US20060216833A1 - Spot test kit for explosives detection - Google Patents

Spot test kit for explosives detection Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20060216833A1
US20060216833A1 US11/159,451 US15945105A US2006216833A1 US 20060216833 A1 US20060216833 A1 US 20060216833A1 US 15945105 A US15945105 A US 15945105A US 2006216833 A1 US2006216833 A1 US 2006216833A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
explosives
reagent
lateral flow
flow membrane
swab unit
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11/159,451
Inventor
Philip Pagoria
Richard Whipple
Peter Nunes
Joel Eckels
John Reynolds
Robin Miles
Marina Chiarappa-Zucca
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Lawrence Livermore National Security LLC
Original Assignee
University of California
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US58316104P priority Critical
Application filed by University of California filed Critical University of California
Priority to US11/159,451 priority patent/US20060216833A1/en
Assigned to ENERGY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF reassignment ENERGY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF CONFIRMATORY LICENSE (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, THE
Publication of US20060216833A1 publication Critical patent/US20060216833A1/en
Assigned to LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL SECURITY, LLC reassignment LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL SECURITY, LLC ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, THE
Assigned to REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, THE reassignment REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, THE ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: CHIARAPPA-ZUCCA, MARINA L., DEL ECKELS, JOEL, NUNES, PETER J., REYNOLDS, JOHN G., MILES, ROBIN R., PAGORIA, PHILIP F., WHIPPLE, RICHARD E.
Assigned to LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL SECURITY, LLC reassignment LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL SECURITY, LLC ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N31/00Investigating or analysing non-biological materials by the use of the chemical methods specified in the subgroup; Apparatus specially adapted for such methods
    • G01N31/22Investigating or analysing non-biological materials by the use of the chemical methods specified in the subgroup; Apparatus specially adapted for such methods using chemical indicators
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L3/00Containers or dishes for laboratory use, e.g. laboratory glassware; Droppers
    • B01L3/50Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes
    • B01L3/502Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes with fluid transport, e.g. in multi-compartment structures
    • B01L3/5023Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes with fluid transport, e.g. in multi-compartment structures with a sample being transported to, and subsequently stored in an absorbent for analysis
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N1/00Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation
    • G01N1/02Devices for withdrawing samples
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2200/00Solutions for specific problems relating to chemical or physical laboratory apparatus
    • B01L2200/16Reagents, handling or storing thereof
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2300/00Additional constructional details
    • B01L2300/08Geometry, shape and general structure
    • B01L2300/0861Configuration of multiple channels and/or chambers in a single devices
    • B01L2300/0867Multiple inlets and one sample wells, e.g. mixing, dilution
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2300/00Additional constructional details
    • B01L2300/18Means for temperature control
    • B01L2300/1805Conductive heating, heat from thermostatted solids is conducted to receptacles, e.g. heating plates, blocks
    • B01L2300/1827Conductive heating, heat from thermostatted solids is conducted to receptacles, e.g. heating plates, blocks using resistive heater
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2300/00Additional constructional details
    • B01L2300/18Means for temperature control
    • B01L2300/1877Means for temperature control using chemical reactions
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2400/00Moving or stopping fluids
    • B01L2400/04Moving fluids with specific forces or mechanical means
    • B01L2400/0403Moving fluids with specific forces or mechanical means specific forces
    • B01L2400/0406Moving fluids with specific forces or mechanical means specific forces capillary forces
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2400/00Moving or stopping fluids
    • B01L2400/06Valves, specific forms thereof
    • B01L2400/0677Valves, specific forms thereof phase change valves; Meltable, freezing, dissolvable plugs; Destructible barriers
    • B01L2400/0683Valves, specific forms thereof phase change valves; Meltable, freezing, dissolvable plugs; Destructible barriers mechanically breaking a wall or membrane within a channel or chamber
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L3/00Containers or dishes for laboratory use, e.g. laboratory glassware; Droppers
    • B01L3/50Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes
    • B01L3/502Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes with fluid transport, e.g. in multi-compartment structures
    • B01L3/5029Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes with fluid transport, e.g. in multi-compartment structures using swabs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N1/00Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation
    • G01N1/02Devices for withdrawing samples
    • G01N2001/022Devices for withdrawing samples sampling for security purposes, e.g. contraband, warfare agents
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N1/00Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation
    • G01N1/02Devices for withdrawing samples
    • G01N2001/028Sampling from a surface, swabbing, vaporising
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00
    • G01N33/22Fuels, explosives
    • G01N33/227Explosives, e.g. combustive properties thereof

Abstract

An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/583,161 filed Jun. 24, 2004 and titled “Spot Test Kit for Explosives Detection.” U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/583,161 filed Jun. 24, 2004 and titled “Spot test Kit for Explosives Detection” is incorporated herein by this reference.
  • The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48 between the United States Department of Energy and the University of California for the operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
  • BACKGROUND
  • 1. Field of Endeavor
  • The present invention relates to explosives and more particularly to testing for the presence of explosives.
  • 2. State of Technology
  • U.S. Pat. No. 5,638,166 for an apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof issued Jun. 10, 1997 to Herbert O. Funsten and David J. McComas and assigned to The Regents of the University of California provides the following state of the art information, “Explosives are a core component of nuclear, biological, chemical and conventional weapons, as well as of terrorist devices such as car, luggage, and letter bombs. Current methods for detecting the presence of explosives include vapor detection, bulk detection, and tagging. However, these methods have significant difficulties dependent upon the nature of the signature that is detected. See Fetterolf et al., Portable Instrumentation: New Weapons in the War Against Drugs and Terrorism,” Proc. SPIE 2092 (1993) 40, Yinon and Zitrin, in Modern Methods and Applications in Analysis of Explosions, (Wiley, N.Y., 1993) Chap. 6; and references therein. Vapor detection is achieved using trained animals, gas chromatography, ion mobility mass spectrometry, and bioluminescence, as examples. All of these techniques suffer from the inherently low vapor pressures of most explosives. Bulk detection of explosives may be performed using x-ray imaging which cannot detect the explosives themselves, but rather detects metallic device components. Another method for bulk detection involves using energetic x-rays to activate nitrogen atoms in the explosives, thereby generating positrons which are detected. This technique requires an x-ray generator and a minimum of several hundred grams of explosives. Bulk detection is also accomplished using thermal neutron activation which requires a source of neutrons and a .gamma.-radiation detector. Thus, bulk detection is not sensitive to trace quantities of explosives and requires large, expensive instrumentation. Tagging requires that all explosives be tagged with, for example, an easily detected vapor. However, since tagging is not mandatory in the United States, this procedure is clearly not reliable. It turns out that there are no technologies for performing accurate, real-time (<6 sec) detection and analysis of trace explosives in situ. Only trained dogs can achieve this goal.
  • It is known that surfaces in contact with explosives (for example, during storage, handling, or device fabrication) will readily become contaminated with explosive particulates as a result of their inherent stickiness. This phenomenon is illustrated in studies that show large persistence of explosives on hands, even after several washings (J. D. Twibell et al., “Transfer of Nitroglycerine to Hands During Contact with Commercial Explosives,” J. Forensic Science 27 (1982) 783; J. D. Twibell et al., “The Persistence of Military Explosives on Hands,” J. Forensic Science 29 (1984) 284). Furthermore, cross contamination in which a secondary surface is contaminated by contact with a contaminated primary surface can also readily occur. For example, a measurable amount of ammonium nitrate (AN) residue has been found on the lease documents for a rental truck, and significant amounts of the explosives PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate) and/or AN have been found on clothing and inside vehicles of suspects in two well-publicized bombings. Therefore, explosive residue will likely persist in large amounts on the explosive packaging and environs, as well as on the individuals involved in building the explosive device, which can provide an avenue for detection of the presence of explosives.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 5,679,584 for a method for chemical detection issued Oct. 2, 1997 to Daryl Sunny Mileaf and Noe Esau Rodriquez, II provides the following state of the art information, “a method for detecting a target substance which includes collecting a substance sample; introducing the substance sample into a substance card having at least one preselected reagent responsive to the presence of the target substance and having a light-transmissive chamber; and inserting the substance card into a substance detector device having a photosensor and adapted to receive the substance card. Once the substance detector card has been inserted into the substance detector, the method continues by mixing the substance sample with the preselected reagents for a preselected mixing period, thus producing a measurand having a target substance reaction.”
  • U.S. Pat. No. 6,470,730 for a dry transfer method for the preparation of explosives test samples issued Oct. 29, 2002 to Robert T. Chamberlain and assigned to The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Transportation provides the following state of the art information, “ . . . method of preparing samples for testing explosive and drug detectors of the type that search for particles in air. A liquid containing the substance of interest is placed on a flexible Teflon® surface and allowed to dry, then the Teflon® surface is rubbed onto an item that is to be tested for the presence of the substance of interest. The particles of the substance of interest are transferred to the item but are readily picked up by an air stream or other sampling device and carried into the detector.”
  • SUMMARY
  • Features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following description. Applicants are providing this description, which includes drawings and examples of specific embodiments, to give a broad representation of the invention. Various changes and modifications within the spirit and scope of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from this description and by practice of the invention. The scope of the invention is not intended to be limited to the particular forms disclosed and the invention covers all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the claims.
  • The preset invention provides an inspection tester system for testing a suspect surface for explosives. The system includes the step of providing a lateral flow membrane swab unit; providing a first explosives detecting reagent; providing a second explosives detecting reagent; swiping the suspect surface with the lateral flow membrane swab unit, delivering the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit, wherein if the lateral flow membrane swab unit becomes colored the test is positive for explosives and if no color appears the test for explosives is negative to this point; and delivering the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit, wherein if the lateral flow membrane swab unit becomes colored the test is positive for explosives and if no color appears the test for explosives is negative. The inspection tester system comprises a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removable connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.
  • The inspection tester of the present invention provides a simple, chemical, field spot-test to provide a rapid screen for the presence of a broad range of explosive residues. The inspection tester is fast, extremely sensitive, low-cost, very easy to implement, and provides a very low rate of false positives. The inspection tester for explosives provides a fast, sensitive, low-cost, very easy to implement system for testing the suspected packages. The inspection tester for explosives is inexpensive and disposable. The inspection tester for explosives has detection limits between 0.1 to 100 nanograms, depending on the type of explosives present. A large number of common military and industrial explosives can be easily detected such as HMX, RDX, NG, TATB, Tetryl, PETN, TNT, DNT, TNB, DNB and NC. The inspection tester is small enough that a number of them can fit in a pocket or brief case.
  • The invention is susceptible to modifications and alternative forms. Specific embodiments are shown by way of example. It is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the particular forms disclosed. The invention covers all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the claims.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated into and constitute a part of the specification, illustrate specific embodiments of the invention and, together with the general description of the invention given above, and the detailed description of the specific embodiments, serve to explain the principles of the invention.
  • FIG. 1 illustrates an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 2 shows the removable swab unit in greater detail.
  • FIG. 3 shows the explosive tester positioned in a portable heating unit.
  • FIG. 4 shows another embodiment of an inspection tester for explosives constructed in accordance with the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • Referring now to the drawings, to the following detailed description, and to incorporated materials, detailed information about the invention is provided including the description of specific embodiments. The detailed description serves to explain the principles of the invention. The invention is susceptible to modifications and alternative forms. The invention is not limited to the particular forms disclosed. The invention covers all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the claims.
  • The ability to identify unknown explosives in the field is of utmost importance to the military, law enforcement and Homeland security forces worldwide. There have been many reports of the use of spot tests for the identification of explosives, some of which are listed below. They have been used in combination with thin-layer chromatography and in forensic analysis. There are some commercial companies (Mistral, Securesearch, Duram products) who have produced explosives identification kits similar to the one Applicants propose. They have incorporated similar color reagents and have been used by the military and law-enforcement agencies. Ex-spray and Duram products are probably the best commercial test kits produced thus far. They allow the identification of nitroaromatics, nitramines, ammonium nitrate, and recently the potassium chlorate-based explosives. Their systems are available as spray kits or solution-drop kits. The Duram product will also identify the peroxide explosives. Another company produced a swab kit that incorporates either diphenylamine or Wurster's salt that turns blue when it comes in contact with nitramines, oxidizers and nitrate esters. It is easy to use but is non-specific and would give a significant number of false positives.
  • Referring now to FIG. 1 of the drawings, an embodiment of an inspection tester for explosives constructed in accordance with the present invention is illustrated. This embodiment of the present invention is designated generally by the reference numeral 100. The inspection tester 100 is an all-inclusive, inexpensive, and disposable device. The inspection tester can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. The inspection tester 100 was developed to allow identification of explosives. This inspection tester may be used by first responders, military, law enforcement and Homeland Security.
  • The inspection tester 100 provides a small, disposable, one use system. The inspection tester 100 uses a simple and rapid method of operation. A removable swab unit sample pad 101 is exposed to a suspect substance. This may be accomplished by the swab unit sample pad 101 being swiped across a surface containing the suspect substance or the swab unit pad 101 may be exposed to the suspect substance in other ways such as adding the suspect substance to the swab unit sample pad 101.
  • The inspection tester 100 comprises an explosives tester body 102 and the removable swab unit 101 adapted to be removably positioned in the explosives tester body 102. The removable swab unit 101 includes a lateral flow membrane 111, an area 112 so that the swab unit can be easily inserted and removed from the explosives tester body 102. The removable swab unit 101 also includes an information area 113 and color reaction indicators 114.
  • The explosives tester body 102 includes a printable backing card 103 that adds stiffness and infographics. A heat seal pattern 104 adds strength to avoid warping. A section 105 of the explosives tester body 102 provides an area for printed graphics and thumb placement and step numbering. The explosives tester body 102 includes a beveled docking entry portion 106 and a tab 107 for easy docking of the removable swab unit sample pad 101.
  • The explosives tester body 102 also includes ampoule A 108 and ampoule B 109. In various embodiments, ampoule A 108 and ampoule B 109 are breakable ampoules, breakable glass ampoules, squeezable ampoules, and other types of ampoules. As shown in FIG. 1, ampoule A 108 includes indentations 110 on the chamber which keeps glass pieces from adhering to the walls.
  • The removable swab unit 101 is shown in greater detail in FIG. 2. The tab area 112 is provided so that the swab unit 101 can be easily inserted and removed from the explosives tester body 102. The lateral flow membrane 111 makes up the bulk of the removable swab unit 101. The lateral flow membrane 111 comprises a microporous membrane that provides migration of fluids from ampoule A 108 and fluids from ampoule B 109. Lateral flow membranes are known for their use in other fields such as blotting techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing, and lateral-flow immunochromatographic tests. The lateral flow membrane 111 is a Porex Lateral-Flo Membrane. The lateral flow membrane 111 comprises polyethylene spheres fused into a lateral-Flo™ membrane. Applicants experimentally determined that the properties of Porex make it an ideal swipe material for the inspection tester 100. The lateral flow membrane 111 is chemical resistant, withstands heat as high as 130° C., is durable, is inexpensive, can be cut to any size, and concentrates suspect materials along the solvent front making colorimetric detection limits. The lateral flow membrane 111 provides a high surface area swipe for sample collection.
  • Referring now to FIG. 3, the removable swab unit 101 of the explosive tester 100 is shown as it would be positioned in a portable heating unit 300. The portable heating unit 300 can be an electrical heater or, alternatively, the portable heating unit 300 can be another type of heating unit such as a chemical heater. The heating element 301 is activated and the removable swab unit 101 will be heated as hereinafter described. The details of the portable heating unit 300 are well known in the art and need not be described here.
  • Ampoule A 108 and ampoule B 109 provide two reagent activation units. Ampoule A 108 (for reagent A) and ampoule B 109 (for reagent B) are operatively mounted on the explosives tester body 102. The ampoule A 108 containing the first explosives detecting reagent A is positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent A to the lateral flow membrane 111. The Ampoule B 109 containing the second explosives detecting reagent B is positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent B to the lateral flow membrane 111. The reagent A contains Meisenheimer complexes. The reagent B provides a Griess reaction. The Meisenheimer complexes and Griess reaction are well known in the art and need not be described here.
  • The structural details of embodiment of an inspection tester for explosives constructed in accordance with the present invention having been described the operation of the inspection tester 100 will now be considered. The inspection tester 400 uses a simple and rapid procedure summarized by the following four step operation:
  • STEP 1) A suspect surface is swiped with the removable swab unit sample pad 101. This may be accomplished by the swab unit sample pad 101 being swiped across a surface containing the suspect substance or the swab unit pad 101 may be exposed to the suspect substance in other ways such as adding the suspect substance to the swab unit sample pad 101. This will cause any explosives residue to be collected and held by the swab unit sample pad 101.
  • STEP 2) The breakable or squeezable ampoule A 108 is located in a position to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent A to the lateral flow membrane 111. The breakable or squeezable ampoule A 108 is pressed to break or squeeze it thereby dispensing reagent A onto the lateral flow membrane 111. The regent A contacts any explosives residue that has been collected by the swab unit sample pad 101. The lateral flow membrane 111 concentrates suspect materials along the solvent front. If the swab unit sample pad 101 becomes colored, the test is positive for explosives. If no color appears the test for explosives is negative to this point.
  • STEP 3) If STEP 2 is negative to this point, the inspection tester 100 is positioned in the portable heating unit 300. The heating unit 300 is activated. This causes the swab unit sample pad 101, reagent A, and any explosives residue to become heated. If the swab unit sample pad 101 now becomes colored, the test is positive for explosives. If no color appears the test for explosives is negative to this point.
  • STEP 4) The breakable or squeezable ampoule B 109 is located in a position to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent B to the lateral flow membrane 111. If STEP 3 is negative to this point, the breakable or squeezable ampoule B 109 is pressed to brake or squeeze it thereby dispensing reagent B onto the lateral flow membrane 111. The regent B contacts any explosives residue that has been collected by the swab unit sample pad 101. The lateral flow membrane 111 concentrates suspect materials along the solvent front. If the swab unit sample pad 101 becomes colored, the test is positive for explosives. If no color appears the test for explosives is negative.
  • The inspection tester 100 provides a simple, chemical, field spot-test by to provide a rapid screen for the presence of a broad range of explosive residues. The lateral flow membrane 111 is microporous cellulose nitrate membrane that provides migration of the fluids from ampoule A 108 and ampoule B 109. The lateral flow membrane 111 concentrates suspect materials along the solvent front. This concentration makes the explosives tester 100 more sensitive because by concentrating any explosives particles along the solvent front a larger amount of materials in one place. The color that will be produced by the reagents from ampoule A 108 and ampoule B 109 will be easier to see.
  • The inspection tester 100 is fast, extremely sensitive, low-cost, very easy to implement, and provides a very low rate of false positives. The inspection tester for explosives 100 provides a fast, sensitive, low-cost, very easy to implement system for testing the suspected packages. The inspection tester for explosives 100 is inexpensive and disposable. The inspection tester for explosives 100 has detection limits between 0.1 to 100 nanograms, depending on the type of explosives present. A large number of common military and industrial explosives can be easily detected such as HMX, RDX, NG, TATB, Tetryl, PETN, TNT, DNT, TNB, DNB and NC. The inspection tester 100 is small enough that a number of them can fit in a pocket or brief case.
  • Referring now to FIG. 4 of the drawings, another embodiment of an inspection tester for explosives constructed in accordance with the present invention is illustrated. This embodiment of the present invention is designated generally by the reference numeral 400. A removable swab unit sample pad 401 is exposed to a suspect substance. This may be accomplished by the swab unit sample pad 401 being swiped across a surface containing the suspect substance or the swab unit pad 401 may be exposed to the suspect substance in other ways such as adding the suspect substance to the swab unit sample pad 401.
  • The inspection tester 400 comprises an explosives tester body 402 and the removable swab unit 401 adapted to be removably positioned in the explosives tester body 402. The removable swab unit 401 includes a lateral flow membrane 411, an area 412 so that the swab unit can be easily inserted and removed from the explosives tester body 402. The removable swab unit 401 also includes and information area 413 and color reaction indicators 414.
  • The explosives tester body 402 includes a printable backing card 403 that adds stiffness and infographics. A heat seal pattern 404 adds strength to avoid warping. A section 405 of the explosives tester body 402 provides an area for printed graphics and thumb placement and step numbering. The explosives tester body 402 includes a beveled docking entry portion 406 and a tab 407 for easy docking of the removable swab unit sample pad 401.
  • The explosives tester body 402 also includes three ampoules, #1 ampoule A 408, #2 ampoule B 409, and #3 ampoule C 410. In various embodiments, ampoule A 408, ampoule B 409, and ampoule C 410 are breakable ampoules, breakable glass ampoules, squeezable ampoules, and other types of ampoules. As shown in FIG. 4, ampoule A 408 includes indentations 110 on the chamber which keeps glass pieces from adhering to the walls.
  • The tab area 412 on the removable swab unit 401 allows the swab unit 401 can be easily inserted and removed from the explosives tester body 402. The lateral flow membrane 411 makes up the bulk of the removable swab unit 401. The lateral flow membrane 411 comprises a microporous cellulose nitrate membrane that provides migration of fluids from ampoule A 408, fluids from ampoule B 409, and fluids from ampoule C 410. The lateral flow membrane 411 is a Porex Lateral-Flo Membrane. The lateral flow membrane 411 comprises polyethylene spheres fused into a Lateral-Flo™ membrane. The lateral flow membrane 411 is chemical resistant, withstands heat as high as 130° C., is durable, is inexpensive, can be cut to any size, and concentrates suspect materials along the solvent front making colorimetric detection limits. The lateral flow membrane 411 provides a high surface area swipe for sample collection.
  • Ampoule A 408, ampoule B 409, and ampoule C 410 and provide three reagent activation units. Ampoule A 408 (for reagent A), ampoule B 409 (for reagent B) and ampoule C 410 (for reagent C) are operatively mounted on the explosives tester body 402. The ampoule A 408 containing the first explosives detecting reagent A is positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent A to the lateral flow membrane 411. The ampoule B 409 containing the second explosives detecting reagent B is positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent B to the lateral flow membrane 411. The ampoule C 410 containing the third explosives detecting reagent C is positioned to deliver the third explosives detecting reagent C to the lateral flow membrane 411. The reagent A contains Meisenheimer complexes. The reagent B provides a Griess reagent. The reagent C provides a Nesslers reagent. The Meisenheimer complexes, Griess reagent, and Nesslers reagent are well known in the art and need not be described here.
  • The structural details of embodiment of an inspection tester for explosives constructed in accordance with the present invention having been described the operation of the inspection tester 400 will now be considered. The inspection tester 400 uses a simple and rapid procedure summarized by the following steps:
  • STEP 1) A suspect surface is swiped with the removable swab unit sample pad 401. This may be accomplished by the swab unit sample pad 401 being swiped across a surface containing the suspect substance or the swab unit pad 401 may be exposed to the suspect substance in other ways such as adding the suspect substance to the swab unit sample pad 401. This will cause any explosives residue to be colleted and held by the swab unit sample pad 401.
  • STEP 2) The breakable or squeezable ampoule A 408 is located in a position to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent A to the lateral flow membrane 411. The breakable or squeezable ampoule A 408 is pressed to break or squeeze it thereby dispensing reagent A onto the lateral flow membrane 411. The regent A contacts any explosives residue that has been collected by the swab unit sample pad 401. The lateral flow membrane 411 concentrates suspect materials along the solvent front. If the swab unit sample pad 401 becomes colored, the test is positive for explosives. If no color appears the test for explosives is negative to this point.
  • STEP 3) If STEP 2 is negative to this point, the breakable or squeezable ampoule B 409 is pressed to brake or squeeze it thereby dispensing reagent B onto the lateral flow membrane 411. The breakable or squeezable ampoule B 409 is located in a position to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent B to the lateral flow membrane 411. The regent B contacts any explosives residue that has been collected by the swab unit sample pad 401. The lateral flow membrane 411 concentrates suspect materials along the solvent front. If the swab unit sample pad 401 becomes colored, the test is positive for explosives. If no color appears the test for explosives is negative to this point.
  • STEP 4) If STEP 3 is negative to this point, the breakable or squeezable ampoule C 410 is pressed to brake or squeeze it thereby dispensing reagent C onto the lateral flow membrane 411. The breakable or squeezable ampoule C 410 is located in a position to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent C to the lateral flow membrane 411. The regent C contacts any explosives residue that has been collected by the swab unit sample pad 401. The lateral flow membrane 411 concentrates suspect materials along the solvent front. If the swab unit sample pad 401 becomes colored, the test is positive for explosives. If no color appears the test for explosives is negative to this point.
  • STEP 5) If any of the various STEPS 2, 3, and 4 are negative and greater sensitivity is desired, the inspection tester 400 can be positioned in a heating unit. This causes the swab unit sample pad 401, reagents A, B, and/or C and any explosives residue to become heated. If the swab unit sample pad 401 now becomes colored, the test is positive for explosives. If no color appears the test for explosives is negative.
  • The inspection tester 400 provides a simple, chemical, field spot-test by to provide a rapid screen for the presence of a broad range of explosive residues. The lateral flow membrane 411 is microporous cellulose nitrate membrane that provides migration of the fluids from ampoule A 408, ampoule B 409, and ampoule C 410. The lateral flow membrane 411 concentrates suspect materials along the solvent front. This concentration makes the explosives tester 400 more sensitive because by concentrating any explosives particles along the solvent front a larger amount of materials in one place. The color that will be produced by the reagents from ampoule A 408, ampoule B 409, and/or ampoule C 410 will be easier to see.
  • The inspection tester 400 is fast, extremely sensitive, low-cost, very easy to implement, and provides a very low rate of false positives. The inspection tester for explosives 400 provides a fast, sensitive, low-cost, very easy to implement system for testing the suspected packages. The inspection tester for explosives 400 is inexpensive and disposable. The inspection tester for explosives 400 has detection limits between 0.1 to 100 nanograms, depending on the type of explosives present. A large number of common military and industrial explosives can be easily detected such as HMX, RDX, NG, TATB, Tetryl, PETN, TNT, DNT, TNB, DNB and NC. The inspection tester 400 is small enough that a number of them can fit in a pocket or brief case.
  • While the invention may be susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific embodiments have been shown by way of example in the drawings and have been described in detail herein. However, it should be understood that the invention is not intended to be limited to the particular forms disclosed. Rather, the invention is to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the following appended claims.

Claims (29)

1. An inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives, comprising:
a body,
a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to said body,
a first explosives detecting reagent,
a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to said body, said first reagent holder and dispenser containing said first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver said first explosives detecting reagent to said lateral flow membrane swab unit when said lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to said body,
a second explosives detecting reagent, and
a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to said body, said second reagent holder and dispenser containing said second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver said second explosives detecting reagent to said lateral flow membrane swab unit when said lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to said body.
2. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 wherein said lateral flow membrane swab unit comprises a microporous membrane.
3. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 wherein said lateral flow membrane swab unit comprises a polyethylene spheres fused membrane.
4. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 wherein said lateral flow membrane swab unit comprises a microporous cellulose membrane.
5. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 wherein said lateral flow membrane swab unit comprises a microporous cellulose nitrate membrane.
6. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 wherein said lateral flow membrane swab unit comprises a microporous membrane that provides migration of said first explosives detecting reagent from said first reagent holder and dispenser and migration of said second explosives detecting reagent from said second reagent holder and dispenser.
7. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 wherein said first explosives detecting reagent comprises Meisenheimer complexes.
8. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 wherein said second explosives detecting reagent comprises a Griess reagent.
9. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 including a third explosives detecting reagent and a third reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to said body, said third reagent holder and dispenser containing said third explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver said third explosives detecting reagent to said lateral flow membrane swab unit when said lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to said body.
10. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 9 wherein said third explosives detecting reagent comprises a Nesslers reagent.
11. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 including an additional explosives detecting reagent and an additional reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to said body, said additional reagent holder and dispenser containing said additional explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver said additional explosives detecting reagent to said lateral flow membrane swab unit when said lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to said body.
12. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 11 wherein said additional explosives detecting reagent comprises a thymol reagent.
13. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 11 including an added explosives detecting reagent and an added reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to said body, said added reagent holder and dispenser containing said added explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver said added explosives detecting reagent to said lateral flow membrane swab unit when said lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to said body.
14. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 13 wherein said added explosives detecting reagent comprises diphenylamine/H2SO4.
15. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 including a supplemental explosives detecting reagent and a supplemental reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to said body, said supplemental reagent holder and dispenser containing said supplemental explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver said supplemental explosives detecting reagent to said lateral flow membrane swab unit when said lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to said body.
16. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 15 wherein said supplemental explosives detecting reagent comprises tetra-n-butylammonium hydroxide or KOH in EtOH.
17. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 wherein said first reagent holder and dispenser comprises an ampoule.
18. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 wherein said first reagent holder and dispenser comprises a breakable ampoule.
19. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 wherein said first reagent holder and dispenser comprises a breakable glass ampoule.
20. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 wherein said first reagent holder and dispenser comprises a squeezable ampoule.
21. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 including an information area on said lateral flow membrane swab unit.
22. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 including color reaction indicators on said lateral flow membrane swab unit.
23. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 including a heater wherein said body and said lateral flow membrane swab unit are adapted to be operatively connected to said heater.
24. The inspection tester apparatus for testing for explosives of claim 1 wherein said first reagent holder and dispenser and said second reagent holder and dispenser are connected to a system for mixing said first explosives detecting reagent and said second explosives detecting reagent.
25. An inspection tester method for testing a suspect surface for explosives, comprising the steps of:
providing a lateral flow membrane swab unit;
providing a first explosives detecting reagent;
providing a second explosives detecting reagent;
swiping said suspect surface with said lateral flow membrane swab unit,
delivering said first explosives detecting reagent to said lateral flow membrane swab unit, wherein if said lateral flow membrane swab unit becomes colored the test is positive for explosives and if no color appears the test for explosives is negative to this point; and
delivering said second explosives detecting reagent to said lateral flow membrane swab unit, wherein if said lateral flow membrane swab unit becomes colored the test is positive for explosives and if no color appears the test for explosives is negative.
26. The inspection tester method for testing a suspect surface for explosives of claim 25 including the steps of providing a third explosives detecting reagent and delivering said third explosives detecting reagent to said lateral flow membrane swab unit, wherein if said lateral flow membrane swab unit becomes colored the test is positive for explosives and if no color appears the test for explosives is negative.
27. The inspection tester method for testing a suspect surface for explosives of claim 25 including the steps of providing additional explosives detecting reagents and delivering said additional explosives detecting reagents to said lateral flow membrane swab unit, wherein if said lateral flow membrane swab unit becomes colored the test is positive for explosives and if no color appears the test for explosives is negative.
28. The inspection tester method for testing a suspect surface for explosives of claim 25 including the step mixing said first explosives detecting reagent and said second explosives detecting reagent before delivering said first explosives detecting reagent and said second explosives detecting reagent to said lateral flow membrane swab unit.
29. The inspection tester method for testing a suspect surface for explosives of claim 25 including the step of heating said lateral flow membrane swab unit.
US11/159,451 2004-06-24 2005-06-22 Spot test kit for explosives detection Abandoned US20060216833A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US58316104P true 2004-06-24 2004-06-24
US11/159,451 US20060216833A1 (en) 2004-06-24 2005-06-22 Spot test kit for explosives detection

Applications Claiming Priority (9)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11/159,451 US20060216833A1 (en) 2004-06-24 2005-06-22 Spot test kit for explosives detection
PCT/US2005/022457 WO2006093517A1 (en) 2004-06-24 2005-06-23 Spot test kit for explosives detection
CA2571400A CA2571400C (en) 2004-06-24 2005-06-23 Spot test kit for explosives detection
AT05857476T AT461439T (en) 2004-06-24 2005-06-23 Sampling kit for the detection of scrub
DE602005020012T DE602005020012D1 (en) 2004-06-24 2005-06-23 Sampling kit for the detection of scrub
EP05857476A EP1766361B1 (en) 2004-06-24 2005-06-23 Spot test kit for explosives detection
JP2007518307A JP2008504530A (en) 2004-06-24 2005-06-23 Spot test kit for detecting explosives
IL180219A IL180219A (en) 2004-06-24 2006-12-20 Spot test kit for explosives detection
US12/785,299 US8669115B2 (en) 2004-06-24 2010-05-21 Spot test kit for explosives detection

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/785,299 Division US8669115B2 (en) 2004-06-24 2010-05-21 Spot test kit for explosives detection

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20060216833A1 true US20060216833A1 (en) 2006-09-28

Family

ID=36576267

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/159,451 Abandoned US20060216833A1 (en) 2004-06-24 2005-06-22 Spot test kit for explosives detection
US12/785,299 Active 2026-11-27 US8669115B2 (en) 2004-06-24 2010-05-21 Spot test kit for explosives detection

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/785,299 Active 2026-11-27 US8669115B2 (en) 2004-06-24 2010-05-21 Spot test kit for explosives detection

Country Status (8)

Country Link
US (2) US20060216833A1 (en)
EP (1) EP1766361B1 (en)
JP (1) JP2008504530A (en)
AT (1) AT461439T (en)
CA (1) CA2571400C (en)
DE (1) DE602005020012D1 (en)
IL (1) IL180219A (en)
WO (1) WO2006093517A1 (en)

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070065944A1 (en) * 2005-08-09 2007-03-22 The Regents Of The University Of California Stabilizing Griess reagent for explosives detection
US20070286771A1 (en) * 2004-06-24 2007-12-13 The Regents Of The University Of California Chemical analysis coupon for the presence of explosives
US20120003746A1 (en) * 2009-01-30 2012-01-05 Mistral Detection Ltd. Method and kit for identification of an explosive substance which contains an oxidant
US8585982B1 (en) 2012-01-31 2013-11-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Field colorimetric test device
US20140080129A1 (en) * 2012-05-14 2014-03-20 Lawrence Livermore National Security, Llc Mobile app for chemical detection
US20170102372A1 (en) * 2014-05-19 2017-04-13 Technion Research & Development Foundation Limited Composition and method for detection of molecules of interest
US20180038743A1 (en) * 2012-10-16 2018-02-08 Avery Dennison Retail Information Services, Llc Sensor with controllable thermal contact for temperature monitoring

Families Citing this family (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7666684B2 (en) * 2006-10-11 2010-02-23 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Determination of explosives including RDX
US10203310B2 (en) 2009-01-26 2019-02-12 Detectachem Llc Chemical detection of substances by utilizing a sample medium impregnated with solid test chemicals
US10260999B2 (en) 2012-09-19 2019-04-16 Amichai Glattstein Sampling device
WO2014081460A1 (en) * 2012-11-20 2014-05-30 Kisner Mark Chemical sequencing and control to expand and enhance detection capabilities utilizing a colorimetric test
WO2014145663A2 (en) * 2013-03-15 2014-09-18 Detectachemn Llc Chemical detection of substances by utilizing a sample medium impregnated with solid test chemicals
WO2016130962A1 (en) 2015-02-13 2016-08-18 Abbott Laboratories Automated storage modules for diagnostic analyzer liquids and related systems and methods
CN105277655B (en) * 2015-12-04 2017-03-08 中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所 The method differentiating explosive using multichannel explosive assessing instrument

Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5638166A (en) * 1995-05-18 1997-06-10 The Regents Of The University Of California Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof
US5679584A (en) * 1995-05-03 1997-10-21 Mileaf; Daryl Sunny Method for chemical detection
US6197574B1 (en) * 1996-11-07 2001-03-06 Srl, Inc. Bacterium detector
US20020132353A1 (en) * 2000-12-27 2002-09-19 Tomoaki Tamura Turntable type liquid reagent stirring apparatus and turntable type liquid reagent stirring/fractionally pouring apparatus using said stirring apparatus
US6470730B1 (en) * 2000-08-18 2002-10-29 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of Transportation Dry transfer method for the preparation of explosives test samples
US20020176160A1 (en) * 2001-03-30 2002-11-28 Nikon Corporation Microscope system
US20040042934A1 (en) * 2002-08-27 2004-03-04 The Regents Of The University Of California Thin layer chromatography residue applicator sampler
US20040217259A1 (en) * 2001-12-17 2004-11-04 Olympus Corporation Microscope system
US20040265169A1 (en) * 2003-06-30 2004-12-30 The Regents Of The University Of California Inspection tester for explosives
US20050064601A1 (en) * 2003-08-12 2005-03-24 The Regents Of The University Of California System for analysis of explosives
US20050175992A1 (en) * 2004-02-09 2005-08-11 Rapid Pathogen Screening Inc. Method for the rapid diagnosis of targets in human body fluids

Family Cites Families (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
IL80311A (en) * 1986-10-15 1990-11-05 Erez Forensic Technology Ltd Test kit for the detection of explosives
US5296380A (en) * 1992-09-03 1994-03-22 Israel Institute For Biological Research Method and kit for detecting explosives
CA2167362A1 (en) * 1995-02-10 1996-08-11 Alexei Dmitri Klimov Apparatus and method for conducting a binding assay on an absorbent carrier material
NZ322108A (en) * 1995-11-13 1999-11-29 Provalis Uk Ltd Diagnostic test apparatus
US5648047A (en) * 1996-03-29 1997-07-15 Kardish; Nitza Device for colorimetric detection of explosives and narcotics
AU762944B2 (en) * 1999-06-23 2003-07-10 Cornell Research Foundation Inc. Dehydration/rehydration of marked liposomes on a test device
US6613576B1 (en) * 2002-01-15 2003-09-02 Sandia Corporation Field kit and method for testing for the presence of gunshot residue
US8252602B2 (en) * 2003-11-07 2012-08-28 Haas Jeffrey S System for explosives detection
US7566573B2 (en) * 2005-12-19 2009-07-28 Idexx Laboratories, Inc. Dual standard curve immunoassay

Patent Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5679584A (en) * 1995-05-03 1997-10-21 Mileaf; Daryl Sunny Method for chemical detection
US5638166A (en) * 1995-05-18 1997-06-10 The Regents Of The University Of California Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof
US6197574B1 (en) * 1996-11-07 2001-03-06 Srl, Inc. Bacterium detector
US6470730B1 (en) * 2000-08-18 2002-10-29 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of Transportation Dry transfer method for the preparation of explosives test samples
US20020132353A1 (en) * 2000-12-27 2002-09-19 Tomoaki Tamura Turntable type liquid reagent stirring apparatus and turntable type liquid reagent stirring/fractionally pouring apparatus using said stirring apparatus
US20020176160A1 (en) * 2001-03-30 2002-11-28 Nikon Corporation Microscope system
US20040217259A1 (en) * 2001-12-17 2004-11-04 Olympus Corporation Microscope system
US20040042934A1 (en) * 2002-08-27 2004-03-04 The Regents Of The University Of California Thin layer chromatography residue applicator sampler
US20040265169A1 (en) * 2003-06-30 2004-12-30 The Regents Of The University Of California Inspection tester for explosives
US20050064601A1 (en) * 2003-08-12 2005-03-24 The Regents Of The University Of California System for analysis of explosives
US20050175992A1 (en) * 2004-02-09 2005-08-11 Rapid Pathogen Screening Inc. Method for the rapid diagnosis of targets in human body fluids

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070286771A1 (en) * 2004-06-24 2007-12-13 The Regents Of The University Of California Chemical analysis coupon for the presence of explosives
US20070065944A1 (en) * 2005-08-09 2007-03-22 The Regents Of The University Of California Stabilizing Griess reagent for explosives detection
US20120003746A1 (en) * 2009-01-30 2012-01-05 Mistral Detection Ltd. Method and kit for identification of an explosive substance which contains an oxidant
US8585982B1 (en) 2012-01-31 2013-11-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Field colorimetric test device
US20140080129A1 (en) * 2012-05-14 2014-03-20 Lawrence Livermore National Security, Llc Mobile app for chemical detection
US9708641B2 (en) * 2012-05-14 2017-07-18 Lawrence Livermore National Security, Llc Mobile app for chemical detection
US20180038743A1 (en) * 2012-10-16 2018-02-08 Avery Dennison Retail Information Services, Llc Sensor with controllable thermal contact for temperature monitoring
US10401234B2 (en) * 2012-10-16 2019-09-03 Avery Dennison Retail Information Services, Llc Sensor with controllable thermal contact for temperature monitoring
US20170102372A1 (en) * 2014-05-19 2017-04-13 Technion Research & Development Foundation Limited Composition and method for detection of molecules of interest

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CA2571400C (en) 2014-06-03
CA2571400A1 (en) 2006-09-08
EP1766361A1 (en) 2007-03-28
JP2008504530A (en) 2008-02-14
US20100229633A1 (en) 2010-09-16
US8669115B2 (en) 2014-03-11
DE602005020012D1 (en) 2010-04-29
WO2006093517A1 (en) 2006-09-08
IL180219A (en) 2011-12-29
IL180219D0 (en) 2007-07-04
EP1766361B1 (en) 2010-03-17
AT461439T (en) 2010-04-15

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Kenkel Analytical chemistry for technicians
CN102971076B (en) FEEDBACK CONTROL in microfluid system
Furton et al. Application of solid-phase microextraction to the recovery of explosives and ignitable liquid residues from forensic specimens
US5648047A (en) Device for colorimetric detection of explosives and narcotics
EP0595641A2 (en) One-step simultaneous immunoassay
Singh Sensors—An effective approach for the detection of explosives
Shriver-Lake et al. On-site detection of TNT with a portable fiber optic biosensor
Rogers et al. Peer reviewed: environmental biosensors: a status report
DE69918135T2 (en) Method for carrying out tests
US5912466A (en) Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof
Harper et al. Identification of dominant odor chemicals emanating from explosives for use in developing optimal training aid combinations and mimics for canine detection
Hindson et al. Autonomous detection of aerosolized biological agents by multiplexed immunoassay with polymerase chain reaction confirmation
US20020028475A1 (en) Displacement assay on a porous membrane
WO1997033519A1 (en) Device for the collection, testing and shipment of body fluid samples
Narang et al. Multianalyte detection using a capillary-based flow immunosensor
WO2007002580A3 (en) Diagnostic as say system with multi -well reagent container
Fair et al. Integrated chemical/biochemical sample collection, pre-concentration, and analysis on a digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip platform
US6477907B1 (en) Detection of explosives in soils
CA2301077C (en) Multi-layer testing column
CN102646570A (en) Multi-dimensional ion mobility spectrometry apparatus and methods
CN101855558A (en) Sample processor
Yinon Field detection and monitoring of explosives
CN102445556A (en) Apparatus for processing a fluid sample
US8414846B2 (en) Devices and methods for the collection and detection of substances
Mayhew et al. Applications of proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the sensitive and rapid real-time detection of solid high explosives

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: ENERGY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Free format text: CONFIRMATORY LICENSE;ASSIGNOR:REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, THE;REEL/FRAME:016767/0857

Effective date: 20050818

AS Assignment

Owner name: LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL SECURITY, LLC, CALIFOR

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, THE;REEL/FRAME:020012/0032

Effective date: 20070924

Owner name: LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL SECURITY, LLC,CALIFORN

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, THE;REEL/FRAME:020012/0032

Effective date: 20070924

AS Assignment

Owner name: REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, THE, CALI

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:PAGORIA, PHILIP F.;WHIPPLE, RICHARD E.;NUNES, PETER J.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:020038/0993;SIGNING DATES FROM 20050617 TO 20050725

STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION

AS Assignment

Owner name: LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL SECURITY, LLC, CALIFOR

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA;REEL/FRAME:031079/0640

Effective date: 20130717