CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
This application is a continuation-in-part (CIP) of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/913,636, filed on 6 Aug. 2004, titled “APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR PREVENTING CREDIT CARD FRAUD,” and this application claims priority to International Application No. PCT/US2005/027708, filed 5 Aug. 2005, titled “APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR PREVENTING CREDIT CARD FRAUD,” both of which are incorporated herein by reference as if fully set forth herein.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to the prevention of credit card fraud and more particularly, to a system and method for providing database security measures.
2. Description of Related Art
It is well known that credit card fraud is a major problem in the credit card industry. Such fraud is achieved in many ways, one method being the theft of a cardholder's wallet or purse and the subsequent unauthorized usage of the credit cards and debit cards stored therein. Often, stolen credit cards are used within the first few hours of the theft. Most credit card fraud is detected before the cardholder knows there is a problem. Adding to this problem is the fact that most cardholders carry more than one credit card. Often, the cardholder does not even know how many or which cards he is carrying, and most cardholders do not keep a separate list of all of their credit and debit cards. Credit card companies often end up paying for the majority of unauthorized usage. This reduces the credit card companies' profits and leads to increased fees for cardholders.
Because cardholders often carry more than one credit or debit card, even if one credit card company notices irregular purchases on the credit card and restricts the use of that particular credit or debit card, the fraud continues because the thief simply switches to another credit card in the wallet or purse. Because the cards are usually issued by different companies, it is unlikely that the fraudulent use of one card will be reported to the issuing companies of the other cards. Thus, even if the theft is noticed by the cardholder, it is very difficult and time consuming to contact every financial institution that has issued a credit or debit card to the cardholder.
These methods of restricting the use of credit cards are not without their problems. Computerized monitoring systems occasionally restrict the valid use of a credit card merely when the cardholder's purchasing habits change. For instance, it is possible for a generally frugal shopper to have their credit card locked by the issuing company when the cardholder goes on an unusual shopping spree or travels to an unusual location. The prospect of angering customers by such mistakes makes automated monitoring an undesirable alternative of fraud protection for most credit card companies.
One proposed solution is for the cardholder to register all of his credit, debit, and other financial institution cards under a single credit card fraud protection plan. This allows the plan administrator to contact the credit card issuers in the event a fraud or theft is reported to the plan administrator by the cardholder. Although such credit card fraud protection plans offer a valuable service to the cardholder, it is still incumbent upon the cardholder to realize that a theft or fraud has taken place and to notify the plan administrator. Unfortunately, the theft is usually not realized until several hours or days have passed. This is true for many different reasons, including: the theft occurs while the cardholder is sleeping; the cards are stolen from the cardholders home while the cardholder is away or out of town; the thief only steals the cards, and not the entire wallet or purse; the cards are not actually stolen, but the numbers, expiration dates, and code numbers are copied for use over the phone or the Internet; and a wide variety of other reasons.
- SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Therefore, although there have been significant developments in the area of credit card fraud prevention, considerable shortcomings remain.
There is a need for credit card fraud prevention system that provides an immediate and reliable indication that theft, fraud, or unauthorized use has occurred. There is also a need for a system which increases the arrest rate for credit card theft.
Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide an apparatus and method for preventing and reducing credit card fraud that provides an immediate and reliable notification that theft, fraud, or unauthorized use of a credit, debit, or financial institution card has occurred, and that provides an immediate procedure for canceling and reordering credit cards. It is a further object to provide a system that provides an increase in the arrest rate for credit card theft.
These objects are achieved by providing a trigger card that looks and feels like a credit card and that is carried by a cardholder along with his other credit and debit cards. Although the trigger card looks and feels like a regular credit card, any attempted use of the trigger card immediately signals the theft, fraud, or unauthorized use of the card and sets a variety of systems into action. The first system triggered by use of the trigger card is one that immediately cancels, some, all, or any predetermined number of credit and debit cards stored on a list of cards provided by the cardholder. A second system, which is optional, that is triggered by the use of the trigger card is a law-enforcement system that gathers information about the unauthorized user. This second system may include having the clerk request further identification in the form of a state-issued identification card or biometric data, such as a fingerprint. A third system triggered by the use of the trigger card is one that notifies various agencies, personnel, or third parties who may need to know of the theft, fraud, or unauthorized use. For example, the notification might be sent to state and federal agencies, credit card issuers, credit reporting or monitoring companies, banks, relatives, and to personal email or telephone numbers of the cardholder, among other possibilities. A fourth system that is triggered by the use of the trigger card is one that immediately orders and delivers new cards to the cardholder at a pre-designated address by expedited delivery. This pre-designated address can be the cardholder's home address, his business address, or a “safe” address, such as a bank or post office box, or to a temporary address if the cardholder is away from home.
The present invention provides significant advantages, including: (1) immediate response to fraud notification in the form of card cancellation, notification, and delivery of new cards; (2) increased reporting of credit card theft; (3) simplified “back-to-normal” status for cardholders; (4) increased collection of data about fraudulent users; (5) reduced false positive notifications of fraud or theft; and (6) significantly reduced losses to credit card issuers and retail entities due to credit card fraud.
- DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Additional objectives, features, and advantages will be apparent in the written description that follows.
The novel features believed characteristic of the invention are set forth in the appended claims. However, the invention itself, as well as, a preferred mode of use, and further objectives and advantages thereof, will best be understood by reference to the following detailed description when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a schematic of a wallet storing financial cards and a trigger card according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic of a trigger card according to the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a diagram of a system triggered by the trigger card of FIG. 2 according to the present invention;
FIG. 4 depicts a high level flowchart illustrating security measures of the present invention; and
- DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
FIG. 5 is a diagram of a database system according to the present invention.
The present invention represents the discovery that a trigger card that looks and feels like a credit card, but which is not a credit card, may be placed among actual credit and debit cards in a cardholders wallet or purse to prevent credit card fraud. The trigger card is stored with the cardholder's other financial cards, but not used by the cardholder. Any attempt to use the trigger card as a credit card is a clear indication of theft or fraud; thereby triggering a range of possible responses tailored to reduce fraud. The trigger card and associated system for use will result in more limited fraud exposure and act as a fraud deterrent.
Referring to FIG. 1 in the drawings, a conventional wallet 11 is shown with financial cards 13. It will be appreciated that wallet 11 also represents purses and other devices, including pouches, money clips, checkbook, pockets, drawers, file cabinet, furniture, automobiles, and safes, used by cardholders to carry and store credit, debit, and other financial institution cards. Financial cards 13 may be credit cards, debit cards, debit cards, automatic teller machine cards, cash value cards, voucher cards, or any card used for financial transactions. As is typical, financial cards 13 include graphical designs, logos of banks, logos of credit card institutions, such as VISA and MASTERCARD, identification names, identification numbers, code numbers, expiration dates, and one or more magnetic strips or other digital memory means for storing digital data.
In accordance with the present invention, a trigger card 15 is carried or stored randomly among financial cards 13. Trigger card 15 looks and feels like a typical financial card, in that trigger card 15 preferably includes graphics, logos of banks, logos of popular credit card institutions, such as VISA and MASTERCARD, identification names, identification numbers, code numbers, expiration dates, and one or more magnetic strips or other digital memory means for storing digital data; however, trigger card 15 is not a financial card. Trigger card 15 is preferably manufactured by the same means as financial cards 13.
The purpose of trigger card 15 is to fool an unauthorized user into believing that trigger card 15 is a valid credit card. Thus, it is preferred that trigger card 15 not be identical to any other financial card 13 in wallet 11, but should look as much like a regular credit card as every other financial card 13 in wallet 11. The importance of this is two fold: first, the user should be able to easily avoid using trigger card 15; second, most cardholders do not have two identical cards from the same issuer, so the pair would stand out as a possible trigger card 15. Also, many financial cards 13 offer varying levels of membership with varying issuer logos, card designs, and indicators, such as “Platinum Card,” “Gold Card,” or “Exclusive.” These options are available for trigger card 15 to further insure that the trigger card 15 is indistinguishable from a financial card 13 to anyone but the cardholder. Indeed, trigger card 15 may include features or indicia that entice a thief or an unauthorized user to attempt to use trigger card 15 before attempting to use any other financial card 13. If a thief can be enticed into using trigger card 15 first, then, as explained below, as soon as trigger card 15 is used, the cardholder's valid financial cards 13 are cancelled. This prevents any unauthorized or fraudulent transactions on valid financial cards 13.
Referring now to FIGS. 2A and 2B in the drawings, the front and back of a preferred embodiment of trigger card 15 is shown. As shown in FIG. 2A, the front of trigger card 15 preferably includes typical indicia of a credit or debit card, including a bank logo 17, a 16-digit card number 19, an expiration date 21, a security label 23, such as a hologram, the cardholder's name 25, a credit card institution logo 27, such as VISA or MASTERCARD, and other marketing images. It is important that these indicia look authentic. The back of trigger card 15 is shown in FIG. 2B. Trigger card 15 preferably includes at least one magnetic strip 29 or other means for storing digital trigger data, a signature block 31, and a security code 33. Although trigger card 15 is shown and described as comprising a means for storing digital trigger data in the form of magnetic strip 29, the present invention contemplates trigger card 15 comprising any type of digital storage means according to particular needs. For example, trigger card 15 may comprise a miniature transponder programmable means of storing digital trigger data rather than magnetic strip 15. In addition or as an alternative, trigger card 15 may comprise a Radio Frequency (RF) chip that provides for wireless transmission of digital trigger data rather than magnetic strip 29. Thus, trigger card 15 may include a contactless means of transmitting digital trigger data via the miniature transponder or a wireless means of transmitting digital trigger data via the RF chip of trigger card 15.
In addition to the need for stealth, as more fully explained below, magnetic strip 29 and card number 19 are utilized by trigger card 15 and the associated credit card fraud prevention system of the present invention to communicate that trigger card 15 has been used. For the foregoing reasons, it is preferred that trigger card 15 be manufactured with the same materials and in the same fashion as valid financial cards 13.
It will be appreciated that trigger cards 15 for use in the present invention undergo the same security and usage upgrades over time that regular financial cards undergo. As such, trigger card 15 may include security features that are currently known but not widely used, or may include security or usage features that are not yet known. In other words, trigger card 15 is easily adaptable to keep up with the latest trends in credit card security and usability.
Referring now to FIG. 3 in the drawings, a system 34 according to the present invention that utilizes trigger card 15 to prevent fraud is illustrated. System 34 includes conventional card readers 35 that are used to read, process, and display the status of financial transactions. Card readers 35 may be point of sale readers, as found at typical sales counters and cash registers, automatic teller machines, or any other type of transactional based means. System 34 further comprises one or more computers 36 for use with internet online sales, as described in more detail below. Card readers 35 serve as an interface between financial cards 13 and a system of approval and payment. Upon transfer of information from magnetic strip 29 of financial card 13 to card reader 35, either by manual entry of card number 19, expiration date 21, and/or other data; or by swiping magnetic strip 29 through card reader 35; data about financial card 13 and the current transaction is transmitted to a network 37. It is recalled from the above discussion that although trigger card 15 is shown and described as comprising a means for storing digital trigger data in the form of magnetic strip 29, the present invention contemplates trigger card 15 comprising any type of digital storage means, including but not limited to a miniature transponder programmable means of storing digital trigger data or an RF chip that provides for wireless transmission of digital trigger data.
Network 37 may be a computer network, telephone network, wireless network, the internet, or any other network suitable for transmitting data. Network 37 transmits the data to one or more issuing institutions 39. In addition or as an alternative, network 37 may transmit data to one or more monitoring institutions 40, as described in more detail below. Monitoring institutions 40 may be any type of credit reporting agency or other institutions or agencies. Issuing institutions 39 may be banks, financial services companies, or other institutions or agencies. Issuing institutions 39 evaluate the requested transaction and reply through network 37 to card reader 35, either approving or denying the transaction. For card readers 35 located at point of sale counters and cash registers, the approval or denial by issuing institution 39 may be appropriately displayed on a display of card reader 35.
According to the present invention, if trigger card 15 is used instead of financial card 13, card reader 35 transmits selected data stored on magnetic strip 29 over network 37 to a trigger computer 41. Trigger computer 41 may be located at issuing institution 39 or may be located at a remote location. It will be appreciated that the data from trigger card 15 may be sent from card reader 35 through network 37 to trigger computer 41, from issuing institution 39 through network 37 to trigger computer 41, from institution 39 directly to trigger computer 41, or directly from card reader 35 directly to trigger computer 41. Variations in the order or direction of transmission of the data from trigger card 15 may be easily controlled by appropriate programming on system 34. In the preferred embodiment, trigger computer 41 is programmed to initiate certain anti-fraud procedures based upon the receipt of data indicating an attempted use of trigger card 15.
The procedures initiated by trigger computer 41 include a data acquisition procedure, a card cancellation procedure, a notification procedure, and a card ordering procedure. The cancellation procedure includes the immediate and automatic canceling of all financial cards 13 that have been previously chosen and listed by the cardholder to be cancelled by system 34 in the event trigger card 15 is ever used. Alternatively, the spending limits on the associated financial cards 13 may be severely reduced to allow tracing of the fraudulent use and to allow continued limited use in the event of an accidental use of the trigger card 15.
The data acquisition procedure occurs immediately after trigger card 15 is swiped at a card reader 35 or after the data from trigger card 15 is submitted in an online transaction. In the preferred embodiment, the method and location of use is recorded and transmitted to trigger computer 41, or other computers dedicated to the carrying out of the various procedures of the invention. The data acquisition procedure may be enhanced in several ways upon the use of trigger card 15, such as by trigger computer 41 informing card reader 35 that an official identification card (ID) is required to continue with the transaction. Trigger card 15 and/or magnetic strip 29 may include certain biometric data about the cardholder, such as fingerprint, retinal scan, facial scan, palm print, etc. As such, trigger computer 41 may transmit a request that the user of trigger card 15 submit such information. As such requests for biometric data become more commonplace, such requests may not necessarily alarm a thief that trigger card 15 has been used.
It should be appreciated that in one embodiment of the invention the data acquisition procedure may allow for a transaction to occur at a low cost to increase the likelihood of capturing the thief. For instance, if trigger card 15 is used at a location with poor data acquisition characteristics, such as a remote automatic teller machine with a low quality camera, a withdrawal may be allowed so that the thief may use the trigger card 15, or any of the associated financial cards 13, at a location with better data acquisition equipment, such as at a store with a finger print scanner. Such options may be at the issuer's discretion depending on the importance of catching every thief, or may be an option selected by the cardholder as an extra protection feature.
Because of the common usage of financial cards 13, in one embodiment of the invention, a disable code for canceling the mistaken usage of trigger card 15 by the cardholder may be provided. An example may be the entry of a code within a certain time limit after using the trigger card 15, such as within thirty seconds after usage. This additional feature would not delay the response of the trigger computer 41 unduly, but would allow the cardholder some ability to recover from the mistaken use of trigger card 15.
The notification procedure preferably requires that trigger computer 41 be connected to an external network 43 for automated communication to the cardholder and any other listed parties. For example, trigger computer 41 could send an email notification to the cardholder. Additionally, if the cardholder wishes to list other email addresses to be notified, an email may be sent to the card holder's spouse, children, attorney, company, security service, credit reporting institution, credit monitoring institution, credit card fraud monitoring division, or any other entity that the card holder would want notified of the use of the trigger card 15. Likewise, an automated telephone message may be sent to a list of numbers selected by the cardholder. The message may be computer generated, including the date, time, and location of the unauthorized use of trigger card 15. Additionally, any automated communication may include a personal message pre-recorded by the card holder, such as an introduction to the email, or a voice message added to the telephone notification. Additionally, the notification may include notification of the proper authorities or an appropriate law-enforcement agency based upon the location of the unauthorized use.
The card ordering procedure includes immediate ordering and delivery of replacement financial cards 13 for all financial cards 13 that were cancelled by system 34 and issuance of a new trigger card 15. Delivery may be automatic to a home address, a business address, or a “safe” address, such as a bank or post office box, or to a temporary address if the cardholder is away from home, or delivery of the replacement financial cards 13 may be deferred until the cardholder has replied to the notification. While home delivery tends to be safest, this may be of no help when the cardholder is traveling. Therefore, home delivery may be initiated immediately, or delivery may be delayed pending confirmation of the cardholder's location. This confirmation may be automated by email, text messaging, web page entry, or telephone, for example. Alternatively, the confirmation may be handled by personal communication, such as over the telephone or in person at a financial institution, to ensure that no continuing fraud is perpetrated by the theft of a communication device along with trigger card 15.
In one embodiment of the present invention, one method for associating financial cards 13 with trigger card 15 is to provide a specially adapted card reader 35 inside a financial institution, such as a bank lobby. The cardholder simply swipes trigger card 15 in the special card reader 35 and initiates a signup menu instead of a transaction menu. The cardholder then swipes any financial cards 13 that need to be associated with the trigger card 15. This procedure might require a code to prevent a thief from swiping various financial cards 13 in an attempt to find a trigger card 15. In addition or as an alternative, the specially adapted card reader 35 provides the cardholder the option of setting up a profile in which certain actions are automatically initiated upon the activation of trigger card 15. For example, the profile may include canceling some or all financial cards 13, limiting the credit limits of some or all of financial cards 13, ordering some or all replacement financial cards 13, or other like actions.
Referring now to FIG. 4 in the drawings, the preferred embodiment of a high level flowchart 400 of the present invention is illustrated. Flowchart 400 starts at step 402 with the activation of trigger card 15. It is recalled from the above discussion, that trigger card 15 may be activated by fraudulent means via card readers 35 located at point of sale counters and cash registers or via computers 36 using internet online transactions. Next as represented by step 402, after trigger card 15 is activated via fraudulent activity a digital trigger red flag is transmitted to monitoring institutions 40. Monitoring institutions 40 may be any type of credit reporting company, credit monitoring company, or any other company associated with consumer credit. It is recalled from the above discussion that upon transfer of information from trigger card 15 to card readers 35 or computers 36, data about trigger card 15 and the current transaction is transmitted to issuing institutions 39. Step 402 occurs substantially concurrently as this transfer of information to issuing institutions 39.
The process continues with step 404, in which monitoring institutions 40 initiates a security measure based on the digital trigger red flag received from the fraudulent activation of trigger card 15. Monitoring institutions 40 are capable of substantially simultaneously initiating multiple security measures associated with the account of the fraudulently activated trigger card 15. As an example and not by way of limitation, monitoring institutions 40 may initiate security measures to monitor the account for any suspicious activity, such as for example, request for additional lines of credit, requests for increase in credit limit or credit line, requests for change of address, unusual activity or buying habits, or the like.
Next the process ends at step 412, in which monitoring institutions 40 transmits a report to issuing institutions 39, thereby curtailing fraudulent activity, credit card fraud, and identity theft.
Referring now to FIG. 5 in the drawings, the preferred embodiment of an electronic database system 500 according to the present invention is illustrated. In this embodiment, electronic database system 500 is adapted for use with one or more issuing institutions 39. Electronic database system 500 is also adapted to communicate with a network or other communication access connections, via communications line 502, as described above in connection with FIG. 3. Database system 500 comprises one or more data blocks, such as for example, data block A 510, data block B 520, and data block C 530. Although, database system 500 is shown and described as having data block A 510, data block B 520, and data block C 530, the present invention contemplates more, fewer, or any number of data blocks associated with database system 500, according to the needs of issuing institutions 39.
Data block C 530 comprises account information and other personal consumer data associated with financial information stored at issuing institutions 39. For example, data block C 530 may comprise an account number, an account type, either a normal account or a trigger account, or any other financial or personal consumer data. Additionally data block A 510 and data block B 520 each comprise account information and other personal consumer data associated with financial information stored at issuing institutions 39, similar to those shown and described in data block C 530. In addition or as an alternative, the number of accounts and various account types associated with the data block A 510, data block B 520, and data block C 530 may be more, fewer, or any amount, according the needs of issuing institutions 39. This embodiment of the present invention is in place to curtail identity theft from taking place at the issuing institution, or other electronic databases associated with financial data.
For simplicity and clarity, only so much of database system 500 is shown and described, as is unique to the present invention or necessary for an understanding of the present invention. As such, FIG. 5 shows a trigger account associated with every ten accounts, represented by the account number and further represented by a trigger line associated with every ten accounts. However, it is understood that a trigger line may be denoted via an alpha trigger indicator, a numeric trigger indicator, or even an alphanumeric trigger indicator. In addition, the trigger account does not have a valid financial value associated with it, but instead is designed for the purpose of fooling an unauthorized user into believing that the trigger account is a valid normal account. The trigger account and in particular the trigger indicator may further be encrypted into the account information and may be provided as a stealth means to denote the trigger account. These options are available for the trigger indicator to further insure that the trigger account is indistinguishable from a normal account to anyone but issuing institutions 39.
For example, a trigger line may include an alphanumeric trigger indicator, such as for example, an X1 following the account number, a special number or character placed in the address line, or any other like encrypted form. Although FIG. 5 shows a trigger line of data being associated with every ten accounts, the present invention contemplates a trigger line of data associated with every hundred accounts, every thousand accounts, every ten thousand accounts, every randomly generated number of accounts, or according to the needs of issuing institutions 39.
To further explain the operation of database system 500, an example is now given. In the following example data block C 530 comprises 10,000 accounts. Likewise, data block A 510 comprises 10,000 accounts and data block B 520 comprises 10,000 accounts. Accordingly, database system 500 comprises a total of 30,000 accounts. If database system 500 is accessed, hacked, copied, or otherwise compromised by unauthorized means, the trigger lines associated with each trigger account activate a system or process that automatically cancels, some, all, or any predetermined number of normal accounts in data block A 510, data block B 520, and data block C 530, or otherwise makes them inoperable. For example, if trigger account 0010 of data block C 530 is compromised, a 20 block of both forward and reverse accounts is automatically cancelled and reissued. Additionally, if trigger account 0100 of data block C 530 is compromised, a 200 block of both forward and reverse accounts is automatically cancelled and reissued. Still additionally, if trigger account 1000 of data block C 530 is compromised, a 2000 block of both forward and reverse accounts is automatically cancelled and reissued. In essence, an unauthorized access to any of the data blocks within data system 500 may automatically cancel some, all, or any predetermined number of normal accounts associated with data block A 510, data block B 520, or data block C 530.
Accordingly, in the event of unauthorized access to database system 500, issuing institutions 39 may selectively cancel and reissue normal accounts based on the above system and process. Therefore, issuing institutions 39 are no longer required to cancel all existing normal accounts associated with database system 500, upon the compromise of only a small amount of data or even an unknown amount of data. Instead, issuing institutions 39 can quickly respond to any unauthorized access, by only canceling the affected accounts, thereby providing less time for other unauthorized information to be used and to simultaneously minimize the inconvenience of a cancelled account to its financial customer.
In an alternate embodiment of the present invention, computer 36 comprises database 500. In this embodiment, database 500 may, prevent the unauthorized access to personal consumer accounts stored on a home or office computer. In this manner, financial software associated with computer 36 provides for a trigger account associated with the valid normal financial accounts. If computer 36 is accessed, hacked, copied, or otherwise compromised by unauthorized means, the trigger lines associated with each trigger account activate a system or process that automatically cancels, some, all, or any predetermined number of normal accounts in database system 500, or otherwise makes them inoperable. This embodiment of the present invention is in place to curtail identity theft from taking place at computer 36, or other electronic databases associated with personal financial data.
In an alternate embodiment, the present invention may be carried out by using a trigger number, as opposed to an actual trigger card. In this embodiment, a trigger number is placed in with a group or list of actual valid financial card numbers stored in a list or electronic database. This embodiment protects databases of credit card numbers from being stolen and used electronically, even before the actual credit cards have been created.
In this trigger-number embodiment, one or more selected trigger numbers, which are not valid numbers for a financial cards and which cannot be validated into valid financial cards, are placed in one or more lists or databases of numbers which can be used as or to create valid financial cards. If a list or database containing a trigger number is accessed, copied, or otherwise used by unauthorized means, the trigger number activates a system or process that cancels, some, all, or any number of the valid numbers in the list or database and makes them inoperable. In particular, any attempted use of a trigger number as a financial card number, cancels and/or invalidates all of the numbers or financial cards associated with that list or database, initiates response, cancellation, and notification procedures, such as those explained above, and records and tracks the location of the computer from which the unauthorized access initiated. This system prevents and deters unauthorized users from hacking into, and stealing credit cards numbers from electronic databases, both before the numbers can be used to create valid financial cards and after the cards have been created.
It is apparent that an invention with significant advantages has been described and illustrated. Although the present invention is shown in a limited number of forms, it is not limited to just these forms, but is amenable to various changes and modifications without departing from the spirit thereof.