US20050164372A1 - System and method for separating micro-particles - Google Patents

System and method for separating micro-particles Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20050164372A1
US20050164372A1 US11087174 US8717405A US2005164372A1 US 20050164372 A1 US20050164372 A1 US 20050164372A1 US 11087174 US11087174 US 11087174 US 8717405 A US8717405 A US 8717405A US 2005164372 A1 US2005164372 A1 US 2005164372A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
particles
light
intensity pattern
light intensity
system
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11087174
Inventor
Osman Kibar
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Celula Inc
Original Assignee
Genoptix Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05HPLASMA TECHNIQUE; PRODUCTION OF ACCELERATED ELECTRICALLY-CHARGED PARTICLES OR OF NEUTRONS; PRODUCTION OR ACCELERATION OF NEUTRAL MOLECULAR OR ATOMIC BEAMS
    • H05H3/00Production or acceleration of neutral particle beams, e.g. molecular or atomic beams
    • H05H3/04Acceleration by electromagnetic wave pressure
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N30/00Investigating or analysing materials by separation into components using adsorption, absorption or similar phenomena or using ion-exchange, e.g. chromatography or field flow fractionation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/10Investigating individual particles
    • G01N15/14Electro-optical investigation, e.g. flow cytometers
    • G01N2015/149Sorting the particles
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N30/00Investigating or analysing materials by separation into components using adsorption, absorption or similar phenomena or using ion-exchange, e.g. chromatography or field flow fractionation
    • G01N30/02Column chromatography

Abstract

A system and method for separating particles is disclosed in which the particles are exposed to a moving light intensity pattern which causes the particles to move at a different velocities based on the physical properties of the particles. This system and method allows particles of similar size and shape to be separated based on differences in the particles dielectric properties.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 09/843,902, filed Apr. 27, 2001, which is is related to and claims priority from provisional Application Ser. No. 60/248,451 filed Nov. 13, 2000, which is incorporated by reference as if fully set forth herein.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • This invention relates to systems and methods for separating micro-particles and/or nano-particles. More particularly, this invention relates to systems and methods for separating micro-particles and/or nano-particles by using a light source to create a separation force on the particles based on their physical properties.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • At the present, there are sorting methods to separate particles, such as cells and other biological entities, based on their size, density, and charge, but none that sort based on optical dielectric properties. For example, laser tweezers have been described that use the interaction of light with a particle to move the particle around. However, in this case, a priori knowledge of which particle to move is required for the tweezers to be used as a sorting mechanism. In other words, tweezers are more of a ‘manipulation and/or transportation’tool, rather than a ‘sorting’ tool. Thus, current methods and systems for separating particles require prior identification of the particles to be separated.
  • There is a need for a system and method for separating particles which does not require prior identification of the particles to be separated There is also a need for a system and method for separating particles which does not damage the particles.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • These needs and others are satisfied by a system and method for separating particles according to the present invention which comprises means for creating a light intensity pattern in the vicinity of the particles and means for moving the light intensity pattern with respect to the particles. The means for creating a light intensity pattern can comprise a light source for producing two light beams aimed to interfere with each other in the vicinity of the two particles.
  • In one embodiment, the system comprises a beam splitter and a reflector. In this embodiment, the light source is configured to produce a light beam aimed at the beam splitter. The beam splitter is configured to split the light beam into a first light beam directed toward the particles and a second light beam directed toward the reflector. The reflector is configured to redirect the second light beam toward the particles such that the first and second light beams interfere creating a light intensity pattern in the vicinity of the particles.
  • An actuator can be connected to the reflector for moving the reflector to move the light intensity pattern. Alternatively, the actuator can be connected to the light source and beam splitter for moving the light source and beam splitter.
  • It is also possible to move the particles relative to the light intensity pattern to create the moving light intensity pattern. In order to do this, the particles can be carried on a slide connected to an actuator configured to move the slide relative to the light intensity pattern.
  • The light intensity pattern can also be moved by using a phase modulator to modulate the phase of one of the two light beams with respect to the other. This causes the light intensity pattern created by the interference of the light beams to move spatially. The phase modulator can be place in the path of either the first light beam or second light beam. Alternatively, an amplitude modulator can be used, in which case the interference pattern will move temporally.
  • Any material that responds to optical sources may be utilized with these inventions. In the biological realm, examples would include cells, organelles, proteins and DNA, and in the non-biological realm could include metals, semiconductors, insulators, polymers and other inorganic materials.
  • Preferably, the light source comprises a laser producing a light beam having a wavelength of between 0.31 μm and 1.8 μm. Using a light beam in this wavelength range minimizes the chance that damage will be caused to the particles if they are living cells or biological entities. Even more preferably, the light beam wavelength range could be 0.8 μm and 1.8 μm. Good, commercially available lasers are available which produce a light beam having a wavelength of 1.55 μm.
  • In an alternative embodiment, the system comprises a light source and an optical mask. The light source is configured for producing a light beam directed through the optical mask toward the particles. The optical mask creates a light intensity pattern in the vicinity of the particles. An actuator can be connected to the light source and optical mask for moving the light source and optical mask to create a moving light intensity pattern. Alternatively, the optical mask can be specially configured for producing a moving light intensity pattern in the vicinity of the at least two particles. Another alternative is to include a phase modulator positioned in the light beam path for modulating the phase of the light beam to create a moving light intensity pattern.
  • In yet another embodiment the system can comprise a plurality of light sources positioned adjacent to each other for producing a plurality of light beams directed toward the particles The light beams can be aimed to slightly overlap each other to create a light intensity pattern. An actuator can be included for moving the plurality of light sources, thus causing the light intensity pattern to move spatially. Alternatively, the light beams can be dimmed and brightened in a pattern for creating a temporally moving light intensity pattern.
  • A method for separating particles according to the present invention comprises the steps of applying a light source to create a light intensity pattern, exposing particles to the light intensity pattern producing force on each particle and moving the light intensity pattern with respect to the particles causing the particles to move with the light intensity pattern at velocities related to their respective physical properties. If the particles have different physical properties they will move at a different velocity causing the particles to separate.
  • Preferably, the step of applying a light source comprises interfering at least two optical light beams as discussed herein with respect to one embodiment of a system according to the present invention.
  • Alternatively, the step of applying a light source can comprise using an optical mask to create the light intensity pattern. The optical mask can comprise an amplitude mask, a phase mask, a holographic mask, or any other suitable mask for creating a light intensity pattern.
  • In another embodiment of a method according to the present invention the step of applying a light source can comprise periodically dimming and brightening a plurality of light sources to create the light intensity pattern.
  • Preferably, the light intensity pattern comprises at least two peaks and at least two valleys. The light intensity pattern can be periodic, sinusoidal, nonsinusoidal, constant in time, or varying in time. If the light intensity pattern is periodic, the period can be optimized to create separation between particles.
  • In one embodiment, the method comprises moving the light intensity pattern at a constant velocity. The velocity of the light intensity pattern can be optimized to cause separation based on the physical properties of the particles.
  • In an alternative embodiment, the method comprises allowing the at least two particles to separate, and then suddenly “jerking” the light intensity pattern to cause particles with different physical properties to fall into different valleys of a potential pattern created by the light intensity pattern.
  • The method light intensity pattern can be tuned to a resonant frequency corresponding to the physical properties of one type of particles to optimize separation of that type of particle. The light intensity pattern can be applied in multiple dimensions and the period of the light intensity pattern can be varied in each dimension.
  • The particles can be carried in a medium, such as a fluidic medium, which can be either guided or non-guided. If the medium is guided it can include fluidic channels.
  • The method can also include superimposing a gradient onto the light intensity pattern. The gradient can be spatially constant or varying and can comprise temperature, pH, viscosity, etc. Additional external forces can also be applied, such as magnetism, electrical forces, gravitational forces, fluidic forces, frictional forces, electromagnetic forces, etc., in a constant or varying fashion.
  • A monitoring and/or feedback system can also be included for monitoring the separation between particles and providing feedback information as to separation and location of particles.
  • Further object, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following description and drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIGS. 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B and 3 are block diagrams of various embodiments of a system according to the present invention;
  • FIG. 4A is a graphical depiction of an optical grating produced light intensity pattern generated by a system according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 4B is a graphical depiction of an energy pattern corresponding to the light intensity pattern of FIG. 4A.
  • FIG. 4C is a graphical depiction of a potential energy pattern corresponding to the light intensity pattern of FIG. 4A.
  • FIGS. 5A, 5B and 5C are a graphical depiction of a moving potential energy pattern generated by a system and method according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 6 is an enlarged sectional view of a fluidic micro-channel with a graphical depiction of the moving light intensity pattern of FIG. 4A superimposed in the fluidic micro-channel.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • In accordance with the present invention, a system and method for separating particles is described that provides distinct advantages when compared to those of the prior art. The invention can best be understood with reference to the accompanying drawing figures.
  • Referring now to the drawings, a system according the present invention is generally designated by reference numeral 10. The system 10 is configured to generate a moving light intensity pattern that produces a force on the particles to be separated. The force causes the particles to move at velocities related to certain physical properties of each particle, such as the particle's optical dielectric constant. Particles with different physical properties will move at different velocities causing the particles to separate based on their physical properties.
  • One embodiment of a system 10 according to the present invention is shown in FIG. 1. In this embodiment, the system 10 comprises a light source 12, a beam splitter 14, and a reflector 16. A motor 18 can be connected to the reflector 16 for moving or rotating the reflector 16. A control system 19 is connected to the motor 18 for controlling operation of the motor 18 and thus movement of the reflector 16.
  • The particles to be separated can be placed in a medium on a slide 22. In one embodiment of the invention, the slide 22 includes a non-guided fluidic medium, such as water. In another embodiment, shown in FIG. 6, the slide 22 includes fluidic channels 500, 502 and 504 through which the particles 410, 412 travel.
  • The medium can be non-guided or guided. One example of a guided medium is a medium comprising fluidic channels as is well known in the art.
  • The light source 12 is positioned to produce a light beam 24 that is aimed at the beam splitter 14. The beam splitter 14 splits the light beam 24 into two light beams 26, 28 and directs one of the light beams 26 toward the reflector 16 and the other light beam 28 toward the slide 22. The reflector 16 redirects light beam 26 toward the slide 22. The light beams 26, 28 are focused near the particles and aimed to interfere with each other to create a light intensity pattern near the particles.
  • The motor 18 can be used to move or rotate the reflector 16, which causes the light intensity pattern to move in space. A control system 19 is connected to the motor 18 to control operation of the motor 18. By moving the light intensity pattern in space and keeping the slide 22 fixed, forces created on the particles by the light intensity pattern cause the particles to move at velocities related to each particle's physical properties as described herein. The particles can also be caused to move by fixing the light intensity pattern in space and mechanically moving the slide 22 carrying the particles. This causes the light intensity pattern to move in space relative to the particles.
  • Alternatively, motor 18 can be connected to the light source 12 and beam splitter 14. In this embodiment the light source 12 and beam slitter 14 can be moved or rotated by the motor 18. This causes light beam 28 to move relative to light beam 26, which, in turn, causes the light intensity pattern to move.
  • In another embodiment, shown in FIG. 1B, the light intensity pattern is moved by modulating the relative phase of the light beams 26, 28. In this embodiment, a phase modulator 20 is positioned in the path of light beam 26. The phase modulator 20 is configured to modulate the phase of light beam 26 relative to the phase of light beam 28. A control system 19 is connected to the phase modulator 20 for controlling operation of the phase modulator 20. Alternatively, the phase modulator 20 can be positioned in the path of light beam 28 for modulating the phase of light beam 28 relative to the phase of light beam 26.
  • Modulating the phases of light beams 26 and 28 relative to each other causes the light intensity pattern created by the interference of light beams 26 and 28 to move. Moving the light intensity pattern relative to the particles creates forces on the particles related to the physical properties of each particle. As described above, these forces will cause particles with different physical properties to move at different relative velocities.
  • Alternatively, an amplitude modulator can be used instead of the phase modulator 20. The amplitude modulator can be used for modulating the amplitude of the light beams 24, 26, 28 thus creating a moving light intensity pattern.
  • Preferably, the light source 12 comprises a laser for producing light beams 26 and 28 coherent with respect to each other. Alternatively, two light sources could be used to produce light beams 26 and 28.
  • In applications where the particles are biological material or living cells, it is preferable that the laser produce light beams 26, 28 having a wavelength of between 0.3 μm and 1.8 μm so as not to generate excessive heat that could damage the particles. More preferably, the laser would produce light beams 26, 28 having a wavelength of greater than 0.8 μm. Very good lasers are commercially available which produce light beams 26, 28 having a wavelength of 1.55 μm and would be appropriate for use in a system 10 according to the present invention. Alternatively, the light source 12 can produce incoherent light beams 26, 28.
  • In another embodiment of the invention, shown in FIG. 2A, the system 110 comprises a light source 112 and an optical mask 114. A motor 116 can be connected to the light source 112 and optical mask 114 for moving or rotating the light source 112 and optical mask 114. A control system 119 is connected to the motor 116 for controlling operation of the motor 116 and thus movement of the light source 112 and optical mask 114. In this embodiment, the light source 112 produces a light beam 118 that is aimed through the optical mask 114 toward a slide 120 holding the particles to be separated.
  • The optical mask 114 is configured to create a light intensity pattern near the particles. The motor 116 can be used to move or rotate the light source 112 and optical mask 114 thus causing the light intensity pattern to move. Alternatively, the light intensity pattern can be fixed in space and the slide 120 can be moved producing relative motion between the light intensity pattern and the particles.
  • The optical mask 114 can comprise an optical phase mask, an optical amplitude mask, a holographic mask or any similar mask or device for creating a light intensity pattern. In another alternative embodiment, the optical mask 114 can be specially configured to produce a moving light intensity pattern. This type of optical mask 114 can be produced by writing on the mask with at least two light beams. In essence, one light beam writes on the mask to create the light intensity pattern and the other mask erases the mask. In this embodiment, a new light intensity pattern is created each time the mask is written upon.
  • In the embodiment shown in FIG. 2B, a phase modulator 122 is used to create the moving light intensity pattern. The phase modulator 122 is positioned between the light source 112 and the optical mask 114 such that light beam 118 is directed through the phase modulator 112. A control system 119 is connected to the phase modulator 122 for controlling operation of the phase modulator 112.
  • In yet another embodiment, shown in FIG. 3, the system 10 comprises a plurality of light sources 212 positioned adjacent to each other such that they produce light beams 214 directed toward a slide 216 holding the particles to be separated. In one embodiment, the light sources 212 are aimed to create light beams 214 that overlap each other to produce a light intensity pattern.
  • An actuator 218 can be attached to the light sources 212 for moving or rotating the light sources 212 to move the light intensity pattern with respect to the slide 216. A control system 219 is connected to the actuator 218 for controlling operation of the actuator 218. For example, motors (not shown) can be attached to each of the light sources 212. The light intensity pattern can also be moved relative to the slide 216 by modulating phase, moving the slide 216 relative to the light sources 212 or in any other described herein.
  • Alternatively, the light sources 212 can be aimed such that the light beams 214 slightly overlap each other near the slide 216. A light intensity pattern can be created by switching the light sources to be dimmed and brightened in certain patterns to give the appearance of a moving light intensity pattern. For example, in one embodiment the light sources 212 are dimmed and brightened such that at any given moment in time, whenever one light source is bright, all adjacent light sources are dim and when the first light source is dim the adjacent light sources are bright.
  • In operation, focusing a light beam in the vicinity of a particle causes the light beam to interact with optical dipoles inside the particle. Maximum intensity of a light beam is achieved at the focal point of the beam. The particle tends to move toward the point of maximum intensity of the light beam because the minimum energy for the overall system is achieved when the dipoles of the particle reside where the maximum intensity of the light beam occurs.
  • A system according to the present invention, such as those described infra, are configured to create a variable light intensity pattern. FIGS. 4A, 4B, and 4C show a periodic light intensity pattern 400, the force 402 exerted on a particle by the light intensity pattern 400, and the potential 404 exerted on a particle by the light intensity pattern 400, respectively. The light intensity pattern 400 shown in FIG. 4A is sometimes referred to as an optical grating.
  • Particles subjected to the light intensity pattern 400 of FIG. 4A tend to move toward the peak intensity points 406. The wells 408 of the potential pattern 404 shown in FIG. 4C represent points where the overall system energy is at a minimum. Thus, a particle will tend to move toward the wells 408 of the potential pattern 404.
  • Light intensity patterns 400 created according to the present invention can comprise at least two peaks 406 and at least two valleys 407. Suitable light intensity patterns 400 can be periodic, sinusoidal, nonsinusoidal, constant in time or varying in time. If the light intensity pattern 400 is periodic, the period can be optimized to create separation between particles exposed to the light intensity pattern 400. For example, for large particles the period length can be increased to increase the size of wells 408 in the corresponding potential pattern 404 to accommodate the large particles.
  • FIGS. 5A, 5B and 5C show two particles 410, 412 exposed to a potential pattern 406. In this figure, particles 410 and 412 are of similar size and shape but have different dielectric constants.
  • As described infra, moving the light intensity pattern 400 and consequently the potential 406 created by the light intensity pattern 400, relative to particles 410, 412 exposed to the light intensity pattern 400 causes the particles 410, 412 to move at velocities related to the physical properties of the particles 410, 412. For example, the force acting on a particle is proportional to the dielectric constant of the particle. More specifically, the force is proportional to (Ep−Em)/(Ep+2 Em). Thus, two particles 410, 412 of similar size and shape having different dielectric properties will travel at different velocities when exposed to a moving light intensity pattern 400.
  • The potential 406 created by the light intensity pattern 400 causes the particles 410, 412 to move toward wells 408 in the potential pattern 406. Because the light intensity pattern 400, and consequently the potential pattern 406, are moving, the particles 410, 412 “surf” on waves created in the potential pattern 406. The waves include peaks 414 of high potential and wells 408 of low potential.
  • The particles 410, 412 move with the potential pattern 406 at velocities related to the particles 410, 412 physical properties. One such physical property is the dielectric constant of the particles 410, 412. Because the dielectric constants of particles 410 and 412 are different, they will move at different velocities when exposed to the potential pattern 406 created by the light intensity pattern 400.
  • In one embodiment, the light intensity pattern 400, and consequently the potential pattern 406, is moved at a constant velocity. The velocity can be optimized to cause separation of the particles 410, 412 based on the particles' 410, 412 physical properties. For example, a maximum velocity exists for each particle 410, 412 such that if the maximum velocity is exceeded, the peak 414 on which the particle 410 or 412 is “surfing” will pass the particle 410 or 412 causing the particle 410 or 412 to fall into the preceding well 408.
  • In this embodiment, a velocity is chosen between the maximum velocities of particles 410 and 412. Assuming the maximum velocity of particle 412 is higher than the maximum velocity of particle 410, when exposed to the potential pattern 406 shown in FIG. 5A, particle 412 will “surf” on peak 414 and particle 410 will fall behind into well 408 thus separating particles 410 and 412 based on their physical properties.
  • In another embodiment is shown in FIGS. 5B and 5C. In this embodiment, particles 410 and 412 are exposed to potential pattern 406 for a predetermined amount of time to allow the particles 410, 412 to separate slightly as shown in FIG. 5B. Once the particles 410, 412 have separated slightly, the potential pattern 406 is “jerked” forward a predetermined difference such that the particles 410, 412 are positioned on opposites sides of peak 414. Once the particles are positioned on opposite sides of peak 414, the forces exerted on the particles 410, 412 cause them to fall into wells 408 on opposite sides of peak 414 thus separating the particles 410 and 412 based on their physical properties.
  • In one application of the invention, shown in FIG. 6, a moving light intensity pattern 400 can be superimposed onto a fluidic channel guided medium 506 having fluidic channels 500, 502 and 504. The channels 500, 502 and 504 are arranged in a T-shape with the light intensity pattern 400 being superimposed on the branch of the “T” (i.e. the junction between channels 500, 502, and 504).
  • The particles 410, 412 travel from channel 500 into the light intensity pattern 400. The light intensity pattern 400 is configured to move particles 410 and 412 in different directions, as described infra, based on the particles' 410, 412 physical properties. In this case, the light intensity pattern 400 is configured to move particle 412 into channel 502 and particle 410 into channel 504. In this manner, the particles 410, 412 can be separated and collected from their corresponding channels 504, 502, respectively.
  • Using an application such as this, the light intensity pattern can be configured to move particles 410 having a physical property below a certain threshold into one channel 504 and particles 412 having a physical property above the threshold into the other channel 502. Thus, various particles can be run through channel 500 and separated based on a certain threshold physical property. Multiple fluidic channel guided mediums 500 can be connected to channels 502 and/or 504 to further sort the separated particles 410, 412 based on other threshold physical properties.
  • Additional optimization can be done to facilitate particle sorting. For example, each particle 410, 412 has a specific resonant frequency. Tuning the wavelength of the light intensity pattern 400 to the resonant frequency of one of the particles 410 or 412 increases the force exerted on that particle 410 or 412. If, for example, the frequency of the light intensity pattern is tuned to the resonant frequency of particle 412, the velocity at which particle 412 travels is increases, thus increasing the separation between particles 410 and 412.
  • Other forces can also be superimposed onto the particles 410, 412 to take advantage of additional differences in the physical properties of the particles 410, 412. For example, a gradient, such as temperature, pH, viscosity, etc., can be superimposed onto the particles 410, 412 in either a linear or non-linear fashion. External forces, such as magnetism, electrical forces, gravitational forces, fluidic forces, frictional forces, electromagnetic forces, etc., can also be superimposed onto the particles 410, 412 in either a linear or non-linear fashion.
  • The light intensity pattern 400 and/or additional forces can be applied in multiple dimensions (2D, 3D, etc.) to further separate particles 410, 412. The period of the light intensity pattern 400 can be varied in any or all dimensions and the additional forces can be applied linearly or non-linearly in different dimensions.
  • A monitoring system, not shown, can also be included for tracking the separation of the particles 410, 412. The monitoring system can provide feedback to the system and the feedback can be used to optimize separation or for manipulation of the particles 410, 412.
  • It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, it is not intended that the invention be limited except as may be necessary in view of the appended claims.

Claims (19)

  1. 1. A system for separating at least two particles, the particles having different physical properties, the system comprising:
    means for creating a light intensity pattern in the vicinity of the at least two particles; and
    means for moving the light intensity pattern with respect to the at least two particles.
  2. 2. The system according to claim 1, wherein the means for creating a light intensity pattern comprises a light source for producing two light beams aimed to interfere with each other in the vicinity of the at least two particles.
  3. 3. The system according to claim 2, wherein the light beams comprise coherent light beams.
  4. 4. The system according to claim 1, further comprising a beam splitter and a reflector, wherein the light source is configured to produce a light beam aimed at the beam splitter, the beam splitter is configured to split the light beam into a first light beam directed toward the at least two particles and a second light beam directed toward the reflector, the reflector is configured to redirect the second light beam toward the at least two particles such that the first and second light beams interfere creating a light intensity pattern in the vicinity of the at least two particles.
  5. 5. The system according to claim 4, wherein the means for moving comprises an actuator connected to the reflector for moving the reflector.
  6. 6. The system according to claim 4, wherein the means for moving comprises an actuator connected to the light source and beam splitter for moving the light source and beam splitter.
  7. 7. The system according to claim 2, wherein the means for moving is configured to move the light intensity pattern in space.
  8. 8. The system according to claim 2, wherein the means for moving is configured to move the light intensity pattern in time.
  9. 9. The system according to claim 2, wherein the means for moving is configured to fix the light intensity pattern and move the at least two particles in space relative to the light intensity pattern.
  10. 10. The system according to claim 9 wherein the at least two particles are held on a slide and the means for moving comprises an actuator for moving the slide relative to the light intensity pattern.
  11. 11. The system of claim 2 wherein the means for moving comprises a phase modulator for modulating the phase of one of the two light beams with respect the other.
  12. 12. The system of claim 2 wherein the light source comprises a laser.
  13. 13. The system of claim 2 wherein the light beam is between 0.31 μm and 1.8 μm.
  14. 14. The system of claim 2 wherein the light beam is between 0.8 μm and 1.8 μm.
  15. 15. The system of claim 2 wherein the light beam has a wavelength of 1.55 μm.
  16. 16. The system of claim 1 wherein the means for creating a light intensity pattern comprises a light source and an optical mask, which can be a phase mask, an amplitude mask, or a holographic mask, the light source being configured for producing a light beam directed through the optical mask toward the at least two particles.
  17. 17. The system of claim 1 further comprising a plurality of light sources positioned adjacent to each other for producing a plurality of light beams directed toward the at least two particles for creating a light intensity pattern.
  18. 18. The system of claim 17 further comprising an actuator for moving the plurality of light sources.
  19. 19. The system of claim 17 wherein the plurality of light beams are aimed to slightly overlap each adjacent light beam in the vicinity of the at least two particles, the plurality of light sources being configured to be dimmed and brightened in a pattern for creating a moving light intensity pattern.
US11087174 2000-11-13 2005-03-22 System and method for separating micro-particles Abandoned US20050164372A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US24845100 true 2000-11-13 2000-11-13
US09843902 US6936811B2 (en) 2000-11-13 2001-04-27 Method for separating micro-particles
US11087174 US20050164372A1 (en) 2000-11-13 2005-03-22 System and method for separating micro-particles

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11087174 US20050164372A1 (en) 2000-11-13 2005-03-22 System and method for separating micro-particles
US12544070 US20100117007A1 (en) 2000-11-13 2009-08-19 System and method for separating micro-particles

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09843902 Continuation US6936811B2 (en) 2000-11-13 2001-04-27 Method for separating micro-particles

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12544070 Continuation US20100117007A1 (en) 2000-11-13 2009-08-19 System and method for separating micro-particles

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20050164372A1 true true US20050164372A1 (en) 2005-07-28

Family

ID=26939358

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09843902 Active 2022-09-27 US6936811B2 (en) 2000-11-13 2001-04-27 Method for separating micro-particles
US11087174 Abandoned US20050164372A1 (en) 2000-11-13 2005-03-22 System and method for separating micro-particles
US12544070 Abandoned US20100117007A1 (en) 2000-11-13 2009-08-19 System and method for separating micro-particles

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09843902 Active 2022-09-27 US6936811B2 (en) 2000-11-13 2001-04-27 Method for separating micro-particles

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12544070 Abandoned US20100117007A1 (en) 2000-11-13 2009-08-19 System and method for separating micro-particles

Country Status (5)

Country Link
US (3) US6936811B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1334355A1 (en)
JP (1) JP2005504618A (en)
CA (1) CA2428078C (en)
WO (1) WO2002039104B1 (en)

Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20050001063A1 (en) * 2001-09-13 2005-01-06 University Of Chicago Apparatus and process for the lateral deflection and separation of flowing particles by a static array of optical tweezers
US20050017161A1 (en) * 2002-09-16 2005-01-27 Grier David G. Transverse optical accelerator and generalized optical vortices
US20050078343A1 (en) * 2003-05-16 2005-04-14 Grier David G. Optical fractionation methods and apparatus
US20050098717A1 (en) * 2001-04-27 2005-05-12 University Of Chicago Apparatus for using optical tweezers to manipulate materials
US20050145785A1 (en) * 2001-06-06 2005-07-07 University Of Chicago Optical peristaltic pumping with optical traps
US20060131494A1 (en) * 2004-11-23 2006-06-22 New York University Manipulation of objects in potential energy landscapes
US20060163463A1 (en) * 2005-01-21 2006-07-27 New York University Modulated optical tweezers
US20070095669A1 (en) * 2005-10-27 2007-05-03 Applera Corporation Devices and Methods for Optoelectronic Manipulation of Small Particles
US20080121790A1 (en) * 2006-11-07 2008-05-29 New York University Holographic microfabrication and characterization system for soft matter and biological systems
US20080261295A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2008-10-23 William Frank Butler Cell Sorting System and Methods
US20090042737A1 (en) * 2007-08-09 2009-02-12 Katz Andrew S Methods and Devices for Correlated, Multi-Parameter Single Cell Measurements and Recovery of Remnant Biological Material
US8174742B2 (en) 2008-03-14 2012-05-08 New York University System for applying optical forces from phase gradients
US9645010B2 (en) 2009-03-10 2017-05-09 The Regents Of The University Of California Fluidic flow cytometry devices and methods
US9778164B2 (en) 2009-03-10 2017-10-03 The Regents Of The University Of California Fluidic flow cytometry devices and particle sensing based on signal-encoding
US10024819B2 (en) 2010-10-21 2018-07-17 The Regents Of The University Of California Microfluidics with wirelessly powered electronic circuits

Families Citing this family (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6537433B1 (en) * 2000-03-10 2003-03-25 Applera Corporation Methods and apparatus for the location and concentration of polar analytes using an alternating electric field
US6936811B2 (en) 2000-11-13 2005-08-30 Genoptix, Inc. Method for separating micro-particles
US20030007894A1 (en) * 2001-04-27 2003-01-09 Genoptix Methods and apparatus for use of optical forces for identification, characterization and/or sorting of particles
US6974926B2 (en) 2002-03-26 2005-12-13 Intel Corporation Sorting of single-walled carbon nanotubes using optical dipole traps
CN1860363B (en) 2003-08-28 2011-12-28 赛路拉公司 A method and apparatus for using an optical switch to the microfluidic channel network cell sorting
FR2863181B1 (en) * 2003-12-04 2006-08-18 Commissariat Energie Atomique Method for sorting particles.
US7863798B2 (en) 2004-10-04 2011-01-04 The Regents Of The University Of California Nanocrystal powered nanomotor
GB0421166D0 (en) * 2004-09-23 2004-10-27 Univ St Andrews Particle sorting in a tailored landscape
US7259344B2 (en) * 2004-10-01 2007-08-21 Intel Corporation Application of static light to a fluid of CNTs for purposes of sorting the CNTs
US7964078B2 (en) * 2005-11-07 2011-06-21 The Regents Of The University Of California Microfluidic device for cell and particle separation
US7892434B2 (en) * 2006-08-02 2011-02-22 The Regents Of The University Of California Microfluidic production of monodispersed submicron emulsion through filtration and sorting of satellite drops
US8656949B2 (en) 2006-08-15 2014-02-25 University Of Maryland College Park Microfluidic devices and methods of fabrication
GB0815774D0 (en) 2008-08-29 2008-10-08 Univ St Andrews Optical manipulation
US9841367B2 (en) 2011-09-16 2017-12-12 The University Of North Carolina At Charlotte Methods and devices for optical sorting of microspheres based on their resonant optical properties
US9242248B2 (en) * 2011-09-16 2016-01-26 The University Of North Carolina At Charlotte Methods and devices for optical sorting of microspheres based on their resonant optical properties
WO2015160844A1 (en) * 2014-04-17 2015-10-22 The Regents Of The University Of California Parallel acquisition of spectral signals from a 2-d laser beam array

Citations (96)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3558877A (en) * 1966-12-19 1971-01-26 Gca Corp Method and apparatus for mass separation by selective light absorption
US3638139A (en) * 1964-09-29 1972-01-25 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Frequency-selective laser devices
US3662183A (en) * 1970-12-28 1972-05-09 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Continuously tunable optical parametric oscillator
US3710279A (en) * 1969-12-15 1973-01-09 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Apparatuses for trapping and accelerating neutral particles
US3725810A (en) * 1971-04-23 1973-04-03 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Optical stimulated emission devices employing split optical guides
US3793541A (en) * 1970-01-26 1974-02-19 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Optical stimulated emission devices employing optical guiding
US3808550A (en) * 1969-12-15 1974-04-30 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Apparatuses for trapping and accelerating neutral particles
US3826899A (en) * 1969-08-15 1974-07-30 Nuclear Res Ass Inc Biological cell analyzing system
US4092535A (en) * 1977-04-22 1978-05-30 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated Damping of optically levitated particles by feedback and beam shaping
US4247815A (en) * 1979-05-22 1981-01-27 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Method and apparatus for physiologic facsimile imaging of biologic targets based on complex permittivity measurements using remote microwave interrogation
US4253846A (en) * 1979-11-21 1981-03-03 Technicon Instruments Corporation Method and apparatus for automated analysis of fluid samples
US4327288A (en) * 1980-09-29 1982-04-27 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated Method for focusing neutral atoms, molecules and ions
US4386274A (en) * 1980-11-10 1983-05-31 Saul Altshuler Isotope separation by standing waves
US4390403A (en) * 1981-07-24 1983-06-28 Batchelder J Samuel Method and apparatus for dielectrophoretic manipulation of chemical species
US4440638A (en) * 1982-02-16 1984-04-03 U.T. Board Of Regents Surface field-effect device for manipulation of charged species
US4451412A (en) * 1982-01-12 1984-05-29 Thomson-Csf Process for producing diffracting phase structures
US4453805A (en) * 1981-02-19 1984-06-12 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated Optical grating using a liquid suspension of dielectric particles
US4520484A (en) * 1981-05-22 1985-05-28 Thomson-Csf Coherent radiation source generating a beam with a regulatable propagation direction
US4536657A (en) * 1982-12-08 1985-08-20 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Process and apparatus for obtaining beams of particles with a spatially modulated density
US4756427A (en) * 1984-09-11 1988-07-12 Partec Ag Method and apparatus for sorting particles
US4827125A (en) * 1987-04-29 1989-05-02 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Department Of Health And Human Services Confocal scanning laser microscope having no moving parts
US4893886A (en) * 1987-09-17 1990-01-16 American Telephone And Telegraph Company Non-destructive optical trap for biological particles and method of doing same
US4908112A (en) * 1988-06-16 1990-03-13 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours & Co. Silicon semiconductor wafer for analyzing micronic biological samples
US4939081A (en) * 1987-05-27 1990-07-03 The Netherlands Cancer Institute Cell-separation
US5029791A (en) * 1990-03-08 1991-07-09 Candela Laser Corporation Optics X-Y positioner
US5079169A (en) * 1990-05-22 1992-01-07 The Regents Of The Stanford Leland Junior University Method for optically manipulating polymer filaments
US5100627A (en) * 1989-11-30 1992-03-31 The Regents Of The University Of California Chamber for the optical manipulation of microscopic particles
US5113286A (en) * 1990-09-27 1992-05-12 At&T Bell Laboratories Diffraction grating apparatus and method of forming a surface relief pattern in diffraction grating apparatus
US5121400A (en) * 1989-12-01 1992-06-09 Thomson-Csf Device for coherent addition of laser beams
US5189294A (en) * 1992-07-08 1993-02-23 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Transform lens with a plurality of sliced lens segments
US5206504A (en) * 1991-11-01 1993-04-27 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator, National Aeronautics And Space Administration Sample positioning in microgravity
US5212382A (en) * 1990-12-13 1993-05-18 Keiji Sasaki Laser trapping and method for applications thereof
US5283417A (en) * 1989-12-07 1994-02-01 Research Development Corporation Of Japan Laser microprocessing and the device therefor
US5308976A (en) * 1991-06-01 1994-05-03 Research Development Corp. Of Japan Method for multi-beam manipulation of microparticles
US5327515A (en) * 1993-01-14 1994-07-05 At&T Laboratories Method for forming a Bragg grating in an optical medium
US5337324A (en) * 1992-06-11 1994-08-09 Tokyo Institute Of Technology Method for controlling movement of neutral atom and apparatus for carrying out the same
US5338930A (en) * 1990-06-01 1994-08-16 Research Corporation Technologies Frequency standard using an atomic fountain of optically trapped atoms
US5343038A (en) * 1991-12-12 1994-08-30 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Scanning laser microscope with photo coupling and detecting unit
US5445011A (en) * 1993-09-21 1995-08-29 Ghislain; Lucien P. Scanning force microscope using an optical trap
US5495105A (en) * 1992-02-20 1996-02-27 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Method and apparatus for particle manipulation, and measuring apparatus utilizing the same
US5512745A (en) * 1994-03-09 1996-04-30 Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Jr. University Optical trap system and method
US5608519A (en) * 1995-03-20 1997-03-04 Gourley; Paul L. Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells
US5620857A (en) * 1995-06-07 1997-04-15 United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary Of Commerce Optical trap for detection and quantitation of subzeptomolar quantities of analytes
US5625484A (en) * 1992-10-28 1997-04-29 European Economic Community (Cee) Optical modulator
US5629802A (en) * 1995-01-05 1997-05-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Spatially multiplexed optical signal processor
US5631141A (en) * 1995-05-05 1997-05-20 The Regents Of The University Of California High resolution biosensor for in-situ microthermometry
US5637458A (en) * 1994-07-20 1997-06-10 Sios, Inc. Apparatus and method for the detection and assay of organic molecules
US5644588A (en) * 1994-03-26 1997-07-01 Research Development Corporation Of Japan Microfine light source
US5653859A (en) * 1993-01-21 1997-08-05 Parton; Adrian Methods of analysis/separation
US5659561A (en) * 1995-06-06 1997-08-19 University Of Central Florida Spatial solitary waves in bulk quadratic nonlinear materials and their applications
US5752606A (en) * 1996-05-23 1998-05-19 Wilson; Steve D. Method for trapping, manipulating, and separating cells and cellular components utilizing a particle trap
US5760395A (en) * 1996-04-18 1998-06-02 Universities Research Assoc., Inc. Method and apparatus for laser-controlled proton beam radiology
US5770856A (en) * 1993-07-22 1998-06-23 British Technology Group Ltd Near field sensor with cantilever and tip containing optical path for an evanescent wave
US5773298A (en) * 1994-03-31 1998-06-30 Danfoss A/S Successive samples analysis method and analysis apparatus
US5776674A (en) * 1995-06-05 1998-07-07 Seq, Ltd Chemical biochemical and biological processing in thin films
US5793485A (en) * 1995-03-20 1998-08-11 Sandia Corporation Resonant-cavity apparatus for cytometry or particle analysis
US5795457A (en) * 1990-01-30 1998-08-18 British Technology Group Ltd. Manipulation of solid, semi-solid or liquid materials
US5858192A (en) * 1996-10-18 1999-01-12 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Method and apparatus for manipulation using spiral electrodes
US5888370A (en) * 1996-02-23 1999-03-30 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Method and apparatus for fractionation using generalized dielectrophoresis and field flow fractionation
US5900160A (en) * 1993-10-04 1999-05-04 President And Fellows Of Harvard College Methods of etching articles via microcontact printing
US5919646A (en) * 1996-08-02 1999-07-06 Axiom Biotechnologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for real-time measurement of cellular response
US5935507A (en) * 1994-11-11 1999-08-10 Moritex Corporation Multi-point laser trapping device and the method thereof
US5939716A (en) * 1997-04-02 1999-08-17 Sandia Corporation Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles
US6015714A (en) * 1995-03-17 2000-01-18 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of Commerce Characterization of individual polymer molecules based on monomer-interface interactions
US6033546A (en) * 1994-08-01 2000-03-07 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation Apparatus and method for performing microfluidic manipulations for chemical analysis and synthesis
US6055106A (en) * 1998-02-03 2000-04-25 Arch Development Corporation Apparatus for applying optical gradient forces
US6067859A (en) * 1999-03-04 2000-05-30 The Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Optical stretcher
US6071394A (en) * 1996-09-06 2000-06-06 Nanogen, Inc. Channel-less separation of bioparticles on a bioelectronic chip by dielectrophoresis
US6078681A (en) * 1996-03-18 2000-06-20 Marine Biological Laboratory Analytical imaging system and process
US6082205A (en) * 1998-02-06 2000-07-04 Ohio State University System and device for determining particle characteristics
US6088097A (en) * 1998-01-14 2000-07-11 Uhl; Rainer Point-scanning luminescent microscope
US6088376A (en) * 1998-03-16 2000-07-11 California Institute Of Technology Vertical-cavity-surface-emitting semiconductor devices with fiber-coupled optical cavity
US6111398A (en) * 1997-07-03 2000-08-29 Coulter International Corp. Method and apparatus for sensing and characterizing particles
US6208815B1 (en) * 1996-11-27 2001-03-27 Evotec Biosystems Ag Method for differentiating or detecting particles in a sample by identifying signal segments of time-resolved, optical raw signals from the sample on the basis of single photon detection
US6215134B1 (en) * 1997-05-09 2001-04-10 California Institute Of Technology Semiconductor surface lenses and shaped structures
US6221654B1 (en) * 1996-09-25 2001-04-24 California Institute Of Technology Method and apparatus for analysis and sorting of polynucleotides based on size
US6224732B1 (en) * 1993-07-08 2001-05-01 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Method and apparatus for separating particles
US6242209B1 (en) * 1996-08-02 2001-06-05 Axiom Biotechnologies, Inc. Cell flow apparatus and method for real-time measurements of cellular responses
US6338968B1 (en) * 1998-02-02 2002-01-15 Signature Bioscience, Inc. Method and apparatus for detecting molecular binding events
US20020025529A1 (en) * 1999-06-28 2002-02-28 Stephen Quake Methods and apparatus for analyzing polynucleotide sequences
US6355491B1 (en) * 1999-03-15 2002-03-12 Aviva Biosciences Individually addressable micro-electromagnetic unit array chips
US6387331B1 (en) * 1998-01-12 2002-05-14 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method and apparatus for performing microassays
US20020058332A1 (en) * 2000-09-15 2002-05-16 California Institute Of Technology Microfabricated crossflow devices and methods
US6395480B1 (en) * 1999-02-01 2002-05-28 Signature Bioscience, Inc. Computer program and database structure for detecting molecular binding events
US6399397B1 (en) * 1992-09-14 2002-06-04 Sri International Up-converting reporters for biological and other assays using laser excitation techniques
US6411838B1 (en) * 1998-12-23 2002-06-25 Medispectra, Inc. Systems and methods for optical examination of samples
US6408878B2 (en) * 1999-06-28 2002-06-25 California Institute Of Technology Microfabricated elastomeric valve and pump systems
US6507400B1 (en) * 1999-02-27 2003-01-14 Mwi, Inc. Optical system for multi-part differential particle discrimination and an apparatus using the same
US6514722B2 (en) * 1997-03-27 2003-02-04 Oncosis Method and apparatus for selectively targeting specific cells within a cell population
US6518056B2 (en) * 1999-04-27 2003-02-11 Agilent Technologies Inc. Apparatus, systems and method for assaying biological materials using an annular format
US20030032204A1 (en) * 2001-07-19 2003-02-13 Walt David R. Optical array device and methods of use thereof for screening, analysis and manipulation of particles
US6534308B1 (en) * 1997-03-27 2003-03-18 Oncosis, Llc Method and apparatus for selectively targeting specific cells within a mixed cell population
US6540895B1 (en) * 1997-09-23 2003-04-01 California Institute Of Technology Microfabricated cell sorter for chemical and biological materials
US6566079B2 (en) * 1998-02-02 2003-05-20 Signature Bioscience, Inc. Methods for analyzing protein binding events
US6740497B2 (en) * 1998-03-06 2004-05-25 The Regents Of The University Of California Method and apparatus for detecting cancerous cells using molecules that change electrophoretic mobility
US6744038B2 (en) * 2000-11-13 2004-06-01 Genoptix, Inc. Methods of separating particles using an optical gradient

Family Cites Families (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3808432A (en) * 1970-06-04 1974-04-30 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Neutral particle accelerator utilizing radiation pressure
US4253845A (en) * 1979-01-30 1981-03-03 Analytical Products, Inc. Gas-liquid equilibration apparatus
US4460667A (en) * 1981-05-27 1984-07-17 Savin Corporation Method for developing latent electrostatic images for gap transfer to a carrier sheet
GB8623072D0 (en) 1986-09-25 1986-10-29 Amersham Int Plc Particle analysis
US5198369A (en) * 1990-04-25 1993-03-30 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Sample measuring method using agglomeration reaction of microcarriers
US6149789A (en) 1990-10-31 2000-11-21 Fraunhofer Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Angewandten Forschung E.V. Process for manipulating microscopic, dielectric particles and a device therefor
DE69321748D1 (en) 1992-02-20 1998-12-03 Canon Kk Method and measuring apparatus for handling particles
JP2714305B2 (en) * 1992-02-24 1998-02-16 キヤノン株式会社 Optical trap method
US5374556A (en) 1992-07-23 1994-12-20 Cell Robotics, Inc. Flexure structure for stage positioning
US5366559A (en) 1993-05-27 1994-11-22 Research Triangle Institute Method for protecting a substrate surface from contamination using the photophoretic effect
JPH0724309A (en) * 1993-07-08 1995-01-27 Canon Inc Method and apparatus for separation of particle
WO1995006113A1 (en) 1993-08-25 1995-03-02 Asahi Kasei Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Novel tyrosine kinase
JPH0943434A (en) 1995-08-03 1997-02-14 Masahiro Ikeda Optical tweezers
US5950071A (en) 1995-11-17 1999-09-07 Lightforce Technology, Inc. Detachment and removal of microscopic surface contaminants using a pulsed detach light
US5667286A (en) 1996-05-29 1997-09-16 General Motors Corporation Brake control system
US5942443A (en) 1996-06-28 1999-08-24 Caliper Technologies Corporation High throughput screening assay systems in microscale fluidic devices
US6008010A (en) 1996-11-01 1999-12-28 University Of Pittsburgh Method and apparatus for holding cells
US6642018B1 (en) 1998-03-27 2003-11-04 Oncosis Llc Method for inducing a response in one or more targeted cells
GB9712202D0 (en) 1997-06-13 1997-08-13 Carr Robert J G The optical detection and analysis of sub-micron particles
US6485905B2 (en) 1998-02-02 2002-11-26 Signature Bioscience, Inc. Bio-assay device
US5998152A (en) 1998-03-09 1999-12-07 Tularik Inc. High-throughput screening assays for modulators of nucleic acid topoisomerases
US6159749A (en) * 1998-07-21 2000-12-12 Beckman Coulter, Inc. Highly sensitive bead-based multi-analyte assay system using optical tweezers
US6287758B1 (en) 2000-03-23 2001-09-11 Axiom Biotechnologies, Inc. Methods of registering trans-membrane electric potentials
WO2002022774A1 (en) 2000-09-12 2002-03-21 Oncosis Llc Chamber for laser-based processing
US6936811B2 (en) 2000-11-13 2005-08-30 Genoptix, Inc. Method for separating micro-particles
US6778724B2 (en) 2000-11-28 2004-08-17 The Regents Of The University Of California Optical switching and sorting of biological samples and microparticles transported in a micro-fluidic device, including integrated bio-chip devices
US20030007894A1 (en) 2001-04-27 2003-01-09 Genoptix Methods and apparatus for use of optical forces for identification, characterization and/or sorting of particles
US6797942B2 (en) * 2001-09-13 2004-09-28 University Of Chicago Apparatus and process for the lateral deflection and separation of flowing particles by a static array of optical tweezers

Patent Citations (99)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3638139A (en) * 1964-09-29 1972-01-25 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Frequency-selective laser devices
US3558877A (en) * 1966-12-19 1971-01-26 Gca Corp Method and apparatus for mass separation by selective light absorption
US3826899A (en) * 1969-08-15 1974-07-30 Nuclear Res Ass Inc Biological cell analyzing system
US3710279A (en) * 1969-12-15 1973-01-09 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Apparatuses for trapping and accelerating neutral particles
US3808550A (en) * 1969-12-15 1974-04-30 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Apparatuses for trapping and accelerating neutral particles
US3793541A (en) * 1970-01-26 1974-02-19 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Optical stimulated emission devices employing optical guiding
US3662183A (en) * 1970-12-28 1972-05-09 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Continuously tunable optical parametric oscillator
US3725810A (en) * 1971-04-23 1973-04-03 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Optical stimulated emission devices employing split optical guides
US4092535A (en) * 1977-04-22 1978-05-30 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated Damping of optically levitated particles by feedback and beam shaping
US4247815A (en) * 1979-05-22 1981-01-27 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Method and apparatus for physiologic facsimile imaging of biologic targets based on complex permittivity measurements using remote microwave interrogation
US4253846A (en) * 1979-11-21 1981-03-03 Technicon Instruments Corporation Method and apparatus for automated analysis of fluid samples
US4327288A (en) * 1980-09-29 1982-04-27 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated Method for focusing neutral atoms, molecules and ions
US4386274A (en) * 1980-11-10 1983-05-31 Saul Altshuler Isotope separation by standing waves
US4453805A (en) * 1981-02-19 1984-06-12 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated Optical grating using a liquid suspension of dielectric particles
US4520484A (en) * 1981-05-22 1985-05-28 Thomson-Csf Coherent radiation source generating a beam with a regulatable propagation direction
US4390403A (en) * 1981-07-24 1983-06-28 Batchelder J Samuel Method and apparatus for dielectrophoretic manipulation of chemical species
US4451412A (en) * 1982-01-12 1984-05-29 Thomson-Csf Process for producing diffracting phase structures
US4440638A (en) * 1982-02-16 1984-04-03 U.T. Board Of Regents Surface field-effect device for manipulation of charged species
US4536657A (en) * 1982-12-08 1985-08-20 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Process and apparatus for obtaining beams of particles with a spatially modulated density
US4756427A (en) * 1984-09-11 1988-07-12 Partec Ag Method and apparatus for sorting particles
US4827125A (en) * 1987-04-29 1989-05-02 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Department Of Health And Human Services Confocal scanning laser microscope having no moving parts
US4939081A (en) * 1987-05-27 1990-07-03 The Netherlands Cancer Institute Cell-separation
US4893886A (en) * 1987-09-17 1990-01-16 American Telephone And Telegraph Company Non-destructive optical trap for biological particles and method of doing same
US4908112A (en) * 1988-06-16 1990-03-13 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours & Co. Silicon semiconductor wafer for analyzing micronic biological samples
US5100627A (en) * 1989-11-30 1992-03-31 The Regents Of The University Of California Chamber for the optical manipulation of microscopic particles
US5121400A (en) * 1989-12-01 1992-06-09 Thomson-Csf Device for coherent addition of laser beams
US5283417A (en) * 1989-12-07 1994-02-01 Research Development Corporation Of Japan Laser microprocessing and the device therefor
US6197176B1 (en) * 1990-01-03 2001-03-06 Btg International Limited Manipulation of solid, semi-solid or liquid materials
US5795457A (en) * 1990-01-30 1998-08-18 British Technology Group Ltd. Manipulation of solid, semi-solid or liquid materials
US5029791A (en) * 1990-03-08 1991-07-09 Candela Laser Corporation Optics X-Y positioner
US5079169A (en) * 1990-05-22 1992-01-07 The Regents Of The Stanford Leland Junior University Method for optically manipulating polymer filaments
US5338930A (en) * 1990-06-01 1994-08-16 Research Corporation Technologies Frequency standard using an atomic fountain of optically trapped atoms
US5113286A (en) * 1990-09-27 1992-05-12 At&T Bell Laboratories Diffraction grating apparatus and method of forming a surface relief pattern in diffraction grating apparatus
US5212382A (en) * 1990-12-13 1993-05-18 Keiji Sasaki Laser trapping and method for applications thereof
US5308976A (en) * 1991-06-01 1994-05-03 Research Development Corp. Of Japan Method for multi-beam manipulation of microparticles
US5206504A (en) * 1991-11-01 1993-04-27 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator, National Aeronautics And Space Administration Sample positioning in microgravity
US5343038A (en) * 1991-12-12 1994-08-30 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Scanning laser microscope with photo coupling and detecting unit
US5495105A (en) * 1992-02-20 1996-02-27 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Method and apparatus for particle manipulation, and measuring apparatus utilizing the same
US5337324A (en) * 1992-06-11 1994-08-09 Tokyo Institute Of Technology Method for controlling movement of neutral atom and apparatus for carrying out the same
US5189294A (en) * 1992-07-08 1993-02-23 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Transform lens with a plurality of sliced lens segments
US6399397B1 (en) * 1992-09-14 2002-06-04 Sri International Up-converting reporters for biological and other assays using laser excitation techniques
US5625484A (en) * 1992-10-28 1997-04-29 European Economic Community (Cee) Optical modulator
US5327515A (en) * 1993-01-14 1994-07-05 At&T Laboratories Method for forming a Bragg grating in an optical medium
US5653859A (en) * 1993-01-21 1997-08-05 Parton; Adrian Methods of analysis/separation
US6224732B1 (en) * 1993-07-08 2001-05-01 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Method and apparatus for separating particles
US5770856A (en) * 1993-07-22 1998-06-23 British Technology Group Ltd Near field sensor with cantilever and tip containing optical path for an evanescent wave
US5445011A (en) * 1993-09-21 1995-08-29 Ghislain; Lucien P. Scanning force microscope using an optical trap
US5900160A (en) * 1993-10-04 1999-05-04 President And Fellows Of Harvard College Methods of etching articles via microcontact printing
US5512745A (en) * 1994-03-09 1996-04-30 Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Jr. University Optical trap system and method
US5644588A (en) * 1994-03-26 1997-07-01 Research Development Corporation Of Japan Microfine light source
US5773298A (en) * 1994-03-31 1998-06-30 Danfoss A/S Successive samples analysis method and analysis apparatus
US5637458A (en) * 1994-07-20 1997-06-10 Sios, Inc. Apparatus and method for the detection and assay of organic molecules
US6033546A (en) * 1994-08-01 2000-03-07 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation Apparatus and method for performing microfluidic manipulations for chemical analysis and synthesis
US5935507A (en) * 1994-11-11 1999-08-10 Moritex Corporation Multi-point laser trapping device and the method thereof
US5629802A (en) * 1995-01-05 1997-05-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Spatially multiplexed optical signal processor
US6015714A (en) * 1995-03-17 2000-01-18 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of Commerce Characterization of individual polymer molecules based on monomer-interface interactions
US5608519A (en) * 1995-03-20 1997-03-04 Gourley; Paul L. Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells
US5793485A (en) * 1995-03-20 1998-08-11 Sandia Corporation Resonant-cavity apparatus for cytometry or particle analysis
US5631141A (en) * 1995-05-05 1997-05-20 The Regents Of The University Of California High resolution biosensor for in-situ microthermometry
US5776674A (en) * 1995-06-05 1998-07-07 Seq, Ltd Chemical biochemical and biological processing in thin films
US5659561A (en) * 1995-06-06 1997-08-19 University Of Central Florida Spatial solitary waves in bulk quadratic nonlinear materials and their applications
US5620857A (en) * 1995-06-07 1997-04-15 United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary Of Commerce Optical trap for detection and quantitation of subzeptomolar quantities of analytes
US5888370A (en) * 1996-02-23 1999-03-30 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Method and apparatus for fractionation using generalized dielectrophoresis and field flow fractionation
US6078681A (en) * 1996-03-18 2000-06-20 Marine Biological Laboratory Analytical imaging system and process
US5760395A (en) * 1996-04-18 1998-06-02 Universities Research Assoc., Inc. Method and apparatus for laser-controlled proton beam radiology
US5752606A (en) * 1996-05-23 1998-05-19 Wilson; Steve D. Method for trapping, manipulating, and separating cells and cellular components utilizing a particle trap
US6242209B1 (en) * 1996-08-02 2001-06-05 Axiom Biotechnologies, Inc. Cell flow apparatus and method for real-time measurements of cellular responses
US6096509A (en) * 1996-08-02 2000-08-01 Axiom Biotechnologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for compound profiling of living cells
US5919646A (en) * 1996-08-02 1999-07-06 Axiom Biotechnologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for real-time measurement of cellular response
US6071394A (en) * 1996-09-06 2000-06-06 Nanogen, Inc. Channel-less separation of bioparticles on a bioelectronic chip by dielectrophoresis
US6344325B1 (en) * 1996-09-25 2002-02-05 California Institute Of Technology Methods for analysis and sorting of polynucleotides
US6221654B1 (en) * 1996-09-25 2001-04-24 California Institute Of Technology Method and apparatus for analysis and sorting of polynucleotides based on size
US5858192A (en) * 1996-10-18 1999-01-12 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Method and apparatus for manipulation using spiral electrodes
US6208815B1 (en) * 1996-11-27 2001-03-27 Evotec Biosystems Ag Method for differentiating or detecting particles in a sample by identifying signal segments of time-resolved, optical raw signals from the sample on the basis of single photon detection
US6514722B2 (en) * 1997-03-27 2003-02-04 Oncosis Method and apparatus for selectively targeting specific cells within a cell population
US6534308B1 (en) * 1997-03-27 2003-03-18 Oncosis, Llc Method and apparatus for selectively targeting specific cells within a mixed cell population
US5939716A (en) * 1997-04-02 1999-08-17 Sandia Corporation Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles
US6215134B1 (en) * 1997-05-09 2001-04-10 California Institute Of Technology Semiconductor surface lenses and shaped structures
US6111398A (en) * 1997-07-03 2000-08-29 Coulter International Corp. Method and apparatus for sensing and characterizing particles
US6540895B1 (en) * 1997-09-23 2003-04-01 California Institute Of Technology Microfabricated cell sorter for chemical and biological materials
US6387331B1 (en) * 1998-01-12 2002-05-14 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method and apparatus for performing microassays
US6088097A (en) * 1998-01-14 2000-07-11 Uhl; Rainer Point-scanning luminescent microscope
US6338968B1 (en) * 1998-02-02 2002-01-15 Signature Bioscience, Inc. Method and apparatus for detecting molecular binding events
US6566079B2 (en) * 1998-02-02 2003-05-20 Signature Bioscience, Inc. Methods for analyzing protein binding events
US6055106A (en) * 1998-02-03 2000-04-25 Arch Development Corporation Apparatus for applying optical gradient forces
US6082205A (en) * 1998-02-06 2000-07-04 Ohio State University System and device for determining particle characteristics
US6740497B2 (en) * 1998-03-06 2004-05-25 The Regents Of The University Of California Method and apparatus for detecting cancerous cells using molecules that change electrophoretic mobility
US6088376A (en) * 1998-03-16 2000-07-11 California Institute Of Technology Vertical-cavity-surface-emitting semiconductor devices with fiber-coupled optical cavity
US6411838B1 (en) * 1998-12-23 2002-06-25 Medispectra, Inc. Systems and methods for optical examination of samples
US6395480B1 (en) * 1999-02-01 2002-05-28 Signature Bioscience, Inc. Computer program and database structure for detecting molecular binding events
US6507400B1 (en) * 1999-02-27 2003-01-14 Mwi, Inc. Optical system for multi-part differential particle discrimination and an apparatus using the same
US6067859A (en) * 1999-03-04 2000-05-30 The Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Optical stretcher
US6355491B1 (en) * 1999-03-15 2002-03-12 Aviva Biosciences Individually addressable micro-electromagnetic unit array chips
US6518056B2 (en) * 1999-04-27 2003-02-11 Agilent Technologies Inc. Apparatus, systems and method for assaying biological materials using an annular format
US20020025529A1 (en) * 1999-06-28 2002-02-28 Stephen Quake Methods and apparatus for analyzing polynucleotide sequences
US6408878B2 (en) * 1999-06-28 2002-06-25 California Institute Of Technology Microfabricated elastomeric valve and pump systems
US20020058332A1 (en) * 2000-09-15 2002-05-16 California Institute Of Technology Microfabricated crossflow devices and methods
US6744038B2 (en) * 2000-11-13 2004-06-01 Genoptix, Inc. Methods of separating particles using an optical gradient
US20030032204A1 (en) * 2001-07-19 2003-02-13 Walt David R. Optical array device and methods of use thereof for screening, analysis and manipulation of particles

Cited By (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7104659B2 (en) 2001-04-27 2006-09-12 University Of Chicago Apparatus for using optical tweezers to manipulate materials
US20050098717A1 (en) * 2001-04-27 2005-05-12 University Of Chicago Apparatus for using optical tweezers to manipulate materials
US7075060B2 (en) 2001-06-06 2006-07-11 University Of Chicago Optical peristaltic pumping with optical traps
US20050145785A1 (en) * 2001-06-06 2005-07-07 University Of Chicago Optical peristaltic pumping with optical traps
US7137574B2 (en) 2001-09-13 2006-11-21 University Of Chicago Apparatus and process for the lateral deflection and separation of flowing particles by a static array of optical tweezers
US20050001063A1 (en) * 2001-09-13 2005-01-06 University Of Chicago Apparatus and process for the lateral deflection and separation of flowing particles by a static array of optical tweezers
US7109473B2 (en) 2002-09-16 2006-09-19 University Of Chicago Transverse optical accelerator and generalized optical vortices
US20050017161A1 (en) * 2002-09-16 2005-01-27 Grier David G. Transverse optical accelerator and generalized optical vortices
US20070084993A1 (en) * 2002-09-16 2007-04-19 U.C. Tech Transverse optical accelerator and generalized optical vortices
US7232989B2 (en) 2002-09-16 2007-06-19 University Of Chicago Transverse optical accelerator and generalized optical vortices
US20050078343A1 (en) * 2003-05-16 2005-04-14 Grier David G. Optical fractionation methods and apparatus
US7233423B2 (en) 2003-05-16 2007-06-19 University Of Chicago Optical fractionation methods and apparatus
US20060131494A1 (en) * 2004-11-23 2006-06-22 New York University Manipulation of objects in potential energy landscapes
US8502132B2 (en) 2004-11-23 2013-08-06 New York University Manipulation of objects in potential energy landscapes
US7973275B2 (en) 2004-11-23 2011-07-05 New York University Manipulation of objects in potential energy landscapes
US20090101807A1 (en) * 2004-11-23 2009-04-23 New York University Manipulation of objects in potential energy landscapes
US7473890B2 (en) 2004-11-23 2009-01-06 New York University Manipulation of objects in potential energy landscapes
US8298727B2 (en) 2005-01-21 2012-10-30 New York University Multi-color holographic optical trapping
US20060163463A1 (en) * 2005-01-21 2006-07-27 New York University Modulated optical tweezers
US7586684B2 (en) 2005-01-21 2009-09-08 New York University Solute characterization by optoelectronkinetic potentiometry in an inclined array of optical traps
US20100032556A1 (en) * 2005-01-21 2010-02-11 New York University Solute characterization by optoelectronkinetic potentiometry in an inclined array of optical traps
US20070095669A1 (en) * 2005-10-27 2007-05-03 Applera Corporation Devices and Methods for Optoelectronic Manipulation of Small Particles
US20070095667A1 (en) * 2005-10-27 2007-05-03 Applera Corporation Optoelectronic Separation of Biomolecules
US20100206731A1 (en) * 2005-10-27 2010-08-19 Life Technologies Corporation Devices and methods for optoelectronic manipulation of small particles
US8357282B2 (en) 2005-10-27 2013-01-22 Applied Biosystems, Llc Optoelectronic separation of biomolecules
US8834698B2 (en) 2005-10-27 2014-09-16 Life Technologies Corporation Devices and methods for optoelectronic manipulation of small particles
US20110114831A1 (en) * 2006-11-07 2011-05-19 New York University Holographic microfabrication and characterization system for soft matter and biological systems
US8431884B2 (en) 2006-11-07 2013-04-30 New York University Holographic microfabrication and characterization system for soft matter and biological systems
US7847238B2 (en) 2006-11-07 2010-12-07 New York University Holographic microfabrication and characterization system for soft matter and biological systems
US20080121790A1 (en) * 2006-11-07 2008-05-29 New York University Holographic microfabrication and characterization system for soft matter and biological systems
US20080261295A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2008-10-23 William Frank Butler Cell Sorting System and Methods
US8691164B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2014-04-08 Celula, Inc. Cell sorting system and methods
US20090042737A1 (en) * 2007-08-09 2009-02-12 Katz Andrew S Methods and Devices for Correlated, Multi-Parameter Single Cell Measurements and Recovery of Remnant Biological Material
US8174742B2 (en) 2008-03-14 2012-05-08 New York University System for applying optical forces from phase gradients
US9645010B2 (en) 2009-03-10 2017-05-09 The Regents Of The University Of California Fluidic flow cytometry devices and methods
US9778164B2 (en) 2009-03-10 2017-10-03 The Regents Of The University Of California Fluidic flow cytometry devices and particle sensing based on signal-encoding
US10024819B2 (en) 2010-10-21 2018-07-17 The Regents Of The University Of California Microfluidics with wirelessly powered electronic circuits

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
CA2428078A1 (en) 2002-05-16 application
WO2002039104A1 (en) 2002-05-16 application
JP2005504618A (en) 2005-02-17 application
US20050094232A1 (en) 2005-05-05 application
EP1334355A1 (en) 2003-08-13 application
CA2428078C (en) 2009-12-15 grant
US20100117007A1 (en) 2010-05-13 application
WO2002039104B1 (en) 2002-08-01 application
US6936811B2 (en) 2005-08-30 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Mio et al. Design of a scanning laser optical trap for multiparticle manipulation
Attwood et al. Tunable coherent X-rays
Lavery et al. Refractive elements for the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon
Gahagan et al. Optical vortex trapping of particles
Ladavac et al. Microoptomechanical pumps assembled and driven by holographic optical vortex arrays
US6829258B1 (en) Rapidly tunable external cavity laser
Hafizi et al. Laser-driven acceleration with Bessel beams
US5093802A (en) Optical computing method using interference fringe component regions
Schonbrun et al. 3D interferometric optical tweezers using a single spatial light modulator
US5495105A (en) Method and apparatus for particle manipulation, and measuring apparatus utilizing the same
Arlt et al. Optical micromanipulation using a Bessel light beam
US7612355B2 (en) Optoelectronic tweezers for microparticle and cell manipulation
US5212382A (en) Laser trapping and method for applications thereof
US20060109540A1 (en) Composite material with controllable resonant cells
Čižmár et al. Tunable Bessel light modes: engineering the axial propagation
US20060227440A1 (en) Generation of a desired wavefront with a plurality of phase contrast filters
Marchington et al. Optical deflection and sorting of microparticles in a near-field optical geometry
US5519724A (en) Multiwavelength and multibeam diffractive optics system for material processing
US6055106A (en) Apparatus for applying optical gradient forces
McQueen et al. An experiment to study a “nondiffracting” light beam
Ding et al. Femtosecond pulse shaping by dynamic holograms in photorefractive multiple quantum wells
US20050247866A1 (en) System and method for manipulating and processing materials using holographic optical trapping
Johnson et al. Atomic deflection using an adaptive microelectromagnet mirror
EP0556748B1 (en) Method and apparatus for particle manipulation, and measuring apparatus utilizing the same
US5392157A (en) Line-of-sight steering system for high power laser beams and method using same

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: CELULA, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GENOPTIX, INC.;REEL/FRAME:017073/0136

Effective date: 20050627

Owner name: CELULA, INC.,CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GENOPTIX, INC.;REEL/FRAME:017073/0136

Effective date: 20050627

AS Assignment

Owner name: COMERICA BANK, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:CELULA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:020897/0832

Effective date: 20080225

Owner name: COMERICA BANK,CALIFORNIA

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:CELULA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:020897/0832

Effective date: 20080225

AS Assignment

Owner name: ENTERPRISE PARTNERS VENTURE CAPITAL, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:CELULA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:022824/0147

Effective date: 20090522

Owner name: VERSANT VENTURES, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:CELULA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:022824/0147

Effective date: 20090522

Owner name: ARCH VENTURE FUND VI, L.P., ILLINOIS

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:CELULA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:022824/0147

Effective date: 20090522

Owner name: ENTERPRISE PARTNERS VENTURE CAPITAL,CALIFORNIA

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:CELULA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:022824/0147

Effective date: 20090522

Owner name: VERSANT VENTURES,CALIFORNIA

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:CELULA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:022824/0147

Effective date: 20090522

Owner name: ARCH VENTURE FUND VI, L.P.,ILLINOIS

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:CELULA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:022824/0147

Effective date: 20090522

AS Assignment

Owner name: CELULA, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNORS:ENTERPRISE PARTNERS VI, L.P.;VERSANT VENTURE CAPITAL II, L.P.;VERSANT SIDE FUND II, L.P.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:023639/0554

Effective date: 20091118

Owner name: CELULA, INC.,CALIFORNIA

Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNORS:ENTERPRISE PARTNERS VI, L.P.;VERSANT VENTURE CAPITAL II, L.P.;VERSANT SIDE FUND II, L.P.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:023639/0554

Effective date: 20091118

AS Assignment

Owner name: CELULA, INC.,CALIFORNIA

Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:COMERICA BANK;REEL/FRAME:024358/0482

Effective date: 20100510

Owner name: CELULA, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:COMERICA BANK;REEL/FRAME:024358/0482

Effective date: 20100510

AS Assignment

Owner name: COMERICA BANK, MICHIGAN

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:CELULA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:027114/0563

Effective date: 20111021

AS Assignment

Owner name: CELULA, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:COMERICA BANK;REEL/FRAME:035291/0215

Effective date: 20150330