US20040031764A1 - Novel materials and methods for water purification - Google Patents

Novel materials and methods for water purification Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20040031764A1
US20040031764A1 US10/340,857 US34085703A US2004031764A1 US 20040031764 A1 US20040031764 A1 US 20040031764A1 US 34085703 A US34085703 A US 34085703A US 2004031764 A1 US2004031764 A1 US 2004031764A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
catalyst
metal
water
method
substrate
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10/340,857
Inventor
Charles Heinig
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Biocatalytica Inc
Original Assignee
Biocatalytica Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US14282899P priority Critical
Priority to US09/612,862 priority patent/US6524540B1/en
Application filed by Biocatalytica Inc filed Critical Biocatalytica Inc
Priority to US10/340,857 priority patent/US20040031764A1/en
Publication of US20040031764A1 publication Critical patent/US20040031764A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/72Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by oxidation
    • C02F1/725Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by oxidation by catalytic oxidation
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J23/00Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00
    • B01J23/38Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of noble metals
    • B01J23/48Silver or gold
    • B01J23/50Silver
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/50Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by addition or application of a germicide or by oligodynamic treatment
    • C02F1/505Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by addition or application of a germicide or by oligodynamic treatment by oligodynamic treatment
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J37/00Processes, in general, for preparing catalysts; Processes, in general, for activation of catalysts
    • B01J37/04Mixing
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/001Processes for the treatment of water whereby the filtration technique is of importance
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2103/00Nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated
    • C02F2103/42Nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated from bathing facilities, e.g. swimming pools
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2303/00Specific treatment goals
    • C02F2303/04Disinfection

Abstract

A catalyst for the purification, e.g., disinfection, of water is disclosed. The catalyst of the invention comprises a substrate, a first metal, and at least one additional metal. The metals are codeposited on the substrate to form a unified structure. Methods of using the catalyst to disinfect water and devices for the purification of water are also disclosed.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 60/142,828, entitled “Novel Materials and Methods for Water Disinfection,” filed on Jul. 8, 1999, the entire contents of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference.[0001]
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • In developed countries, it is recognized that water should be treated to kill various microorganisms before being used municipally. It is also recognized that water should be treated effectively before it can be used in swimming pools, hot tubs and spas. Bodies of water such as swimming pools, hot tubs and spas are highly susceptible to rapid micro-organism growth. These bodies of water can rapidly become extremely hazardous to users, unless the water is effectively and continuously treated against micro-organisms. [0002]
  • One common method of treating water against microorganisms is to add chlorine to render the water safe for human consumption and/or use in swimming pools, spas, etc. Normally, chlorine is added to the water in the form of hypochlorite salt or chlorine gas. However, it has been found that chlorine has both an objectionable odor and can cause skin irritations and serious eye irritations to users. [0003]
  • Because of the objectionable physical properties of chlorine, a number of alternate water treatment systems which operate without chlorine have been developed in recent years. One type of alternative water treatment system is a system in which silver ions are added to water to kill the bacteria (see, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,608,247 and 5,352,369). However, it has been found that, in many cases, systems of this type are only partially effective, and amounts of chlorine must be added to water for complete disinfection. [0004]
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • In one embodiment, the invention pertains to a catalyst for purifying water. The catalyst comprises a substrate, a first metal, and at least one additional metal. The first metal and the additional metals are codeposited onto the substrate. In one further embodiment, the substrate is alumina, the first metal is silver, and the additional metals are selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, vanadium, molybdenum, or another transition metal or rare earth metal. Advantageously, the catalyst is capable of disinfecting water such that it meets or exceeds water safety standards. [0005]
  • The invention also pertains to a catalyst for purifying water, comprising a substrate, silver, and palladium. The palladium and silver are codeposited onto the substrate and form a unified structure on the surface of the substrate. [0006]
  • The invention also pertains to a method for purifying water, by contacting water with the catalyst of the invention, such that the water is purified. In one embodiment, purifying the water comprises disinfecting the water. [0007]
  • The invention also includes a method for inactivating microorganisms in water. The method includes contacting the water with a catalyst of the invention, such that the bacteria are inactivated. [0008]
  • The invention also pertains to a device for purifying water comprising the catalyst of the invention. In a further embodiment, the device includes a water inlet, water outlet and a housing which contains the catalyst. [0009]
  • The invention also includes a packaged catalyst for the disinfection of water. The packaged catalyst includes the catalyst of the invention, a container and instructions for using the catalyst for purifying water.[0010]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIGS. 1A and 1B show a schematic diagram of a device for catalytic water disinfection.[0011]
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention pertains, at least in part, to methods, catalysts and devices useful for the purification, e.g., disinfection, of water. Techniques of water disinfection by a single metal, such as silver, are known. The known techniques exploit the catalytic ability of silver to react with oxygen dissolved in water to generate reactive chemical species that kill or inactivate bacteria, viruses and protozoa. [0012]
  • This invention improves on the known methods of disinfecting water by single metal catalysis by incorporating at least one additional metal, either in its native metallic form or as its oxide. Incorporation of at least one additional metal improves the performance of the catalyst by allowing the disinfection process to be faster, simpler, more effective, and less cumbersome. [0013]
  • I Definitions [0014]
  • Before further description of the invention, certain terms employed in the specification, examples and appended claims are, for convenience, collected here. [0015]
  • The term “codeposition” includes methods where two or more metals are deposited on the substrate in such a manner that they form a unified structure which comprises atoms of both of the metals. [0016]
  • Metals can be codeposited on the substrate by a number of methods known in the art including, for example, electro-codeposition, hydrogen gas reduction, thermal reduction, and methods using chemical reducing agents such as sodium dithionate and ascorbic acid. In an embodiment, the metals are codeposited on the substrate such that they exist in their ground states and/or capable of acting as proton/electron acceptors. [0017]
  • The term “disinfect” or “disinfecting” includes the killing or inactivation of pathogenic and other microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that pollute water supplies. Preferably, the catalyst of the invention disinfects water such that the resulting disinfected water meets or exceeds standards for water purity established by various organizations and/or agencies including, for example, the American Organization of Analytical Chemists (AOAC), the World Health Organization, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Advantageously, water disinfected by the catalysts and methods of the invention meets these without the addition of further disinfecting agents, e.g., chlorine or bromine. [0018]
  • The term “housing” includes any material in which the catalyst can be placed, such that the catalyst is capable of performing its intended function, e.g., purifying water. Examples of housings for the catalyst include porous bags, tubes, and other structures suitable for water purification devices. The housing for the catalyst can be adapted for a specific use. For example, the housing may be tubular, for pumping water through the catalyst, or a porous bag for “flow through” applications. [0019]
  • The term “inactivate” or “inactivation” includes rendering a microorganism non-pathogenic to humans or other animals, for example, by killing the microorganisms. The microorganisms, such as bacteria, are killed through interactions with reactive oxidative species generated by the catalyst of the invention. For viruses, the oxidative species are believed to cause structural changes to the viral protein capsids which compromise the reproductive ability of the virus to inject genetic material into host cells. The mechanism for bacteria and protozoa is identical to that for chlorine and other oxidizers. [0020]
  • The term “kill rate” refers to the number of bacteria per volume of water over time that the catalyst can effectively kill or inactivate. The kill rate can be determined by using the method outlined in Example 1. The kill rate of the catalyst of the invention is 1,000 organisms/mL per fifteen seconds, or greater, 10,000 organisms/mL per fifteen seconds, or greater, 100,000 organisms/mL per fifteen seconds, or greater, or, advantageously, 1,000,000 organisms/mL per fifteen seconds, or greater. [0021]
  • The term “metal” includes elements or compounds that when deposited on a substrate in combination with another metal are capable of disinfecting water. Examples of catalytic metals include transition metals, platinides, rare earth elements, and oxides of transition metals, platinides, and rare earth elements. In certain embodiments, the metals are not radioactive nor otherwise toxic to humans when present in trace amounts. [0022]
  • The term “microorganism” includes bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses and other biological entities and pathogenic species which can pollute water supplies. Examples of microorganisms include bacteria such as [0023] Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Legimella pneumophila, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Klebsiella terrigena and Salmonella typhi. Examples of viruses include hepatitis A and other viruses which are advantageous to inactivate. Examples of fungi include many species, including those which are not pathogenic but are advantageously removed to improve the aesthetic properties of the water. Examples of protozoa include Enteroamoebae, Giardia, Cryptosporidium parvum etc.
  • The term “platinides” includes platinum, palladium, iridium and other elements which display similar electrochemical properties. [0024]
  • The term “purify” or “purifying” includes disinfection of the water (e.g., killing or inactivation of microorganisms), as well as the optional removal or inactivation of other contaminants in the water. Examples of contaminants include particulate matter, minerals, organic chemicals, etc. [0025]
  • The term “rare earth elements” include, for example, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium. [0026]
  • The term “redox potential” refers to the ability of the catalyst to transfer electrons to dissolved oxygen in the water source, thus forming reactive oxygen species. The redox potential of a catalyst can be determined by methods known in the art. One example of a method used to determine the redox potential of a catalyst is to expose N,N-diethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPD, Fischer Scientific) to the catalyst in oxygen free water. The redox potential of the catalyst can also be determined through the use of electronic devices known in the art, for example, through the use of commercially available electronic redox electrodes. [0027]
  • The term “substrate” includes any solid onto which the catalyst of the invention can be deposited, such that the catalyst is able to perform its intended function, e.g., disinfect water. In an embodiment, the substrate has a high surface area, e.g., is highly porous. Examples of substrates include metal oxides, such as, for example, alumina, silica or titanium dioxide. [0028]
  • The term “transition metal” includes, for example, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, gallium, germanium, ytterbium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, molybdenum, silver, cadmium, indium, tin, antimony, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, rhenium, osmium, iridium, platinum, gold, mercury, thallium, etc. Preferred transition metals include those capable of electron donation and/or electron accepting, as well as those which are not fatally toxic in trace amounts and non-radioactive. Examples of advantageous transition metals include silver, palladium, platinum, vanadium, and molybdenum. [0029]
  • The term “unified structure” includes structures which allow the catalyst to perform its intended function, e.g., disinfecting water. Advantageously, the atoms of each of the metals are codeposited on the substrate, such that they are evenly dispersed over the surface of the substrate. For example, the metal present in lower quantities (the “additional metal”, e.g., palladium) is integrated in to the metal lattice of the metal which is present in larger quantities (the “first metal”, e.g., silver). [0030]
  • The term “water safety standards” includes standards issued by the American Organization of Analytical Chemists (AOAC, International), for water consumption by humans, for water consumption by animals, and swimming. The standards given by the AOAC, International are 1,000,000 kill of [0031] E. coli per mL in 15 fifteen seconds. Other water safety standards include those issued by the World Health Organization (WHO, see Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, See Publication No. 570/9/76-003). The water purified by the methods of the invention meets both the WHO and the EPA standards for potable water, as well as the standards established for recreational water (swimming pools, spas, etc.).
  • II Catalysts of the Invention [0032]
  • In one embodiment, the invention pertains to a catalyst for disinfecting water. The catalyst comprises a substrate, a first metal, and at least one additional metal. Advantageously, the first metal and the additional metals are codeposited on the substrate, such that they form a unified structure. The presence of one or more additional metals, such as palladium, significantly increases the efficacy of the catalyst. Examples of substrates include, for example, metal oxides such as alumina. [0033]
  • Without being bound or limited by theory, it is believed that at least one of the metals may function as an electron acceptor, while the other may function as proton acceptor. It is further believed that increased efficiency of electron transfer on the surface of the catalyst leads to enhanced ability of the catalyst to generate reactive species and, therefore, purify, e.g., disinfect, water. For example, in one embodiment, the catalyst comprises an alumina substrate onto which is codeposited silver (“the first metal”) and palladium (“the additional metal”). The electron accepting silver atoms complex with the lone electron pairs on oxygen (dissolved in the water) to function as an oxygen bridge. This oxygen bridge is a powerful reactive oxidative species, and is very unstable. The proton accepting palladium serves to stabilize the complex, thereby enhancing the ability of the catalyst to generate reactive oxygen species that kill microorganisms in water, or that convert harmful, toxic and/or reactive organic compounds contained in water to less harmful, less toxic and/or less reactive compounds. [0034]
  • Examples of metals codeposited on the substrate include transition metals, platinides, rare earth metals, and oxides of transition metals, platinides, and rare earth metals. In one embodiment, the first metal is silver. Silver, a transition metal, has already been shown previously to catalytically induce water disinfection by converting dissolved oxygen, and other available oxidizers, into reactive species which inactivate microorganisms. [0035]
  • The first metal is present in the catalyst in an amount greater than the amount of the additional metal. The amount of the first metal is selected such that the catalyst is capable of performing its intended function, e.g., disinfecting water. Generally, for example, the amount of the first metal, e.g., silver, is present in an amount ranging from about 0.1% to about 10%, about 0.25% to about 5%, or about 0.25% to about 3%, or about 0.5% to about 3%, or about 0.5% to about 2%, or about 1.2% of the total weight of the catalyst. [0036]
  • The additional metals of the catalyst are selected, generally, for their ability to change their valence states, and effectively participate in the catalytic disinfection process of the water. Examples of additional metals include palladium, platinum, vanadium, and molybdenum. In one embodiment, at least one of the additional metals is present as its oxide. [0037]
  • The additional metals are present in the catalyst in an amount less than the amount of the first metal. The amount of the additional metals are selected such that the catalyst is capable of performing its intended function, e.g., disinfecting water. Generally, for example, the amount of an additional metal, e.g., palladium, is present in amounts about 1 ppm to about 100 ppm, about 1 ppm to about 75 ppm, about 1 ppm to about 60 ppm, about 1 ppm to about 50 ppm, about 1 ppm to about 40 ppm, about 1 ppm to about 30 ppm, about 1 ppm to about 20 ppm, about 1 to about 15ppm, about 2 ppm to about 15 ppm, about 2 ppm to about 14 ppm, about 2 ppm to about 13 ppm, about 2 ppm to about 12 ppm, about 2 ppm to about 11 ppm, about 2 ppm to about 10 ppm, and about 1 ppm by total weight of the catalyst. In percent weight, the additional metal is present in the catalyst in an amount, generally, about 1×10[0038] −4% to about 1×10−2%, about 1×10−4% to about 7.5×10−3%, about 1×10−4% to about 6×10−3%, about 1×10−4% to about 5.0×10−3%, about 1×10−4% to about 4.0×10−3%, about 1×10−4% to about 3.0×10−3%, about 1×10−4% to about 2.0×10−3%, about 1×10−4% to about 15×10−4%, about 2×10−4% to about 15×10−4%, about 2×10−4% to about 14×10−4%, about 2×10−4% to about 13×10−4%, about 2×10−4% to about 12×10−4%, about 2×10−4% to about 11×10−4%, about 2×10−4% to about 10×10−4%, and about 1×10−3% of the total weight of the catalyst.
  • In a second embodiment, the metals of the catalyst are selected such that the catalyst has a redox potential which allows it to perform its intended function, e.g., disinfect water. The redox potential of the catalyst can be measured using standard techniques known in the art, such as using a DPD indicator in oxygen free distilled water. The catalyst of the invention preferably has a redox potential of 40 mV/g or greater, 50 mV/g or greater, 60 mV/g or greater, 70 mV/g or greater, 80 mV/g or greater, 90 mV/g or greater, 100 mV/g or greater, 110 mV/g or greater, 120 mV/g or greater, or, advantageously, 130 mV/g or greater. The redox potential of the catalysts of the invention are particularly surprising in comparison to the redox potential of conventional catalysts, such as those disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,660,802, 4,504,287, 4,608,247, and 5,352,369. The catalysts disclosed in these patents have a redox potential of only about 30 mV/g which is ineffective to inactivate bacteria without additional support from other water disinfecting methods or agents. [0039]
  • The metals of the catalyst are advantageously selected such that the catalyst has a kill rate for bacteria such as 1,000 organisms/mL per fifteen seconds or more, 10,000 organisms/mL per fifteen seconds or more, 100,000 organisms/mL per fifteen second or more, or, advantageously, 1,000,000 organisms/mL per fifteen seconds or more. In a further embodiment, the kill rate of bacteria and/or other microorganisms meets or exceeds water safety standards, such as those published by AOAC International. The kill rates of the present invention are surprising over conventional silver on alumina catalysts used to disinfect water, because the conventional catalysts have a much lower kill rate(100 to about 1,000 organisms/mL per fifteen seconds), after a single pass over the catalyst. The conventional silver catalysts do not meet the AOAC, International standards, generally, and, hence, usually require additional purification methods or agents. [0040]
  • The catalyst of the invention may be formulated as a granular solid, as a fine powder, or as a wet slurry. The exact formulation will depend on the method and manner of manufacture, as well as the desired use of the catalyst. [0041]
  • III. Methods of the Invention [0042]
  • The invention also pertains to a method for purifying water. The method includes contacting the water with a catalyst of the invention, such that the water is purified. Without being bound or limited by theory, it is believed that the catalyst reacts with dissolved oxygen in the water to generate a highly reactive and powerful oxidative species. [0043]
  • Thus, in one embodiment, the invention is a method for disinfecting water. The disinfection of the water may comprise, advantageously, the killing or inactivation of bacteria, protozoa, viruses, fungi, and other pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. [0044]
  • In a further embodiment, the method may also comprise passing the water through one or more filters to remove other particles and contaminants which are not removed by interactions with the catalyst. For example, in yet another embodiment, the method further comprises passing the water through a charcoal filter before or after disinfection with the catalyst of the invention to remove non-bacterial contaminants present in the water. [0045]
  • In another embodiment, the disinfected water meets or exceeds water safety standards, such as those established by the AOAC, International, WHO and EPA. Preferably, the water disinfected by the methods of the invention do not require additional agents or purification steps to meet or exceed the requirements for inactivation of microorganisms in water supplies. [0046]
  • In an advantageous embodiment, the invention pertains to a method for inactivating bacteria in water. The method includes contacting the water with a catalyst. The catalyst comprises a substrate (e.g., alumina), a first metal (e.g., silver), and at least one additional metal (e.g., palladium). The metals are codeposited onto said substrate, such as to form a unified structure. [0047]
  • In yet another embodiment, the invention is a method for purifying water by converting harmful, toxic and/or reactive organic compounds contained in the water to less harmful, less toxic and/or less reactive compounds. [0048]
  • IV. Water Purification Devices of the Invention [0049]
  • In another embodiment, the invention is directed to a device for purifying water. In a preferred embodiment, the device is used to disinfect water. The device comprises the catalyst of the invention, as described above. In another embodiment, the device further comprises a water inlet, a water outlet, and a housing containing the catalyst of the invention. The device may also include other filters and features which allow or enhance the ability of the device to perform its intended function, e.g., disinfect water. The device may include, in certain embodiments, one or more filters, such as charcoal filters, to remove impurities, particles, and other non-bacterial contaminants present in the water. [0050]
  • One embodiment of a water disinfecting device of the invention is shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B. In FIG. 1A, the water inlet ([0051] 10) is connected to the housing (20), which is connected to the water outlet (30). The arrow indicates the direction of the flow of the water. FIG. 1B is a cutaway view of the device which shows that the catalyst (40) is located inside the housing (20). Water flows through the water inlet (10), to the housing (20) where it comes into contact with the catalyst (40). The water then exits the device through the water outlet (30).
  • In a further embodiment, the catalyst is incorporated into one or more filter beds. The undisinfected water is filtered through the beds and is disinfected when it comes into contact with the catalyst. The water can be purified by a single pass through the filter bed or through a series of filter beds. Alternatively, water can be recirculated through one or more filter beds repeatedly. [0052]
  • In another embodiment, the catalyst is deposited on the surface of a container, pipe, tube, or other another surface to which the water is exposed. The catalyst can completely coat the surface that the water comes into contact with, or it may only cover a portion of the surface the water contacts. [0053]
  • In another embodiment, the catalyst is incorporated into a capsule or packet which can be agitated within the water sample. For example, the catalyst is placed in a porous packet which is placed in the water to be disinfected and agitated, such that the water is disinfected. Advantageously, the porous package is portable. [0054]
  • In another embodiment, the device for water disinfection comprises a housing containing the catalyst, and a water inlet and a water outlet, through which water can flow. In one embodiment, the device is suitable for home use. For example, the device may be constructed so that it can be attached to a faucet, hose, spigot, well or other home or farm water source such that the water is immediately purified through the device before being consumed or used. In an embodiment, the device is constructed such that it is portable and suitable for travel. In a further embodiment, the device is designed such that it is suitable for farm use. For example, the device is advantageously designed such that it can disinfect water for use in animal drinking troughs. [0055]
  • In another embodiment, the water disinfection device is suitable for killing bacteria and other microorganisms located in a confined area of water, such as a pool, spa, hot tub, pond, etc. Examples of water purification devices know in the art include those described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,660,802, and 4,504,387, which are expressly incorporated herein by reference. [0056]
  • The water purifier of U.S. Pat. No. 5,660,802 comprises a water inlet, a water outlet, and a purification unit that kills the bacteria in the water. It can be used for killing bacteria in a confined area of water in accordance with the methods of the invention by replacing its conventional catalyst with the catalyst of the invention. [0057]
  • U.S. Pat. No. 4,504,387 discloses a water purification system for use with a pool or the like in which a small quantity of water is continually withdrawn from the pool and recycled and disinfected. This water purification system can also be improved by substituting its conventional catalyst with the catalyst of the present invention. [0058]
  • In a further embodiment, the water purification device is suitable for large scale purification of water, e.g., municipal water sources. [0059]
  • The invention also pertains to a packaged catalyst for the disinfection of water. The packaged catalyst includes the catalyst of the invention, a suitable container for the catalyst (e.g., a flow-through bag, a box, a vial, etc.), and instructions for using the catalyst for the disinfection of water. [0060]
  • EXEMPLIFICATION OF THE INVENTION
  • The invention is further illustrated by the following examples that should not be construed as limiting. [0061]
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • A batch of water purification catalyst was prepared by reducing silver and palladium salts on a bed of alumina substrate. [0062]
  • Alumina (1,000 g) (Alcoa CPN 8-14 mesh) was used as the substrate. Eighteen grams of silver nitrate (99.95% commercial grade) and 2.5 milligrams of palladium nitrate (Fisher Scientific AS standard grade) were thoroughly mixed with the alumina substrate. The silver nitrate and the palladium nitrate were coreduced to a metallic coating on the alumina substrate by aqueous phase reducing agents at ambient temperature. The resulting material was then dried for 3 hours at 450° F. [0063]
  • The efficacy of the catalyst was then measured and compared with a conventional silver catalyst. [0064]
  • A sample of [0065] E. coli (ATCC#25922) was incubated at 37° C. on Tryptic Soy Agar (Difco) and harvested. The bacteria were diluted to a working concentration of 105 to 106 organisms per milliliter in buffer solution. The buffer solution consisted of tap water previously dechlorinated with sodium thiosulfate, buffered to a pH of 7.2 with phosphate buffer.
  • The bacterial solution was pumped at 19 liters/min through a control catalyst bed which contained 200 grams of silver/alumina catalyst. The silver/alumina catalyst can be prepared by the method outlined above. The bacterial solution was also pumped at the same velocity through a catalyst bed which contained 200 grams of the silver/palladium/alumina catalyst. Samples of the water were collected after discharge from each of the catalyst beds. [0066]
  • The samples were then assayed for viable bacteria using the membrane filtration test as described in ‘Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.’ (17[0067] th ed. 1989, American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA), Water Pollution Control Federation (WPCF)). Temperature and dissolved oxygen were consistently maintained during the experiments.
  • The results from the experiment are shown in Table 1. The samples used for the table were drawn 60 seconds into the pumping cycle. [0068]
    TABLE 1
    E. coli Concentration
    After Exposure to After Exposure to
    Initial Alumina/Silver Alumina/Silver/
    Dilution Concentration Catalyst Palladium Catalyst
    1:100,000 57 0 0
    1:10,000 >300 4 0
    1:1,000 NR 53 0
    1:100 NR >300 7
    1:10 NR NR 62
  • Samples were also evaluated with the palladium/silver/alumina catalyst after 30 and 120 second pumping periods. No significant variation was found compared to the 60 second pumping period sample (sample dilution of 1:1000 showed 1 cfu (colony forming unit) at 30 seconds and 0 cfu at both 60 and 120 seconds). [0069]
  • The results indicate the alumina/silver/palladium catalyst has an improved efficiency for killing [0070] E. coli of at least a factor of ten over the previously known silver/alumina catalyst.
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • This example shows that changing the ratio of the metals on the catalyst affects the ability of the catalyst to inactivate the bacteria. The amount of palladium in the catalyst was increased from 2.5 mg/kg in the previous example to 10 mg/kg. A catalyst which contained only silver and alumina was used as the control. The catalyst was prepared using the same method as given in Example 1. [0071]
  • Table 2 shows data from kill studies using [0072] E. coli and the Standard Methods membrane filtration methodology used in Example 1.
    TABLE 2
    Initial
    Dilution Concentration Control Pd Catalyst
    1:100,000 230  4 <1
    1:1,000 TNTC 294 <1
    1:1,000 TNTC NR <1
    1:100 NR TNTC <1
    1:100 NR NR <1
    1:10 NR NR <1
  • The tables show that the alumina/silver/palladium catalyst of the invention has high kill rates of [0073] E. coli that are capable of being duplicated in separate experiments. For each of the dilutions, the catalyst was able to kill effectively all the bacteria present in contrast to the known catalyst.
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • Table 3 below represents the results of four replicates of bacterial kill studies using the catalyst of Example 2. The results were consistent among the four replicates; i.e., no live bacteria were detected in water samples treated with the catalyst of Example 2. [0074]
  • In each of the replicate studies, bacteria were introduced from 2, 24 hour Tryptic Soy Agar slants into a container with 20 liters of dechlorinated tap water and a pump. The water temperature was 30° C. The start sample was drawn directly from the water in the container with a pipette. A sample was then drawn from the container using the pump without the catalyst in place. The water was pumped through the catalyst bed at a rate of about 19 liters per minute. The second sample was then drawn from the container using the pump with the catalyst in place. The results are as shown in Table 3. All values are given as colony forming units (cfu) per 100 ml of sample. TNTC stands for too numerous to count. <1 is statistically 0. [0075]
    TABLE 3
    Control
    Dilution Start (w/o catalyst) With Catalyst
    1:1,000,000 511 cfu NR NR
    1:100 TNTC TNTC <1
    1:10 NR TNTC <1
    1:1 NR TNTC <1
  • Table 3 shows that the catalyst was effective to kill essentially all the bacteria present in the container. The water purified by the palladium/silver/alumina catalyst used in Examples 2 and 3 meets the standards for water purity issued by the EPA and the WHO at each dilution. [0076]
  • Incorporation by Reference [0077]
  • The entire contents of all patents, published patent applications and other references cited herein are hereby expressly incorporated herein in their entireties by reference. [0078]
  • Equivalents [0079]
  • Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain, using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to specific embodiments of the invention described specifically herein. Such equivalents are intended to be encompassed in the scope of the following claims. [0080]

Claims (73)

1. A catalyst for purifying water comprising a substrate, a first metal, and at least one additional metal, wherein said first metal and said additional metal are codeposited onto said substrate.
2. The catalyst of claim 1, wherein said purifying comprises disinfecting said water by killing of microorganisms contained therein.
3. The catalyst of claim 1, wherein said substrate is a metal oxide.
4. The catalyst of claim 3, wherein said substrate is alumina.
5. The catalyst of claim 1, wherein said first metal is selected from the group consisting of transition metals, platinides, rare earth metals, and oxides of transition metals, platinides, or rare earth metals.
6. The catalyst of claim 5, wherein said first metal is a transition metal.
7. The catalyst of claim 6, wherein said first metal is copper, silver or gold.
8. The catalyst of claim 7, wherein said first metal is silver.
9. The catalyst of claim 1, wherein said first metal is an oxide of a transition metal, a platinide, or a rare earth metal.
10. The catalyst of claim 1, wherein said additional metal is selected from the group consisting of transition metals, platinides, rare earth metals, and oxides of transition metals, platinides, or rare earth metals.
11. The catalyst of claim 10, wherein said additional metal is a transition metal.
12. The catalyst of claim 11, wherein said additional metal is platinum, palladium, molybdenum, or vanadium.
13. The catalyst of claim 12, wherein said additional metal is palladium.
14. The catalyst of claim 10, wherein said additional metal is an oxide of a transition metal, a platinide, or a rare earth metal.
15. The catalyst of claim 9, further comprising one or more additional metal oxides.
16. The catalyst of claim 1, wherein said catalyst has a redox potential of 100 mV/mg or greater.
17. The catalyst of claim 16, wherein said catalyst has a redox potential of 120 mV/mg or greater.
18. The catalyst of claim 17, wherein said catalyst has a redox potential of 130 mV/mg or greater.
19. A catalyst for purifying water comprising a substrate, silver, and palladium, wherein palladium and silver are codeposited onto said substrate and wherein said palladium and said silver form a unified structure on the surface of said substrate.
20. The catalyst of claim 19, wherein said substrate is a metal oxide.
21. The catalyst of claim 20, wherein said substrate is alumina.
22. The catalyst of claim 19, wherein silver comprises about 0.1% to about 3.0% of the weight of the catalyst.
23. The catalyst of claim 22 wherein silver comprises about 0.5% to about 3.0% of the weight of the catalyst.
24. The catalyst of claim 23, wherein silver comprises about 0.5% to about 2.0% of the weight of the catalyst.
25. The catalyst of claim 24, wherein silver comprises about 1.2% of the catalyst.
26. The catalyst of claim 19, wherein palladium comprises about 1×10−4 to about 1×10−2% of the weight of the catalyst.
27. The catalyst of claim 26, wherein palladium comprises about 1×10−4 to about 6×10−3% of the weight of the catalyst.
28. The catalyst of claim 27, wherein palladium comprises about 1×10−4 to about 5×10−3% of the weight of the catalyst.
29. The catalyst of claim 28, wherein palladium comprises about 1×10−4 to about 2×10−3% of the weight of the catalyst.
30. A method for purifying water, comprising contacting water with a catalyst, wherein said catalyst comprises a substrate, a first metal, and at least one additional metal, and wherein said first metal and said additional metal are codeposited onto said substrate, to purify thereby said water.
31. The method of claim 30, wherein said purifying comprises disinfecting said water by killing of microorganisms contained therein.
32. The method of claim 30, wherein said substrate is a metal oxide.
33. The method of claim 32, wherein said substrate is alumina.
34. The method of claim 30, wherein said first metal is selected from the group consisting of transition metals, platinides, rare earth metals, and oxides of transition metals, platinides, or rare earth metals.
35. The method of claim 34, wherein said first metal is a transition metal.
36. The method of claim 35, wherein said first metal is copper, silver or gold.
37. The method of claim 36, wherein said first metal is silver.
38. The method of claim 20, wherein said first metal is an oxide of a transition metal, a platinide, or a rare earth metal.
39. The method of claim 30, wherein said additional metal is selected from the group consisting of transition metals, platinides, rare earth metals, and oxides of transition metals, platinides, or rare earth metals.
40. The method of claim 39, wherein said additional metal is a transition metal.
41. The method of claim 40, wherein said additional metal is platinum, palladium, molybdenum, or vanadium.
42. The method of claim 41, wherein said additional metal is palladium.
43. The method of claim 49, wherein said additional metal is oxide of a transition metal, a platinide, or a rare earth metal.
44. The method of claim 38, further comprising one or more additional metal oxides.
45. The method of claim 30, wherein said catalyst has a redox potential of 100 mV/mg or greater.
46. The method of claim 45, wherein said catalyst has a redox potential of 120 mV/mg or greater.
47. The method of claim 46, wherein said catalyst has a redox potential of 130 mV/mg or greater.
48. The method of claim 31, wherein said catalyst has a kill rate of 1,000 organisms/mL per fifteen seconds, or greater of microorganisms contained in said water.
49. The method of claim 31, wherein said catalyst has a kill rate of 10,000 organisms/mL per fifteen seconds, or greater of microorganisms contained in said water.
50. The method of claim 31, wherein said catalyst has a kill rate of 100,000 organisms/mL per second, or greater of microorganisms contained in said water.
51. The method of claim 30, wherein said catalyst comprises an alumina substrate, silver, and palladium, wherein said silver and said palladium are codeposited onto said substrate.
52. The method of claim 31, wherein said microorganisms are selected from the group consisting of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and mixtures thereof.
53. The method of claim 62, wherein said microorganism is bacteria.
54. The method of claim 53, wherein said bacteria is selected from the group consisting of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Legimella pneumophila, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella terrigena, Salmonella typhi and mixtures thereof.
55. The method of claim 51, wherein the disinfected water meets or exceeds water safety standards for potable water.
56. The method of claim 55, wherein said disinfected water meets or exceeds water safety standards for potable water without an additional water disinfecting step.
57. The method of claim 30, further comprising contacting the water through a charcoal filter.
58. The method of claim 57, wherein said water is contacted with said charcoal filter prior to contact with said catalyst.
59. A method for inactivating microorganisms in water, comprising contacting the water with a catalyst, wherein said catalyst comprises a substrate, a first metal, and at least one additional metal, wherein said first metal and said additional metal are codeposited onto said substrate, such that said bacteria are inactivated.
60. The method of claim 59, wherein said substrate is alumina.
61. The method of claim 59, wherein said first metal is silver.
62. The method of claim 59, wherein said additional metal is selected from the group consisting of palladium, platinum, vanadium, and molybdenum.
63. The method of claim 62, wherein said additional metal is palladium.
64. The method of claim 59, wherein said microorganisms are bacteria selected from the group consisting of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Legimella pneumophila, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella terrigena, Salmonella typhi, and mixtures thereof.
65. A device for purifying water comprising a catalyst, wherein said catalyst comprises a substrate, a first metal, and at least one additional metal, wherein said first metal and said additional metal are codeposited onto said substrate.
66. The device of claim 65 which further comprises a filter, wherein said filter contains said catalyst.
67. The device of claim 65, wherein said purifying comprises disinfecting said water by killing of microorganisms contained therein.
68. The device of claim 67, wherein said catalyst comprises an alumina substrate, silver, and palladium, wherein said silver and said palladium are codeposited onto said substrate.
69. The device of claim 67, wherein said device is portable.
70. The device of claim 65, which further comprises a housing surrounding said catalyst, a water inlet and a water outlet.
71. A packaged catalyst for the disinfection of water comprising a catalyst, a container for said catalyst, and instructions for using said catalyst for the disinfection water, wherein said catalyst comprises a substrate, a first metal, and at least one additional metal, wherein said first metal and said additional metal are codeposited onto said substrate.
72. The catalyst of claim 1, wherein said purification comprises converting harmful, toxic and/or reactive organic compounds contained in the water to less harmful, less toxic and/or less reactive compounds.
73. The method of claim 30, wherein said purification comprises converting harmful, toxic and/or reactive organic compounds contained in the water to less harmful, less toxic and/or less reactive compounds.
US10/340,857 1999-07-08 2003-01-09 Novel materials and methods for water purification Abandoned US20040031764A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US14282899P true 1999-07-08 1999-07-08
US09/612,862 US6524540B1 (en) 1999-07-08 2000-07-10 Materials and methods for water purification
US10/340,857 US20040031764A1 (en) 1999-07-08 2003-01-09 Novel materials and methods for water purification

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10/340,857 US20040031764A1 (en) 1999-07-08 2003-01-09 Novel materials and methods for water purification

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09/612,862 Division US6524540B1 (en) 1999-07-08 2000-07-10 Materials and methods for water purification

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20040031764A1 true US20040031764A1 (en) 2004-02-19

Family

ID=22501455

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09/612,862 Expired - Fee Related US6524540B1 (en) 1999-07-08 2000-07-10 Materials and methods for water purification
US10/340,857 Abandoned US20040031764A1 (en) 1999-07-08 2003-01-09 Novel materials and methods for water purification

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09/612,862 Expired - Fee Related US6524540B1 (en) 1999-07-08 2000-07-10 Materials and methods for water purification

Country Status (4)

Country Link
US (2) US6524540B1 (en)
EP (1) EP1202936A1 (en)
AU (1) AU6084900A (en)
WO (1) WO2001004058A1 (en)

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080093580A1 (en) * 2003-01-29 2008-04-24 Union Oil Company Of California Dba Unocal Composition for removing arsenic from aqueous streams
US20080156734A1 (en) * 2006-12-28 2008-07-03 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Apparatus for treating a flow of an aqueous solution containing arsenic
US20090111689A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Composition and process for making the composition
US20090107925A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Apparatus and process for treating an aqueous solution containing biological contaminants
US20090107919A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Apparatus and process for treating an aqueous solution containing chemical contaminants
US20090112043A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Process and apparatus for treating a gas containing a contaminant
US20100187178A1 (en) * 2003-01-29 2010-07-29 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Process for removing and sequestering contaminants from aqueous streams
US20100230359A1 (en) * 2009-03-16 2010-09-16 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Porous and durable ceramic filter monolith coated with a rare earth for removing contaminants from water
US20100258448A1 (en) * 2009-04-09 2010-10-14 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Use of a rare earth for the removal of antimony and bismuth
US20110110817A1 (en) * 2009-11-09 2011-05-12 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Rare earth removal of colorants
US9233863B2 (en) 2011-04-13 2016-01-12 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Rare earth removal of hydrated and hydroxyl species
US9689106B2 (en) 2013-12-06 2017-06-27 Applied Silver, Inc. Antimicrobial fabric application system
US9975787B2 (en) 2014-03-07 2018-05-22 Secure Natural Resources Llc Removal of arsenic from aqueous streams with cerium (IV) oxide compositions

Families Citing this family (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6818589B1 (en) * 2002-06-18 2004-11-16 Uop Llc Isomerization catalyst and processes
US6982097B2 (en) * 2003-07-15 2006-01-03 Sani-Care Salon Products, Inc. Biocidal compositions and methods of using same
US20060032730A1 (en) * 2004-08-13 2006-02-16 Kaufman Paul J Belt conveyor apparatus
US9371245B2 (en) * 2006-10-12 2016-06-21 Bruce D. Burrows Drainless reverse osmosis water purification system
DE102007040495A1 (en) * 2007-08-21 2009-02-26 Hansgrohe Ag plumbing fixture
EA201201401A1 (en) * 2010-04-13 2013-04-30 Моликорп Минералс, Ллс Methods and apparatus for improving removal of impurities from the rare earth metals via
US8641967B2 (en) 2011-02-23 2014-02-04 Applied Silver, Inc. Anti-microbial device

Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4225561A (en) * 1975-06-24 1980-09-30 Torres Silvestre S Catalytic converter for transforming polluting gases into non-polluting gases
US4504387A (en) * 1983-10-31 1985-03-12 Lemire George J System and method for water purification
US4608247A (en) * 1984-10-24 1986-08-26 George J. LeMire Composition for bactericidal treatment of water
US5192452A (en) * 1988-07-12 1993-03-09 Nippon Shokubai Kagaku Kogyo, Co., Ltd. Catalyst for water treatment
US5288313A (en) * 1990-05-31 1994-02-22 Shipley Company Inc. Electroless plating catalyst
US5338463A (en) * 1993-05-12 1994-08-16 Mobil Oil Corporation Wastewater treatment by catalytic oxidation
US5352369A (en) * 1993-04-01 1994-10-04 Fountainhead Technologies, Inc. Method of treating water
US5413984A (en) * 1990-12-13 1995-05-09 Institut Francais Du Petrole Method for preparing multi-metal catalysts
US5660802A (en) * 1994-06-07 1997-08-26 Fountainhead Technologies, Inc. Water purifier
US5879645A (en) * 1994-11-03 1999-03-09 Korea Research Institute Of Chemical Technology Method for removing nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas by selective catalytic reduction and catalyst for reduction of nitrogen oxides
US6267895B1 (en) * 1996-05-14 2001-07-31 Germiphene Corporation Catalytic dental water apparatus

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5772896A (en) * 1996-04-05 1998-06-30 Fountainhead Technologies Self-regulating water purification composition

Patent Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4225561A (en) * 1975-06-24 1980-09-30 Torres Silvestre S Catalytic converter for transforming polluting gases into non-polluting gases
US4504387A (en) * 1983-10-31 1985-03-12 Lemire George J System and method for water purification
US4608247A (en) * 1984-10-24 1986-08-26 George J. LeMire Composition for bactericidal treatment of water
US5192452A (en) * 1988-07-12 1993-03-09 Nippon Shokubai Kagaku Kogyo, Co., Ltd. Catalyst for water treatment
US5288313A (en) * 1990-05-31 1994-02-22 Shipley Company Inc. Electroless plating catalyst
US5413984A (en) * 1990-12-13 1995-05-09 Institut Francais Du Petrole Method for preparing multi-metal catalysts
US5352369A (en) * 1993-04-01 1994-10-04 Fountainhead Technologies, Inc. Method of treating water
US5338463A (en) * 1993-05-12 1994-08-16 Mobil Oil Corporation Wastewater treatment by catalytic oxidation
US5660802A (en) * 1994-06-07 1997-08-26 Fountainhead Technologies, Inc. Water purifier
US5879645A (en) * 1994-11-03 1999-03-09 Korea Research Institute Of Chemical Technology Method for removing nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas by selective catalytic reduction and catalyst for reduction of nitrogen oxides
US6267895B1 (en) * 1996-05-14 2001-07-31 Germiphene Corporation Catalytic dental water apparatus

Cited By (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7686976B2 (en) 2003-01-29 2010-03-30 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Composition for removing arsenic from aqueous streams
US20080093580A1 (en) * 2003-01-29 2008-04-24 Union Oil Company Of California Dba Unocal Composition for removing arsenic from aqueous streams
US20100187178A1 (en) * 2003-01-29 2010-07-29 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Process for removing and sequestering contaminants from aqueous streams
US8475658B2 (en) 2003-01-29 2013-07-02 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Water purification device for arsenic removal
US20080156734A1 (en) * 2006-12-28 2008-07-03 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Apparatus for treating a flow of an aqueous solution containing arsenic
US8066874B2 (en) 2006-12-28 2011-11-29 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Apparatus for treating a flow of an aqueous solution containing arsenic
US20100168498A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2010-07-01 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Apparatus and process for treating an aqueous solution containing chemical contaminants
WO2009058681A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-05-07 Molycorp Minerals Llc Apparatus and process for treating an aqueous solution containing biological contaminants
US20090112043A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Process and apparatus for treating a gas containing a contaminant
US20090107919A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Apparatus and process for treating an aqueous solution containing chemical contaminants
US8252087B2 (en) 2007-10-31 2012-08-28 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Process and apparatus for treating a gas containing a contaminant
US20100243542A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2010-09-30 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Apparatus and process for treating an aqueous solution containing biological contaminants
US20090107925A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Apparatus and process for treating an aqueous solution containing biological contaminants
US8557730B2 (en) 2007-10-31 2013-10-15 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Composition and process for making the composition
US20090111689A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Composition and process for making the composition
US8349764B2 (en) 2007-10-31 2013-01-08 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Composition for treating a fluid
US20100230359A1 (en) * 2009-03-16 2010-09-16 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Porous and durable ceramic filter monolith coated with a rare earth for removing contaminants from water
US20100258448A1 (en) * 2009-04-09 2010-10-14 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Use of a rare earth for the removal of antimony and bismuth
US20110110817A1 (en) * 2009-11-09 2011-05-12 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Rare earth removal of colorants
US9233863B2 (en) 2011-04-13 2016-01-12 Molycorp Minerals, Llc Rare earth removal of hydrated and hydroxyl species
US9689106B2 (en) 2013-12-06 2017-06-27 Applied Silver, Inc. Antimicrobial fabric application system
US10000881B2 (en) 2013-12-06 2018-06-19 Applied Silver, Inc. Method for antimicrobial fabric application
US10087568B2 (en) 2013-12-06 2018-10-02 Applied Silver, Inc. Antimicrobial fabric application system
US9975787B2 (en) 2014-03-07 2018-05-22 Secure Natural Resources Llc Removal of arsenic from aqueous streams with cerium (IV) oxide compositions

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
AU6084900A (en) 2001-01-30
EP1202936A1 (en) 2002-05-08
US6524540B1 (en) 2003-02-25
WO2001004058A1 (en) 2001-01-18

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Coleman et al. Bactericidal effects of titanium dioxide-based photocatalysts
US5552057A (en) Water-purifying device
Paraskeva et al. Ozonation of municipal wastewater effluents
US5510034A (en) Method for treating fluids
Gamage et al. Applications of photocatalytic disinfection
US5135654A (en) Method for treating fluids
Nidheesh et al. Trends in electro-Fenton process for water and wastewater treatment: an overview
US5935609A (en) Self-regulating water purification composition
AU717894B2 (en) Stabilized alkali or alkaline earth metal hypobromite and process for its production
US5198118A (en) Method for treating fluids
Salih Enhancement of solar inactivation of Escherichia coli by titanium dioxide photocatalytic oxidation
Wolfe et al. Inorganic chloramines as drinking water disinfectants: a review
Jiang et al. The application of potassium ferrate for sewage treatment
Caretti et al. Wastewater disinfection with PAA and UV combined treatment: a pilot plant study
Svrcek et al. Cyanobacteria toxins and the current state of knowledge on water treatment options: a review
US4198296A (en) Process and apparatus for treating drinking water
US4761208A (en) Electrolytic method and cell for sterilizing water
Coleman et al. Degradation of 1, 4-dioxane in water using TiO2 based photocatalytic and H2O2/UV processes
US3702298A (en) Method of disinfecting with divalent and trivalent metal germicide
US20030042134A1 (en) High efficiency electrolysis cell for generating oxidants in solutions
Mills et al. Bromate removal from drinking water by semiconductor photocatalysis
EP0691937B1 (en) Method of treating water
US5538629A (en) Process and article for disinfecting water
Lydakis-Simantiris et al. Disinfection of spring water and secondary treated municipal wastewater by TiO2 photocatalysis
US6254894B1 (en) Silver self-regulating water purification compositions and methods

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION