US20070030291A1 - Gaming machine transitions - Google Patents

Gaming machine transitions Download PDF

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Publication number
US20070030291A1
US20070030291A1 US10546859 US54685904A US2007030291A1 US 20070030291 A1 US20070030291 A1 US 20070030291A1 US 10546859 US10546859 US 10546859 US 54685904 A US54685904 A US 54685904A US 2007030291 A1 US2007030291 A1 US 2007030291A1
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Prior art keywords
transition
image
data
images
scene
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
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US10546859
Inventor
Drazen Lenger
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Aristocrat Technologies Australia Pty Ltd
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Aristocrat Technologies Australia Pty Ltd
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07FCOIN-FREED OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • G07F17/00Coin-freed apparatus for hiring articles; Coin-freed facilities or services
    • G07F17/32Coin-freed apparatus for hiring articles; Coin-freed facilities or services for games, toys, sports or amusements, e.g. casino games, online gambling or betting
    • G07F17/3202Hardware aspects of a gaming system, e.g. components, construction, architecture thereof
    • G07F17/3204Player-machine interfaces
    • G07F17/3211Display means
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63FCARD, BOARD, OR ROULETTE GAMES; INDOOR GAMES USING SMALL MOVING PLAYING BODIES; VIDEO GAMES; GAMES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • A63F13/00Video games, i.e. games using an electronically generated display having two or more dimensions
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63FCARD, BOARD, OR ROULETTE GAMES; INDOOR GAMES USING SMALL MOVING PLAYING BODIES; VIDEO GAMES; GAMES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • A63F13/00Video games, i.e. games using an electronically generated display having two or more dimensions
    • A63F13/50Controlling the output signals based on the game progress
    • A63F13/52Controlling the output signals based on the game progress involving aspects of the displayed game scene
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T13/00Animation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07FCOIN-FREED OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • G07F17/00Coin-freed apparatus for hiring articles; Coin-freed facilities or services
    • G07F17/32Coin-freed apparatus for hiring articles; Coin-freed facilities or services for games, toys, sports or amusements, e.g. casino games, online gambling or betting
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07FCOIN-FREED OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • G07F17/00Coin-freed apparatus for hiring articles; Coin-freed facilities or services
    • G07F17/32Coin-freed apparatus for hiring articles; Coin-freed facilities or services for games, toys, sports or amusements, e.g. casino games, online gambling or betting
    • G07F17/3202Hardware aspects of a gaming system, e.g. components, construction, architecture thereof
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07FCOIN-FREED OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • G07F17/00Coin-freed apparatus for hiring articles; Coin-freed facilities or services
    • G07F17/32Coin-freed apparatus for hiring articles; Coin-freed facilities or services for games, toys, sports or amusements, e.g. casino games, online gambling or betting
    • G07F17/3225Data transfer within a gaming system, e.g. data sent between gaming machines and users
    • G07F17/3227Configuring a gaming machine, e.g. downloading personal settings, selecting working parameters
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63FCARD, BOARD, OR ROULETTE GAMES; INDOOR GAMES USING SMALL MOVING PLAYING BODIES; VIDEO GAMES; GAMES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • A63F2300/00Features of games using an electronically generated display having two or more dimensions, e.g. on a television screen, showing representations related to the game
    • A63F2300/60Methods for processing data by generating or executing the game program
    • A63F2300/66Methods for processing data by generating or executing the game program for rendering three dimensional images

Abstract

A graphics system for changing images on a gaming machine display, having a transition library of transition types, a graphics engine and a control means. The graphics engine applies a selected transition type from the transition library to at least one of at least two images for determining the way in which a substitution of one of the images by the other of the images occurs and initialises transition data for effecting an incremental substitution of the one image by the other image. The control means modifies the transition data such that, when the selected transition type is being effected, an incremental substitution of at least a part of the one image by the other image occurs serially until the one image has been substituted by the other image on the gaming machine display.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    This invention relates to gaming machines. More particularly, the invention relates to a system and method for changing images on a gaming machine display.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    When replacing one on-screen image with another in a gaming machine, the options available to perform this action in an interesting or aesthetically pleasing manner are limited. In fact, other than an instantaneous change, the only way is to use some form of pre-generated animation. This method, apart from consuming a large amount of EPROM space, is unwieldy and cumbersome given that the starting and end images must be known before run-time.
  • [0003]
    In filmmaking, when going from one scene to another, filmmakers have used a number of techniques. Theses techniques range from fading from a scene to black, and then fading from black into the next scene. Other options are fading directly from one scene to another, shrinking a scene to reveal another “behind it”, or sliding one scene off the screen to the left whilst simultaneously sliding another onto the screen from the right. All these techniques are generated post-filming and are fixed.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0004]
    According to a first aspect of the invention there is provided a graphics system for changing images on a gaming machine display, the system comprising:
  • [0005]
    a transition library of transition types;
  • [0006]
    a graphics engine to apply a selected transition type from the transition library to at least one of at least two images for determining the way in which a substitution of one of the images by the other of the images occurs and for initialising transition data for effecting an incremental substitution of the one image by the other image; and
  • [0007]
    a control means for modifying the transition data such that, when the selected transition type is being effected, an incremental substitution of at least a part of the one image by the other image occurs serially until the one image has been substituted by the other image on the gaming machine display.
  • [0008]
    In a preferred embodiment as an initial step, a second of the images is initially placed behind a first of the images. The first image may be incrementally removed by the transition type to reveal or expose at least a part of the second image until the first image has been entirely removed to reveal the second image.
  • [0009]
    The transition library may include slide, wipe, scatter, fade, iris, shrink, curtain or rotate transitions. The selected transition type or selected transition may change the first image to the second image using a shape. The iris transition may use a circle. The wipe transition may use a line. The scatter transition may use a square.
  • [0010]
    The selected transition may be drawn using pixel operations, scaling, micro-clipping or OpenGL operations.
  • [0011]
    The selected transition may have a pre-determined duration. The selected transition may coincide with a sound or animation. The selected transition may start and reset based on a pre-determined time.
  • [0012]
    At least one of the images may be an animation. In the preferred embodiment, only the second image is an animation. The images may be bitmap images, hereinafter referred to as 2D images. The images may be vector images, hereinafter referred to as 3D images. The selected transition may be in 2D mode if the first or second images are 2D images.
  • [0013]
    In 2D mode, the image may be divided into smaller shapes. A pre-determined number of smaller shapes may be filled for each refresh period of the gaming machine display.
  • [0014]
    In 3D mode, the transition data may include a callback function that is attached to the selected transition. A Display Manager window may be created for the callback function. The callback function may draw the selected transition on the gaming machine display using OpenGL calls. The callback function may draw the selected transition on the gaming machine display by incrementally exposing less of the first image for each refresh period.
  • [0015]
    The first image may exist in a scene list. The selected transition may be added in the same position of the first image in the scene list.
  • [0016]
    A duplicate image of the first image may be added to the scene list for modification. The transition data for the duplicate image may be initialised.
  • [0017]
    The transition data may be generated and/or modified at every refresh period of the gaming machine display.
  • [0018]
    The transition data may be a duplicate image of the first image.
  • [0019]
    Transition data may include the transition type, the duration of the selected transition, the current state of the selected transition.
  • [0020]
    An offscreen Device Context may be created for receiving a copy of the duplicate image. The first image may be removed after the Device Context is created.
  • [0021]
    The duplicate image in the offscreen Device Context may be added to a Display Manager. The image may be removed from the Display Manager when the selected transition is completed. Memory may be freed when the selected transition is removed from the Display Manager.
  • [0022]
    Each image in a scene list may be checked to determine if it has transition data.
  • [0023]
    Each image having transition data may have a draw handler.
  • [0024]
    Parts of the first image to be replaced per refresh period may be calculated such that the selected transition is completed within a pre-determined time. The pre-determined time may be set by a user at run-time.
  • [0025]
    According to a second aspect of the invention, there is provided a method for changing images on a gaming machine display, the method comprising the steps of:
  • [0026]
    selecting a transition from a transition library of transition types;
  • [0027]
    applying the selected transition to at least one of at least two images for determining the way in which a substitution of one of the images by the other of the images occurs;
  • [0028]
    initialising transition data for effecting an incremental substitution of the one image by the other image; and
  • [0029]
    modifying the transition data such that, when the selected transition type is being effected, an incremental substitution of at least a part of the one image by the other image occurs serially until the one image has been substituted by the other image on the gaming machine display.
  • [0030]
    According to a third aspect of the invention, there is provided a gaming machine having a gaming machine display, the gaming machine comprising:
  • [0031]
    a graphics system to change images on the gaming machine display, the graphics system including:
  • [0032]
    a transition library of transition types;
  • [0033]
    a graphics engine for applying a selected transition type from the transition library to at least one of at least two images for determining the way in which a substitution of one of the images by the other of the images occurs and for initialising transition data for effecting an incremental substitution of the one image by the other image; and
  • [0034]
    a control means for modifying the transition data such that, when the selected transition type is being effected, an incremental substitution of at least a part of the one image by the other image occurs serially until the one image has been substituted by the other image on the gaming machine display.
  • [0035]
    Advantageously, transitions enable gaming machines to change images on the gaming display in a variety of ways over a variable time period without using pre-generated animations. That is, any image that exists on a gaming machine display can be made to disappear and reappear aesthetically at run-time. Preferably, by placing a second image under the first image before the start of a transition, the second image can be exposed and effectively replace the first image using any of the transitions provided by the graphics engine.
  • [0036]
    According to a fourth aspect of the invention there is provided computer program means for directing a graphics engine and a control means to execute a procedure to change images in a graphics system on a gaming machine display, the graphics system having a transition library of transition types, the computer program means directing:
  • [0037]
    the graphics engine to apply a selected transition type from the transition library to at least one of at least two images for determining the way in which a substitution of one of the images by the other of the images occurs and for initialising transition data for effecting an incremental substitution of the one image by the other image,
  • [0038]
    the computer program means further directing the control means to modify the transition data such that when the selected transition type is being effected, an incremental substitution of at least a part of the one image by the other image occurs serially until the one image has been substituted by the other image on the gaming machine display.
  • [0039]
    According a fifth aspect of the invention there is provided computer program means for directing a graphics engine and a control means to execute a procedure to change images on a gaming machine display by:
  • [0040]
    selecting a transition type from a transition library of transition types;
  • [0041]
    applying the selected transition type to at least one of at least two images for determining the way in which a substitution of one of the images by the other of the images occurs;
  • [0042]
    initialising transition data for effecting an incremental substitution of the one image by the other image;
  • [0043]
    modifying the transition data such that when the selected transition type is being effected, an incremental substitution of at least a part of the one image by the other image occurs serially until the one image has been substituted by the other image on the gaming machine display.
  • [0044]
    According to a sixth aspect of the invention there is provided a computer readable memory, encoded with data representing a computer program for directing a graphics engine and a control means to execute a procedure to change images on a gaming machine display by:
  • [0045]
    selecting a transition type from a transition library of transition types;
  • [0046]
    applying the selected transition type to at least one of at least two images for determining the way in which a substitution of one of the images by the other of the images occurs;
  • [0047]
    initialising transition data for effecting an incremental substitution of the one image by the other image;
  • [0048]
    modifying the transition data such that when the selected transition type is being effected, an incremental substitution of at least a part of the one image by the other image occurs serially until the one image has been substituted by the other image on the gaming machine display.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0049]
    An example of the invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
  • [0050]
    FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the graphics system.
  • [0051]
    FIG. 2 is a process flow diagram of a 3D transition using 3D callback.
  • [0052]
    FIG. 3 is a process flow diagram of adding a transition image to the Display Manager.
  • [0053]
    FIG. 4 is a process flow diagram of a 3D transition not using 3D callback.
  • [0054]
    FIG. 5 is a process flow diagram of a 2D transition.
  • [0055]
    FIG. 6 is a process flow diagram of a diagonal wipe 3D callback.
  • [0056]
    FIG. 7 is a process flow diagram of a 2D diagonal wipe transition.
  • [0057]
    FIG. 8 illustrates how the scatter transition separates an image.
  • [0058]
    FIG. 9 is a process flow diagram for the drawing procedure of the Scatter transition.
  • [0059]
    FIGS. 10 a-c are a series of images illustrating the Wipe transition.
  • [0060]
    FIGS. 11 a-c are a series of images illustrating the Fade transition.
  • [0061]
    FIGS. 12 a-c are a series of images illustrating the Iris transition.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0062]
    Referring to FIG. 1, a graphics system 10 for a gaming machine 20 comprises a transition library 12 which stores various types of transitions, for example, slide, wipe, scatter, fade, iris, shrink, curtain and rotate transitions. The graphics system 10 also provides a graphics engine 14 to apply a selected transition type from the transition library 12 to one of two images for determining the way in which a substitution of a first image by a second image occurs. The graphics engine 14 also initialises transition data (t_data) for effecting an incremental removal of the first image to reveal the second image. A control means 16 modifies the transition data (t_data) such that when the selected transition type is being effected, an incremental removal of at least a part of the first image by the second image occurs serially until the first image has been removed in its entirety to reveal the second image on a display 18 of the gaming machine 20.
  • [0063]
    Referring to FIG. 2, the graphics engine 14 executes an application code thread 25, scene_update_task thread 30 and scene3d_update_task thread 40. There are three main functions to facilitate image transitions. Firstly, the application code thread 25 has an _addtransition( ) function 26 which selects a transition and initialises its transition data (t_data) structure and attaches it to an image. Secondly, the scene_update_task thread 30 has an _updatescene( ) function 31 which interrogates images within the scene list to determine whether they have transition data (t_data).
  • [0064]
    Thirdly, if transition data (t_data) is found, the transition_actions( ) function 32 of the scene_update_task thread 30 is called to maintain and/or update the selected transition.
  • [0065]
    The scene3d_update_task thread 40 is used for 3D images and is provided with functions including: scenerender( ) 41, _refreshDMEx( ) 42, _refreshDM( ) 43 and a 3D transition callback function, diag_wipe3d_cb_DM( ) 44. The scene3d_update_task thread 40 calls t_refreshDM( ) 43 to call the 3D transition callback function 44. The callback function 44 uses the transition data (t_data) attached to the image to draw the selected transition via OpenGL calls. For any individual transition, the application code and scene_update_task 30 threads cannot run concurrently. Also, the scene3d_update_task 40 and scene_update_task 30 threads cannot run concurrently.
  • [0000]
    Addtransition( )
  • [0066]
    Referring to FIGS. 2, 4 and 5, the application code thread 25 calls the _addtransition( ) function 26 to attach the selected transition to an image. Applying a transition to an image requires the name and position of the subject image to be known. Unless these are correct, the transition command is ignored. The command itself both identifies the subject image and specifies the transition parameters as shown in the code below:
    Transition_scene_id = addtransition
      (
       image identifier,
       screen position x,
       screen position y,
       transition type,
       direction,
       duration
      )
  • [0067]
    The variable “Transition_scene_id” is used with the existing graphics commands to both start and reset the transition at desired times. Resetting a transition is useful to reveal several consecutive images, or if the transition has been interrupted by another gaming machine event.
  • [0068]
    When _addtransition( ) 26 is called, the selected transition assumes that the image already exists in the scene list and DM (Display Manager). An example of calling the _addtransition( ) function 26 is shown below:
    H_OBJECT tmp;
    tmp = getobjecthandle(“IMG_SYM_TEN”, _IMAGE);
    s_id1 = addscene(tmp, 100, 100, 0, 0, HIGHER_PRI);
    t_id1 = addtransition(tmp, 100, 100, SLIDE, TOP_LEFT, 3200);
    _controlscene(s_id1, SCENE_START);
    _controlscene(t_id1, SCENE_START_TRANS);
  • [0069]
    The transition (t_id1) is added in the same position that the image exists in for tile scene (s_id1). If this procedure is not met, then _addtransition( ) 26 will fail. The following code extract shows how _addtransition( ) 26 searches for the resource in the DM (Display Manager) and checks if the resource is in the same location that the user wants to attach the transition to.
    DmItem = FindResourceDM(pImage->hDc, −1);
    _getitempositionDM(DmItem, &Rect);
    while (DmItem != −1)
    {
      if (Rect.top == yPos && Rect.left == xPos)
      {
       _getscenedataDM(DmItem, &scene_id);
       break;
      }
      else
      {
       DmItem = FindResourceDM(pImage->hDc, DmItem);
       _getitempositionDM(DmItem, &Rect);
      }
    }
    ...
    // Could not find the object at that spot.
      if (DmItem == −1)
       return GRERROR;
  • [0070]
    Next, _addtransition( ) 26 adds a duplicate of the image to the scene list so that it can modify the duplicate image for the transition.
  • [0071]
    _addtransition( ) 26 also initialises all transition data (t_data) variables for the associated duplicate image. Below is a code extract that details the initialisation of the transition data (t_data).
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data =
    (TRANS_ITEM *)_avlmalloc(sizeof(TRANS_ITEM))
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data->swansong = swansong;
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data->direction = dir;
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data->duration = dur;
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data->status = NOT_YET_STARTED;
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data->curr_x = 0;
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data->curr_y = 0;
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data->generic1 = 0;
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data->generic2 = 0;
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data->generic3 = 0;
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data->generic4 = 0;
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data->generic5 = 0;
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data->generic6 = 0;
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data->cllbckDMitem = −1;
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data->randomlist = (NLIST *) 0;
    scene_list[new_scene_index].t_data->randomlist3D = (int *) 0;
  • [0072]
    Many of the variables within the t_data structure are dependent on the type of transition chosen, however some are present for all transitions. Below is a table explaining the variables of the t_data structure.
    T_data variable Meaning
    swansong Type of transition
    direction Depends on transition chosen as different
    transitions have different subtypes/directions
    duration Length of transition
    status Current state of the transition
    generic1-generic6 All these variables are different for each
    transition
    cllbckDMitem This refers to the callback function that is
    attached to the transition in 3D mode when a
    window is created.
    randomlist This is the list of squares to be removed.
    Specific for the SCATTER transition in 2D mode.
    randomlist3D This is the list of squares to be removed.
    Specific for the SCATTER transition in 3D mode.
  • [0073]
    If the selected transition requires modification of the original image, for example, the “Iris Wipe” transition, an offscreen DC (Device Context) is created for a duplicate transition image. Below is a list of transitions that do not require an offscreen DC (Device Context) to be created.
    Transition 2D/3D
    ROTATE 3D
    SHRINK ANY
    SLIDE ANY
    FADE 3D
    WIPE ANY, wipes in left, right, up and down do not
    need to create a DC either as we are doing micro
    clipping and this does not affect the original
    image.
    IRIS 3D
    SCATTER 3D
    CURTAIN 3D
  • [0074]
    Referring to FIG. 3, when an offscreen DC (Device Context) has been created for a duplicate transition image, the original image is removed. In 3D mode after the offscreen DC has been created, cloneimageitemDM( ) 51 is called which adds the transition image DC to the DM (Display Manager). However, in 2D mode, a _bitblt( ) 52 is done to copy the duplicate image to the DC. Next, _additemDM( ) 53 is called to add the transition image DC to the DM (Display Manager).
  • [0075]
    For error handling purposes, applying a transition to a resource other than an image results in _addtransition( ) 26 returning an error.
  • [0000]
    Updatescene( )
  • [0076]
    In the image transition process, the updatescene( ) function 31 is called for each refresh of the gaming display 18. Also, each image to be displayed is checked to see if it contains any transition data. If the image contains transition data (t_data) and the transition is in progress, transition_actions( ) 32 is called as shown in the code extract below:
    if (scene_list[i].t_data != 0 && scene_list[i].t_data->status ==
    IN_PROGRESS)
       transition_actions(i, &callback_reqd);

    Transition Actions( )
  • [0077]
    Transitions are maintained and updated by the transition_actions( ) function 32. Transitions can be updated using pixel operations or whole image operations, for example, scaling. The transition_actions( ) function 32 modifies all the transition data (t_data) for the next refresh of the display 18. Each individual transition contains unique algorithms and procedures to remove parts of the image from the display 18. However, some of the transitions within transition_actions( ) 32 only have a 2D implementation. Other transitions have a 2D and 3D) implementation. The transitions that are only available in 2D use a specific 3D callback function 44 to cater for those, transitions in 3D mode.
  • [0078]
    If in 3D mode, the first time transition_actions( ) 32 is called, a DM (Display Manager) window is created at the location of the image and attaches a 3D callback function 44 to this window. At every refresh, transition_actions( ) 32 modifies all the t_data. Also, the 3D callback function 44 attached to this window processes the t_data structure and implements the transition using OpenGL calls. The code extract below illustrates the initialisation of the DM (Display Manager) window with a scatter3D_cbDM( ) callback 44.
    scene_list[i].t_data->cllbckDMitem = _addwindowDM
        (
        Rect.left,
        Rect.top,
        scatter_3D_cbDM,
        DI_ALPHA,
        i,
        get_priority(i),
        Rect.top>=0?DM_BOTTOM_SCREEN:DM_TOP_SCREEN
        );
  • [0079]
    Below is a list of the associated 3D callback functions 44 for each transition.
    Transition 3D Callback
    WIPE (any diagonal direction) diag_wipe_3D_cbDM
    SCATTER scatter_3D_cbDM
    IRIS iris_3D_cbDM
    CURTAIN (type 2) curtain2_3D_cbDM
    CURTAIN (type 1) curtain1_3D_cbDM
  • [0080]
    Referring to FIGS. 4 to 6, not all transitions require their own callbacks 44 in 3D mode. This is determined according to the implementation or specification of individual transitions. For example, the Wipe transition in any non-diagonal direction uses micro clipping. Thus for this transition there is no need for OpenGL operations.
  • [0081]
    Referring to FIG. 4, _refreshDM( ) 43 does not call a 3D transition callback 44 since transition_actions( ) 32 has ensured that the transition data (t_data) has been updated or modified for the next refresh of the display 18. This is different to the scenario shown in FIG. 2. Also, in this scenario, the application code 25 and the scene_update_task 30 threads do not run concurrently and the scene3d_update_task thread 40 also does not run concurrently.
  • [0082]
    Referring to FIG. 5, _refreshDM( ) 43 is called in the context of the scene_update_task thread 30. There are also no 3D callbacks in 2D mode and transition_actions( ) 32 has ensured that the transition data (t_data) is updated and modified for the next refresh. Also, the application code 25 and scene_update_task( ) 30 threads do not run concurrently.
  • [0083]
    Referring to FIG. 6, _refreshDM( ) 43 is called in the stream of execution for the diagonal wipe transition. When _refreshDM( ) 43 is called, each DM (Display Manager) item is drawn and checked to see if it has a draw handler attached 60. If the image has a transition attached to it then the attached draw handler is initiated 61. In the diagonal wipe transition, diag_wipe3D_cbDM( ) is called 61. The Wipe transition is drawn using OpenGL calls 62. The code extract below illustrates the operation of _refreshDM( ) 43 with draw handlers.
    for (i = 1; i < DmItemsUsed; i++)
    {
      ...
      if (pItem->pDrawHnd && (pItem->WhichScreen &
      DM_BOTTOM_SCREEN))
      {
      (pItem->pDrawHnd) (hBack,
          pItem->Rect.left,
          pItem->Rect.top,
          pItem->DrawMode,
          pItem->Val);
         continue;
      }
    }
  • [0084]
    Referring to FIG. 7, the original image is copied into temporary memory 71 for a diagonal wipe transition in 2D mode. The duplicate image is added to the display 18 over the original image 72 and the original image is removed 73 from the display 18. The wipe increment is calculated according to the formula shown at step 74. The amount of the image that has been “wiped” is stored in the variable wipe dist, and is incremented at step 75. Then, pixel commands cause successive lines to disappear from the temporary image 76 on the gaming machine display 18. When waiting 77 for the next refresh of the display 18, the variable wipe dist is compared with the variable img width to determine if more “wiping” is necessary 78. If the value of wipe dist is not equal to the img width variable, steps 75 to 78 are repeated. However, if wipe dist is equal to img width, the temporary image is removed and the temporary memory is released 79 ending the transition 80.
  • [0085]
    In 3D mode, different commands are used for step 76 instead of pixel commands to draw the transition. For example, OpenGL triangle commands could be used.
  • [0000]
    Scatter Transition Example
  • [0086]
    The Scatter transition receives a value (direction parameter) from the _addtransition( ) function 32. The direction parameter value is the size of the individual scattered squares, which is represented as a 1000th of a percent of the image area. For example, a value of 2500 is a square size that is 25% of the image area. The Scatter transition then determines the number of squares needed for the transition and calculates the position of the top left corner of each square 81 and assigns this value to each square. FIG. 8 illustrates the separation of the image by the Scatter transition. The lists of squares (1−n) are randomly selected so that a random square is deleted from the image.
  • [0087]
    The t_data structure for the Scatter transition has eight variables that are used for cumulative transition calculations. It is not known until the implementation of the transition algorithm is complete whether more variables are required.
  • [0088]
    Transition_actions( ) 32 is modified for the Scatter transition. This modification includes the transition algorithm and the correct timing, so that the transition is completed within a user specified time. Below is an excerpt of the initialisation of the scatter transition in transition_actions( ) 32.
    case SCATTER:
    {
      if (t_data->generic1 == 0 && t_data->generic2 == 0)
      {
        /* get square size based on area of image */
        img_area = width * height;
        square_size = img_area * t_data->direction / 10000;
        // generic5 is the square size.
        square_size = t_data->generic5 = mborg_isqrt((long)square_size);
        // generic3 is the number of x divisions. generic4 is the number of y divisions
        t_data->generic3 = (width % square_size != 0) ? width / square_size + 1 width /
    square_size;
        t_data->generic4 = (height % square_size != 0) ? height / square_size + 1 height /
    square_size;
        no_of_squares = t_data->generic3 * t_data->generic4;
        /* allocate space for rand numbers */
        t_data->randomlist = avlmalloc(sizeof(NLIST)*no_of_squares);
        make_rand_array(square_size, no_of_squares, t_data->randomlist, width, t_data-
    >generic3);
        if (Is3D)
        {
         RECT Rect;
         _getitempositionDM(scene_list[i].imagelist[0], &Rect);
         scene_list[i].t_data->cllbckDMitem = addwindowDM
          (
          Rect.left,
          Rect.top,
          scatter_3D_cbDM,
          DI_ALPHA,
          i,
          get_priority(i),
          Rect.top>=0 ?DM_BOTTOM_SCREEN:DM_TOP_SCREEN
          );
         _invalidateitemDM(scene_list[i].t_data->cllbckDMitem, 0);
         uninvalidateitemDM(scene_list[i].imagelist[0]);
         t_data->randomlist3D = avlmalloc(sizeof(int) * no_of_squares);
         for (j = 0; j < no_of_squares; j++)
          t_data->randomlist3D[j] = 1;
        }
    }
    ...
  • [0089]
    To illustrate the process of initialisation, the code above is executed once at the start of the transition to split up the image into numbered squares as shown in FIG. 8.
  • [0090]
    Also, during initialisation, a Display Manager window is created for a 3D callback 44.
  • [0091]
    Generally, each transition has a shape that is derived from the transition. For example, the iris wipe transition has a circle and the wipe has a line. For the Scatter transition, this is a square. In relation to timing, the number of squares to remove per refresh period is based on the duration value passed from _addtransition( ) 26. The code extract below illustrates the number of squares to remove per refresh period (spf).
    /* timing */
    lpf_1000 = ((no_of_squares * fbp) / t_data->duration);
    t_data->generic2 += lpf_1000;
    spf = t_data->generic2 / 1000;
    t_data->generic2 %= 1000;
  • [0092]
    The 1pf13 1000 variable holds the squares to remove per refresh period x1000 to reduce rounding errors. The 1pf1000 variable is added to the t_data>generic2 variable which is divided by 1000 to produce the final value for the number of squares to be removed for the current refresh period (spf). The remaining lines are stored in t_data ->generic2 for the next refresh period.
  • [0093]
    Once the spf is calculated, a for loop is executed to remove a certain number of squares from the image per refresh period. The following code segment illustrates this.
    for(j=0;j<spf;j++)
    {
      /* create random rectangle to clear */
      area.left = t_data->randomlist[t_data->generic1].x − x_offset;
      area.top = t_data->randomlist[t_data->generic1].y − y_offset;
      area.right = t_data->randomlist[t_data->generic1].x +
      t_data->generic5 − x_offset;
      area.bottom = t_data->randomlist[t_data->generic1].y +
      t_data->generic5 − y_offset;
      /* for squares that fall off the DC */
      area.left = (area.left <0) ? 0 : area.left;
      area.top = (area.top <0) ? 0 : area.top;
      area.right = (area.right > width) ? width : area.right;
      area.bottom = (area.bottom > height) ? height : area.bottom;
      SoftFill(scene->playDc[0],&area,0);
      t_data->generic1++;
      if(t_data->generic1 == no_of_squares)
      {
        remove=TRUE;
        /* free all dynamic allocated memory */
        _avlfree(t_data->randomlist);
        t_data->randomlist = (NLIST *) 0;
        break;
      }
    }
  • [0094]
    Referring to FIG. 9, there are different drawing procedures depending on whether the transition is in 2D mode or 3D mode. In 2D mode, SoftFill( ) 90 is called to fill a rectangle. FIG. 8 illustrates the division of the image into many smaller squares. A random number is chosen and the rectangle coordinates are calculated and put into a RECT structure. The SoftFill( ) function 90 is called in the following way:
    SoftFill(scene->playDc[0],&area,0);
  • [0095]
    SoftFill( ) 90 instructs the current DC (Device Context) to set each pixel to ‘0’ in the given rectangle ‘area’. The for loop may get executed n times per refresh period. In this case, SoftFill( ) 90 fills n rectangles that are chosen randomly at each refresh period.
  • [0096]
    In 3D mode, a specific 3D callback, scatter 3D_cbDM 44 is called 91 via _refreshDM( ) 43. This function 44 which performs its own OpenGL operations and divides the image into little triangles forming squares. To draw the transition image, less and less of the image is drawn each refresh period.
  • [0097]
    When the transition has ended it is removed from the DM (Display Manager). In 2D mode, t_data->genericl is incremented each time the SoftFill( ) function 90 is called in the for loop. The t_data->genericl variable indicates the number of squares that have been removed already. When the t_data->genericl variable reaches the number of squares that exist, the image is removed. The code extract below illustrates this:
    if(t_data->genericl == no_of_squares)
    {
      remove=TRUE;
      /* free all dynamic allocated memory */
      _avlfree(t_data->randomlist);
      t_data->randomlist = (NLIST *) 0;
      break;
    }
  • [0098]
    Once the remove variable is set to true, transition_actions( ) 32 removes the transition from the DM (Display Manager) and cleans up the code. The user may also want their own clean up code, as shown in the code extract above. The clean up code also frees the memory that was allocated for the random list of integers.
  • [0099]
    Although the Scatter transition has been described, it will be appreciated that other transitions are also envisaged. New transitions can be added by:
      • modifying the t_data structure to add additional t_data variables,
      • adding the transition algorithm and timing to the transition_actions( ) function 32, and
      • if necessary, creating a 3D callback 44 with the transition algorithm and timing.
  • [0103]
    Referring to FIGS. 10 a-c, the Wipe transition is shown. A landscape image is gradually removed line by line from the bottom of the image, gradually exposing the underlying graphics.
  • [0104]
    Referring to FIGS. 11 a-c, the Fade transition is shown. The image gradually fades until it is no longer visible.
  • [0105]
    Referring to FIGS. 12 a-c the Iris transition is shown. The landscape image is gradually removed by the appearance of a “hole” in the middle of the image. The hole grows until the entire image is replaced and the underlying graphics wholly exposed.
  • [0106]
    It will be appreciated by persons skilled in the art that numerous variations and/or modifications may be made to the invention as shown in the specific embodiments without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention as broadly described. The present embodiments are, therefore, to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive.

Claims (65)

  1. 1. A graphics system for changing images on a gaming machine display, the system comprising:
    a transition library of transition types;
    a graphics engine to apply a selected transition type from the transition library to at least one of at least two images for determining the way in which a substitution of one of the images by the other of the images occurs and for initialising transition data for effecting an incremental substitution of the one image by the other image; and
    a control means for modifying the transition data such that, when the selected transition type is being effected, an incremental substitution of at least a part of the one image by the other image occurs serially until the one image has been substituted by the other image on the gaming machine display.
  2. 2. A graphics system according to claim 1 wherein a second of the images is initially placed behind a first of the images.
  3. 3. A graphics system according to claim 2 wherein the first image is incrementally removed by the transition type to reveal or expose at least a part of the second image until the first image has been entirely removed to reveal the second image.
  4. 4. A graphics system according to claim 2 wherein the transition library has any one or more of the following transition types: wipe, scatter, fade, iris, shrink, curtain, rotate.
  5. 5. A graphics system according to claim 4 wherein the selected transition type changes the first image to the second image using a shape.
  6. 6. A graphics system according to claim 5 wherein the iris transition type uses a circle.
  7. 7. A graphics system according to claim 5 wherein the wipe transition type uses a line.
  8. 8. A graphics system according to claim 5 wherein the scatter transition type uses a square.
  9. 9. A graphics system according to claim 2 wherein the selected transition type is drawn using any one or more of pixel operations, scaling operations, microclipping operations or OpenGL operations.
  10. 10. A graphics system according to claim 2 wherein the selected transition type has a predetermined duration.
  11. 11. A graphics system according to claim 2 wherein the selected transition type coincides with a sound or animation.
  12. 12. A graphics system according to claim 2 wherein the selected transition type starts and resets based on a predetermined time.
  13. 13. A graphics system according to claim 2 wherein at least one of the images is an animation.
  14. 14. A graphics system according to claim 13 wherein the second image is an animation.
  15. 15. A graphics system according to claim 2 wherein the first image or the second image is a 2D image or a 3D image.
  16. 16. A graphics system according to claim 15 wherein the selected transition type is in 2D mode where either the first image or the second image is a 2D image.
  17. 17. A graphics system according to claim 15 wherein in 2D mode the first image or the second image is divided into small shapes.
  18. 18. A graphics system according to claim 17 wherein a predetermined number of small shapes are filled for each refresh period of the gaming machine display.
  19. 19. A graphics system according to claim 15 wherein the selected transition type is in 3D mode where either the first image or the second image is a 3D image.
  20. 20. A graphics system according to claim 19 wherein in 3D mode the transition data includes a callback function that is attached to the selected transition type.
  21. 21. A graphics system according to claim 20 wherein a Display Manager window is created for the callback function.
  22. 22. A graphics system according to claim 21 wherein the callback function draws the selected transition type on the gaming machine display using OpenGL calls.
  23. 23. A graphics system according to claim 22 wherein the callback function draws the selected transition type on the gaming machine display by incrementally exposing less of the first image for each refresh period of the gaming machine display.
  24. 24. A graphics system according to claim 18 wherein the first image exists in a scene list.
  25. 25. A graphics system according to claim 24 wherein the selected transition type is added in the same position of the first image in the scene list.
  26. 26. A graphics system according to claim 25 wherein a duplicate image of the first image is added to the scene list for modification.
  27. 27. A graphics system according to claim 26 wherein the transition data for the duplicate image is initialised.
  28. 28. A graphics system according to claim 27 wherein the transition data is the duplicate image of the first image.
  29. 29. A graphics system according to claim 28 wherein the transition data is generated or modified at every refresh period of the gaming machine display.
  30. 30. A graphics system according to claim 26 wherein an offscreen Device Context is created for receiving a copy of the duplicate image.
  31. 31. A graphics system according to claim 30 wherein the first image is removed after the Device Context is created.
  32. 32. A graphics system according to claim 30 wherein the duplicate image in the offscreen Device Context is added to a Display Manager.
  33. 33. A graphics system according to claim 32 wherein the duplicate image is removed from the Display Manager when the selected transition type is completed.
  34. 34. A graphics system according to claim 24 wherein each image in the scene list is checked to determine if the image has transition data.
  35. 35. A graphics system according to claim 34 wherein each image that has transition data has a draw handler.
  36. 36. A graphics system according to claim 18 wherein parts of the first image to be replaced per refresh period are determined such that the selected transition type is completed within a predetermined period of time.
  37. 37. A graphics system according to claim 36 wherein the predetermined period of time is set by a user at run-time.
  38. 38. A graphics system according to claim 2 wherein the transition data includes any one or more of the transition type, the duration of the selected transition type or the current state of the selected transition.
  39. 39. A method for changing images on a gaming machine display, the method comprising the steps of:
    selecting a transition type from a transition library of transition types;
    applying the selected transition type to at least one of at least two images for determining the way in which a substitution of one of the images by the other of the images occurs;
    initialising transition data for effecting an incremental substitution of the one image by the other image; and
    modifying the transition data such that, when the selected transition type is being effected, an incremental substitution of at least a part of the one image by the other image occurs serially until the one image has been substituted by the other image on the gaming machine display.
  40. 40. A method according to claim 39 wherein a second of the images is initially placed behind a first of the images.
  41. 41. A method according to claim 40 further comprising the step of incrementally removing the first image using the transition type to reveal or expose at least a part of the second image until the first image has been entirely removed to reveal the second image.
  42. 42. A method according to claim 41 further comprising the step of the selected transition type using a shape to change the first image to the second image.
  43. 43. A method according to claim 40 further comprising the step of drawing the selected transition type using any one or more of pixel operations, scaling operations, microclipping operations or OpenGL operations.
  44. 44. A method according to claim 40 wherein the first image or the second image is a 2D image and the selected transition type is in a 2D mode, the method further comprising the step of dividing the first image or the second image into small shapes.
  45. 45. A method according to claim 44 further comprising the step of filling a predetermined number of the small shapes for each refresh period of the game machine display.
  46. 46. A method according to claim 40 wherein the first image or the second image is a 3D image and the selected transition type is in a 3D mode, the method further comprising the step of attaching to the selected transition type a callback function forming a part of the transition data.
  47. 47. A method according to claim 46 further comprising the step of creating a Display Manager window for the callback function.
  48. 48. A method according to claim 47 further comprising the step of the callback function drawing the selected transition type on the gaming machine display using OpenGL calls.
  49. 49. A method according to claim 48 wherein the step of drawing is performed by incrementally exposing less of the first image for each refresh period of the gaming machine display.
  50. 50. A method according to claim 40 wherein the first image exists in a scene list, the method further comprising the step of adding the selected transition type in the same position of the first image in the scene list.
  51. 51. A method according to claim 50 further comprising the step of adding a duplicate image of the first image to the scene list for modification.
  52. 52. A method according to claim 51 further comprising the step of initialising the transition data for the duplicate image.
  53. 53. A method according to claim 51 further comprising the step of generating or modifying the transition data at every refresh period of the gaming machine display.
  54. 54. A method according to claim 50 further comprising the step of creating an offscreen Device Context for receiving a copy of the duplicate image.
  55. 55. A method according to claim 54 further comprising the step of removing the first image after the Device Context is created.
  56. 56. A method according to claim 55 further comprising the step of adding the duplicate image in the offscreen Device Context to a Display Manager.
  57. 57. A method according to claim 56 further comprising the step of removing the duplicate image from the Display Manager when the selected transition type is completed.
  58. 58. A method according to claim 50 further comprising the step of checking each image in the scene list to determine if the image has transition data.
  59. 59. A method according to claim 58 wherein parts of the first image to be replaced per refresh period are determined such that the selected transition type is completed within a predetermined period of time.
  60. 60. Computer program means for directing a graphics engine and a control means to execute a procedure to change images in a graphics system on a gaming machine display, the graphics system having a transition library of transition types, the computer program means directing:
    the graphics engine to apply a selected transition type from the transition library to at least one of at least two images for determining the way in which a substitution of one of the images by the other of the images occurs and for initialising transition data for effecting an incremental substitution of the one image by the other image;
    the computer program means further directing the control means to modify the transition data such that when the selected transition type is being effected, an incremental substitution of at least a part of the one image by the other image occurs serially until the one image has been substituted by the other image on the gaming machine display.
  61. 61. Computer program means for directing a graphics engine and a control means to execute a procedure to change images on a gaming machine display by:
    selecting a transition type from a transition library of transition types;
    applying the selected transition type to at least one of at least two images for determining the way in which a substitution of one of the images by the other of the images occurs;
    initialising transition data for effecting an incremental substitution of the one image by the other image; and
    modifying the transition data such that when the selected transition type is being effected, an incremental substitution of at least a part of the one image by the other image occurs serially until the one image has been substituted by the other image on the gaming machine display.
  62. 62. (canceled)
  63. 63. A computer readable memory, encoded with data representing a computer program for directing a graphics engine and a control means to execute a procedure to change images on a gaming machine display by:
    selecting a transition type from a transition library of transition types;
    applying the selected transition type to at least one of at least two images for determining the way in which a substitution of one of the images by the other of the images occurs;
    initialising transition data for effecting an incremental substitution of the one image by the other image; and
    modifying the transition data such that when the selected transition type is being effected, an incremental substitution of at least a part of the one image by the other image occurs serially until the one image has been substituted by the other image on the gaming machine display.
  64. 64. (canceled)
  65. 65. A gaming machine having a gaming machine display, the gaming machine comprising:
    a graphics system to change images on the gaming machine display, the graphics system including:
    a transition library of transition types;
    a graphics engine for applying a selected transition type from the transition library to at least one of at least two images for determining the way in which a substitution of one of the images by the other of the images occurs and for initialising transition data for effecting an incremental substitution of the one image by the other image; and
    a control means for modifying the transition data such that, when the selected transition type is being effected, an incremental substitution of at least a part of the one image by the other image occurs serially until the one image has been substituted by the other image on the gaming machine display.
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US20170103601A1 (en) 2017-04-13 application
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