US20060266352A1 - Self-ballasting solar array mount - Google Patents

Self-ballasting solar array mount Download PDF

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Publication number
US20060266352A1
US20060266352A1 US11/142,081 US14208105A US2006266352A1 US 20060266352 A1 US20060266352 A1 US 20060266352A1 US 14208105 A US14208105 A US 14208105A US 2006266352 A1 US2006266352 A1 US 2006266352A1
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Prior art keywords
beams
panel
panels
angle brackets
combined weight
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Abandoned
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US11/142,081
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William Marston
Finley Shapiro
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Finley Shapiro Consulting Inc
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Finley Shapiro Consulting Inc
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Priority to US11/142,081 priority Critical patent/US20060266352A1/en
Publication of US20060266352A1 publication Critical patent/US20060266352A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S25/00Arrangement of stationary mountings or supports for solar heat collector modules
    • F24S25/60Fixation means, e.g. fasteners, specially adapted for supporting solar heat collector modules
    • F24S25/61Fixation means, e.g. fasteners, specially adapted for supporting solar heat collector modules for fixing to the ground or to building structures
    • F24S25/617Elements driven into the ground, e.g. anchor-piles; Foundations for supporting elements; Connectors for connecting supporting structures to the ground or to flat horizontal surfaces
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S25/00Arrangement of stationary mountings or supports for solar heat collector modules
    • F24S25/10Arrangement of stationary mountings or supports for solar heat collector modules extending in directions away from a supporting surface
    • F24S25/16Arrangement of interconnected standing structures; Standing structures having separate supporting portions for adjacent modules
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S25/00Arrangement of stationary mountings or supports for solar heat collector modules
    • F24S25/60Fixation means, e.g. fasteners, specially adapted for supporting solar heat collector modules
    • F24S25/63Fixation means, e.g. fasteners, specially adapted for supporting solar heat collector modules for fixing modules or their peripheral frames to supporting elements
    • F24S25/632Side connectors; Base connectors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S25/00Arrangement of stationary mountings or supports for solar heat collector modules
    • F24S2025/01Special support components; Methods of use
    • F24S2025/02Ballasting means
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S80/00Details, accessories or component parts of solar heat collectors not provided for in groups F24S10/00-F24S70/00
    • F24S2080/01Selection of particular materials
    • F24S2080/015Plastics
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S40/00Safety or protection arrangements of solar heat collectors; Preventing malfunction of solar heat collectors
    • F24S40/80Accommodating differential expansion of solar collector elements
    • F24S40/85Arrangements for protecting solar collectors against adverse weather conditions
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/20Solar thermal
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy
    • Y02E10/47Mountings or tracking

Abstract

A solar panel installation includes a number of solar panels supported by two or more beams that are arranged parallel to each other on the surface of a roof. Each panel is arranged across and supported by multiple ones of the beams. The combined weight of the beams at least equals the combined weight of the panels, which permits the use of panels that are lighter and easier to handle than ones whose weight forms the bulk of the ballast. For example, the beams advantageously can have about twice as much combined weight as the combined weight of the panels. Various aspects and variations are also disclosed.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The invention involves the field of roof-mounted solar panels for buildings, useful for converting sunlight into electrical or thermal energy.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Flat building roofs are often highly desirable locations for mounting solar panels, i.e., planar devices for collecting solar energy and converting it to electrical or thermal form. Such energy conversion in solar panels can be accomplished using a variety of systems, including photovoltaic cells, liquid-heating systems, or other systems (the energy conversion method employed by the panels is not material to this invention). Flat rooftops often have large amounts of unused area with unobstructed exposure to sunlight. But it is generally considered undesirable to mount solar panels on flat roofs with any kind of hardware that requires penetration of the roofing material, e.g., screws or bolts. Accordingly, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,746,839 to Dinwoodie discusses a light weight, self-ballasting solar cell roofing assembly, purportedly eliminating the need for roof membrane penetrations for hold-down.
  • In the roofing assembly of the Dinwoodie patent, a photovoltaic module performs the multiple functions normally provided by a roofing paver, including ballast. However, photovoltaic modules that are heavy enough to provide the ballast needed for mounting without penetrating the roofing are difficult to transport onto rooftops for installation.
  • Accordingly, it would be desirable to have a way of mounting solar panels on rooftops without penetrating the roofing material with mounting hardware and without increasing the weight of the solar panels for ballast purposes to a point where they are unwieldy and difficult to install.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • A solar panel installation according to various aspects of the invention includes a number of solar panels supported by two or more beams that are arranged parallel to each other on the surface of a roof. Each panel is arranged across and supported by multiple beams. The combined weight of the beams at least equals the combined weight of the panels, which permits the use of panels that are lighter and easier to handle than ones whose weight forms the bulk of the ballast. For example, the beams advantageously can have about twice as much combined weight as the combined weight of the panels.
  • The system can include a number of short angle brackets connected to one of the beams and to the panels, and a number of longer angle brackets connected to another one of the beams and to the panels. The short angle brackets connect near one edge of each panel, and the longer ones connect near an opposite edge. Preferably, a pair of each type of bracket connects to each panel. The longer angle brackets support the panels at a substantially greater height above the beams than the short angle brackets. Thus, in embodiments with such angle brackets, the panels are tilted at a desired angle from horizontal. As a result, rainwater flows off the panels more easily and increased solar energy density falls on the panel surfaces in non-equatorial latitudes.
  • The beams can consist substantially of high-density polyethylene, a relatively inexpensive and durable substance. Advantageously, the primary component of the beams can be reclaimed post-consumer high-density polyethylene, which is appealing from an environmental standpoint.
  • The above summary does not include an exhaustive list of all aspects of the present invention. Indeed, the inventor contemplates that the invention includes all systems and methods that can be practiced from all suitable combinations of the various aspects summarized above, as well as those disclosed in the detailed description below and particularly pointed out in the claims. Such combinations have particular advantages not specifically recited in the above summary.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a partial perspective view of a solar panel installation according to various aspects of the invention.
  • FIG. 2 is a side view of the system of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 3 is a top view of the system of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 4 is a side view of an angle bracket employed in the system of FIG. 1.
  • DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS
  • A self-ballasting solar panel mounting system according to various aspects of the present invention advantageously provides a stable base for solar panels on a rooftop while avoiding the need to penetrate the roofing material of the rooftop with mounting hardware such as bolts or screws. FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary system 100 in which two solar panels 132, 134 are mounted atop beams 122, 124 arranged parallel to each other on a generally flat roof surface 112. Rooftop 112 may sit atop a residential, commercial, industrial, or public building of any sort.
  • Beams 122, 124 rest on rooftop 112 without the need for any mechanical fasteners to penetrate the roofing material of rooftop 112 or adhesives to bond to it. Instead, beams 122, 124 are kept in contact with rooftop 112 by their ballast weight and a lesser amount of ballast weight provided by solar panels 132, 134.
  • To develop more electrical power than the quantity produced by panels 132, 134, additional beams (not shown) can be lined up end-to-end with beams 122, 124. In an alternative embodiment not shown, a single pair of beams can extend to a total length several times greater than that of beams 122, 124 and support more panels.
  • One advantageous configuration (not shown) includes multiple (e.g., a total of five) collinear pairs of beams, like beams 122, 124, that are lined up to support a row of several (e.g., ten) solar panels, like panels 132, 134. To further increase the amount of electrical power generated, such rows of solar panels can be arranged parallel to each other, e.g., five or six rows forming an array of 50 or 60 solar panels that generates a total peak power output of about 9-11 kW. Solar panels of higher efficiency or greater surface area can generate more power per panel, e.g., 190 W, for a larger total output.
  • Exemplary beams 122, 124 are each 1.7 meters long and have cross-sectional dimensions of 15 cm by 15 cm. Their length is just sufficient to support a row of two solar panels that each measure about 1.6 meters in length by 0.8 meters in width, allowing about 5 cm of separation between the panels. For clarity, FIG. 1 illustrates beams 122, 124 as extending somewhat beyond the edges of panels 132, 134. To conserve rooftop space, however, the ends of beams 122, 124 are preferably nearly flush with the edges of panels 132, 134.
  • Each one of beams 122, 124 weighs about 30 kg, which is light enough for a pair of workers to carry easily. Solar panels 132, 134 each weigh about 17 kg. Thus, in combination, the two beams outweigh the panels mounted on them by about a two-to-one ratio and provide the bulk of the ballast needed to keep system 100 in contact with rooftop 112, even during a full range of ordinarily anticipated weather conditions (including expected peak wind speeds).
  • For clarity, FIG. 1 illustrates optional parapets 142, 144 that extend above rooftop 112. However, the ballast provided primarily by beams 122, 124 keeps system 100 securely mounted on rooftop 112 even without any wind shielding that parapets 142, 144 may offer.
  • Beams of a solar panel mounting system of the invention can be fabricated from any suitably dense material, such as high-density polyethylene. A particularly advantageous type of high-density polyethylene for fabrication of the beams is available as compressed structural units of reclaimed post-consumer waste. For example, sections of plastic lumber such as that marketed by Polywood, Inc. of Edison, N.J. can be employed. If desired, e.g., to comply with terms of a warranty on the roof surface, pieces of thin roofing membrane can be placed between the beams and the roof surface.
  • As may be better understood with reference to the side view of FIG. 2, the solar panels of system 100 are mounted above beams 122, 124 with some tilt from horizontal to rooftop 112. As illustrated, solar panel 134 has a tilt of about 5 degrees from horizontal, which significantly improves the amount of solar energy per unit area falling on panel 134 under most conditions in non-equatorial latitudes. The modest amount of tilt also avoids pooling of rainwater. It is limited to avoid presenting too much area from a horizontal perspective and consequent wind loading, and to limit lift that would develop from wind passing over and under the panel if tilted more.
  • Angle brackets 212, 214 mount solar panel 134 to beams 122, 124, respectively, with different heights above each beam to achieve the desired tilt angle. For the 5 degree tilt illustrated in FIG. 2, bracket 214 has a vertical portion 410 that is 17.8 cm in length. The corresponding vertical portion 210 of bracket 212 is only 7.6 cm in length. Thus, in exemplary system 100, the lower edge of solar panel 134 is 21.3 cm above rooftop 112 and the higher side is 34.9 cm above rooftop 112. Such tilts may also be varied in situations where rooftop 112 is not entirely flat, as needed to meet the demands of the system.
  • Except for the difference in dimensions, angle brackets 212, 214 have the same overall structure. Both brackets can be made of any suitable material, e.g., aluminum or hot dip galvanized steel. From two different angles of view, FIG. 2 and FIG. 4 illustrate vertical portion 410 and horizontal portion 420 of bracket 214. Vertical portion 410 includes an elongated hole 412 for mounting bracket 214 to beam 124 at a desired vertical position with reference to a mounting screw 234 and washer 224 (FIG. 2). When plastic lumber is employed for fabrication of beam 124, screw 234 is preferably stainless steel. A similar screw 232 and washer 222 are employed for attachment of bracket 212 to beam 122. Removal of screws from plastic lumber can be difficult, so any needed disassembly is best done by unbolting the solar panel from the bracket, and, if necessary, cutting the heads off the screws that attach the brackets to the beams.
  • Beams 122, 124 advantageously can support structures other than solar panels 132, 134. For example, FIG. 2 illustrates a cross-section 240 of a conduit containing wiring that conveys electrical current from panels 132, 134 to other structure not shown, e.g., to a phase-synchronous inverter that is connected back to an electrical power grid supplying the building of which rooftop 112 is a part. As an alternative to conduit, small junction boxes (not shown) can be mounted on the beams next to some of the brackets that support the solar panels, as needed to provide electrical connections for the panels.
  • Installation of system 100 on rooftop 112 can be performed as follows. First, a worker lays out the beams in the proper positions. Then, he or she loosely bolts four brackets to the underside of the frame of a solar panel. Then the solar panel is placed over the beams with supports for the top and bottom edge of the solar panel to hold them at the proper heights. Then the worker drives screws horizontally through the brackets into the beams. Then the bolts connecting the brackets to the solar panel frame are tightened. The process of bolting the brackets to the panels and to the beams is repeated for any additional panels to be mounted on the same beams.
  • Preferred dimensions of system 100 may be better understood with reference to FIG. 3 and TABLE I below.
    TABLE I
    Structural Feature Preferred Dimension
    Panel length (L) 157.5 cm
    Panel width (W)  82.6 cm
    Separation (S) between panels  3.8 cm
    Beam center spacing (C)   109 cm
  • Other dimensions can be employed to accommodate the desired number of panels and beams, the dimensions of the panels to be supported, and the aesthetic goals for the installation.
  • PUBLIC NOTICE REGARDING THE SCOPE OF THE INVENTION AND CLAIMS
  • No one embodiment disclosed herein is essential to the practice of another unless indicated as such. Indeed, the invention, as supported by the disclosure above and in the originally filed claims, includes all systems and methods that can be practiced from all suitable combinations of the various aspects disclosed, and all suitable combinations of the exemplary elements listed. Such combinations have particular advantages, including advantages not specifically recited herein.
  • Alterations and permutations of the preferred embodiments and methods will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon a reading of the specification and a study of the drawings. For example, three parallel beams can be employed instead of two in situations where lighter beams are desired for easier carrying or the solar panels are particularly wide. It can then be useful to use three beams instead of two. Such a configuration can maintain the desired ballast distribution, where the combined beam weight is at least as great as the combined weight of the panels they support.
  • Accordingly, none of the disclosure of the preferred embodiments and methods defines or constrains the invention. Rather, the issued claims variously define the invention. Each variation of the invention is limited only by the recited limitations of its respective claim, and equivalents thereof, without limitation by other terms not present in the claim. For example, claims that do not call for any exact number of elements in a plurality, or any particular dimensions of such elements, are not limited to the specific dimensions and dual-beam configuration of exemplary system 100.
  • In addition, aspects of the invention are particularly pointed out below using terminology that the inventor regards as having its broadest reasonable interpretation; the more specific interpretations of 35 U.S.C. § 112(6) are only intended in those instances where the terms “means” or “steps” are actually recited. The words “comprising,” “including,” and “having” are intended as open-ended terminology, with the same meaning as if the phrase “at least” were appended after each instance thereof. A clause using the term “whereby” merely states the result of the limitations in any claim in which it may appear and does not set forth an additional limitation therein. The conjunction “or” between alternative elements means “and/or,” and thus does not imply that the elements are mutually exclusive unless context or a specific statement indicates otherwise.

Claims (21)

1. An apparatus comprising:
(a) a plurality of beams arranged parallel to each other on the surface of a roof; and
(b) a plurality of solar panels, with each panel being arranged across and supported by multiple ones of the beams;
(c) wherein the combined weight of the beams at least equals the combined weight of the panels.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the beams have about twice as much combined weight as the combined weight of the panels.
3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the beams consist substantially of high-density polyethylene.
4. The apparatus of claim 3 wherein the beams consist primarily of reclaimed post-consumer high-density polyethylene.
5. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the plurality of beams consists of two beams.
6. The apparatus of claim 5 wherein both beams are of like dimensions.
7. The apparatus of claim 6 further comprising:
(a) a plurality of first angle brackets connected to a first one of the beams and to the panels near a first edge of each panel; and
(b) a plurality of second angle brackets connected to the second one of the beams and to the panels near a second edge of each panel opposite the panel's first edge;
(c) wherein, for each panel, the first and second angle brackets support the panel at substantially different heights, such that the panel is significantly tilted from horizontal with respect to the surface of the roof.
8. The apparatus of claim 7 wherein a pair of first angle brackets and a pair of second angle brackets connects to each panel.
9. The apparatus of claim 7 wherein the second height is several times greater than the first height.
10. The apparatus of claim 9 wherein both beams are fabricated primarily of reclaimed post-consumer high-density polyethylene.
11. A method for mounting solar panels on a rooftop, comprising:
(a) placing on a rooftop a plurality of beam sections, parallel to each other; and
(b) mounting a plurality of solar panels on the beam sections, with each panel being arranged across and supported by multiple ones of the beam sections;
(c) wherein the combined weight of the beam sections at least equals the combined weight of the panels.
12. The method of claim 11 wherein the beam sections placed on the rooftop have about twice as much combined weight as the combined weight of the panels mounted thereon.
13. The method of claim 12 wherein the beam sections consist substantially of high-density polyethylene.
14. The method of claim 13 wherein the beams consist primarily of reclaimed post-consumer high-density polyethylene.
15. The method of claim 12 wherein placing the beam sections on the rooftop comprises placing two beams on the rooftop parallel to each other.
16. The method of claim 15 wherein both of the beam sections are of like dimensions.
17. The method of claim 14 further comprising, for each panel:
(a) connecting one or more first angle brackets to a first one of the beam sections;
(b) connecting one or more second angle brackets to the second one of the beam sections; and
(c) mounting the panel on the beam sections by connecting it to the first angle brackets near one of its edges and to the second angle brackets near an opposite one of its edges;
(d) wherein connecting the panel to the first and second angle brackets comprises mounting the panel such that its opposing edges connected to the angle brackets are at substantially different heights, such that the panel is significantly tilted from horizontal with respect to the surface of the roof.
18. The method of claim 17 wherein part (c) is performed after parts (a) and (b).
19. The method of claim 17 wherein parts (a) and (b) comprise connecting a pair of first angle brackets and a pair of second angle brackets to the panel.
20. A solar panel installation on a rooftop comprising:
(a) a plurality of solar panels; and
(b) mounting means, having at least as much combined weight as the combined weight of the solar panels, for supporting the solar panels on the rooftop under gale-force wind loading without substantial movement or reliance on penetrating mechanical attachment to the rooftop.
21. The solar panel installation of claim 20 wherein the solar panels are arranged in separate rows on the rooftop, supported by separate arrangements of the mounting means.
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Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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FR2933432A1 (en) * 2008-07-01 2010-01-08 Borgne Philippe Le Flat solar panels installing method for horizontal roof of building, involves arranging panels one beside other so that roof is partially covered and panels arranged in side by side manner, share one support, and fixing panels with supports
US20100212714A1 (en) * 2009-02-20 2010-08-26 Elie Rothschild Modular solar racking system
GB2483487A (en) * 2010-09-09 2012-03-14 Cel F Solar Systems Ltd A solar panel mounting anchor adapted for a flat roof
US20120137602A1 (en) * 2009-05-15 2012-06-07 F&F Vermogens Gbr Holding and fastening device
US8276330B2 (en) 2008-12-12 2012-10-02 Applied Energy Technologies Modular solar panel racking system
JP2014037701A (en) * 2012-08-14 2014-02-27 Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Solar cell panel support frame and photovoltaic power generation system
US9057544B2 (en) 2009-02-20 2015-06-16 Elie Rothschild Solar panel mounting system
JP2015155624A (en) * 2014-02-21 2015-08-27 株式会社ハイパーウェブ Solar panel installing frame and installation method thereof
US9267712B1 (en) * 2011-03-01 2016-02-23 Jonathan Port Strap mount for solar panels
USD752508S1 (en) * 2014-11-10 2016-03-29 Paul Bleck Rooftop solar parapet
WO2018071332A1 (en) * 2016-10-10 2018-04-19 Alion Energy, Inc. Systems and methods for dual tilt, ballasted photovoltaic module racking
US10270384B2 (en) 2016-10-10 2019-04-23 Alion Energy, Inc. Systems and methods for dual tilt, ballasted photovoltaic module racking

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US8276330B2 (en) 2008-12-12 2012-10-02 Applied Energy Technologies Modular solar panel racking system
US20100212714A1 (en) * 2009-02-20 2010-08-26 Elie Rothschild Modular solar racking system
US8567132B2 (en) 2009-02-20 2013-10-29 Elie Rothschild Modular solar racking system
US9057544B2 (en) 2009-02-20 2015-06-16 Elie Rothschild Solar panel mounting system
US20120137602A1 (en) * 2009-05-15 2012-06-07 F&F Vermogens Gbr Holding and fastening device
US8820030B2 (en) * 2009-05-15 2014-09-02 F&F Vermogens Gbr Holding and fastening device
GB2483487A (en) * 2010-09-09 2012-03-14 Cel F Solar Systems Ltd A solar panel mounting anchor adapted for a flat roof
US8881472B2 (en) 2010-09-09 2014-11-11 Cel-F Solar Systems Limited Mounting device and method of installing of a solar panel
GB2483487B (en) * 2010-09-09 2015-05-13 Cel F Solar Systems Ltd Mounting device and method of installing of a solar panel
US9267712B1 (en) * 2011-03-01 2016-02-23 Jonathan Port Strap mount for solar panels
US9587859B1 (en) 2011-03-01 2017-03-07 Jonathan Port Strap mount for solar panels
JP2014037701A (en) * 2012-08-14 2014-02-27 Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Solar cell panel support frame and photovoltaic power generation system
JP2015155624A (en) * 2014-02-21 2015-08-27 株式会社ハイパーウェブ Solar panel installing frame and installation method thereof
USD752508S1 (en) * 2014-11-10 2016-03-29 Paul Bleck Rooftop solar parapet
USD772156S1 (en) * 2014-11-10 2016-11-22 Paul Bleck Rooftop solar parapet
WO2018071332A1 (en) * 2016-10-10 2018-04-19 Alion Energy, Inc. Systems and methods for dual tilt, ballasted photovoltaic module racking
US10270384B2 (en) 2016-10-10 2019-04-23 Alion Energy, Inc. Systems and methods for dual tilt, ballasted photovoltaic module racking

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