US20060199130A1 - Black smoke generator apparatus and method - Google Patents

Black smoke generator apparatus and method Download PDF

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Publication number
US20060199130A1
US20060199130A1 US11/070,587 US7058705A US2006199130A1 US 20060199130 A1 US20060199130 A1 US 20060199130A1 US 7058705 A US7058705 A US 7058705A US 2006199130 A1 US2006199130 A1 US 2006199130A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
acetylene
delivery
burner head
perforated
burner assembly
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
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US11/070,587
Inventor
Stephan Findley
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Titan Dynamic Systems Inc
Titan Dynamics Systems Inc
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Titan Dynamic Systems Inc
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Priority to US11/070,587 priority Critical patent/US20060199130A1/en
Assigned to TITAN DYNAMICS SYSTEMS, INC. reassignment TITAN DYNAMICS SYSTEMS, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: FINDLEY, STEPHAN D.
Publication of US20060199130A1 publication Critical patent/US20060199130A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41HARMOUR; ARMOURED TURRETS; ARMOURED OR ARMED VEHICLES; MEANS OF ATTACK OR DEFENCE, e.g. CAMOUFLAGE, IN GENERAL
    • F41H9/00Equipment for attack or defence by spreading flame, gas or smoke or leurres; Chemical warfare equipment
    • F41H9/06Apparatus for generating artificial fog or smoke screens
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D14/00Burners for combustion of a gas, e.g. of a gas stored under pressure as a liquid
    • F23D14/28Burners for combustion of a gas, e.g. of a gas stored under pressure as a liquid in association with a gaseous fuel source, e.g. acetylene generator, or a container for liquefied gas
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D91/00Burners specially adapted for specific applications, not otherwise provided for
    • F23D91/02Burners specially adapted for specific applications, not otherwise provided for for use in particular heating operations
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D2900/00Special features of, or arrangements for burners using fluid fuels or solid fuels suspended in a carrier gas
    • F23D2900/21Burners specially adapted for a particular use
    • F23D2900/21007Burners specially adapted for a particular use for producing soot, e.g. nanoparticle soot

Abstract

An apparatus for generating a black smoke signal is provided. The apparatus includes an acetylene burner assembly that further includes an acetylene delivery structure, a perforated burner head disposed at an end of the acetylene delivery structure, and an electric spark igniter disposed adjacent to the perforated burner head, so as to allow a flow of acetylene through the perforated burner head to be ignited. An acetylene flow control system provides acetylene at a rate that causes the acetylene to be partially combusted in atmospheric oxygen through the acetylene burner assembly, so as to generate black smoke.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention pertains to the field of simulators, and more particularly to a black smoke generator apparatus and method that uses acetylene or other gases that generate black smoke due to incomplete combustion in atmospheric oxygen, instead of pyrotechnic chemicals.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Apparatuses and methods for generating black smoke are known in the art. These apparatuses and methods are typically used in weapons training exercises, for theatrical purposes, or in other situations where it is necessary to create black smoke in a manner that does not cause property damage or create a significant risk of property damage.
  • These apparatuses and methods use pyrotechnic devices that are triggered using electrochemical triggering mechanisms, and the pyrotechnic devices are made with hazardous chemicals. In addition to being potentially dangerous and unstable, these pyrotechnic devices create smoke that contains compounds that may be toxic, are expensive to produce, and have a shelf life that requires the pyrotechnic devices to be used within a predetermined period of time or discarded. If the pyrotechnic devices must be discarded, then special precautions must be used to ensure that they are not taken to an incinerator or otherwise handled in a manner that can result in personal injury.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • In accordance with the present invention, an apparatus and method for generating black smoke are provided that overcome known problems with generating black smoke for purposes such as weapons training simulators.
  • In particular, an apparatus and method are provided that utilize acetylene or other fuel materials that generate black some when combusted in atmospheric oxygen due to incomplete combustion of the fuel.
  • In accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, an apparatus for generating a black smoke signal is provided. The apparatus includes an acetylene burner assembly that further includes an acetylene delivery structure, a perforated burner head disposed at an end of the acetylene delivery structure, and an electric spark igniter disposed adjacent to the perforated burner head, so as to allow a flow of acetylene through the perforated burner head to be ignited. An acetylene flow control system provides acetylene at a rate that causes the acetylene to be partially combusted in atmospheric oxygen through the acetylene burner assembly, so as to generate black smoke.
  • The present invention provides many important technical advantages. In one important technical advantage of the present invention is a black smoke generator that uses acetylene or other combustible materials instead of pyrotechnic chemicals, which results in a more stable and less expensive source of black smoke, and which can deliver black smoke at volumes that are not economically feasible using prior art apparatuses and methods.
  • Those skilled in the art will further appreciate the advantages and superior features of the invention together with other important aspects thereof on reading the detailed description that follows in conjunction with the drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a diagram of a black smoke generator in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 2 is a diagram of a black smoke generator in accordance with an exemplary embodiment in the present invention;
  • FIG. 3 is a diagram of a system for providing control of a black smoke generator in accordance with exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 4 is a diagram of an acetylene canister vault in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 5 is a diagram of a system for providing an acetylene tank and a protective housing in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 6 is a diagram of a system for controlling a black smoke generator in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 7 is a diagram of a burner assembly in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention; and
  • FIG. 8 is a diagram of a burner assembly and support in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • In the description that follows, like parts are marked throughout the specification and drawings with the same reference numerals, respectively. The drawing figures might not be to scale, and certain components can be shown in generalized or schematic form and identified by commercial designations in the interest of clarity and conciseness.
  • FIG. 1 is a diagram of a black smoke generator 100 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. Black smoke generator 100 uses acetylene or other suitable materials that are burned in atmospheric oxygen to generate large quantities of black smoke without the use of pyrotechnic chemicals or other dangerous and expensive materials.
  • Black smoke generator 100 includes burner head 102. Burner head 102 is optimized to burn acetylene gas or other suitable materials at a flow rate that results in incomplete combustion of the acetylene in atmospheric oxygen. It is noted in this regard that it is usually necessary to provide an oxidant with acetylene and atmospheric oxygen in order to prevent it from generating smoke. As such, acetylene is usually provided with a dual port burner head where the oxidant is provided through a first port and the acetylene is provided through the second port. Likewise, if acetylene is burned in atmospheric oxygen, it may be mixed with other gases, provided at a low flow rate, or otherwise provided in a manner to reduce the generation of smoke. As such, burner head 102 is configured to provide acetylene flow rates for burning in atmospheric oxygen that are not found in the prior art.
  • Radiant heat/wind screen 104 is disposed behind burner head 102, and shields participants, operators, equipment, or other persons or objects from the effects of burning acetylene through burner head 102. In one exemplary embodiment, the combustion of acetylene or other related materials through burner head 102 can generate infrared radiation, heat, or other types of damaging or dangerous effects. Radiant heat/wind screen 104 thus helps to prevent exposure of personnel or objects to the damaging effects of combustion of acetylene.
  • Flame sensor 106 is disposed near burner head 102, such as through radiant heat/wind screen 104. Flame sensor 106 generates a signal when a flame is present so as to allow an operator at a distance to determine whether acetylene flow through burner head 102 has been ignited, whether the acetylene flow has stopped after ignition so as to quench the flame, or other conditions.
  • Thumb screws 108 are used to hold telescopic support arm 122 in location. In one exemplary embodiment, thumb screws 108 are used to allow burner head 102 to be extended or retracted so as to position burner head 102 in a location where the risk of damage to adjacent materials is reduced.
  • Igniter 124 is disposed adjacent to burner head 102, and allows an operator to ignite cause acetylene that is flowing through burner head 102. In one exemplary embodiment, igniter 124 provides a spark or other suitable ignition energy to ignite acetylene or other suitable materials that are being provided through burner head 102.
  • Base support bracket 120 includes locking pin 118 that locks the angle of telescopic support arm 122. Stablizing legs 126 are also provided for support (only one base leg is shown in FIG. 1 as the second base leg is obscured by telescopic support arm 122). Base support bracket 120 can be bolted to a supporting structure so as to provide additional stability for the location of burner head 102.
  • Fuel hose 110 couples to burner head 102 underneath telescopic support arm 122. Fuel hose 110 extends to a suitable fuel supply, such as an acetylene tank contained within a projectile resistant housing, and may also be coupled to a regulator or other suitable flow control devices.
  • Igniter cable 112 carries energy to igniter 124, such as high voltage electric energy to generate a spark or other suitable energy. Likewise, igniter ground cable 114 is coupled to the base support bracket 120 or other suitable locations on black smoke generator 100 so as to create a ground point so that the voltage difference between igniter 124 and ground can be used to generate a spark or otherwise ignite acetylene flowing from burner head 102.
  • Flame sense cable 116 connects to flame sensor 106 and provides a signal to an operator, a controller, or other suitable locations to allow the operator or controller to determine whether combustion is occurring at burner head 102.
  • In operation, black smoke generator 100 allows black smoke to be controllably generated by the combustion of acetylene gas or other suitable materials in atmospheric oxygen, thus avoiding the need for expensive pyrotechnic chemicals which have been used in the past to generate black smoke. In one exemplary embodiment, black smoke generator 100 allows large amounts of black smoke to be generated in a controllable manner, such as in response to the impact of a projectile on a target (to simulate destruction of the target), after impact is observed, sensed by sound or impact sensors, or in other suitable manners.
  • Black smoke generator 100 can be deployed inside of buildings, vehicles, or other suitable locations, such as by attachment of base support bracket 120 to a suitable service and locating burner head 102 and radiant heat/wind screen 104 in a location where the building, vehicle or other structure will not be damaged, such as by appropriate placement of telescopic support arm 122. In this manner, impact affects can be simulated for training practice with dummy ammunition loads to create a realistic training environment that accurately simulates the effects of target destruction, clearly reflects hits on targets, and otherwise helps to create an environment that simulates an actual battlefield environment.
  • FIG. 2 is a diagram of a black smoke generator 200 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment in the present invention. Black smoke generator 200 provides a different viewpoint which more clearly shows burner head 102, flame sensor 106, radiant heat/wind screen 104, igniter ground cable 114, flame sense cable 116, and fuel hose 110. Igniter ground cable 114 is connected to base support bracket 120, and locking pins 118 are more clearly shown holding telescopic support arm 122 in location.
  • FIG. 3 is a diagram of a system 300 for providing control of a black smoke generator in accordance with exemplary embodiment of the present invention. System 300 includes controller 320 and various controller inputs and outputs. For example, igniter ground cable 114 can couple to ground connection 302, and igniter cable 112 can couple to igniter input 304. As such, controller 320 can generator a high voltage output to igniter cable 112 relative to ground connection 302 that can be used to generate a spark adjacent to the acetylene burner head.
  • Controller 320 includes flame sense input 306, which couples to flame sense cable 116. AC power input 308 or DC power input 310 can be used to receive AC power from AC cable 312 or DC power from DC cable 314. In one exemplary embodiment, both AC and DC power can be used, such as to provide power to lower voltage control functions, and to provide AC power for conversion and generation of a spark or other suitable purposes.
  • Fuel cable 318 is coupled to fuel input 316. In this exemplary embodiment, fuel is provided to the controller 320. The controller 320 regulates the flow of acetylene or other smoke-producing fuels to a burner head. Likewise, controller 320 can control the flow of fuels so as to cause the incomplete combustion of the fuel and resulting generation of black smoke.
  • In operation, controller 320 provides controls to ignite the acetylene or other fuel at the burner head, to provide acetylene to the burner head, or to otherwise ensure that acetylene is provided only when it has been ignited. In this manner, controller 320 prevents gas buildups that can result in explosions or other unwanted consequences from occurring. In one exemplary embodiment, impact sensor inputs or a manual control input can be provided.
  • FIG. 4 is a diagram of an acetylene canister vault 400 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. Acetylene canister vault 400 includes a door 402 and a housing 404, where door 402 can be sealed against housing 404 through the use of a handle 406 and associated latch. Regulator control block 408 receives an input from fuel cable 318 and outputs acetylene through fuel hose 110. Acetylene canister vault 400 provides a secure housing for an acetylene tank, such as to prevent the acetylene tank from being damaged by an inadvertent contact with projectiles and a simulation range or for other suitable purposes.
  • FIG. 5 is a diagram of a system 500 for providing an acetylene tank and a protective housing in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. System 500 includes acetylene canister vault 400 and shows further details of door 402 open, and swung away from housing 404. Likewise, handle 406 is unlatched and top 410 has been opened so that acetylene tank 504 can be placed inside of the vault. Fuel line 502 is coupled to acetylene tank 504, and regulator control block 408 controls the flow of the acetylene through a fuel line (not explicitly shown).
  • In operation, acetylene tank 504 can be placed inside of acetylene canister vault 400 in housing 404. Fuel line 502 is coupled to the regulator of acetylene tank 504, and regulator control block 408 is used to control the flow of acetylene from acetylene tank 504. Door 402 is enclosed and latched with handle 406, and top 410 is placed over the top. In this manner, acetylene tank 504 can be protected from damage resulting from impact by practice projectiles, debris, or other potential damage mechanisms.
  • FIG. 6 is a diagram of a system 600 for controlling a black smoke generator in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. System 600 includes housing 404 which is coupled to black smoke generator 100 through regulator control block 408. Likewise, controller 602 includes arming and safety switch 604 which can be used by an operator to turn the black smoke generators off and on. In one exemplary embodiment, when arming and safety switch 604 is off, the system is placed in safety mode, the flow of acetylene from the acetylene tank and housing 404 is stopped, and the presence of a flame at black smoke generator 100 is monitored. Likewise, an input 606 to a host computer, such as one that can perform target lifting, annual triggering, or a computer interface, is provided. In this exemplary embodiment, a target can be raised or lowered so as to make the target available for practice shooting or targeting with projectile equipment. Likewise, a manual trigger can be provided through input 606 can be used after an impact of the target has been observed, or a computer interface can be connected through input 606, such as where target impact is determined using sensors or other devices that are capable of generating a signal indicating a hit on the target. Housing 404 and controller 602 can be located at a distance from black smoke generator 100, which can be placed on a target or adjacent to the target so as to generate.
  • FIG. 7 is a diagram of a burner assembly 700 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. Burner assembly 700 includes perforated burner head 702, which allows acetylene to be provided at flow volumes that can generate correspondingly large volumes of black smoke. Unlike prior art acetylene burner heads that mix the acetylene with an oxidant and create a jet, such as for cutting or welding purposes, perforated burner head 702 creates a high-flow of acetylene to allow large quantities of black smoke to be generated by the incomplete combustion of the acetylene in atmospheric oxygen without any additional oxidants.
  • Igniter 704 is disposed adjacent to perforated burner head 702 and radiant heat/wind screen 104, and creates a spark that ignites acetylene from perforated burner head 702. Burner head inflow pipe and quick disconnect gas connection 706 allow an acetylene fuel line to be quickly connected and disconnected from an acetylene fuel hose or other suitable fuel sources.
  • FIG. 8 is a diagram of a burner assembly and support 800 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. Burner assembly and support 800 includes perforated burner head 702, radiant heat/wind screen 104, burner head inflow pipe and quick disconnect gas connection 706, telescopic support arm 122, base support bracket 120 and stabilizing legs 126.
  • In one exemplary embodiment, burner assembly and support 800 can be used in a method for generating a black smoke signal. The method includes actuating an acetylene burner assembly that further includes the steps of providing acetylene to an acetylene delivery structure having a perforated burner head disposed at an end of the acetylene delivery structure and providing an electric spark through an igniter disposed adjacent to the perforated burner head to ignite the acetylene. The acetylene flow control system is then actuated so as to provide acetylene at a rate that causes the acetylene to be partially combusted in atmospheric oxygen through the acetylene burner assembly, so as to generate black smoke.
  • The method can further include providing acetylene to the acetylene delivery structure having the perforated burner head disposed at the end of the acetylene delivery structure where projectiles may impact. In this exemplary embodiment, the end of the acetylene delivery structure can be protected from projectile impact, and the acetylene can be provided from an impact resistant housing.
  • The method can also include ensuring that human personnel are not exposed to damaging levels of ultraviolet radiation generated at the perforated burner head, such as by keeping human personnel are at a distance of greater than approximately 30 feet from the perforated burner head.
  • The method can also include actuating the acetylene burner assembly after a target in proximity to the acetylene burner assembly has been struck with a projectile, such as by manually activating the assembly burner assembly, by using an impact detector that measures the frequency of vibration of a structure, sound, or other suitable impact detectors.
  • The method can further include detecting whether a flame is present using a flame detector disposed in the vicinity of the perforated burner head, such as by generating a flame indicator for an operator or otherwise using a flame detector signal. In one exemplary embodiment, a flame detector signal can be input to a controller, which can inhibit the operation of a safety or other signal or control if a flame is present.
  • Although exemplary embodiments of a system and method of the present invention have been described in detail herein, those skilled in the art will also recognize that various substitutions and modifications can be made to the systems and methods without departing from the scope and spirit of the appended claims.

Claims (18)

1. An apparatus for generating a black smoke signal comprising:
an acetylene burner assembly further comprising:
an acetylene delivery structure;
a perforated burner head disposed at an end of the acetylene delivery structure; and
an electric spark igniter disposed adjacent to the perforated burner head; and
an acetylene flow control system providing acetylene at a rate that causes the acetylene to be partially combusted in atmospheric oxygen through the acetylene burner assembly, so as to generate black smoke.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 further comprising a shield disposed adjacent to the acetylene burner assembly for diverting radiant heat and protecting the acetylene burner assembly from wind.
3. The apparatus of claim 1 further comprising a support coupled to the acetylene burner assembly for providing stabilization against projectile impact effects.
4. The apparatus of claim 1 further comprising:
a projectile impact-resistant housing for holding an acetylene tank, the projectile impact-resistant housing capable of withstanding a direct hit from a practice projectile; and
an acetylene delivery system configured to be coupled to an acetylene tank contained within the projectile impact-resistant housing and the acetylene burner assembly.
5. The system of claim 4 wherein the acetylene delivery system comprises a fuel hose having a first coupling at a first end that is adapted to be connected to an acetylene tank valve and a second coupling at a second end that is adapted to be coupled to the acetylene burner assembly.
6. The apparatus of claim 1 further comprising a control unit generating arm control data or safety control data in response to operator-entered data, wherein the control unit causes the acetylene flow control system to turn on in response to the arm control data and to turn off in response to the safety control data.
7. The apparatus of claim 1 further comprising:
a timer unit generating timer data; and
a control unit generating arm control data or safety control data in response to a user selection and the timer data, wherein the control unit causes the acetylene flow control system to turn on in response to the arm control data and to turn off in response to the safety control data.
8. The apparatus of claim 6 further comprising a regulator system coupled to the control unit, wherein the regulator system increases the flow of acetylene in response to the arm control data and decreases the flow of acetylene in response to the safety control data.
9. The apparatus of claim 1 further comprising a flame sensor disposed adjacent to the acetylene burner head assembly, the flame sensor generating an indication whenever a flame is present at the acetylene burner head assembly.
10. A method for generating a black smoke signal comprising:
actuating an acetylene burner assembly further comprising:
providing acetylene to an acetylene delivery structure having a perforated burner head disposed at an end of the acetylene delivery structure; and
providing an electric spark through an igniter disposed adjacent to the perforated burner head; and
actuating an acetylene flow control system so as to provide acetylene at a rate that causes the acetylene to be partially combusted in atmospheric oxygen through the acetylene burner assembly, so as to generate black smoke.
11. The method of claim 10 wherein providing acetylene to the acetylene delivery structure having the perforated burner head disposed at the end of the acetylene delivery structure comprises providing acetylene to the acetylene delivery structure having the perforated burner head disposed at the end of the acetylene delivery structure in an area where projectiles may impact, wherein the end of the acetylene delivery structure is protected from projectile impact.
12. The method of claim 10 wherein providing acetylene to the acetylene delivery structure having the perforated burner head disposed at the end of the acetylene delivery structure comprises providing the acetylene from an impact resistant housing.
13. The method of claim 10 further comprising ensuring that human personnel are not exposed to damaging levels of ultraviolet radiation generated at the perforated burner head.
14. The method of claim 10 further comprising ensuring that human personnel are at a distance of greater than approximately 30 feet from the perforated burner head.
15. The method of claim 10 wherein actuating an acetylene burner assembly comprises actuating the acetylene burner assembly after a target in proximity to the acetylene burner assembly has been struck with a projectile.
16. The method of claim 15 wherein the acetylene burner assembly is manually activated.
17. The method of claim 10 further comprising detecting whether a flame is present using a flame detector disposed in the vicinity of the perforated burner head.
18. The method of claim 17 further comprising generating a flame indicator for an operator.
US11/070,587 2005-03-02 2005-03-02 Black smoke generator apparatus and method Abandoned US20060199130A1 (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070125359A1 (en) * 2005-12-02 2007-06-07 Bosch Garrett E Smoke generator machine
US20100248196A1 (en) * 2009-06-05 2010-09-30 Dan Beishon Clean real smoke fire simulator

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1483928A (en) * 1921-03-05 1924-02-19 Ruth P Clefton Acetylene burner
US4302179A (en) * 1979-06-28 1981-11-24 Laidlaw, Drew & Co. Ltd. Burner holder with quick release and lockup mechanism
US4768948A (en) * 1986-02-11 1988-09-06 J. R. Tucker & Associates Annular nozzle burner and method of operation
US5997278A (en) * 1995-02-16 1999-12-07 Bg Plc Apparatus for providing an air/fuel mixture to a fully premixed burner
US6024082A (en) * 1998-07-15 2000-02-15 Straubel; Jeffrey N. Outdoor cooking device
US6902708B1 (en) * 2000-04-25 2005-06-07 Air Liquide America Corporation Method and apparatus for making carbon black

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1483928A (en) * 1921-03-05 1924-02-19 Ruth P Clefton Acetylene burner
US4302179A (en) * 1979-06-28 1981-11-24 Laidlaw, Drew & Co. Ltd. Burner holder with quick release and lockup mechanism
US4768948A (en) * 1986-02-11 1988-09-06 J. R. Tucker & Associates Annular nozzle burner and method of operation
US5997278A (en) * 1995-02-16 1999-12-07 Bg Plc Apparatus for providing an air/fuel mixture to a fully premixed burner
US6024082A (en) * 1998-07-15 2000-02-15 Straubel; Jeffrey N. Outdoor cooking device
US6902708B1 (en) * 2000-04-25 2005-06-07 Air Liquide America Corporation Method and apparatus for making carbon black

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070125359A1 (en) * 2005-12-02 2007-06-07 Bosch Garrett E Smoke generator machine
US7578225B2 (en) * 2005-12-02 2009-08-25 Garrett Bosch Smoke generator machine
US20100248196A1 (en) * 2009-06-05 2010-09-30 Dan Beishon Clean real smoke fire simulator
US8579631B2 (en) * 2009-06-05 2013-11-12 Dan Beishon Clean real smoke fire simulator

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