US20060025049A1 - Spray slurry delivery system for polish performance improvement and cost reduction - Google Patents

Spray slurry delivery system for polish performance improvement and cost reduction Download PDF

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US20060025049A1
US20060025049A1 US11/115,634 US11563405A US2006025049A1 US 20060025049 A1 US20060025049 A1 US 20060025049A1 US 11563405 A US11563405 A US 11563405A US 2006025049 A1 US2006025049 A1 US 2006025049A1
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polishing
polishing fluid
system
nozzle
fluid
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Abandoned
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US11/115,634
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Lizhong Sun
Lei Zhu
Gary Lam
Robert Jackson
Wei-Yung Hsu
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Applied Materials Inc
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Applied Materials Inc
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Priority to US11/115,634 priority patent/US20060025049A1/en
Assigned to APPLIED MATERIALS, INC. reassignment APPLIED MATERIALS, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: HSU, WEI-YUNG, SUN, LIZHONG, ZHU, LEI, JACKSON, ROBERT L., LAM, GARY KA
Publication of US20060025049A1 publication Critical patent/US20060025049A1/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B37/00Lapping machines or devices; Accessories
    • B24B37/04Lapping machines or devices; Accessories designed for working plane surfaces
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B57/00Devices for feeding, applying, grading or recovering grinding, polishing or lapping agents
    • B24B57/02Devices for feeding, applying, grading or recovering grinding, polishing or lapping agents for feeding of fluid, sprayed, pulverised, or liquefied grinding, polishing or lapping agents

Abstract

Methods and apparatus for delivering a polishing fluid to a chemical mechanical polishing surface is provided. In one aspect, the apparatus comprises a vertical arm having a delivery portion located proximate to a circumference of a polishing surface, a first nozzle disposed on the delivery portion and adapted to dispense the polishing fluid with a first adjustable droplet size, and at least a second nozzle disposed on the delivery portion and adapted to dispense the polishing fluid with a second adjustable droplet size. In another aspect of the invention, the apparatus comprises a horizontal arm having a delivery portion disposed at least partially over a polishing surface, a first nozzle disposed on the delivery portion and adapted to dispense the polishing fluid with a first adjustable droplet size across a first region of the polishing surface, and at least a second nozzle disposed horizontally spaced from the first nozzle on the delivery portion, and adapted to dispense the polishing fluid with a second adjustable droplet size across a second region of the polishing surface.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims benefit of U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/592,669, filed Jul. 30, 2004, which is herein incorporated by reference.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • Embodiments of the present invention generally relate to a slurry delivery method and apparatus for polishing a substrate in a chemical mechanical polishing system.
  • 2. Description of the Related Art
  • Chemical mechanical planarization, or chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), is a common technique used to planarize substrates. Chemical mechanical planarization systems generally utilize a polishing head to retain and press a substrate against a polishing surface of a polishing material while providing motion therebetween. In conventional CMP techniques, a substrate carrier or polishing head is mounted on a carrier assembly and positioned in contact with a polishing article in a CMP apparatus. The carrier assembly provides a controllable pressure to the substrate urging the substrate against the polishing article. The article is moved relative to the substrate by an external driving force. Thus, the CMP apparatus effects polishing or rubbing movement between the surface of the substrate and the polishing article while dispersing a polishing composition to effect both chemical activity and mechanical activity.
  • Some planarization systems utilize a polishing head that is moveable over a stationary platen that supports the polishing material. Other systems utilize different configurations including a rotating platen to provide relative motion between the polishing material and the substrate. A polishing fluid is typically disposed between the substrate and the polishing material during polishing to provide chemical activity that assists in the removal of material from the substrate. Some polishing fluids may also contain abrasives.
  • One of the challenges in developing robust polishing systems and processes is providing uniform material removal across the polished surface of the substrate. For example, as the substrate travels across the polishing surface, the edge of the substrate is often polished at a higher rate. This is due in part to the tendency of the substrate to nose drive, that is, centrifugal and frictional forces force the substrate to move toward the exterior of the support surface as the substrate moves across the support surface.
  • An additional problem with polishing uniformity is the distribution of slurry on the polishing surface. If the slurry is unevenly distributed, the polishing surface may not evenly polish across the substrate surface. If too little slurry is used, the polishing surface may distort the features of the substrate surface. If too much slurry is applied, valuable slurry may be wasted. Therefore, a system for delivering a polishing fluid to a chemical mechanical polishing surface that adjustably distributes and conserves slurry is needed.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention generally provides a method and apparatus for delivering a polishing fluid to a chemical mechanical polishing surface. In one aspect, an apparatus is provided for delivering a polishing fluid to a chemical mechanical polishing surface including a vertical arm having a delivery portion located proximate to a circumference of a polishing surface, a first nozzle disposed on the delivery portion and adapted to dispense the polishing fluid with a first adjustable droplet size, and at least a second nozzle disposed on the delivery portion and adapted to dispense the polishing fluid with a second adjustable droplet size.
  • In another aspect, an apparatus is provided for delivering a polishing fluid to a chemical mechanical polishing surface including a horizontal arm having a delivery portion disposed at least partially over a polishing surface, a first nozzle disposed on the delivery portion and adapted to dispense the polishing fluid with a first adjustable droplet size across a first region of the polishing surface, and at least a second nozzle disposed horizontally spaced from the first nozzle on the delivery portion, and adapted to dispense the polishing fluid with a second adjustable droplet size across a second region of the polishing surface.
  • In another aspect, an apparatus is provided for delivering a polishing fluid to a chemical mechanical polishing surface including a delivery arm, two or more nozzles disposed on a delivery portion of the delivery arm with each nozzle adapted to disperse the polishing fluid with an adjustable droplet size wherein each nozzle has an aperture that is independently controlled, a tubing system configured to supply fluid to the two or more nozzles, a pump system to provide a controlled pressure to the tubing system, and a control system to independently control each aperture of each nozzle and the pump system.
  • In another aspect, a method is provided for delivering a polishing fluid to a chemical mechanical polishing surface including dispensing the polishing fluid onto the polishing material with a controlled droplet size across a first region of the polishing material, and dispensing the polishing fluid onto the polishing material with a controlled droplet size across a second region of the polishing material, wherein a first nozzle provides polishing fluid with an adjustable first angle between the arm and the first region of the polishing surface and at least second nozzle provides polishing fluid with an adjustable second angle between the arm and the second region of the polishing surface.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • So that the manner in which the above recited features of the present invention can be understood in detail, a more particular description of the invention, briefly summarized above, may be had by reference to embodiments, some of which are illustrated in the appended drawings. It is to be noted, however, that the appended drawings illustrate only typical embodiments of this invention and are therefore not to be considered limiting of its scope, for the invention may admit to other equally effective embodiments.
  • FIG. 1 is a sectional view of a polishing system having one embodiment of a polishing fluid delivery system.
  • FIG. 2 is a plan view of the system of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 3 is a sectional view of an alternative embodiment of a polishing fluid delivery system.
  • FIG. 4 is a sectional view of an additional alternative embodiment of a polishing fluid delivery system.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • The present invention provides a slurry delivery method and apparatus for polishing a substrate in a chemical mechanical polishing system. In one aspect, the invention provides a slurry delivery method and apparatus that utilizes a plurality of nozzles that may be configured to dispense droplets with adjustable size and adjustable droplet stream path angles.
  • Examples of polishing systems which may be adapted to benefit from aspects of the invention are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,244,935 issued Jun. 12, 2001 by Birang, et al. and U.S. Pat. No. 5,738,574 issued Apr. 14, 1998 to Tolles, et al., both of which are incorporated by reference in their entirety.
  • FIG. 1 depicts one embodiment of a polishing system 100 for polishing a substrate 112 having a polishing fluid delivery system 102 that controls the distribution of polishing fluid 114 across a polishing material 108. Although the polishing fluid delivery system 102 is described in reference to the illustrative polishing system 100, the invention has utility in other polishing systems that process substrates in the presence of a polishing film. The exemplary polishing system 100 includes a platen 104 and a polishing head 106. The platen 104 is generally positioned below the polishing head 106 that holds the substrate 112 during polishing. The platen 104 is generally disposed on a base 122 of the system 100 and coupled to a motor (not shown). The motor rotates the platen 104 to provide at least a portion of a relative polishing motion between the polishing material 108 disposed on the platen 104 and the substrate 112. Relative motion between the substrate 112 and the polishing material 108 may be provided by alternative mechanisms. For example, at least a portion of the relative motion between the substrate 112 and polishing material 108 may be provided by moving the polishing head 106 over a stationary platen 104, moving the polishing material linearly under the substrate 112, or moving both the polishing material 108 and the polishing head 106.
  • The polishing material 108 is supported by the platen 104 so that a polishing surface 116 faces upward towards the polishing head 106. The polishing material 108 is fixed to the platen 104 by adhesives, vacuum, mechanical clamping, or other means during processing. Optionally, and particularly in applications where the polishing material 108 is configured as a web, belt, or linear polishing material, the polishing material 108 is fixed to the platen 104 and is releasable, typically by employing a vacuum disposed between the polishing material 108 and platen 104 as described in the previously incorporated U.S. Pat. No. 6,244,935.
  • The polishing material 108 may be a conventional or a fixed abrasive material. Conventional polishing material 108 is generally comprised of a foamed polymer and disposed on the platen 104 as a pad. In one embodiment, the conventional polishing material 108 is foamed polyurethane. Such conventional polishing material 108 is available from Rodel Corporation, located in Newark, Del.
  • Fixed abrasive polishing material 108 is generally comprised of a plurality of abrasive particles suspended in a resin binder that is disposed in discrete elements on a backing sheet. Fixed abrasive polishing material 108 may be utilized in either pad or web form. As the abrasive particles are contained in the polishing material, systems utilizing fixed abrasive polishing materials generally utilize polishing fluids that do not contain abrasives. Examples of fixed abrasive polishing material are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,692,950, issued Dec. 2, 1997 to Rutherford, et al., and U.S. Pat. No. 5,453,312, issued Sep. 26, 1995 to Haas, et al., both of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties. Such fixed abrasive polishing material 108 is additionally available from Minnesota Manufacturing and Mining Company (3M), located in Saint Paul, Minn.
  • The polishing head 106 generally is supported above the platen 104. The polishing head 106 retains the substrate 112 in a recess 120 that faces the polishing surface 116. The polishing head 106 typically moves toward the platen 104 and presses the substrate 112 against the polishing material 108 during processing. The polishing head 106 may be stationary or rotate or move orbitally, linearly, or in a combination of motions while pressing the substrate 112 against the polishing material 108. One example of a polishing head 106 that may be adapted to benefit from the invention is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,183,354 B1, issued Feb. 6, 2001 to Zuniga, et al., and is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Another example of a polishing head 106 that may be adapted to benefit from the invention is a TITAN HEAD™ wafer carrier, available from Applied Materials, Inc., of Santa Clara, Calif.
  • The polishing fluid delivery system 102 generally comprises a delivery arm 130, a plurality of nozzles 132 disposed on the arm 130 and at least one polishing fluid source 134. The delivery arm 130 is configured to meter polishing fluid 114 at different flow rates along the arm 130 to control the distribution of polishing fluid 114 on the polishing surface 116 of the polishing material 108. As the polishing fluid 114 is generally supplied from a single source, the polishing fluid 114 may be disposed on the polishing material 108 in a uniform concentration but in varying volume across the surface of the polishing material 108.
  • The delivery arm 130 is generally coupled to the base 122 proximate to the platen 104. The delivery arm 130 generally has at least a portion 136 that is suspended over the polishing material 108. The delivery arm 130 may be coupled to other portions of the system 100 as long as the portion 136 is positioned to deliver polishing fluid 114 to the polishing surface 116.
  • The plurality of nozzles 132 is disposed along the portion 136 of the delivery arm 130 which is disposed above the platen 104. In one embodiment, the nozzles 132 comprise at least a first nozzle 140 and a second nozzle 142. Typically, the first nozzle 140 is positioned on the arm 130 radially inward of the second nozzle 142 relative to the center of rotation of the polishing material 108. The distribution of polishing fluid 114 across the polishing material 108 may be controlled to flow polishing fluid 114 from the first nozzle 140 at a rate different than the flow from the second nozzle 142.
  • Nozzles 132 are configured to provide a controlled amount of fluid at an adjustable delivery angle and a controlled droplet size to the surface of the polishing material 108. The nozzles 132 have apertures that may be adjusted to provide flow at a specific angle, for example between 0 and 90° normal to the substrate. The apertures may have a hole size of 50 microns or less. The apertures may also be adjusted to provide a specific droplet size, for example 15 microns. The improved control over the droplet size and angle of fluid delivery provides a more tailored slurry application to the polishing material 108. This improved control facilitates a more uniform thickness, thinner film across the surface of the polishing material 108. The film may have a thickness of 100 mils or less, preferably 50 mils or less. The film may have a thickness as thin as 1 micron or less. Because the film of polishing fluid is thinner and more controlled, less fluid than that required by conventional processes is needed to compensate for fluid losses such as fluid losses due to centrifugal forces across the surface of the polishing material. The nozzle position and flow rates of the first and second nozzles 140 and 142 may be selected to provide overlapping film streams, providing another slurry film tailoring mechanism.
  • The flow rates exiting the first and second nozzles 140, 142 may vary from each other. The flow rates may be fixed relative to each other or be independently adjustable. In one embodiment, the fluid delivery arm 130 includes a polishing fluid supply line 124 that has a tee connection between the first and second nozzles 140, 142. A tee fitting 126 is coupled to the supply line 124 and has a first delivery line 144 coupled to first nozzle 140 and a second delivery line 146 branching therefrom that is coupled to the second nozzle 142.
  • At least one of the nozzles 132 is controlled by a flow control mechanism 150. The flow control mechanism 150 may be a device which provides a fixed ratio of flow between the nozzles 140, 142 or the flow control mechanism 150 may be adjustable to provide dynamic control of the flow rates. Examples of flow control mechanisms 150 include fixed orifices, pinch valves, proportional valves, restrictors, needle valves, restrictors, metering pumps, mass flow controllers and the like. Alternatively, the flow control mechanism 150 may be provided by a difference in the relative pressure drop between the fluid delivery lines 144, 146 coupling each nozzle 140, 142 and the tee fitting 126.
  • The polishing fluid source 134 is typically disposed externally to the system 100. In one embodiment, the polishing fluid source 134 generally includes a reservoir 152 and a pump 154. The pump 154 generally pumps the polishing fluid 114 from the reservoir 152 through the supply line 124 to the nozzles 132.
  • The polishing fluid 114 contained in the reservoir 152 is typically deionized water having chemical additives that provide chemical activity that assists in the removal of material from the surface of the substrate 112 being polished. As the polishing fluid 114 is supplied to the nozzles 132 from a single source such as the reservoir 152, the fluid 114 flowing from the nozzles 132 is substantially homogeneous, not varied in concentration of chemical reagents or entrained abrasives. Optionally, the polishing fluid may include abrasives to assist in the mechanical removal of material from the surface of the substrate. The polishing fluids are generally available from a number of commercial sources such as Cabot Corporation of Aurora, Ill., Rodel Inc., of Newark, Del., Hitachi Chemical Company, of Japan, and Dupont Corporation of Wilmington, Del.
  • In operation, the substrate 112 is positioned in polishing head 106 and brought in contact with the polishing material 108 supported by the rotating platen 104. The polishing head 106 may hold the substrate stationary or may rotate or otherwise move the substrate to augment the relative motion between the polishing material 108 and substrate 112. The polishing fluid delivery system 102 flows the polishing fluid 114 through the supply line 124 to the first and second polishing nozzles 140, 142.
  • FIG. 2 depicts a plan view of the system 100 illustrating the flow of polishing fluid 114 onto the portions 202 and 204 of the polishing material 108. A first flow 206 of polishing fluid 114 flows out the first nozzle 140 and onto the first portion 202 at a first rate while a second flow 208 of polishing fluid 114 flows out the second nozzle 142 and onto the second portion 204 at a second rate. Generally, the first flow 206 is different than the second flow 208 thus providing a controlled distribution of polishing fluid 114 across the polishing surface 116 of the polishing material 108. In one embodiment, the first flow 206 has a rate that is at least about 1.15 times a rate of the second flow 208. The controlled distribution of the polishing fluid 114 across the polishing material 108 allows material removal from the surface of the substrate 112 to be tailored across the width of the substrate 112 by controlling the relative flows of polishing fluid 114 onto the polishing material 108. More polishing fluid 114 may be provided to either the first portion 202 of the polishing material 108 or the second portion 204. Optionally, additional nozzles may be utilized to provide different amounts of polishing fluid 114 on other portions of the polishing material 108 where at least two portions of the polishing material 108 have polishing fluid 114 disposed thereon at different flow rates.
  • In one mode of operation, the substrate 112 being polished by the system 100 is processed with polishing fluid 114 provided from the first nozzle 140 and the second nozzle 142. Polishing fluid 114 is disposed on the polishing material 108 from the first nozzle 140 at a first rate. Polishing fluid 114 is simultaneously disposed on the polishing material 108 from the second nozzle 142 at a second rate. In one embodiment, the first flow is about 1.2 to about 20 times the second flow rate.
  • As depicted in FIG. 2, the first nozzle 140 generally provides polishing fluid 114 at a first rate to a first portion 202 of the polishing surface 116 while the second nozzle 142 provides polishing fluid 114 at a second rate to a second portion 204 of the polishing surface 116. The portions 202 and 204 may overlap, especially when the apertures of nozzles 140, 142 are selected to target a specific region across polishing material 108. The spray patterns 206, 208 are selected to provide variable slurry distribution across polishing material 108, often to provide more slurry to the exterior or towards the diameter of the polishing material. For example, portion 204 may require more slurry than portion 202. In this manner, the distribution of polishing fluid 114 across the width of the polishing material 108 is regulated.
  • The control scheme prevents loss of slurry by creating uniform slurry overlap of portions 202 and 204 and encourages a polishing profile that is tailored to specific substrates based on repeated substrate measurements before and after polishing. Alternativley, adjusting the control scheme may occur substrate by substrate. Referring to FIG. 1, configurations having dynamic, adjustable control mechanisms 150 such as proportional valves, needle valves, mass flow controllers, metering pumps, peristaltic pumps and the like, the distribution of polishing fluid 114 on the polishing material 108 may be tailored during the process. For example, the rate of polishing fluid from the first nozzle 140 may be applied to the polishing material 108 at a first rate during one portion of the process and adjusted to a second rate during another portion of the process. The rate of polishing fluid 114 delivery from the second nozzle 142 may also be varied during the polishing process. The adjustments of polishing fluid flows from nozzles 140, 142 are infinite. The use of additional nozzles disposed between the first nozzle 140 and the second nozzle 142 allows the uniformity profile to be further modified and locally shaped by providing more or less polishing fluid 114 at a nozzle disposed between the first nozzle 140 and the second nozzle 142 (see discussion of FIG. 3 below).
  • Optionally, a polishing fluid delivery system having dynamic control over the flow rates from the nozzles 140, 142 may include a metrology device 118 to provide process feed-back for real-time adjustment of the polishing fluid distribution. Typically, the metrology device 118 detects a polishing metric such as time of polish, thickness of the surface film being polished on the substrate, surface topography, or other substrate attribute.
  • In one embodiment, the polishing material 108 may include a window (not shown) that allows a metrology device 118 to view the surface of the substrate 112 disposed against the polishing material 108. The metrology device 118 generally includes a sensor 162 that emits a beam 164 that passes through the window (not shown) to the substrate 112. A first portion of the beam 164 is reflected by the surface of the substrate 108 while a second portion of the beam 164 is reflected by a layer of material underlying the polished surface of the substrate 112. The reflected beams are received by the sensor 162 and a difference in wavelength between the two portions of reflected beams are resolved to determine the thickness of the material on the surface of the substrate 112. Generally, the thickness information is provided to a controller (not shown) that adjusts the polishing fluid distribution on the polishing material 108 to produce a desired polishing result on the substrate's surface. One monitoring system that may be used to advantage is described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 5,893,796, issued Apr. 13, 1999 by Birang, et al., and is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • Optionally, the metrology device 118 may include additional sensors to monitor polishing parameters across the width of the substrate 112. The additional sensors allow for the distribution of polishing fluid 114 to be adjusted across the width of the substrate 112 so that more or less material is removed in one portion relative to another portion of the substrate 112. Additionally, the process of adjusting the flow rates from the nozzles 140, 142 may occur iteratively over the course of a polishing sequence to dynamically control the rate of material removal across the substrate 112 at any time. For example, the center of the substrate 112 may be polished faster by providing more polishing fluid to the center of the substrate 112 at the beginning of a polishing sequence while the perimeter of the substrate 112 may be polished faster at the end of the polishing sequence by providing more polishing fluid to the perimeter area.
  • FIG. 3 depicts another embodiment of a polishing fluid delivery system 300 having a plurality of nozzles 302. Angles 320 and 322 illustrate the angles that may be adjusted to modify the resulting slurry film properties such as distribution profile or thickness. The system 300 may be configured similarly to the fluid delivery system 102 of FIG. 1 (having a single polishing fluid delivery line) or may be configured so that each nozzle 302 has a dedicated supply line 304 coupled to a fluid source 306. Fluidly coupled to each supply line 304 is a metering device 308. The metering device 308 may be a metering pump such as a gear pump, a peristaltic pump, a positive displacement pump, a diaphragm pump and the like. Each metering device 308 is coupled to a controller (not shown) that controls the amount of polishing fluid 114 provided to each nozzle 302 of the system 300. As each metering device 308 is independently controllable, the flow of polishing fluid 114 from each of the plurality of nozzles 302 is controlled independent from the other nozzles so that the distribution of polishing fluid 114 on the polishing material 108 can be arranged in practically infinite configurations.
  • As described above, each metering device may vary the flow of polishing fluid delivered to the polishing material 108 over the course of polishing. For example, one of the nozzles 302 may increase the flow of polishing fluid 114 flowing therethrough while the substrate is being polished. Another one of the nozzles may decrease the flow of polishing fluid 114 during polishing. Of course, infinite variations in nozzle flow rates at any time may be configured to produce a desired polishing result. As the flow of polishing fluid is independently controllable through each nozzle 302, polishing attributes may be tailored across the width of the substrate over the duration of substrate processing.
  • The fluid delivery source 306 may be used in concert with a metrology device 312 to control the rate or location of material removal from a surface 318 of the substrate 112 being polished. Generally, the rate of removal or remaining thickness of material disposed on the surface 318 of the substrate 112 may be detected by the metrology device 312 and provided to the controller which, in turn, adjusts the various flow rates exiting each nozzle 302 to produce a desired polishing result, for example, faster polishing on the perimeter of the substrate 112.
  • In one embodiment, the polishing material 108 may include a window 310 that allows the metrology device 312 to view the surface 318 of the substrate 112 disposed against the polishing material 108. The metrology device 312 generally includes a sensor 314 that emits a beam 316 that passes through the window 310 to the substrate 112. A first portion of the beam 316 is reflected by the surface 318 of the substrate 108 while a second portion of the beam 316 is reflected by a layer of material underlying the polished surface 318 of the substrate 112. The reflected beam is received by the sensor 314 and a difference in wavelength between the two portions of reflected beam is resolved to determine the thickness of the material on the surface 318 of the substrate 112. Generally, the thickness information is provided to the controller that adjusts the polishing fluid distribution on the polishing material 108 to produce a desired polishing result on the substrate surface 318.
  • Optionally, the metrology device 312 may include additional sensors to monitor polishing parameters across the width of the substrate 112. The additional sensors allow for the distribution of polishing fluid 114 to be adjusted across the width of the substrate 112 so that more or less material is removed in one portion relative to another portion of the substrate 112. Additionally, the process of adjusting the flow rates from the nozzles 302 may occur iteratively over the course of a polishing sequence to dynamically control the rate of material removal across the substrate 112 at any time. For example, the center of the substrate 112 may be polished faster by providing more polishing fluid to the center of the substrate 112 at the beginning of a polishing sequence while the perimeter of the substrate 112 may be polished faster at the end of the polishing sequence by providing more polishing fluid to the perimeter area.
  • FIG. 4 is an additional alternative embodiment of a slurry distribution system 400. A delivery arm 401 is vertically positioned to support the nozzles 402. That is, the delivery arm 401 is static and has less range of motion than the arm of embodiments of FIGS. 1-3. The polishing fluid 414 flows from the nozzles 402 at angles 410, 412 to the polishing material 408 that is supported by the platen 403. Slurry is supplied to the nozzles 402 from the slurry reservoir 452 through the fluid supply line 424. The fluid supply line 424 is pressurized by the pump 454.
  • Nozzles 132, 402 are configured to provide a controlled amount of fluid at an adjustable delivery angle and an adaptable droplet size to the surface of the polishing material 108, 408. The nozzles 132, 402 have apertures that may be adjusted, for example, from 0 to 90° to provide flow at a specific angle 410, 412. The apertures may also be adjusted to provide a specific droplet size, for example 15 Å. The improved control over the droplet size and angle of fluid delivery provides a more tailored slurry application to the polishing material 108, 408. This improved control facilitates a more uniform thickness, thinner film across the surface of the polishing material 108, 408. Because the film of polishing fluid is thinner and more controlled, less fluid than that required by conventional processes is needed to compensate for fluid losses due to centrifugal forces across the surface of the polishing material.
  • While the foregoing is directed to embodiments of the present invention, other and further embodiments of the invention may be devised without departing from the basic scope thereof, and the scope thereof is determined by the claims that follow.

Claims (21)

1. A system for delivering a polishing fluid to a chemical mechanical polishing surface comprising:
a horizontal arm having a delivery portion disposed at least partially over a polishing surface;
a first nozzle disposed on the delivery portion and adapted to dispense the polishing fluid with a first adjustable droplet size across a first region of the polishing surface; and
at least a second nozzle disposed horizontally spaced from the first nozzle on the delivery portion, and adapted to dispense the polishing fluid with a second adjustable droplet size across a second region of the polishing surface.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the first nozzle dispenses polishing fluid with an adjustable first angle between the arm and the first region of the polishing surface and the at least second nozzle dispenses polishing fluid with an adjustable second angle between the arm and the second region of the polishing surface.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein the first and second nozzles provide polishing fluid at different flow rates.
4. The system of claim 3, wherein the first and second nozzles combined provide a total flow rate of less than about 100 mL/min polishing fluid.
5. A system for delivering a polishing fluid to a chemical mechanical polishing surface comprising:
a vertical arm having a delivery portion located proximate to a circumference of a polishing surface;
a first nozzle disposed on the delivery portion and adapted to dispense the polishing fluid with a first adjustable droplet size; and
at least a second nozzle disposed on the delivery portion and adapted to dispense the polishing fluid with a second adjustable droplet size.
6. The system of claim 5, wherein the first nozzle provides polishing fluid with an adjustable first angle between the arm and the first region of the polishing surface and the at least second nozzle provides polishing fluid with an adjustable second angle between the arm and the second region of the polishing surface.
7. The system of claim 5, wherein the first and second nozzles provide polishing fluid at different flow rates.
8. The system of claim 5, wherein the first and second nozzles combined provide a total flow rate of less than about 100 mL/min polishing fluid.
9. The system of claim 8, wherein each nozzle has an independently adjustable polishing fluid flow rate.
10. The system of claim 5, wherein the first nozzle dispenses polishing fluid across a first region of the polishing surface and the at least second nozzle dispenses the polishing fluid across a second region of the polishing surface.
11. A system for delivering a polishing fluid to a chemical mechanical polishing apparatus comprising:
a delivery arm having a delivery portion;
two or more nozzles disposed on the delivery portion of the delivery arm with each nozzle adapted to disperse the polishing fluid with an adjustable droplet size wherein each nozzle has an aperture that is independently controllable;
a tubing system configured to supply fluid to the two or more nozzles;
a pump system to provide a controlled pressure to the tubing system; and
a control system to independently control each aperture of each nozzle and the pump system.
12. The system of claim 11, wherein the nozzles provide polishing fluid droplet delivery streams having adjustable angles between the arm and a polishing surface.
13. The system of claim 11, wherein the two or more nozzles each provide polishing fluid at a different flow rate.
14. The system of claim 11, wherein the first and second nozzles combined provide a total flow rate of less than about 100 mL/min polishing fluid.
15. The system of claim 14, wherein the polishing fluid flow rates of each nozzle are independently controllable.
16. The system of claim 11, wherein the delivery arm is a vertical arm having a delivery portion located proximate to a circumference of a polishing surface.
17. The system of claim 11, wherein the delivery arm is a horizontal arm having a delivery portion disposed at least partially over a polishing surface.
18. A method of supplying a polishing fluid to a chemical mechanical polishing surface comprising:
dispensing the polishing fluid onto the polishing material with a controlled droplet size across a first region of the polishing material; and
dispensing the polishing fluid onto the polishing material with a controlled droplet size across a second region of the polishing material,
wherein a first nozzle provides polishing fluid with an adjustable first angle between the arm and the first region of the polishing surface and at least a second nozzle provides polishing fluid with an adjustable second angle between the arm and the second region of the polishing surface.
19. The method of claim 18, wherein the individual nozzles provide polishing fluid at different flow rates.
20. The method of claim 18, wherein the first and second nozzles combined provide less than about 100 mL/min polishing fluid.
21. The method of claim 20, wherein the polishing fluid flow rates are independently controlled.
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070128982A1 (en) * 2005-12-01 2007-06-07 Applied Materials, Inc. Bubble suppressing flow controller with ultrasonic flow meter
US7297047B2 (en) 2005-12-01 2007-11-20 Applied Materials, Inc. Bubble suppressing flow controller with ultrasonic flow meter
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US10500694B2 (en) * 2013-01-11 2019-12-10 Applied Materials, Inc. Chemical mechanical polishing apparatus and methods

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