077A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
method
patient
delta
tetrahydrocannabinol
human patient
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Abandoned
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US11/537,914
Inventor
Terry Plasse
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Unimed Pharmaceuticals LLC
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Plasse Terry F
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Priority to US66151491A priority Critical
Priority to US07/893,554 priority patent/US6703418B2/en
Priority to US10/735,017 priority patent/US20040209944A1/en
Application filed by Plasse Terry F filed Critical Plasse Terry F
Priority to US11/537,914 priority patent/US20070088077A1/en
Publication of US20070088077A1 publication Critical patent/US20070088077A1/en
Assigned to UNIMED PHARMACEUTICALS, LLC reassignment UNIMED PHARMACEUTICALS, LLC CHANGE OF NAME (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: UNIMED PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients
    • A61K31/33Heterocyclic compounds
    • A61K31/335Heterocyclic compounds having oxygen as the only ring hetero atom, e.g. fungichromin
    • A61K31/35Heterocyclic compounds having oxygen as the only ring hetero atom, e.g. fungichromin having six-membered rings with one oxygen as the only ring hetero atom
    • A61K31/352Heterocyclic compounds having oxygen as the only ring hetero atom, e.g. fungichromin having six-membered rings with one oxygen as the only ring hetero atom condensed with carbocyclic rings, e.g. cannabinols, methantheline
    • A61K31/3533,4-Dihydrobenzopyrans, e.g. chroman, catechin
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients
    • A61K31/33Heterocyclic compounds
    • A61K31/335Heterocyclic compounds having oxygen as the only ring hetero atom, e.g. fungichromin
    • A61K31/35Heterocyclic compounds having oxygen as the only ring hetero atom, e.g. fungichromin having six-membered rings with one oxygen as the only ring hetero atom
    • A61K31/352Heterocyclic compounds having oxygen as the only ring hetero atom, e.g. fungichromin having six-membered rings with one oxygen as the only ring hetero atom condensed with carbocyclic rings, e.g. cannabinols, methantheline
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K9/00Medicinal preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K9/48Preparations in capsules, e.g. of gelatin, of chocolate
    • A61K9/4841Filling excipients; Inactive ingredients
    • A61K9/4858Organic compounds

Abstract

Patients with symptomatic HIV infection, including AIDS and ARC are treated to increase appetite and to cause a reduction in loss of weight. The delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may be administered orally, in capsules, or in tablets, or by injection, suppository, intranasal, transdermal, inhalant or sublingual administration.

Description

    RELATED CASES
  • This application is a continuation of and claims priority to U.S. application Ser. No. 10/735,017, filed Dec. 12, 2003, which is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 07/893,554, filed Jun. 3, 1992, which is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 07/661,514, filed Feb. 26, 1991, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety to the extent permitted by law.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Among the many problems endured by patients suffering from symptomatic HIV infection, which includes inter alia AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and ARC (AIDS Related Complex), are loss of appetite with consequent loss of weight. This loss of appetite and loss of weight further debilitates the patients and increases the many problems associated with the HIV infection.
  • The compound delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, which is the active ingredient in marijuana and which was produced chemically as described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,668,224, has been used as an antiemetic to relieve nausea and vomiting in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy.
  • A number of cancer investigators have used delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol to attempt to increase appetite and modify weight loss in cancer patients. For example, in a randomized double-blind crossover study employing oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine, 50% of the subjects on delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol reported an increased food intake while only 29% had a similar response on the prochlorperazine.1 In another study of similar design and using the same medications, patients on delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol reported feeling more hungry than patients on prochlorperazine.2 Results suggestive of an appetite stimulating effect were also noted by Ekert, et al.3 in groups of children and adolescents 6-19 years of age administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, prochlorperazine or metaclopramide in crossover design studies.
    1 Sallan, S E; Cronin, C; Zelan, M; and Zinberg, N E (Sidney Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Mass.): Antiemetics in patients receiveing chemotherapy for cancer. A prochlorperazine. N. Engl. J. Med. 301:135-138 (Jan. 17) 1980, No. 3.

    2 Ungerleider, J T; Andrysiak, T; Fairbanks, L; Gooodnight, J; Sarna, G; and Jamison, K. (UCLA Center for the Health Sciences, Los Angeles, Calif.): Cannabis and cancer chemotherapy. A comparison of oral delta-9-THC and prochlorperazine. Cancer 50:636-645 (Aug. 15) 1982, No. 4.

    3 Ekert, H; Waters, K D; Jurk, I H; Mobilia, J; and Loughnan, P. (Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia): Amerlioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Med. J. Aust. 2:657-659 (Dec. 15) 1979.
  • In a double blind study, Regelson, et al.4 observed that advanced cancer patients on chemotherapy receiving delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol maintained their weight better than those
    4 Regelson W, Butter J R; Schultz J; Kirk T; Peek L; Green M L; Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, (delta-9-THC) as an effective antidepressant and appetite-stimulating agent in advanced cancer patients. The pharmacology of marihuana, (Braude M C & Szara S eds) Raven Press, N.Y. (1976; pp. 763-766.
  • not receiving the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
  • In an open study, Wadleigh, et al.5 observed appetite increases and a lessening of the rate of weight loss in cancer patients.
    5 Wadleigh, R; Spaulding, M; Lembersky, B; Zimmer. M: Shepard, K; Plasse, T; Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients. Proceedings 1990 American Cancer Society of Clinical Mycology Meeting.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • It is accordingly a primary object of the present invention to provide for the treatment of patients suffering from symptomatic HIV infection so as to improve the appetite and reduce weight loss in such patients.
  • Other objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from a further reading of the specification and of the appended claims.
  • With the above and other objects in view, the present invention mainly comprises the administration to a patient suffering from symptomatic HIV infection of an appetite stimulating effective amount of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
  • The delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is preferably administered orally as dronabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in sesame oil-containing capsules). Administration is also possible to achieve the effects of the present invention when the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is in the form of tablets, suppositories, intranasal administration, transdermal administration, inhalants and sublingual administration, as well as administration by injection.
  • The dosage range of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may vary widely from 2.5 mg to 20 mg daily, in single or divided doses.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • The following is given to further illustrate the present invention. The scope of the invention is not, however, meant to be limited to the specific details thereof.
  • EXAMPLE I
  • Soft gelatin capsules were filled with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in sesame oil (dronabinol). Capsules were filled with 2.5 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol per capsule or 5 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol per capsule.
  • Ten symptomatic HIV patients were treated with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. The patients studied were all homosexual males; one had a history of intravenous drug abuse as well. The infectious complications which they had represent the spectrum of those usually seen in a symptomatic HIV-infected population.
  • Most of the patients had received or were on antiviral therapy, primarily zidovudine (azidothymidine). Two had previously received and one was receiving megesterol acetate as well. Patients received delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as dronabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in sesame oil in soft gelatin capsules), usually at a dose of 2.5 mg, for one to five months. Treatment continued for most of the patients at the time of this analysis. The dose varied. The patients were instructed to take medication up to four times daily as needed; many took it somewhat less often.
  • Initially, patients were losing a median of 0.93 kg/mo. On therapy, they gained 0.54 kg/mo. The median difference on versus pre-therapy was 1.92 kg/mo. Seven patients gained weight while two others had a decrease in weight loss. This result was unexpected as previous studies in cancer patients showed that while weight loss lessened, patients rarely gained weight.
  • EXAMPLE II
  • In a prospective, dose-ranging study, 23 patients with symptomatic HIV infection were treated with dronabinol at a dose of 2.5 mg twice daily to 5.0 mg three times daily. Of these, 13 completed approximately one month on therapy. Of those completing one month on therapy, seven gained weight.
  • At a dose which appears optimal, seven of eight patients completed one month treatment. At that dose, most patients did not experience side effects. Most of those patients who did experience side effects found them tolerable. Confirming the unexpected results of Example I, five of the seven patients gained weight. The median rate of weight loss prior to therapy was 1.62 kg/mo; on therapy, the median weight gain was 1.56 kg/mo. The median improvement in the rate of weight change was 3.06 kg/mo, or approximately 1.5 lbs/wk.
  • It thus appears that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol can provide a significant tool in the treatment of patients with symptomatic HIV infection by improving appetite and reducing weight loss.
  • While the invention has been illustrated with respect to specific dosages, it is apparent that variations and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention.

Claims (16)

1. A method of treating a human patient with symptomatic HIV infection to stimulate weight gain in the patient, the method comprising orally administering to the patient a pharmaceutical composition comprising dronabinol, wherein the dronabinol is present in the composition in a total amount of about 2.5 mg to about 20 mg.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the human patient is male.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the weight gain comprises an weight change of approximately 1.5 lbs/week.
4. A method of treating a human patient with symptomatic HIV infection to stimulate weight gain in the patient comprising:
providing to the patient delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in a dosing regimen optimized to minimize side effects.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein the weight gain comprises a weight change of approximately 1.5 lbs/week.
6. The method of claim 4, wherein the side effects comprise nausea.
7. The method of claim 4, wherein the side effects comprise CNS effects.
8. The method of claim 4, wherein the human patient is male.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein the human patient is on antiviral therapy.
10. The method of claim 9, wherein the anti-viral therapy comprises azidothymidine.
11. The method of claim 9, wherein the anti-viral therapy comprises megesterol acetate.
12. The method of claim 1, wherein the human patient had received anti-viral therapy.
13. A method of treating a human patient to stimulate weight gain comprising:
administering to the patient an effective amount of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
14. A method of treating a human patient with symptomatic HIV infection to stimulate weight gain in the patient comprising:
administering to the patient an appetite-stimulating effective amount of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in conjunction with at least one additional medication.
15. The method of claim 14, wherein said additional medication comprises an antiviral therapy.
16. A method of treating an HIV human patient comprising:
administering an effective amount of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
US11/537,914 1991-02-26 2006-10-02 Appetite stimulation and reduction of weight loss in patients suffering from symptomatic hiv infection Abandoned US20070088077A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US66151491A true 1991-02-26 1991-02-26
US07/893,554 US6703418B2 (en) 1991-02-26 1992-06-03 Appetite stimulation and induction of weight gain in patients suffering from symptomatic HIV infection
US10/735,017 US20040209944A1 (en) 1991-02-26 2003-12-12 Appetite stimulation and reduction of weight loss in patients suffering from symptomatic HIV infection
US11/537,914 US20070088077A1 (en) 1991-02-26 2006-10-02 Appetite stimulation and reduction of weight loss in patients suffering from symptomatic hiv infection

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US11/537,914 US20070088077A1 (en) 1991-02-26 2006-10-02 Appetite stimulation and reduction of weight loss in patients suffering from symptomatic hiv infection

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US10/735,017 Continuation US20040209944A1 (en) 1991-02-26 2003-12-12 Appetite stimulation and reduction of weight loss in patients suffering from symptomatic HIV infection

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US07/893,554 Active US6703418B2 (en) 1991-02-26 1992-06-03 Appetite stimulation and induction of weight gain in patients suffering from symptomatic HIV infection
US10/735,017 Abandoned US20040209944A1 (en) 1991-02-26 2003-12-12 Appetite stimulation and reduction of weight loss in patients suffering from symptomatic HIV infection
US11/537,914 Abandoned US20070088077A1 (en) 1991-02-26 2006-10-02 Appetite stimulation and reduction of weight loss in patients suffering from symptomatic hiv infection

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US10/735,017 Abandoned US20040209944A1 (en) 1991-02-26 2003-12-12 Appetite stimulation and reduction of weight loss in patients suffering from symptomatic HIV infection

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US20060160888A1 (en) * 2004-12-09 2006-07-20 Insys Therapeutics, Inc. Room-temperature stable dronabinol formulations
US20080112895A1 (en) * 2006-08-04 2008-05-15 Insys Therapeutics Inc. Aqueous dronabinol formulations
US20090181080A1 (en) * 2007-08-06 2009-07-16 Insys Therapeutics Inc. Oral cannabinnoid liquid formulations and methods of treatment

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JP2007510736A (en) * 2003-11-05 2007-04-26 ユニメッド・ファーマシューティカルズ・インコーポレーテッド Delta -9-thc compositions and methods for treating symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis
TWI436991B (en) 2004-11-22 2014-05-11 Euro Celtique Sa Methods for purifying trans-(-)-△9-tetrahydrocannabinol and trans-(+)-△9-tetrahydrocannabinol
US20060258738A1 (en) * 2005-05-12 2006-11-16 Douglas Dieterich Use of dronabinol for treatment of side effects of Hepatitis C therapy
TWI366460B (en) * 2005-06-16 2012-06-21 Euro Celtique Sa Cannabinoid active pharmaceutical ingredient for improved dosage forms
WO2007032962A2 (en) * 2005-09-09 2007-03-22 University Of Kentucky Compositions and methods for intranasal delivery of tricyclic cannabinoids
BR112013012468A2 (en) * 2010-11-18 2016-09-06 Pier Pharmaceuticals method of treating a subject with a disorder responsive to cannabinoid, to establish optimal dose for treating a subject with a disorder of sleep apnea, and kit
WO2012085919A2 (en) 2010-12-22 2012-06-28 Exonoid Medical Devices Ltd. Method and system for drug delivery
WO2016001924A2 (en) 2014-06-30 2016-01-07 Syqe Medical Ltd. Methods, devices and systems for pulmonary delivery of active agents
US9375417B2 (en) 2014-12-04 2016-06-28 Mary's Medicinals LLC Transdermal cannabinoid formulations
US10028904B2 (en) 2014-12-04 2018-07-24 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Transdermal cannabinoid formulations
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