US20060219786A1 - Marker for coded electronic article identification system - Google Patents

Marker for coded electronic article identification system Download PDF

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US20060219786A1
US20060219786A1 US11/095,559 US9555905A US2006219786A1 US 20060219786 A1 US20060219786 A1 US 20060219786A1 US 9555905 A US9555905 A US 9555905A US 2006219786 A1 US2006219786 A1 US 2006219786A1
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marker
strips
coded
coded marker
strip
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Ryusuke Hasegawa
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Metglas Inc
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Metglas Inc
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Assigned to METGLAS, INC. reassignment METGLAS, INC. RECORD TO CORRECT THE NAME OF THE ASSIGNOR ON THE ASSIGNMENT DOCUMENT PREVIOUSLY RECORD ON REEL 016443, FRAME 0168. THE CORRECT NAME OF THE ASSIGNOR IS HASEGAWA RYUSUKE. Assignors: RYUSUKE, HASEGAWA
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F1/00Magnets or magnetic bodies characterised by the magnetic materials therefor; Selection of materials for their magnetic properties
    • H01F1/01Magnets or magnetic bodies characterised by the magnetic materials therefor; Selection of materials for their magnetic properties of inorganic materials
    • H01F1/03Magnets or magnetic bodies characterised by the magnetic materials therefor; Selection of materials for their magnetic properties of inorganic materials characterised by their coercivity
    • H01F1/12Magnets or magnetic bodies characterised by the magnetic materials therefor; Selection of materials for their magnetic properties of inorganic materials characterised by their coercivity of soft-magnetic materials
    • H01F1/14Magnets or magnetic bodies characterised by the magnetic materials therefor; Selection of materials for their magnetic properties of inorganic materials characterised by their coercivity of soft-magnetic materials metals or alloys
    • H01F1/147Alloys characterised by their composition
    • H01F1/153Amorphous metallic alloys, e.g. glassy metals
    • H01F1/15308Amorphous metallic alloys, e.g. glassy metals based on Fe/Ni
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K19/00Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings
    • G06K19/06Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code
    • G06K19/06187Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code with magnetically detectable marking
    • G06K19/06196Constructional details
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K7/00Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns
    • G06K7/08Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by means detecting the change of an electrostatic or magnetic field, e.g. by detecting change of capacitance between electrodes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08BSIGNALLING OR CALLING SYSTEMS; ORDER TELEGRAPHS; ALARM SYSTEMS
    • G08B13/00Burglar, theft or intruder alarms
    • G08B13/22Electrical actuation
    • G08B13/24Electrical actuation by interference with electromagnetic field distribution
    • G08B13/2402Electronic Article Surveillance [EAS], i.e. systems using tags for detecting removal of a tagged item from a secure area, e.g. tags for detecting shoplifting
    • G08B13/2405Electronic Article Surveillance [EAS], i.e. systems using tags for detecting removal of a tagged item from a secure area, e.g. tags for detecting shoplifting characterised by the tag technology used
    • G08B13/2408Electronic Article Surveillance [EAS], i.e. systems using tags for detecting removal of a tagged item from a secure area, e.g. tags for detecting shoplifting characterised by the tag technology used using ferromagnetic tags
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08BSIGNALLING OR CALLING SYSTEMS; ORDER TELEGRAPHS; ALARM SYSTEMS
    • G08B13/00Burglar, theft or intruder alarms
    • G08B13/22Electrical actuation
    • G08B13/24Electrical actuation by interference with electromagnetic field distribution
    • G08B13/2402Electronic Article Surveillance [EAS], i.e. systems using tags for detecting removal of a tagged item from a secure area, e.g. tags for detecting shoplifting
    • G08B13/2405Electronic Article Surveillance [EAS], i.e. systems using tags for detecting removal of a tagged item from a secure area, e.g. tags for detecting shoplifting characterised by the tag technology used
    • G08B13/2414Electronic Article Surveillance [EAS], i.e. systems using tags for detecting removal of a tagged item from a secure area, e.g. tags for detecting shoplifting characterised by the tag technology used using inductive tags
    • G08B13/2417Electronic Article Surveillance [EAS], i.e. systems using tags for detecting removal of a tagged item from a secure area, e.g. tags for detecting shoplifting characterised by the tag technology used using inductive tags having a radio frequency identification chip
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08BSIGNALLING OR CALLING SYSTEMS; ORDER TELEGRAPHS; ALARM SYSTEMS
    • G08B13/00Burglar, theft or intruder alarms
    • G08B13/22Electrical actuation
    • G08B13/24Electrical actuation by interference with electromagnetic field distribution
    • G08B13/2402Electronic Article Surveillance [EAS], i.e. systems using tags for detecting removal of a tagged item from a secure area, e.g. tags for detecting shoplifting
    • G08B13/2428Tag details
    • G08B13/2437Tag layered structure, processes for making layered tags
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08BSIGNALLING OR CALLING SYSTEMS; ORDER TELEGRAPHS; ALARM SYSTEMS
    • G08B13/00Burglar, theft or intruder alarms
    • G08B13/22Electrical actuation
    • G08B13/24Electrical actuation by interference with electromagnetic field distribution
    • G08B13/2402Electronic Article Surveillance [EAS], i.e. systems using tags for detecting removal of a tagged item from a secure area, e.g. tags for detecting shoplifting
    • G08B13/2428Tag details
    • G08B13/2437Tag layered structure, processes for making layered tags
    • G08B13/2442Tag materials and material properties thereof, e.g. magnetic material details
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F1/00Magnets or magnetic bodies characterised by the magnetic materials therefor; Selection of materials for their magnetic properties
    • H01F1/01Magnets or magnetic bodies characterised by the magnetic materials therefor; Selection of materials for their magnetic properties of inorganic materials
    • H01F1/03Magnets or magnetic bodies characterised by the magnetic materials therefor; Selection of materials for their magnetic properties of inorganic materials characterised by their coercivity
    • H01F1/12Magnets or magnetic bodies characterised by the magnetic materials therefor; Selection of materials for their magnetic properties of inorganic materials characterised by their coercivity of soft-magnetic materials
    • H01F1/14Magnets or magnetic bodies characterised by the magnetic materials therefor; Selection of materials for their magnetic properties of inorganic materials characterised by their coercivity of soft-magnetic materials metals or alloys
    • H01F1/147Alloys characterised by their composition
    • H01F1/153Amorphous metallic alloys, e.g. glassy metals
    • H01F1/15391Elongated structures, e.g. wires
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F41/00Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing or assembling magnets, inductances or transformers; Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing materials characterised by their magnetic properties
    • H01F41/02Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing or assembling magnets, inductances or transformers; Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing materials characterised by their magnetic properties for manufacturing cores, coils, or magnets
    • H01F41/0206Manufacturing of magnetic cores by mechanical means
    • H01F41/0213Manufacturing of magnetic circuits made from strip(s) or ribbon(s)
    • H01F41/0226Manufacturing of magnetic circuits made from strip(s) or ribbon(s) from amorphous ribbons

Abstract

A coded marker in a magnetomechanical resonant electronic article identification system, includes a plurality of ductile magnetostrictive elements or strips based on an amorphous magnetic alloy ribbon with improved magnetomechanical resonance performance. The coded marker takes full advantage of the improved magnetomechanical properties, and an electronic article identification system utilizes the coded marker. The improved encodable and decodable marker/identification system is capable of identifying considerably larger number of articles than conventional systems.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates to ferromagnetic amorphous alloy ribbon and to a marker for use in an electronic article identification system, the marker including a plurality of rectangular strips based on an amorphous magnetostrictive material that vibrates in an alternating magnetic field mechanically at multiple resonant frequencies, whereby the magnetomechanical effect of the marker is effectively utilized for encoding and decoding purposes. The present invention is also directed to an electronic identification system utilizing such a marker.
  • 2. Background of the Invention
  • Magnetostriction of a magnetic material is a phenomenon in which a dimensional change takes place upon application of an external magnetic field on the magnetic material. When the dimensional change is such that the material elongates upon its being magnetized, the material is termed “positive-magnetostrictive”. When a material is “negative-magnetostrictive”, the material shrinks upon its magnetization. Thus in either case, a magnetic material vibrates when it is in an alternating magnetic field. When a static magnetic field is applied along with the alternating field, the frequency of the mechanical vibration of the magnetic material varies with the applied static field through magneto-elastic coupling. This is commonly known as ΔE effect, which is described, for example, in “Physics of Magnetism” by S. Chikazumi (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1964, page 435). Here E(H) stands for Young's modulus which is a function of an applied field H, and the material's vibrational or resonance frequency fr is related to E(H) through
    f r=(1/2/)[E(H)/ρ]1/2,   (1)
    where l is the length of the material and ρ is the mass density of the material. The magneto-elastic or magneto-mechanical effect described above is utilized in electronic article surveillance systems which were first taught in the U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,510,489 and 4,510,490 (hereinafter the '489 and '490 patents). Such surveillance systems are advantageous systems, in that they offer a combination of high detection sensitivity, high operating reliability and low operating costs.
  • The marker in such systems is a strip, or a plurality of strips, of known length of a ferromagnetic material, packaged with a magnetically harder ferromagnet (material with a higher coercivity) that provides a static field termed as biasing field to establish peak magneto-mechanical coupling. The ferromagnetic marker material is preferably an amorphous alloy ribbon, since the efficiency of magneto-mechanical coupling in the alloys is very high. The mechanical resonance frequency, fr is determined essentially by the length of the alloy ribbon and the biasing field strength, as the above Equation (1) indicates. When an interrogating signal tuned to the resonance frequency is encountered in an electronic identification system, the marker material responds with a large signal field which is detected by a receiver in the system.
  • Several amorphous ferromagnetic materials were considered in the U.S. Pat. No. 4,510,490 for coded identification systems based on magnetomechanical resonance described above and included amorphous Fe—Ni—Mo—B, Fe—Co—B—Si, Fe—B—Si—C and Fe—B—Si alloys. Of the alloys, a commercially available amorphous Fe—Ni—Mo—B based METGLAS®2826MB alloy was used extensively until accidental triggering, by a magnetomechanical resonance marker, of other systems based on magnetic harmonic generation/detection. This occurs because a magnetomechanical resonance marker used at that time sometimes exhibited non-linear BH characteristics, resulting in generation of higher harmonics of the exciting field frequency. To avoid this problem, sometimes called a system “pollution problem,” a series of new marker materials have been invented, examples of which are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,495,231, 5,539,380, 5,628,840, 5,650,023, 6,093,261 and 6,187,112. Although the new marker materials perform, on average, better than the materials utilized in the surveillance systems of the original '489 and '490 patents, somewhat better magnetomechanical performance has been found in the marker materials disclosed, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 6,299,702 (hereinafter '702 patent). These new marker materials require complex heat-treatment processes to achieve desired magnetomechanical properties as disclosed, for example, in the '702 patent. Clearly, a new magnetomechanical marker material is needed which does not require such complicated post-ribbon fabrication processes and it is one aim of the present invention to provide such a marker material with high magnetomechanical performance without causing “pollution problem” mentioned above. Fully utilizing the new magnetomechanical marker material of the present invention, the present invention includes a marker with encoding and decoding capability and an electronic identification system utilizing the marker. A coded surveillance system having a magnetomechanical marker was taught in U.S. Pat. No. 4,510,490, but the number of constituent marker strips was limited due to a limited space available in a marker, thus limiting the universe of encoding and decoding capability using such a marker.
  • Clearly, a marker is needed in which the number of marker strips is increased considerably without sacrificing the performance as a coded marker in an electronic article identification system having encoding and decoding capability, hereinafter termed “coded electronic article identification system.”
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • In accordance with the invention, a soft magnetic material is included in a marker of an electronic identification system based on magnetomechanical resonance.
  • A marker material with enhanced overall magnetomechanical resonance properties is fabricated from an amorphous alloy ribbon so that a multiple of marker strips are housed in a coded marker. A soft magnetic material in a ribbon form having magnetomechanical resonance capability is cast on a rotating substrate, as taught in the U.S. Pat. No.4,142,571. When the as-cast ribbon width is wider than the predetermined width for a marker material, the said ribbon is slit to said predetermined width. The ribbon thus processed is cut into ductile, rectangular amorphous metal strips having different lengths to fabricate a magnetomechanical resonance marker using a plurality of said strips with at least one semi-hard magnet strip which provides a bias static magnetic field.
  • A coded electronic article identification system utilizes a coded marker of the present invention. The system has an article interrogation zone in which a magnetomechanical marker of the present invention is subject to an interrogating magnetic field with varying frequencies, the signal response to the interrogating magnetic field excitation being detected by a receiver having a pair of antenna coils situated in the article interrogation zone.
  • In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, there is provided a coded marker of a magnetomechanical resonant electronic article identification system, adapted to resonate mechanically at preselected frequencies, comprising: a plurality of ductile magnetostrictive strips cut to predetermined lengths from amorphous ferromagnetic alloy ribbons that have curvatures along a ribbon length direction and exhibit magnetomechanical resonance under alternating magnetic field excitations with a static bias field, the strips having a magnetic anisotropy direction perpendicular to a ribbon axis, wherein at least two of the strips are adapted to be magnetically biased to resonate at a single, different one of the preselected frequencies.
  • Where selected, a radius of curvature of the marker strip curvatures is less than 100 cm.
  • In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, encoding is carried out by cutting an amorphous magnetostrictive alloy ribbon having its magnetic anisotropy direction perpendicular to ribbon axis to a rectangular strip with a predetermined length having a length-to-width aspect ratio greater than 3.
  • Where selected, the strips have a strip width ranging from about 3 mm to about 15 mm.
  • In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, the strips have a slope of resonance frequency versus bias field ranging from about 4 Hz/(A/m) to about 14 Hz/(A/m).
  • Where selected, the strips have a length greater than about 18 mm when a strip width is 6 mm.
  • In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, the strips have a magnetomechanical resonance frequency less than about 120,000 Hz.
  • In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, the amorphous ferromagnetic alloy ribbons have a saturation magnetostriction between about 8 ppm and about 18 ppm and a saturation induction between about 0.7 tesla and about 1.1 tesla.
  • In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an amorphous ferromagnetic alloy of the amorphous ferromagnetic alloy ribbons has a composition based on Fea—Nib—Moc—Bd with 30≦a≦43, 35≦b≦48, 0≦c≦5, 14≦d≦20 and a+b+c+d=100, up to 3atom % of Mo being optionally replaced by Co, Cr, Mn and/or Nb and up to 1 atom % of B being optionally replaced by Si and/or C.
  • In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an amorphous ferromagnetic alloy of the amorphous ferromagnetic alloy ribbons has a composition of one of: Fe40.6 Ni40.1 Mo3.7 B15.1 Si0.5, Fe41.5 Ni38.9 Mo4.1 B15.5, Fe41.7 Ni39.4 Mo3.1 B15.8, Fe40.2 Ni39.0Mo3.6 B16.6 Si0.6, Fe39.8 Ni39.2 Mo3.1 B17.6 C0.3, Fe36.9 Ni41.3 Mo4.1 B17.8, Fe35.6 Ni42.6 Mo4.0 B17.9, Fe40 Ni38 Mo4 B18, or Fe38.0 Ni38.8 Mo3.9 B19.3.
  • Where selected, the coded marker comprises at least two marker-strips with different lengths.
  • Where selected, coded marker comprises five marker-strips with different lengths.
  • Where selected, the coded marker has a magnetomechanical resonance frequency between about 30,000 and about 130,000 Hz.
  • Where selected, the coded marker has an electronic identification universe containing up to about 1800 and about 115 million separately identifiable articles for a coded marker with two and five marker strips, respectively.
  • Where selected, the coded marker has an electronic identification universe containing more than 115 million separately identifiable articles.
  • In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, the strips have a magnetomechanical resonance frequency less than about 120,000 Hz.
  • In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an electronic article identification system has a capability of decoding coded information of a coded marker. The system comprises one of: a pair of coils emitting an AC excitation field aimed at the coded marker to form an interrogation zone; a pair of signal detection coils receiving coded information from the coded marker; an electronic signal processing device with an electronic computer with a software to decode information coded on the coded marker; or an electronic device identifying the coded marker, wherein the coded marker is adapted to resonate mechanically at preselected frequencies, wherein the coded marker comprises a plurality of ductile magnetostrictive strips cut to predetermined lengths from amorphous ferromagnetic alloy ribbons that have curvatures along a ribbon length direction and exhibit magnetomechanical resonance under alternating magnetic field excitations with a static bias field, the strips having a magnetic anisotropy direction perpendicular to a ribbon axis, wherein at least two of the strips are adapted to be magnetically biased to resonate at a single, different one of the preselected frequencies.
  • Where selected, a radius of curvature of the marker strip curvatures is between about 20 cm and about 100 cm.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The invention will be more fully understood and further advantages will become apparent when reference is made to the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments and the accompanying drawings in which:
  • FIG. 1A illustrates a side view of a strip cut from an amorphous alloy ribbon in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention and having a bias magnet, and FIG. 1B illustrates a view of a conventional strip with a bias magnet;
  • FIG. 2 illustrates magnetomechanical resonance characteristics of a single strip marker in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention and magnetomechanical resonance characteristics of a conventional single strip marker, showing resonance frequency as a function of bias field;
  • FIG. 3 illustrates resonance signals of a single strip marker in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention and resonance signals of a conventional strip marker, showing resonance signal amplitudes as a function of a bias field;
  • FIG. 4 illustrates a BH loop taken at 60 Hz on a marker strip of an embodiment of the present invention having a length of approximately 38 mm, a width of approximately 6 mm and a thickness of about 28 μm;
  • FIG. 5A illustrates a comparison of a physical profile of an embodiment of a magnetomechanical resonant marker in accordance with embodiments of the present invention, and FIG. 5B illustrates a comparison of a conventional marker, utilizing two marker-strips with different lengths in both cases;
  • FIG. 6A illustrates magnetomechanical resonance characteristics of a marker having two strips with different lengths of an embodiment of the present invention, and FIG. 6B illustrates magnetomechanical resonance characteristics of a conventional marker having two strips with different lengths;
  • FIG. 7 illustrates a resonance signal profile near the lower resonance frequency region of FIG. 6A;
  • FIG. 8 illustrates a resonance signal profile near the upper resonance frequency region of FIG. 6A;
  • FIGS. 9-1 and 9-2 illustrate a marker of an embodiment of the present invention, in which three strips with different lengths are housed;
  • FIG. 10 illustrates magnetomechanical resonance characteristics of a marker having three strips with different lengths of an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 11 illustrates magnetomechanical resonance characteristics of a marker having five strips with different lengths of an embodiment of the present invention; and
  • FIG. 12 illustrates a coded electronic article identification system in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • A marker material with enhanced overall magnetomechanical resonance properties is fabricated from an amorphous ferromagnetic alloy ribbon so that a multiple of marker strips are housed in a coded marker, wherein at least two of the strips are adapted to be magnetically biased to resonate mechanically at a single, different one of a plurality of preselected frequencies. A magnetic material in a ribbon form having magnetomechanical resonance capability is cast on a rotating substrate, as taught in the U.S. Pat. No. 4,142,571. When the as-cast ribbon width is wider than the predetermined width for a marker material, the ribbon is slit to the predetermined width. The ribbon thus processed is cut into ductile, rectangular amorphous metal strips having different lengths to fabricate a magnetomechanical resonance marker using a plurality of the strips with at least one semi-hard magnet strip which provides a bias static magnetic field.
  • In one embodiment of the present invention, the amorphous ferromagnetic alloy utilized to form a ribbon for the marker strip has a composition based on Fea—Nib—Moc—Bd with 30 ≦a≦43, 35≦b≦48, 0≦c≦5, 14≦d≦20 and a+b+c+d=100, up to 3 atom % of Mo being optionally replaced by Co, Cr, Mn and/or Nb and up to 1 atom % of B being optionally replaced by Si and/or C.
  • In one embodiment of the present invention, the amorphous ferromagnetic alloy utilized to form a ribbon for the marker strip has a composition of one of: Fe40.6 Ni40.1 Mo3.7 B15.1 Si0.5, Fe41.5 Ni38.9 Mo4.1 B15.5, Fe41.7 Ni39.4 Mo3.1 B15.8, Fe40.2 Ni39.0 Mo3.6 B16.6 Si0.6, Fe39.8 Ni39.2 Mo3.1 B17.6 C0.3, Fe36.9 Ni41.3 Mo4.1 B17.8, Fe35.6 Ni42.6 Mo4.0 B17.9, Fe40 Ni38 Mo4 B18, or Fe38.0 Ni38.8 Mo3.9 B19.3.
  • Thus, an amorphous alloy ribbon with a chemical composition similar to a chemical composition of a commercially available amorphous magnetostrictive METGLAS®2826MB ribbon was cast in accordance with the invention described in the U.S. Pat. No. 4,142,571. The cast amorphous alloy had a saturation induction of about 0.88 Tesla and a saturation magnetostriction of about 12 ppm. The ribbon had widths of about 100 mm and about 25 mm, and its thickness was about 28 μm. The ribbon was then slit into narrower ribbons with different widths. The slit ribbon then was cut into ductile, rectangular strips having a length ranging from about 15 mm to about 65 mm. Each strip had a slight curvature reflecting ribbon casting wheel surface curvature. During slitting, the original curvature was modified. The curvature of a slit and cut strip was determined as described in Example 1. FIG. 1A illustrates the physical appearance of a marker strip 10 of an embodiment of the present invention, and FIG. 1B illustrates the physical appearance of a conventional strip 20 produced in accordance with a complex heat-treatment method disclosed in the U.S. Pat. No. 6,299,702. As indicated, magnetic flux lines 11 are more closed in a resonance marker-bias strip configuration of an embodiment of the present invention than the magnetic flux lines 21 of a conventional strip, as is illustrated in FIG. 1B. This enables better coupling between a marker strip 10 of an embodiment of the present invention and a bias magnet strip 12 than is achieved by a conventional strip 20 and a bias magnet 22, which results in less magnetic flux leakage at the two ends of a resonance marker strip of an embodiment of the present invention. Each resonance marker strip of an embodiment of the present invention and of the conventional strip was examined in light of magnetomechanical resonance performance using a characterization method of Example 2. FIG. 2 compares the resonance frequency as a function of bias field for a single strip marker 830 of an embodiment of the present invention and the resonance frequency of a conventional strip 831. FIG. 2 indicates that the resonance frequency change as a function of bias field is about the same for both cases. The resonance characteristics depicted in FIG. 2 are important in designing a resonance marker with deactivation capability because deactivation is accomplished by a change in the resonance frequency by changing bias field strength. During deactivation, the slope of the resonance frequency fr with respect to bias field Hb, i.e. dfrldHb, determines the effectiveness of deactivation and therefore is an important factor for an effective resonance marker strip. For a marker in an electronic coded identification system, a larger slope of resonance frequency versus bias field is generally preferred when a higher sensitivity is desired in an identification system.
  • A comparison of the resonance response between the two cases is illustrated in FIG. 3, in which V0 is the response signal amplitude when the exciting field is turned off, and V1 is the signal amplitude at 1 msec after the termination of the exciting field. Clearly, a higher V1/V0 ratio is preferred for a better performance of a resonance marker. Both of the signal amplitudes are therefore used in industry as part of the figure of merit for a magnetomechanical resonance marker. FIG. 3 indicates that the signal amplitudes, V0 441 and V1 442 become maximum at bias fields of Hb0=500 A/m and Hb1=400 A/m, respectively, for a resonance marker strip of an embodiment of the present invention, and V0 443 and V1 444 become maximum at bias fields of Hb0=460 A/m and Hb1=400 A/m , respectively, for a conventional resonance marker strip. In addition, FIG. 3 indicates that the ratio of V1/V0 at these maximum points is higher for a resonance marker strip of an embodiment of the present invention than for a conventional marker strip, illustrating that signal retention of a marker strip of an embodiment of the present invention is better than in a conventional marker strip, thus enhancing the effectiveness of the present coded electronic identification system.
  • Table I summarizes a comparison of parameters critical for the performance of a marker strip as a magnetomechanical resonator between representative conventional marker strips and examples from the marker strips of an embodiment of the present invention. It is noted that the performance of the marker strips of an embodiment of the present invention is close to, or superior to, the performance of a conventional marker strips. All of the marker strips of an embodiment of the present invention in Table I are acceptable for use as markers of the embodiment of the present invention.
  • In Table I, maximum signal voltages for V0 and V1 measured at bias field strengths, Hb0 and Hb1, respectively, and the resonance frequency slope, dfrldHb, measured at Hb1 for marker strips of an embodiment of the present invention with strip curvature h as defined in FIG. 1A were compared with corresponding characteristics for ten conventional marker strips, randomly selected. The length l of the strips were all about 38 mm and their widths were about 6 mm. A radius of curvature for each marker strip was calculated from h and l. The resonance frequency of each strip was about 58 kHz. TABLE I Magnetomechanical Resonance Characteristics Radius of V0max Hb0 V1max Hb1 dfr/dHb h Curvature Marker (mV) (A/m) (mV) (A/m) [Hz/(A/m)] (mm) (cm) Conventional 140˜180 440˜500 60˜102 360˜420 5.60˜11.5 Present Invention 167 490 97 400 12.0 0.18 100 No. 1 No. 2 156 470 86 410 9.50 0.18 100 No 3 159 490 84 410 12.5 0.20 90 No. 4 167 490 94 400 11.8 0.20 90 No. 5 183 458 110 390 11.8 0.23 78 No. 6 165 488 94 370 12.5 0.23 78 No. 7 178 471 106 391 12.3 0.28 65 No. 8 160 460 92 379 10.8 0.28 65 No. 9 157 461 87 351 9.10 0.36 50 No. 10 147 420 76 391 10.3 0.64 28
  • Table I contains data for a marker strip width of about 6 mm which is presently widely used. It is one aspect of the present invention to provide marker strips with widths different than about 6 mm. Marker strips with different widths were slit from the same ribbon used in Table I, and their magnetomechanical resonance characteristics were determined. The results are summarized in Table II. The resonance signal voltages, V0 max and V1 max decreased with decreasing width as expected. Decrease in the characteristic field values, Hb0 and Hb1 with decreasing width is due to demagnetizing effects. Thus, a bias field magnet must be selected accordingly. A marker with a smaller width is suited for a smaller article identification area, whereas a marker with a larger width is suited for a larger article identification area because resonance signals are larger from larger marker strips, as Table II indicates. Since the resonance frequency depends primarily on the strip length, as Equation (1) indicates, the strip width change does not affect the resonance frequency of the article identification system used.
  • Table II shows the magnetomechanical resonance characteristics of marker strips of an embodiment of the present invention with strip height h, as defined in FIG. 1A and with different strip widths. The definitions for V0 max, Hb0, V1 max and dfrldHb were the same as in Table I. The length l of the strips were all about 38 mm. A radius of curvature for each marker strip was calculated from h and l. The resonance frequency of each strip was about 58 kHz. TABLE II Magnetomechanical Resonance Characteristics Marker Hb0 Radius of Width V0max (A/ V1max Hb1 dfr/dHb h Curvature (mm) (mV) m) (mV) (A/m) [Hz/(A/m)] (mm) (cm) 4 107 310 56 330 4.69 0.61 30 5 153 300 76 300 6.05 0.41 44 9 194 500 101 440 4.84 0.81 22 14 321 590 174 511 4.86 0.84 21
  • Another aspect of the present invention is to provide a variety of available markers operated under different conditions. For this purpose, magnetomechanical resonance characteristics were varied by changing the chemical composition of the amorphous magnetic alloy ribbon from which marker strips were produced. The chemical compositions of the alloys examined are listed in Table III in which values of the saturation induction and magnetostrictions for the alloys are given. The results of the magnetomechanical resonance properties of these alloys are given in Table IV below.
  • Table III shows examples of magnetostrictive amorphous alloys with their compositions, saturation inductions, Bs, and saturation magnetostrictions, λs, for magnetomechanical resonance markers of an embodiment of the present invention. The values of Bs were determined from DC BH loop measurements described in Example 3 and the values of λs, were calculated by using an empirical formula λs=k Bs 2, with k=15.5 ppm/tesla2, following S. Ito et al., Applied Physics Letters, vol. 37, p. 665 (1980). TABLE III Magnetostrictive Amorphous Alloy Saturation Saturation Alloy Marker Chemical Composition Induction Magnetostriction No. (numbers in atom %) Bs (tesla) λs (ppm) A Fe40.6Ni40.1Mo3.7B15.1Si0.5 0.88 12 B Fe41.5Ni38.9Mo4.1B15.5 0.98 15 C Fe41.7Ni39.4Mo3.1B15.8 1.03 16 D Fe40.2Ni39.0Mo3.6B16.6Si0.6 0.93 13.5 E Fe39.8Ni39.2Mo3.1B17.6C0.3 0.94 14 F Fe36.9Ni41.3Mo4.1B17.8 0.83 10.5 G Fe35.6Ni42.6Mo4.0B17.9 0.81 10 H Fe39.6Ni38.3Mo4.1B18.0 0.88 12 I Fe38.0Ni38.8Mo3.9B19.3 0.84 11
  • Table IV shows the magnetomechanical resonance characteristics of marker strips having different chemical compositions listed in Table III of an embodiment of the present invention with strip height h as defined in FIG. 1A. The definitions for V0 max, Hb0, V1 max and dfrldHb were the same as in Table I. The lengths l of the strips were all about 38 mm. A radius of curvature for each marker strip was calculated from h and l. The resonance frequency of each strip was about 58 kHz. TABLE IV Magnetomechanical Resonance Characteristics of the Alloys in Table III Radius of Alloy V0max Hb0 V1max Hb1 dfr/dHb Curvature No. (mV) (A/m) (mV) (A/m) [Hz/(A/m)] (cm) A 184 370 94 330 8.10 71 B 174 490 89 348 10.4 36 C 188 471 70 368 13.0 33 D 158 580 83 580 4.85 33 E 160 320 72 300 8.80 25 F 160 341 84 329 7.06 34 G 154 420 94 389 8.51 36 H 171 472 85 351 9.73 27 I 146 352 60 250 13.4 30
  • All of the amorphous alloys with different chemical compositions listed in Table III have excellent magnetomechanical resonance characteristics, as given in Table IV, and therefore are useful in a coded electronic identification system of an embodiment of the present invention.
  • Furthermore, ribbons slit to about 6 mm wide width in accordance with the Example 1 were cut into strips with different lengths, and their magnetomechanical resonance properties were examined. In addition to the properties covered in Tables I, II and IV above, a complementary test to determine the effectiveness of a magnetomechanical resonance strip was performed using the following formula:
    V(t)=Vo exp (−t/τ),   (2)
    wherein t is the time measured after termination of an AC field excitation and τ is a characteristic time constant for the resonance signal decay. The values of V1max in Tables I, II and IV was determined from the data for t=1 msec. The results are given in Table V, in which other parameters characterizing the resonance properties of differing strip lengths are summarized. It is noted that fr follows the relationship of Equation (1) given above, quite well. Also noted is the increase of τ with increasing strip length. Larger value of the time constant τ is preferable if a delayed signal detection is preferred. However, in a coded electronic article identification system when the interrogation AC field is swept, the value of V0 in Table I matters more than the value of V1.
  • As shown in Table V, magnetomechanical resonance characteristics were determined for marker strips of an embodiment of the present invention with different lengths, l. The width and thickness of each strip were about 6 mm and about 28 μm, respectively. The resonance frequency, fr and time constant, τ are defined in Equations (1) and (2), respectively. The definitions of V0 max, Hb0, V1 max, Hb1 and dfrldHb were the same as in Table 1. Marker height h is defined in FIG. 1, and a radius of curvature each strip was calculated using h and l. TABLE V Strip Time Radius of Length/ fr V0 max Hb0 Constant T V1 max Hb1 dfr/dHb Curvature (mm) (Hz) (mV) (A/m) (msec) (mV) (A/m) [Hz/(A/m)] (cm) 18.01 120,772 73 610 0.85 23 520 6.65 26 20.16 108,536 68 550 0.92 25 370 8.07 22 24.99 87,406 94 460 1.16 42 338 6.55 22 30.02 72,284 135 461 1.35 69 342 9.44 36 35.03 61,818 143 387 1.74 79 322 8.73 29 37.95 56,782 160 389 1.86 91 337 7.89 31 41.90 51,336 184 389 2.03 109 350 6.67 43 46.95 45,992 178 330 2.49 116 320 5.21 45 52.12 41,438 197 331 2.69 132 312 5.28 35 56.99 37,900 187 292 3.30 135 291 5.93 37 62.07 34,864 197 293 3.56 148 279 4.94 34
  • In addition to the basic magnetic properties such as saturation magnetic induction and magnetostriction listed in Table III that are required to generate magnetomechanical resonance in a marker strip of an embodiment of the present invention, the direction of magnetic anisotropy which is the direction of easy magnetization in a marker strip must be essentially perpendicular to the strip's length direction. This is indeed the case, as indicated in FIG. 4 which depicts a BH loop taken at 60 Hz using a measurement method of Example 3 on an approximately 38 mm long strip from Table V above. The BH loop of FIG. 4 indicates that the remanent magnetic induction at H=0, i.e. B(H=0) is close to zero and the permeability defined by B/H near H=0 is linear. The shape of the BH loop shown in FIG. 4 is typical of the BH behavior of a magnetic strip in which the average direction of the magnetic anisotropy is perpendicular to strip's length direction. A consequence of the magnetization behavior of a marker strip of an embodiment of the present invention shown in FIG. 4 is the absence of higher harmonics generation in the strip when the strip is placed in an AC magnetic field. Thus the system “pollution problem” as mentioned in the “Background of the Invention” section, is minimized. To further check this point, a higher harmonic signal from the marker strip of FIG. 4 was compared with that of a marker strip of an electronic article surveillance system based on magnetic harmonic generation/detection. The results of this comparison are given in Table VI below.
  • As shown in Table VI, a magnetic higher harmonics signal comparison was made between a marker strip of an embodiment of the present invention and a marker strip based on Co-based METGLAS®2714A alloy, which is widely used in an electronic article surveillance system based on a magnetic harmonic generation/detection system. The strip size was the same for both cases and was approximately 38 mm long and approximately 6 mm wide. The fundamental excitation frequency was 2.4 kHz and the 25th harmonic signals were compared by using a harmonic signal detection method of Example 4. TABLE VI Marker Type 25th Harmonic Signal (mV) Present Invention 4 Harmonic Marker 40
  • As Table VI indicates, a negligibly small harmonic signal from a marker of an embodiment of the present invention does not trigger an electronic article surveillance system based on magnetic harmonic generation/detection.
  • Two marker-strips of an embodiment of the present invention with different lengths were selected randomly from a number of strips as characterized in Tables I, II, IV and V and were mounted on top of each other, and a marker was made as indicated by strip 110 and strip 111 in FIG. 5A. The two marker-strips with different lengths are housed in a hollow area between non-magnetic outside casing 100 and 101. A bias magnet 120 is attached on the outside surface of a casing 101. For comparison, a marker configuration for two conventional marker-strips is shown by strip 210 and strip 211 in FIG. 5B, in which a planar area available for the two strips is the same as that for the two strips of FIG. 5A. Numerals 200, 201 and 220 in FIG. 5B correspond to items 100, 101 and 120 in FIG. 5A, respectively.
  • The magnetomechanical resonance behavior of a two-strip marker of an embodiment of the present invention corresponding to FIG. 5A is shown in FIG. 6A for a marker containing an approximately 20 mm strip and an approximately 57 mm strip from Table V, and the magnetomechanical resonance behavior of a conventional two-strip marker prepared in accordance with the '490 patent, which corresponds to FIG. 5B, is shown in FIG. 6B using two strips with lengths of approximately 20 mm and approximately 57 mm. It is clear from FIGS. 6A-6B that overall signal amplitudes from the two marker-strips of an embodiment of the present invention are considerably higher than the overall signal amplitudes from the two conventional marker-strips. For the case of a marker of an embodiment of the present invention illustrated in FIG. 5A, the signal amplitude V0 (illustrated in FIG. 6A) from the longer sized strip of an embodiment of the present invention is about 280% higher than its corresponding value V0 (illustrated in FIG. 6B) for the longer sized conventional marker strip of FIG. 5B. For the shorter sized strip, the strip of an embodiment of the present invention generates a higher signal amplitude V1 (illustrated in FIG. 6A) by 370% than the signal amplitude V1 (illustrated in FIG. 6B) of its corresponding conventional marker strip. An enlarged resonance amplitude profile near the lower resonance frequency, fr=38,610 Hz shown in FIG. 6A, is depicted in FIG. 7, which shows the width of the magnetomechanical resonance, defined as the width in frequency at the point where the amplitude becomes ½ that of the peak amplitude, is about 420 Hz. For the upper resonance frequency region near fr=109,070 Hz, the signal amplitude has a frequency width of about 660 Hz as shown in FIG. 8. This frequency width, hereinafter termed resonance line width, is used to determine the minimum resonance frequency separation between the two adjacent resonance frequencies for two marker strips with slightly different lengths.
  • FIG. 9-1 illustrates a marker of an embodiment of the present invention which contains three marker-strips, 311, 312 and 313, with different lengths which were randomly selected from Tables I, II and IV above. The cavity space 302 between the two outside casings 300 and 301 is to accommodate the marker strips, 311, 312 and 313, of the embodiment of the present invention, and numeral 330 indicates a bias magnet which is attached on the outside surface of casing 301. The magnetomechanical resonance characteristics of the marker with three strips having lengths of about 25 mm, about 38 mm and about 52 mm and a width of about 6 mm are shown in FIG. 10. It noted in FIG. 6A and FIG. 7 that the mechanical resonance observed is sharp, with a resonance line width of about 400 Hz near the lower resonance frequency region of about 40,000 Hz, and with a resonance line width of about 700 Hz near the higher resonance frequency region of about 110,000 Hz, as is indicated in FIG. 6A and FIG. 8, indicating that the magnetomechanical interference between marker strips with different lengths in a marker of an embodiment of the present invention is insignificant, which in turn allows stacking more marker-strips than three. The lack of strip-to-strip magnetomechanical interference is evident in FIG. 9-2, as the three marker strips with different lengths touch among themselves along a line near the center in the strips' width direction. Similarly five strips with different lengths of about 30 mm, about 38 mm, about 42 mm, about 47 mm and about 52 mm and with a width of about 6 mm were selected from strips of Tables I, II, IV and V, and a marker was fabricated. The resonance characteristics of this 5-strip marker are shown in FIG. 11. A summary of resonance characteristics for markers of an embodiment of the present invention utilizing different length marker strips is given in Table VII.
  • As shown in Table VII, resonance signals V0 max and V1 max are located at respective resonance frequencies fr from coded markers of the present invention. TABLE VII Strip Length Marker Sample V0 max (mV) V1 max (mV) (mm) No. 1 (bias = 461 A/m) fr1 = 51,300 92 43 42 fr2 = 61,250 104 48 35 No. 2 (bias = 301 A/m) fr1 = 38,070 133 90 57 fr1 = 109,070 55 10 20 No. 3 (bias = 360 A/m) fr1 = 37,880 100 57 57 fr2 = 57,260 69 24 38 fr3 = 108,440 45 3 20 No. 4 (bias = 420 A/m) fr1 = 46,100 65 28 47 fr2 = 57,100 53 24 38 fr3 = 72,720 61 14 30 No. 5 (bias = 399 A/m) fr1 = 41,590 92 47 52 fr2 = 57,070 75 3 38 fr3 = 87,060 59 12 25 No. 6 (bias = 490 A/m) fr1 = 37,640 61 20 57 fr2 = 45,740 55 12 47 fr3 = 56,680 68 21 38 fr4 = 86,280 48 4 25 No. 7 (bias = 550 A/m) fr1 = 41,440 51 12 52 fr2 = 45,930 42 5 47 fr3 = 51,510 45 6 42 fr4 = 56,770 42 5 38 fr5 = 72,080 50 4 30
  • In Table VII, marker strip width and thickness are about 6 mm and about 28 μm, respectively.
  • The resonance signals V0 max and V1 max given in Table VII are significant enough to be detected in an electronic article identification system in accordance with embodiments of the present invention. The data in Table V leads to a relationship between resonance frequency, fr, and strip length, which is given by
    f r=2.1906×106ll (Hz),
    where l is the strip length in mm. Using this relationship which is consistent with Equation (1), the variability of the resonance frequency caused by the tolerance in cutting ribbon to a predetermined length is determined as follows. The above relationship between fr and l leads to ΔfrlΔl=−2.906×106l2/2, where Δfr is a change in the resonance frequency due to a variation in the strip length, Δl. The marker strip cutting tolerance achievable with a commercially available ribbon cutter is determined by comparing the nominal or targeted strip length and the actual length given in Table V. For example, the strip having a length of 18.01 mm in Table V had a targeted strip length of 18 mm, resulting in a cutting tolerance of 0.01 mm. Using the cutting machine tolerance thus obtained, the frequency variability Δfr due to strip length variability was calculated, which ranged from about 3 Hz for shorter strips to about 400 Hz for longer strips. Since the resonance line width for a longer strip is about 400 Hz, as indicated in FIG. 7 and is about 700 Hz for a shorter strip, as indicated in FIG. 8, the minimum frequency separation which is discernable in an electronic article identification system in accordance with embodiments of the present invention is determined as about 800 Hz. Thus, to assure no false identification, a resonance frequency separation of 2 kHz, which is more than twice that of the minimum discernable resonance frequency separation, was selected to determine the number of identifiable articles in a selected universe. The resonance frequency covered with the marker strips listed in Table V ranged from about 34,000 Hz to about 120,000 Hz, covering a resonance frequency span of approximately 86,000 Hz. Using a resonance frequency separation of 2 kHz for non-false identification, as determined above, the number of electronically identifiable articles becomes 43 when a marker has only one strip, which increases to about 1800, 74000, 2.96 million and 115.5 million in a given universe when a marker with two, three, four and five marker strips, respectively, with different lengths of an embodiment of the present invention is utilized in a coded electronic article identification system in accordance with the present invention. The number of the identifiable or coded articles is further increased by either adding more marker strips and/or changing the level of bias field in a marker.
  • A coded marker 501 as described above is effectively utilized in an electronic article identification system in accordance with embodiments of the present invention, as is illustrated in FIG. 12. An article to be identified 502 carrying a coded marker 501 of an embodiment of the present invention is placed in an interrogation zone 510 in FIG. 12, which is flanked by a pair of interrogation coils 511. The coils 511 emit an AC magnetic field fed by an electronic device 512 consisting of a signal generator 513 and an AC amplifier 514 with varying frequencies, which is controlled by an electronic circuit box 515 for its on-off operation, aiming at the article 502 to be identified. When the article 502 is placed in zone 510, the electronic circuit box 515 switches on the interrogation AC field frequency sweeping from the lowest frequency to the highest frequency, the range of which depends on the marker's predetermined frequency range. In such a frequency sweep, a resonance signal from a coded marker of an embodiment of the present invention 501 is detected in a pair of signal receiving coils 516, resulting in a resonance signal profile as exemplified in FIG. 11. The signal profile thus obtained by means of a signal detector 517 is stored in a computer 518 which is programmed to identify the resonance frequency sequences encoded in a coded marker 501 of an embodiment of the present invention. When this identification is complete, the computer 518 sends signal reporting results of the identification to an identifier 519 and to the electronic circuit box 515 for resetting the system. If so desired, a coded marker in accordance with embodiments of the present invention may be deactivated by demagnetizing the bias magnet in the marker after article 502 exits the interrogation zone 510.
  • The coded electronic article identification system provided above is used to identify an article by sweeping an AC excitation field with varying frequency. In certain cases, delayed identification is desired, which can be accomplished by tracking V1 as depicted in FIG. 3, FIG. 5(a), FIG. 10 and FIG. 11. Electronically this is accomplished by programming the computer 517 in FIG. 12 to process V1 as a function of the sweeping frequency.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • A slit ribbon was cut into ductile and rectangular strips with a conventional metal ribbon cutter. The curvature of each strip was determined optically by measuring the height, h, of the curved surface over the strip length, l, as defined in FIG. 1A.
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • The magnetomechanical performance was determined in a set-up in which a pair of coils supplying a static bias field and the voltage appearing in a signal detecting coil compensated by a bucking coil was measured by a voltmeter and an oscilloscope. The measured voltage therefore is detecting-coil dependent and indicates a relative signal amplitude. The exciting AC field was supplied by a commercially available function generator and an AC amplifier. The signal voltage from the voltmeter was tabulated and a commercially available computer software was used to analyze and process the data collected.
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • A commercially available DC BH loop measurement equipment was utilized to measure magnetic induction B as a function of applied field H. For an AC BH loop measurement, an exciting coil-detecting coil assembly similar to that of Example 4 was used and output signal from the detecting coil was fed into an electronic integrator. The integrated signal was then calibrated to give the value of the magnetic induction B of a sample. The resultant B was plotted against applied field H, resulting in an AC BH loop. Both AC and DC cases, the direction of the applied field and the measurement was along marker strips' length direction.
  • EXAMPLE 4
  • A marker strip prepared in accordance with Example 1 was placed in an exciting AC field at a predetermined fundamental frequency and its higher harmonics response was detected by a coil containing the strip. The exciting coil and signal detecting coil were wound on a bobbin with a diameter of about 50 mm. The number of the windings in the exciting coil and the signal detecting coil was about 180 and about 250, respectively. The fundamental frequency was chosen at 2.4 kHz and its voltage at the exciting coil was about 80 mV. The 25th harmonic voltages from the signal detecting coil were measured.
  • Thus, in an embodiment of the present invention, a radius of curvature of the marker strip curvatures may be less than about 100 cm, or between about 20 cm and about 100 cm.
  • Where selected, encoding is carried out by cutting an amorphous magnetostrictrive alloy ribbon having its magnetic anisotropy direction perpendicular to ribbon axis to a rectangular strip with a predetermined length having a length-to-width ratio greater than 3.
  • Also, where selected, the strips have a strip width ranging from about 3 mm to about 15 mm.
  • In an embodiment of the present invention, the strips have a slope of resonance frequency versus bias field ranging from about 4 Hz/(A/m) to about 14 Hz/(A/m).
  • Where selected, the strips have a length greater than about 18 mm when a strip width is 6 mm.
  • Also, where selected, the strips have a magnetomechanical resonance frequency less than about 120,000 Hz.
  • In an embodiment of the present invention, the amorphous ferromagnetic alloy ribbons have a saturation magnetostriction between about 8 ppm and about 18 ppm and a saturation induction between about 0.7 tesla and about 1.1 tesla.
  • In an embodiment of the present invention, the coded marker comprises at least two marker-strips with different lengths. Where selected, the coded marker comprises five marker-strips with different lengths.
  • In an embodiment of the present invention, the coded marker has a magnetomechanical resonance frequency between about 30,000 and about 130,000 Hz.
  • In an embodiment of the present invention, the coded marker has an electronic identification universe containing up to about 1800 and about 115 million separately identifiable articles for a coded marker with two and five marker strips, respectively.
  • In an embodiment of the present invention, the coded marker has an electronic identification universe containing more than 115 million separately identifiable articles.
  • Thus, in an embodiment of the present invention, a coded marker of a magnetomechanical resonant electronic article identification system, adapted to resonate mechanically at preselected frequencies, comprises a plurality of ductile magnetostrictive strips cut to predetermined lengths from amorphous ferromagnetic alloy ribbons that have curvatures along a ribbon length direction and exhibit magnetomechanical resonance under alternating magnetic field excitations with a static bias field, the strips having a magnetic anisotropy direction perpendicular to a ribbon axis, wherein at least two of the strips are adapted to be magnetically biased to resonate at a single, different one of the preselected frequencies.
  • In addition, in selected embodiments of the present invention, an electronic article identification system has a capability of decoding coded information of a coded marker. The coded marker is adapted to resonate mechanically at preselected frequencies, and the coded marker comprises a plurality of ductile magnetostrictive strips cut to predetermined lengths from amorphous ferromagnetic alloy ribbons that have curvatures along a ribbon length direction and exhibit magnetomechanical resonance under alternating magnetic field excitations with a static bias field, the strips having a magnetic anisotropy direction perpendicular to a ribbon axis, and wherein at least two of the strips are adapted to be magnetically biased to resonate at a single, different one of the preselected frequencies. The electronic article identification system comprises one of: a pair of coils emitting an AC excitation field aimed at the coded marker to form an interrogation zone; a pair of signal detection coils receiving coded information from the coded marker; an electronic signal processing device with an electronic computer with a software to decode information coded on the coded marker; or an electronic device identifying the coded marker. Thus, as well as providing identification of a coded marker, the electronic article identification system may identify an article having the coded marker attached thereto.
  • Although a few embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it would be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes may be made in these embodiments without departing from the principles and spirit of the invention, the scope of which is defined in the claims and their equivalents.

Claims (17)

1. A coded marker of a magnetomechanical resonant electronic article identification system, adapted to resonate mechanically at preselected frequencies, comprising: a plurality of ductile magnetostrictive strips cut to predetermined lengths from amorphous ferromagnetic alloy ribbons that have curvatures along a ribbon length direction and exhibit magnetomechanical resonance under alternating magnetic field excitations with a static bias field, the strips having a magnetic anisotropy direction perpendicular to a ribbon axis, wherein at least two of the strips are adapted to be magnetically biased to resonate at a single, different one of the preselected frequencies.
2. The coded marker of claim 1, wherein a radius of curvature of the marker strip curvatures is less than about 100 cm.
3. The coded marker of claim 1, wherein encoding is carried out by cutting an amorphous magnetostrictrive alloy ribbon having its magnetic anisotropy direction perpendicular to ribbon axis to a rectangular strip with a predetermined length having a length-to-width ratio greater than 3.
4. The coded marker of claim 3, wherein the strips have a strip width ranging from about 3 mm to about 15 mm.
5. The coded marker of claim 4, wherein the strips have a slope of resonance frequency versus bias field ranging from about 4 Hz/(A/m) to about 14 Hz/(A/m).
6. The coded marker of claim 4, wherein the strips have a length greater than about 18 mm when a strip width is 6 mm.
7. The coded marker of claim 6, wherein the strips have a magnetomechanical resonance frequency less than about 120,000 Hz.
8. The coded marker of claim 1, wherein the amorphous ferromagnetic alloy ribbons have a saturation magnetostriction between about 8 ppm and about 18 ppm and a saturation induction between about 0.7 tesla and about 1.1 tesla.
9. The coded marker of claim 8, wherein an amorphous ferromagnetic alloy of the amorphous ferromagnetic alloy ribbons has a composition based on Fea—Nib—Moc—Bd with 30≦a≦43, 35≦b≦48, 0≦c≦5, 14≦d≦20 and a+b+c+d=100, up to 3 atom % of Mo being optionally replaced by Co, Cr, Mn and/or Nb and up to 1 atom % of B being optionally replaced by Si and/or C.
10. The coded marker of claim 8, wherein an amorphous ferromagnetic alloy of the amorphous ferromagnetic alloy ribbons has a composition of one of: Fe40.6 Ni40.1 Mo3.7 B15.1 Si0.5, Fe41.5 Ni38.9 Mo4.1 B15.5, Fe41.7 Ni39.4 Mo3.1 B15.8, Fe40.2 Ni39.0 Mo3.6 B16.6 Si0.6, Fe39.8 Ni39.2 Mo3.1 B17.6 C0.3, Fe36.9 Ni41.3 Mo4.1 B17.8, Fe35.6 Ni42.6 Mo4.0 B17.9, Fe40 Ni38 Mo4 B18, or Fe38.0 Ni38.8 Mo3.9 B19.3.
11. A coded marker of claim 1, wherein the coded marker comprises at least two marker-strips with different lengths.
12. A coded marker of claim 11, wherein the coded marker comprises five marker-strips with different lengths.
13. A coded marker of claim 12, wherein the coded marker has a magnetomechanical resonance frequency between about 30,000 and about 130,000 Hz.
14. A coded marker of claim 13, wherein the coded marker has an electronic identification universe containing up to about 1800 separately identifiable articles for a coded marker with two marker strips and about 115 million separately identifiable articles for a coded marker with five marker strips.
15. A coded marker of claim 13, wherein the coded marker has an electronic identification universe containing more than 115 million separately identifiable articles.
16. An electronic article identification system having a capability of decoding coded information of a coded marker, the system comprising one of:
a pair of coils emitting an AC excitation field with varying frequency aimed at the coded marker to form an interrogation zone;
a pair of signal detection coils receiving coded information from the coded marker;
an electronic signal processing device with an electronic computer with a software to decode information coded on the coded marker; or
an electronic device identifying the coded marker,
wherein the coded marker is adapted to resonate mechanically at preselected frequencies, wherein the coded marker comprises a plurality of ductile magnetostrictive strips cut to predetermined lengths from amorphous ferromagnetic alloy ribbons that have curvatures along a ribbon length direction and exhibit magnetomechanical resonance under alternating magnetic field excitations with a static bias field, the strips having a magnetic anisotropy direction perpendicular to a ribbon axis, and wherein at least two of the strips are adapted to be magnetically biased to resonate at a single, different one of the preselected frequencies.
17. The coded marker of claim 1, wherein a radius of curvature of the marker strip curvatures is between about 20 cm and about 100 cm.
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