US20040021214A1 - Electro-optic integrated circuits with connectors and methods for the production thereof - Google Patents

Electro-optic integrated circuits with connectors and methods for the production thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
US20040021214A1
US20040021214A1 US10/314,088 US31408802A US2004021214A1 US 20040021214 A1 US20040021214 A1 US 20040021214A1 US 31408802 A US31408802 A US 31408802A US 2004021214 A1 US2004021214 A1 US 2004021214A1
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Prior art keywords
integrated circuit
optical
electro
circuit according
producing
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Abandoned
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US10/314,088
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Avner Badehi
Sylvie Rockman
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XLoom Communications Israel Ltd
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XLoom Communications Israel Ltd
Xloom Photonics Ltd
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Priority to US37341502P priority Critical
Application filed by XLoom Communications Israel Ltd, Xloom Photonics Ltd filed Critical XLoom Communications Israel Ltd
Priority to US10/314,088 priority patent/US20040021214A1/en
Assigned to XLOOM PHOTONICS, LTD. reassignment XLOOM PHOTONICS, LTD. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: BADEHI, AVNER, ROCKMAN, SYLVIE
Priority claimed from JP2003585125A external-priority patent/JP2005523466A/en
Publication of US20040021214A1 publication Critical patent/US20040021214A1/en
Assigned to XLOOM COMMUNICATIONS (ISRAEL) LTD. reassignment XLOOM COMMUNICATIONS (ISRAEL) LTD. CHANGE OF NAME (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: XLOOM PHOTONICS (ISRAEL) LTD.
Assigned to XLOOM COMMUNICATIONS (ISRAEL) LTD. reassignment XLOOM COMMUNICATIONS (ISRAEL) LTD. CORRECTIVE ASSIGNMENT TO CORRECT THE SERIAL NUMBER 10593372 IS INCORRECT. SHOULD BE SERIAL NUMBER 10595372. PREVIOUSLY RECORDED ON REEL 021809 FRAME 0645. ASSIGNOR(S) HEREBY CONFIRMS THE SERIAL NUMBER 10593372 IS INCORRECT. SHOULD BE SERIAL NUMBER 10595372.. Assignors: XLOOM PHOTONICS (ISRAEL) LTD.
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/42Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements
    • G02B6/4201Packages, e.g. shape, construction, internal or external details
    • G02B6/4246Bidirectionally operating package structures
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/10Light guides of the optical waveguide type
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/42Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements
    • G02B6/4201Packages, e.g. shape, construction, internal or external details
    • G02B6/4204Packages, e.g. shape, construction, internal or external details the coupling comprising intermediate optical elements, e.g. lenses, holograms
    • G02B6/4214Packages, e.g. shape, construction, internal or external details the coupling comprising intermediate optical elements, e.g. lenses, holograms the intermediate optical element having redirecting reflective means, e.g. mirrors, prisms for deflecting the radiation from horizontal to down- or upward direction toward a device
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L24/00Arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies; Methods or apparatus related thereto
    • H01L24/93Batch processes
    • H01L24/95Batch processes at chip-level, i.e. with connecting carried out on a plurality of singulated devices, i.e. on diced chips
    • H01L24/97Batch processes at chip-level, i.e. with connecting carried out on a plurality of singulated devices, i.e. on diced chips the devices being connected to a common substrate, e.g. interposer, said common substrate being separable into individual assemblies after connecting
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/26Optical coupling means
    • G02B6/28Optical coupling means having data bus means, i.e. plural waveguides interconnected and providing an inherently bidirectional system by mixing and splitting signals
    • G02B6/2804Optical coupling means having data bus means, i.e. plural waveguides interconnected and providing an inherently bidirectional system by mixing and splitting signals forming multipart couplers without wavelength selective elements, e.g. "T" couplers, star couplers
    • G02B6/2852Optical coupling means having data bus means, i.e. plural waveguides interconnected and providing an inherently bidirectional system by mixing and splitting signals forming multipart couplers without wavelength selective elements, e.g. "T" couplers, star couplers using tapping light guides arranged sidewardly, e.g. in a non-parallel relationship with respect to the bus light guides (light extraction or launching through cladding, with or without surface discontinuities, bent structures)
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/36Mechanical coupling means
    • G02B6/3628Mechanical coupling means for mounting fibres to supporting carriers
    • G02B6/3632Mechanical coupling means for mounting fibres to supporting carriers characterised by the cross-sectional shape of the mechanical coupling means
    • G02B6/3636Mechanical coupling means for mounting fibres to supporting carriers characterised by the cross-sectional shape of the mechanical coupling means the mechanical coupling means being grooves
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/36Mechanical coupling means
    • G02B6/3628Mechanical coupling means for mounting fibres to supporting carriers
    • G02B6/3648Supporting carriers of a microbench type, i.e. with micromachined additional mechanical structures
    • G02B6/3652Supporting carriers of a microbench type, i.e. with micromachined additional mechanical structures the additional structures being prepositioning mounting areas, allowing only movement in one dimension, e.g. grooves, trenches or vias in the microbench surface, i.e. self aligning supporting carriers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/36Mechanical coupling means
    • G02B6/3628Mechanical coupling means for mounting fibres to supporting carriers
    • G02B6/3684Mechanical coupling means for mounting fibres to supporting carriers characterised by the manufacturing process of surface profiling of the supporting carrier
    • G02B6/3692Mechanical coupling means for mounting fibres to supporting carriers characterised by the manufacturing process of surface profiling of the supporting carrier with surface micromachining involving etching, e.g. wet or dry etching steps
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/36Mechanical coupling means
    • G02B6/38Mechanical coupling means having fibre to fibre mating means
    • G02B6/3807Dismountable connectors, i.e. comprising plugs
    • G02B6/3873Connectors using guide surfaces for aligning ferrule ends, e.g. tubes, sleeves, V-grooves, rods, pins, balls
    • G02B6/3885Multicore or multichannel optical connectors, i.e. one single ferrule containing more than one fibre, e.g. ribbon type
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/42Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements
    • G02B6/43Arrangements comprising a plurality of opto-electronic elements and associated optical interconnections ; Transmitting or receiving optical signals between chips, wafers or boards; Optical backplane assemblies
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/10Bump connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/15Structure, shape, material or disposition of the bump connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/16Structure, shape, material or disposition of the bump connectors after the connecting process of an individual bump connector
    • H01L2224/161Disposition
    • H01L2224/16151Disposition the bump connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive
    • H01L2224/16221Disposition the bump connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked
    • H01L2224/16225Disposition the bump connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked the item being non-metallic, e.g. insulating substrate with or without metallisation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/26Layer connectors, e.g. plate connectors, solder or adhesive layers; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/31Structure, shape, material or disposition of the layer connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/32Structure, shape, material or disposition of the layer connectors after the connecting process of an individual layer connector
    • H01L2224/321Disposition
    • H01L2224/32151Disposition the layer connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive
    • H01L2224/32221Disposition the layer connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked
    • H01L2224/32225Disposition the layer connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked the item being non-metallic, e.g. insulating substrate with or without metallisation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/73Means for bonding being of different types provided for in two or more of groups H01L2224/10, H01L2224/18, H01L2224/26, H01L2224/34, H01L2224/42, H01L2224/50, H01L2224/63, H01L2224/71
    • H01L2224/732Location after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/73201Location after the connecting process on the same surface
    • H01L2224/73203Bump and layer connectors
    • H01L2224/73204Bump and layer connectors the bump connector being embedded into the layer connector
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/0001Technical content checked by a classifier
    • H01L2924/00014Technical content checked by a classifier the subject-matter covered by the group, the symbol of which is combined with the symbol of this group, being disclosed without further technical details
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/10Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices to be connected
    • H01L2924/11Device type
    • H01L2924/12Passive devices, e.g. 2 terminal devices
    • H01L2924/1204Optical Diode
    • H01L2924/12042LASER
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/10Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices to be connected
    • H01L2924/11Device type
    • H01L2924/14Integrated circuits
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/15Details of package parts other than the semiconductor or other solid state devices to be connected
    • H01L2924/151Die mounting substrate
    • H01L2924/153Connection portion
    • H01L2924/1531Connection portion the connection portion being formed only on the surface of the substrate opposite to the die mounting surface
    • H01L2924/15311Connection portion the connection portion being formed only on the surface of the substrate opposite to the die mounting surface being a ball array, e.g. BGA
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/15Details of package parts other than the semiconductor or other solid state devices to be connected
    • H01L2924/151Die mounting substrate
    • H01L2924/156Material
    • H01L2924/15786Material with a principal constituent of the material being a non metallic, non metalloid inorganic material
    • H01L2924/15787Ceramics, e.g. crystalline carbides, nitrides or oxides
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/15Details of package parts other than the semiconductor or other solid state devices to be connected
    • H01L2924/151Die mounting substrate
    • H01L2924/156Material
    • H01L2924/15786Material with a principal constituent of the material being a non metallic, non metalloid inorganic material
    • H01L2924/15788Glasses, e.g. amorphous oxides, nitrides or fluorides

Abstract

An electro-optic integrated circuit including an integrated circuit substrate, at least one optical signal providing element and at least one discrete reflecting optical element, mounted onto the integrated circuit substrate, cooperating with the at least one optical signal providing element and being operative to direct light from the at least one optical signal providing element. An electro-optic integrated circuit including an integrated circuit substrate, at least one optical signal receiving element and at least one discrete reflecting optical element mounted onto the integrated circuit substrate and cooperating with the at least one optical signal receiving element and being operative to direct light to the at least one optical signal receiving element.

Description

    REFERENCE TO CO-PENDING APPLICATIONS
  • Applicant hereby claims priority of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 60/373,415, filed on Apr. 16, 2002, entitled “Electro-Optic Integrated Circuits and Methods of the Production Thereof”.[0001]
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to electro-optic integrated circuits and methods for the production thereof generally and more particularly to wafer level manufacture of chip level electro-optic integrated circuits. [0002]
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The following U.S. patents of the present inventor represent the current state of the art: [0003]
  • U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,117,707; 6,040,235; 6,022,758; 5,980,663; 5,716,759; 5,547,906 and 5,455,455. [0004]
  • The following U.S. patents represent the current state of the art relevant to stud bump mounting of electrical circuits: [0005]
  • U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,214,642; 6,103,551; 5,844,320; 5,641,996; 5,550,408 and 5,436,503. [0006]
  • Additionally, the following patents are believed to represent the current state of the art: [0007]
  • U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,168,883; 4,351,051; 4,386,821; 4,399,541; 4,615,031; 4,810,053; 4,988,159; 4,989,930; 4,989,943; 5,044,720; 5,231,686, 5,841,591; 6,052,408; 6,058,228; 6,234,688; 5,886,971; 5,912,872; 5,933,551; 6,061,169; 6,071,652; 6,096,155; 6,104,690; 6,235,141; 6,295,156; 5,771,218 and 5,872,762. [0008]
  • A transceiver incorporating a connector is known in the art as shown in product descriptions for OptoCube 40 3.35 Gb/s Channel Speed 850 nm Receiver Array 12 Channel Parallel Optical Receivers and OptoCube 40 3.35 Gb/s Channel Speed 850 nm VCSEL Array 12 Channel Parallel Optical Transmitters from Corona Optical Systems, Inc. 450 Eisenhower Lane North, Lombardi, Ill., 60418, USA. [0009]
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention seeks to provide improved electro-optic integrated circuits and methods for production thereof. [0010]
  • There is thus provided, in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, an electro-optic integrated circuit including an integrated circuit substrate, at least one optical signal providing element and at least one discrete reflecting optical element, mounted onto the integrated circuit substrate, cooperating with the at least one optical signal providing element and being operative to direct light from the at least one optical signal providing element. [0011]
  • There is also provided, in accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention, an electro-optic integrated circuit including an integrated circuit substrate, at least one optical signal receiving element and at least one discrete reflecting optical element mounted onto the integrated circuit substrate and cooperating with the at least one optical signal receiving element and being operative to direct light to the at least one optical signal receiving element. [0012]
  • There is further provided, in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention, an electro-optic integrated circuit including an integrated circuit substrate defining a planar surface, at least one optical signal providing element and at least one reflecting optical element having an optical axis which is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the planar surface, the element cooperating with the at least one optical signal providing element and being operative to direct light from the at least one optical signal providing element. [0013]
  • There is also provided, in accordance with still another preferred embodiment of the present invention, an electro-optic integrated circuit including an integrated circuit substrate defining a planar surface, at least one optical signal receiving element and at least one reflecting optical element having an optical axis which is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the planar surface, the element cooperating with the at least one optical signal receiving element and being operative to direct light to the at least one optical signal receiving element. [0014]
  • There is further provided, in accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention, a method for producing an electro-optic integrated circuit including providing an integrated circuit substrate, mounting at least one optical signal providing element onto the integrated circuit substrate, mounting at least one optical signal receiving element onto the integrated circuit substrate and providing optical alignment, between the at least one optical signal providing element and the at least one optical signal receiving element, subsequent to mounting thereof, by suitable positioning along an optical path extending therebetween, an intermediate optical element and fixing the intermediate optical element to the integrated circuit substrate. [0015]
  • In accordance with a further preferred embodiment of the present invention, the intermediate optical element, when fixed to the substrate, has an optical axis which is neither parallel nor perpendicular to a planar surface of the integrated circuit substrate. [0016]
  • There is also provided, in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention, a method for producing an electro-optic integrated circuit including providing an integrated circuit substrate, mounting at least one optical signal providing element on the integrated circuit substrate and mounting at least one discrete reflecting optical element onto the integrated circuit substrate to cooperate with the at least one optical signal providing element and to direct light from the at least one optical signal providing element. [0017]
  • There is further provided, in accordance with still another preferred embodiment of the present invention, a method for producing an electro-optic integrated circuit including providing an integrated circuit substrate, mounting at least one optical signal receiving element on the integrated circuit substrate and mounting at least one discrete reflecting optical element onto the integrated circuit substrate to cooperate with the at least one optical signal receiving element and to direct light to the at least one optical signal receiving element. [0018]
  • There is also provided, in accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention, a method for producing an electro-optic integrated circuit including providing an integrated circuit substrate defining a planar surface, mounting at least one optical signal providing element on the integrated circuit substrate and mounting, at least one reflecting optical element onto the integrated circuit substrate to cooperate with the at least one optical signal providing element and to direct light from the at least one optical signal providing element, wherein an optical axis of the at least one reflecting optical element is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the planar surface. [0019]
  • There is further provided, in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention, a method for producing an electro-optic integrated circuit including providing an integrated circuit substrate defining a planar surface, mounting at least one optical signal receiving element on the integrated circuit substrate and mounting at least one reflecting optical element onto the integrated circuit substrate to cooperate with the at least one optical signal receiving element and to direct light to the at least one optical signal receiving element, wherein an optical axis of the at least one reflecting optical element is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the planar surface. [0020]
  • In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the at least one optical element includes a flat reflective surface. Additionally, the at least one optical element includes a concave mirror. Alternatively, the at least one optical element includes a partially flat and partially concave mirror. Additionally, the partially concave mirror includes a mirror with multiple concave reflective surfaces. [0021]
  • In accordance with another preferred embodiment, the at least one optical element includes a reflective grating. Additionally, the at least one optical element includes reflective elements formed on opposite surfaces of an optical substrate. Preferably, at least one of the reflective elements includes a flat reflective surface. Alternatively, at least one of the reflective elements includes a concave mirror. Alternatively or additionally, at least one of the reflective elements includes a partially flat and partially concave mirror. Additionally, the mirror includes a mirror with multiple concave reflective surfaces. Alternatively, at least one of the reflective elements includes a reflective grating. [0022]
  • Preferably, the at least one optical element is operative to focus light received from the optical signal providing element. Alternatively, the at least one optical element is operative to collimate light received from the optical signal providing element. In accordance with another preferred embodiment, the at least one optical element is operative to focus at least one of multiple colors of light received from the optical signal providing element. Additionally or alternatively, the at least one optical element is operative to collimate at least one of multiple colors of light received from the optical signal providing element. In accordance with another preferred embodiment, the at least one optical element is operative to enhance the optical properties of light received from the optical signal providing element. [0023]
  • In accordance with a preferred embodiment, the optical signal providing element includes an optical fiber. Alternatively, the optical signal providing element includes a laser diode. Additionally or alternatively, the optical signal providing element includes a waveguide. In accordance with another preferred embodiment, the optical signal providing element includes an array waveguide grating. Alternatively, the optical signal providing element includes a semiconductor optical amplifier. [0024]
  • Preferably, the optical signal providing element is operative to convert an electrical signal to an optical signal. Alternatively, the optical signal providing element is operative to transmit an optical signal. Additionally, the optical signal providing element also includes an optical signal receiving element. In accordance with another preferred embodiment, the optical signal providing element is operative to generate an optical signal. [0025]
  • In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the integrated circuit substrate includes gallium arsenide. Alternatively, the integrated circuit substrate includes indium phosphide. [0026]
  • In accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention, the integrated circuit includes at least one optical signal providing element and at least one optical element receiving element, the at least one discrete reflecting optical element cooperating with the at least one optical signal providing element and the at least one optical signal receiving element and being operative to direct light from the at least one signal providing element to the at least one optical signal receiving element. [0027]
  • Preferably, the at least one optical signal receiving element includes an optical fiber. Alternatively, the at least one optical signal receiving element includes a laser diode. Additionally or alternatively, the at least one optical signal receiving element includes a diode detector. [0028]
  • In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the at least one optical signal receiving element is operative to convert an optical signal to an electrical signal. Additionally, the at least one optical signal receiving element is operative to transmit an optical signal. Alternatively, the at least one optical signal receiving element also includes an optical signal providing element. [0029]
  • Preferably, the at least one reflecting optical element is operative to focus light received by the optical signal receiving element. Alternatively, the at least one reflecting, optical element is operative to collimate light received by the optical signal receiving element. In accordance with another preferred embodiment, the at least one reflecting, optical element is operative to focus at least one of multiple colors of light received by the optical signal receiving element. Additionally or alternatively, the at least one reflecting, optical element is operative to collimate at least one of multiple colors of light received by the optical signal receiving element. In accordance with another preferred embodiment, the at least one reflecting optical element is operative to enhance the optical properties of light received by the optical signal receiving element. [0030]
  • There is also provided, in accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention, an integrated circuit including a first integrated circuit substrate having first and second planar surfaces, the first planar surface having first electrical circuitry formed thereon and the second planar surface having formed therein at least one recess and at least one second integrated circuit substrate having second electrical circuitry formed thereon, the at least one second integrated circuit substrate being located at least partially in the at least one recess, the second electrical circuitry communicating, with the first electrical circuitry. [0031]
  • There is further provided, in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention, an integrated circuit including a first integrated circuit substrate having first electrical circuitry formed thereon and having formed therein at least one recess and at least one second integrated circuit substrate having second electrical circuitry formed thereon, the at least one second integrated circuit substrate being located at least partially in the at least one recess, the second electrical circuitry communicating with the first electrical circuitry. [0032]
  • There is also provided, in accordance with still another preferred embodiment of the present invention, a method for producing an integrated circuit including providing a first integrated circuit substrate, with first and second planar surfaces, forming first electrical circuitry on the first planar surface, forming at least one recess in the second planar surface, providing at least one second integrated circuit substrate, forming second electrical circuitry on the at least one second integrated circuit substrate and locating the at least one second integrated circuit substrate at least partially in the at least one recess, the second electrical circuitry communicating with the first electrical circuitry. [0033]
  • There is further provided, in accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention, a method for producing an integrated circuit including providing a first integrated circuit substrate, forming first electrical circuitry on the first substrate, forming at least one recess in the first substrate, providing at least one second integrated circuit substrate, forming second electrical circuitry on the at least one second integrated circuit substrate and locating the at least one second integrated circuit substrate at least partially in the at least one recess, the second electrical circuitry communicating with the first electrical circuitry. [0034]
  • Preferably, the first electrical circuitry includes electro-optic components. Additionally, the second electrical circuitry includes electro-optic components. In accordance with a preferred embodiment, the second electrical circuitry communicating with the first electrical circuitry includes communicating via an optical communication path. Additionally, the optical communication path includes optical coupling through free space. [0035]
  • There is also provided, in accordance with still another preferred embodiment of the present invention, an integrated circuit including a first integrated circuit substrate having, first and second planar surfaces, the first planar surface having first electrical circuitry formed thereon and the second planar surface having formed therein at least one recess and at least one second substrate, the at least one second substrate beings located at least partially in the at least one recess, the second substrate containing at least one element communicating with the first electrical circuitry. [0036]
  • There is further provided, in accordance with another preferred embodiment, an integrated circuit including a first integrated circuit substrate, having electrical circuitry formed thereon and having formed therein at least one recess and at least one second substrate, the at least one second substrate being located at least partially in the at least one recess, the second substrate containing at least one element communicating with the electrical circuitry. [0037]
  • There is also provided, in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment, a method for producing an integrated circuit including providing a first integrated circuit substrate, with first and second planar surfaces, forming first electrical circuitry on the first planar surface, forming at least one recess in the second planar surface, providing at least one second substrate and locating the at least one second substrate at least partially in the at least one recess, the second substrate containing at least one element communicating with the first electrical circuitry. [0038]
  • There is further provided, in accordance with still another preferred embodiment, a method for producing an integrated circuit including providing a first integrated circuit substrate, forming electrical circuitry on the first substrate, forming at least one recess in the first substrate, providing at least one second substrate and locating the at least one second substrate at least partially in the at least one recess, the second substrate containing at least one element communicating with the electrical circuitry. [0039]
  • In accordance with a preferred embodiment, the first electrical circuitry includes electro-optic components. Additionally, the at least one element includes electro-optic components. Preferably, the at least one element communicating with the first electrical circuitry includes communicating via an optical communication path. Additionally, the optical communication path includes optical coupling through free space. [0040]
  • There is yet further provided, in accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention, an integrated circuit including a silicon integrated circuit substrate having electrical signal processing circuitry formed thereon and at least one discrete optical element mounted thereon, the electrical signal processing circuitry including, an electrical signal input and an electrical signal output and the at least one discrete optical element including an optical input and an optical output. [0041]
  • There is also provided, in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention, a method for producing an integrated circuit including providing a silicon integrated circuit substrate, forming electrical signal processing circuitry on the substrate and mounting at least one discrete optical element on the substrate, the electrical signal processing circuitry including an electrical signal input and an electrical signal output and the at least one discrete optical element including an optical input and an optical output. [0042]
  • Preferably, the optical element is operative to convert the electrical signal output into the optical input. Alternatively, the electrical signal processing circuitry is operative to convert the optical output into the electrical signal input. In accordance with another preferred embodiment, the electrical signal processing circuitry and the discrete optical element are located on a single planar surface of the substrate. Alternatively, the electrical signal processing circuitry and the discrete optical element are located on different planar surfaces of the substrate. [0043]
  • There is also provided in accordance with still another preferred embodiment of the present invention, an optical connector including a plurality of optical elements defining at least one optical input path and at least one optical output path, the at least one optical input path and the at least one optical output path being non-coaxial. [0044]
  • There is further provided in accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention, a method for producing an optical connector including providing a plurality of optical elements, defining at least one optical input path through at least one of the plurality of optical elements and defining at least one optical output path through at least one of the plurality of optical elements, the at least one optical input path and the at least one optical output path being non-coaxial. [0045]
  • Preferably, at least one of the plurality of optical elements includes a flat reflective surface. Additionally, at least one of the plurality of optical elements includes a concave mirror. Additionally or alternatively, at least one of the plurality of optical elements includes a partially flat and partially concave mirror. Alternatively, at least one of the plurality of optical elements includes a mirror with multiple concave reflective surfaces. Additionally or alternatively, at least one of the plurality of optical elements includes a reflective grating. Additionally, at least one of the plurality of optical elements includes reflective elements formed on opposite surfaces of an optical substrate. [0046]
  • In accordance with a preferred embodiment, at least one of the plurality of optical elements is operative to focus light. Alternatively, at least one of the plurality of optical elements is operative to collimate light. Additionally, at least one of the plurality of optical elements is operative to focus at least one of multiple colors of light. Additionally or alternatively, at least one of the plurality of optical elements is operative to collimate at least one of multiple colors of light. Alternatively, at least one of the plurality of optical elements is operative to enhance the optical properties of light. [0047]
  • Preferably, at least one of the plurality of optical elements includes an optical fiber. Additionally, at least one of the plurality of optical elements includes a laser diode. Alternatively, at least one of the plurality of optical elements includes a diode detector. [0048]
  • There is further provided in accordance with still another preferred embodiment of the present invention an optical reflector including an optical substrate, at least one microlens formed on a surface of the optical substrate and a first reflective surface formed over the at least one microlens. [0049]
  • There is still further provided in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention a method for producing an optical reflector including providing an optical substrate, forming at least one microlens on a surface of the optical substrate, coating the at least one microlens with a reflective material and dicing, the substrate. [0050]
  • Preferably, the first reflective surface is also formed over at least a portion of the surface of the optical substrate. Alternatively, at least a portion of the first reflective surface includes a grating. Preferably, the first reflective surface includes aluminum. [0051]
  • In accordance with another preferred embodiment, the optical reflector also includes at least one second reflective surface formed on at least a portion of an opposite surface of the substrate. Additionally, at least a portion of the second reflective surface includes a grating. Preferably, the second reflective surface includes aluminum. [0052]
  • In accordance with yet another preferred embodiment, the optical reflector also includes a notch formed in the opposite surface of the substrate. [0053]
  • Preferably, the at least one microlens includes photoresist. Alternatively, the at least one microlens is formed by photolithography and thermal reflow forming. Additionally, the at least one microlens is formed by photolithography using a grey scale mask forming. Alternatively, the at least one microlens is formed by jet printing formation. [0054]
  • In accordance with still another preferred embodiment, the at least one microlens has an index of refraction which is identical to that of the optical substrate. Alternatively, the at least one microlens has an index of refraction which closely approximates that of the optical substrate. [0055]
  • There is also provided in accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention a packaged electro-optic circuit having integrally formed therein an optical connector and electrical connections. [0056]
  • There is further provided in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention a method for wafer scale production of an electro-optic circuit having integrally formed therein an optical connector and electrical connections including wafer scale formation of a multiplicity of electro-optic circuits onto a substrate, wafer scale provision of at least one optical waveguide on the substrate, wafer scale mounting of at least one integrated circuit component onto the substrate, wafer scale formation of at least one optical pathway providing an optical connection between the at least one integrated circuit component and the at least one optical waveguide, wafer scale formation of at least one mechanical connector guide on the substrate, wafer scale formation of at least one packaging layer over at least one surface of the substrate, and thereafter, dicing the substrate to define a multiplicity of electro-optic circuits, each having integrally formed therein an optical connector. [0057]
  • Preferably, the at least one optical fiber defines a connector interface. [0058]
  • There is still further provided in accordance with still another embodiment of the present invention a method of mounting an integrated circuit onto an electrical circuit including forming an integrated circuit with a multiplicity of electrical connection pads which generally lie along a surface of the integrated circuit, forming an electrical circuit with a multiplicity of electrical connection contacts which generally protrude from a surface of the electrical circuit and employing at least a conductive adhesive to electrically and mechanically join the multiplicity of electrical connection pads to the multiplicity of electrical connection contacts. [0059]
  • Preferably, the method also includes providing an underfill layer. [0060]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The present invention will be appreciated more fully from the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the drawings in which: [0061]
  • FIGS. 1A, 1B, [0062] 1C, 1D and 1E are simplified pictorial illustrations of initial stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated circuit constructed and operative in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 2A, 2B, [0063] 2C, and 2D are simplified sectional illustrations of further stages in the production of the electro-optic integrated circuit referenced in FIGS. 1A-1E;
  • FIG. 3 is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 2D. [0064]
  • FIGS. 4A, 4B, [0065] 4C, 4D and 4E are simplified pictorial illustrations of initial stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated circuit constructed and operative in accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 5A, 5B, [0066] 5C and 5D are simplified sectional illustrations of further stages in the production of the electro-optic integrated circuit referenced in FIGS. 4A-4E;
  • FIGS. 6A, 6B and [0067] 6C are enlarged simplified optical illustrations of a potion of FIG. 5D in accordance with preferred embodiments of the present invention;
  • FIG. 7 is a simplified sectional illustration of an electro-optic integrated circuit constructed and operative in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention; [0068]
  • FIGS. 8A, 8B and [0069] 8C are enlarged simplified optical illustrations of a portion of FIG. 7 in accordance with other embodiments of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 9A, 9B, [0070] 9C, 9D and 9E are simplified pictorial illustrations of initial stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated circuit constructed and operative in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 10A, 10B, [0071] 10C and 10D are simplified sectional illustrations of further stages in the production of the electro-optic integrated circuit referenced in FIGS. 9A-9E;
  • FIGS. 11A, 11B and [0072] 11C are enlarged simplified optical illustrations of a portion of FIG. 10D in accordance with preferred embodiments of the present invention;
  • FIG. 12 is a simplified sectional illustration of an electro-optic integrated circuit constructed and operative in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention; [0073]
  • FIGS. 13A, 13B and [0074] 13C are enlarged simplified optical illustrations of a portion of FIG. 12 in accordance with further preferred embodiments of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 14A, 14B, [0075] 14C and 14D are simplified sectional illustrations of stages in the production an electro-optic integrated circuit in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 15A, 15B and [0076] 15C are simplified optical illustrations of FIG. 14D in accordance with preferred embodiments of the present invention;
  • FIG. 16 is a simplified sectional illustration of an electro-optic integrated circuit constructed and operative in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention; [0077]
  • FIGS. 17A, 17B and [0078] 17C are enlarged simplified optical illustrations of a portion of FIG. 16 in accordance with further embodiments of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 18A, 18B, [0079] 18C and 18D are simplified illustrations of a method for fabricating optical elements employed in the embodiments of FIGS. 4A-6C in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 19A, 19B, [0080] 19C, 19D and 19E are simplified illustrations of a method for fabricating optical elements employed in the embodiments of FIGS. 1A-6C in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 20A, 20B, [0081] 20C, 20D, 20E and 20F are simplified illustrations of a method for fabricating optical elements employed in the embodiments of FIGS. 9A-17C in accordance with yet another embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 21A, 21B, [0082] 21C, 21D, 21E and 21F are simplified illustrations of a method for fabricating optical elements employed in the embodiments of FIGS. 1A-17C in accordance with still another embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 22A, 22B, [0083] 22C, 22D, 22E, 22F and 22G are simplified illustrations of a method for fabricating optical elements employed in the embodiments of FIGS. 1A-8C in accordance with a further embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 23A, 23B, [0084] 23C, 23D, 23E, 23F and 23G are simplified illustrations of a method for fabricating, optical elements employed in the embodiments of FIGS. 9A-17C in accordance with yet a further embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 24A, 24B, [0085] 24C, 24D, 24E, 24F and 24G are simplified illustrations of a method for fabricating optical elements employed in the embodiments of FIGS. 1A-17C in accordance with a still further embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 25A, 25B, [0086] 25C and 25D are simplified illustrations of multiple stages in the production of a multi-chip module in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 26 is a simplified illustration of a multi-chip module of the type referenced in FIGS. [0087] 25A-25D, including a laser light source;
  • FIG. 27 is a simplified illustration of a multi-chip module of the type referenced in FIGS. [0088] 25A-25D, including an optical detector;
  • FIG. 28 is a simplified illustration of a multi-chip module of the type referenced in FIGS. [0089] 25A-25D, including an electrical element;
  • FIG. 29 is a simplified illustration of a multi-chip module of the type referenced in FIGS. [0090] 25A-25D, including multiple elements located in multiple recesses formed within a substrate;
  • FIG. 30 is a simplified illustration of a multi-chip module of the type referenced in FIGS. [0091] 25A-25D, including multiple stacked elements located in recesses formed within substrates;
  • FIGS. 31A, 31B, [0092] 31C and 31D are simplified sectional illustrations of stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated assembly in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIGS. [0093] 32 is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 31D;
  • FIGS. 33A, 33B, [0094] 33C and 33D are simplified sectional illustrations of stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated assembly in accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 34 is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 33D; [0095]
  • FIGS. 35A, 35B, [0096] 35C and 35D are simplified sectional illustrations of stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated assembly in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 36 is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 35D; [0097]
  • FIGS. 37A, 37B, [0098] 37C and 37D are simplified sectional illustrations of stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated assembly in accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 38 is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 37D; [0099]
  • FIGS. 39A, 39B, [0100] 39C and 39D are simplified sectional illustrations of stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated assembly in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 40 is a simplified optical illustration of FIG. 39D; [0101]
  • FIGS. 41A, 41B, [0102] 41C and 41D are simplified sectional illustrations of stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated assembly in accordance with still another preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 42 is a simplified optical illustration of FIG. 41D; [0103]
  • FIG. 43 is a simplified optical illustration of optical communication between connectors of the types shown in FIGS. 40 and 42; [0104]
  • FIG. 44 is a simplified optical illustration of optical communication between two connectors of the type shown in FIG. 40; [0105]
  • FIG. 45 is a simplified optical illustration of optical communication between two connectors of the type shown in FIG. 42; [0106]
  • FIGS. 46A, 46B, [0107] 46C and 46D are simplified illustrations of stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated circuit in accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 47 is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 46D; [0108]
  • FIG. 48 is a simplified optical illustration of optical communication between an electro-optic integrated circuit and an electro-optic integrated circuit in accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention; [0109]
  • FIG. 49 is a simplified optical illustration of optical communication between an optic integrated circuit and an electro-optic integrated circuit in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention; [0110]
  • FIGS. 50A, 50B, [0111] 50C, 50D and 50E are simplified pictorial illustrations of stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated circuit constructed and operative in accordance with still another preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 51 is a simplified functional illustration of a preferred embodiment of the structure of FIG. 50E; [0112]
  • FIGS. 52A and 52B are simplified pictorial illustrations of a packaged electro-optic circuit having integrally formed therein an optical connector and electrical connections, alone and in conjunction with a conventional optical connector; [0113]
  • FIGS. [0114] 53A-53F are simplified pictorial and sectional illustrations of a first plurality of stages in the manufacture of the packaged electro-optic circuit of FIGS. 52A and 52B;
  • FIGS. [0115] 54A-54J are simplified pictorial and sectional illustrations of a second plurality of stages in the manufacture of the packaged electro-optic circuit of FIGS. 52A and 52B;
  • FIGS. [0116] 55A-55D are simplified pictorial and sectional illustrations of a third plurality of stages in the manufacture of the packaged electro-optic circuit of FIGS. 52A and 52B;
  • FIGS. 56A, 56B and [0117] 56C are enlarged simplified optical illustrations of a portion of FIG. 55D in accordance with various preferred embodiments of the present invention;
  • FIG. 57 is a simplified sectional illustration of an electro-optic circuit constructed and operative in accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention; [0118]
  • FIGS. 58A, 58B and [0119] 58C are enlarged simplified optical illustrations of a portion of FIG. 57 in accordance with various other preferred embodiments of the present invention;
  • FIG. 59 is a simplified pictorial illustration corresponding to sectional illustration [0120] 55D;
  • FIGS. [0121] 60A-60F are simplified pictorial and sectional illustrations of a fourth plurality of stages in the manufacture of the packaged electro-optic circuit of FIGS. 52A and 52B; and
  • FIG. 61 is a simplified illustration of incorporation of packaged electro-optic circuits of the type shown in FIGS. [0122] 52A-52B as parts of a larger electrical circuit.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • Reference is flow made to FIGS. 1A, 1B, [0123] 1C, 1D and 1E, which are simplified pictorial illustrations of initial stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated circuit constructed and operative in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention. As seen in FIG. 1A, one or more electrical circuits 100 are preferably formed onto a first surface 102 of a substrate 104, preferably a silicon substrate or a substrate that is generally transparent to light within at least part of the wavelength range of 600-1650 nm, typically of thickness between 200-800 microns. The electrical circuits 100 are preferably formed by conventional photolithographic techniques employed in the production of integrated circuits, and included within a planarized layer 105 formed onto substrate 104. The substrate preferably is then turned over, as indicated by an arrow 106, and one or more electrical circuits 108 are formed on an opposite surface 110 of substrate 104, as shown in FIG. 1B.
  • Referring now to FIG. 1C, preferably, following formation of electrical circuits [0124] 100 and 108 on respective surfaces 102 and 110 of substrate 104, an array of parallel, spaced, elongate optical fiber positioning elements 112 is preferably formed, such as by conventional photolithographic techniques, over a planarized layer 114 including electrical circuits 108 (FIG. 1B). As seen in FIG. 1D, an array of optical fibers 116 is disposed over layer 114, each fiber being positioned between adjacent positioning, elements 112. The fibers are fixed in place relative to positioning elements 112 and to layer 114 of substrate 104 by means of a suitable adhesive 118, preferably epoxy, as seen in FIG. 1E.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 2A, 2B, [0125] 2C, and 2D, which are simplified sectional illustrations, taken along the lines II-II in FIG. 1E, of further stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated circuit. As seen in FIG. 2A, electro-optic components 120, such as diode lasers, are mounted onto electrical circuit 100 (not shown), included within planarized layer 105. It is appreciated that electro-optic components 120 may be any suitable electro-optic component, such as a laser diode, diode detector, waveguide, array waveguide grating or a semiconductor optical amplifier.
  • As shown in FIG. 2B, a transverse notch [0126] 124 is preferably formed, at least partially over-lapping the locations of the electro-optic components 120 and extending through the adhesive 118 and partially through each optical fiber 116. Specifically, in this embodiment, the notch 124 extends through part of the cladding 126 of each fiber 116 and entirely through the core 128 of each fiber. It is appreciated that the surfaces defined by the notch 124 are relatively rough, as shown.
  • Turning now to FIG. 2C, it is seen that a mirror [0127] 130 is preferably mounted parallel to one of the rough inclined surfaces 132 defined by notch 124. Mirror 130 preferably comprises a glass substrate 134, with a surface 135 facing surface 132 defined by notch 124, having formed on an opposite surface 136 thereof, a metallic layer or a dichroic filter layer 138. As seen in FIG. 2D, preferably, the mirror 130 is securely held in place partially by any suitable adhesive 139, such as epoxy, and partially by an optical adhesive 140, such as OG 146, manufactured by Epoxy Technology, 14 Fortune Drive, Billerica, Mass. 01821, USA, whose refractive index, preferably, is precisely matched to that of the cores 128 of the optical fibers 116. It is appreciated that optical adhesive 140 may be employed throughout instead of adhesive 139. The adhesive 140 preferably fills the interstices between the roughened surface 132 defined by notch 124 and surface 135 of mirror 130.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 3, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 2D. Here it is seen that a generally uninterrupted optical path is defined for light, preferably in the wavelength range of 600-1650 nm, from an end [0128] 150 of a core 128, through adhesive 140 and substrate 134 to a reflective surface 152 of layer 138 of mirror 130 and thence through substrate 134, adhesive 140 and cladding 126, through layer 114 and substrate 104, which are substantially transparent to this light. It is noted that the index of refraction of adhesive 140 is close to but not identical to that of cladding 126 and substrate 134. It is noted that mirror 130 typically reflects light onto electro-optic component 120 (FIG. 2D), without focusing or collimating the light.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 4A, 4B, [0129] 4C, 4D and 4E, which are simplified pictorial illustrations of initial stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated circuit constructed and operative in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention. As seen in FIG. 4A, one or more electrical circuits 200 are preferably formed onto a first surface 202 of a substrate 204, preferably a substrate that is generally transparent to light within at least part of the wavelength range of 400-1650 nm, typically of thickness between 200-1000 microns. The electrical circuits 200 are preferably formed by conventional photolithographic techniques employed in the production of integrated circuits, and included within a planarized layer 205 formed onto substrate 404. The substrate preferably is then turned over, as indicated by an arrow 206, and as shown in FIG. 4B.
  • Referring now to FIG. 4C, preferably, following formation of electrical circuits [0130] 200 on surface 202 of substrate 204, an array of parallel, spaced, elongate optical fiber positioning, elements 212 is preferably formed, such as by conventional photolithographic techniques, over an opposite surface 210 of substrate 204. As seen in FIG. 4D, an array of optical fibers 216 is disposed over surface 210 of substrate 204, each fiber being positioned between adjacent positioning elements 212. The fibers 216 are fixed in place relative to positioning elements 212 and to surface 210 of substrate 204 by means of a suitable adhesive 218, preferably epoxy, as seen in FIG. 4E.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 5A, 5B, [0131] 5C, and 5D, which are simplified sectional illustrations, taken along the lines V-V in FIG. 4E, of further stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated circuit. As seen in FIG. 5A, electro-optic components 220, such as diode lasers, are mounted onto electrical circuit 200 (not shown), included within planarized layer 205. It is appreciated that electro-optic components 220 may be any suitable electro-optic component, such as a laser diode, diode detector, waveguide, array waveguide grating or a semiconductor optical amplifier.
  • As shown in FIG. 5B, a transverse notch [0132] 224 is preferably formed, at least partially overlapping the locations of the electro-optic components 220 and extending through the adhesive 218, entirely through each optical fiber 216 and partially into substrate 204. Specifically, in this embodiment, the notch 224 extends through all of cladding 226 of each fiber 216 and entirely through the core 228 of each fiber. It is appreciated that the surfaces defined by the notch 224 are relatively rough, as shown.
  • Turning now to FIG. 5C, it is seen that a partially flat and partially concave mirror [0133] 230 is preferably mounted parallel to one of the rough inclined surfaces 232 defined by notch 224. Mirror 230 preferably comprises a glass substrate 234 having formed thereon a curved portion 236 over which is formed a curved metallic layer or a dichroic filter layer 238. As seen in FIG. 5D, preferably, the mirror 230 is securely held in place partially by any suitable adhesive 239, such as epoxy, and partially by an optical adhesive 240, such as OG 146, manufactured by Epoxy Technology, 14 Fortune Drive, Billerica, Mass. 01821, USA, whose refractive index preferably is precisely matched to that of the cores 228 of the optical fibers 216. It is appreciated that optical adhesive 240 may be employed throughout instead of adhesive 239. Optical adhesive 240 preferably fills the interstices between the roughened surface 232 defined by notch 224 and a surface 242 of mirror 230.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 6A, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 5D. Here it is seen that a generally uninterrupted optical path is defined for light, preferably in the wavelength range of 400-1650 nm, from an end [0134] 250 of a core 228, through adhesive 240, substrate 234 and curved portion 236 to a reflective surface 252 of layer 238 and thence through curved portion 236, adhesive 240, substrate 204 and layer 205 which are substantially transparent to this light. It is noted that the index of refraction of adhesive 240 is close to but not identical to that of curved potion 236 and substrates 204 and 234. In the embodiment of FIG. 6A, the operation of curved layer 238 is to focus light exiting from end 250 of core 228 onto the electro-optic component 220.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 6B, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 5D in accordance with a further embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, the curvature of curved layer [0135] 238 produces collimation rather than focusing of the light exiting from end 250 of core 228 onto the electro-optic component 220.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 6C, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 5D in accordance with yet another embodiment of the present invention wherein a grating [0136] 260 is added to curved layer 238. The additional provision of grating 260 causes separation of light impinging thereon according to its wavelength, such that multispectral light exiting from end 250 of core 228 is focused at multiple locations on electro-optic component 220 in accordance with the wavelengths of components thereof.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 7, which is a simplified sectional illustration of an electro-optic integrated circuit constructed and operative in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention. The embodiment of FIG. 7 corresponds generally to that described hereinabove with respect to FIG. 5D other than in that a mirror with multiple concave reflective surfaces is provided rather than a mirror with a single such reflective surface. As seen in FIG. 7, it is seen that light from optical fiber [0137] 316 is directed onto an electro-optic component 320 by a partially flat and partially concave mirror assembly 330, preferably mounted parallel to one of the rough inclined surfaces 332 defined by notch 324. Mirror assembly 330 preferably comprises a glass substrate 334 having formed thereon a plurality of curved portions 336 over which are formed a curved metallic layer or a dichroic filter layer 338. Mirror assembly 330 also defines a reflective surface 340, which is disposed on a planar surface 342 generally opposite layer 338. Preferably, the mirror assembly 330 is securely held in place partially by any suitable adhesive 343, such as epoxy, and partially by an optical adhesive 344, such as OG 146, manufactured by Epoxy Technology, 14 Fortune Drive, Billerica, Mass. 01821, USA, whose refractive index preferably is precisely matched to that of the cores 328 of the optical fibers 316. It is appreciated that optical adhesive 344 may be employed throughout instead of adhesive 343. The optical adhesive 344 preferably fills the interstices between the roughened surface 332 defined by notch 324 and surface 342 of mirror assembly 330.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 8A, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 7. Here it is seen that a generally uninterrupted optical path is defined for light, preferably in the wavelength range of 400-1650 nm, from an end [0138] 350 of a core 328, through adhesive 344, substrate 334 and first curved portion 336, to a curved reflective surface 352 of layer 338 and thence through first curved portion 336 and substrate 334 to reflective surface 340, from reflective surface 340 through substrate 334 and second curved portion 336 to another curved reflective surface 354 of layer 338 and thence through second curved portion 336, substrate 334, adhesive 344, substrate 304 and layer 305, which are substantially transparent to this light. It is noted that the index of refraction of adhesive 344 is close to but not identical to that of substrates 304 and 334. In the embodiment of FIG. 8A, the operation of curved layer 338 and reflective surface 340 is to focus light exiting from end 350 of core 328 onto the electro-optic component 320.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 8B, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 7 in accordance with a further embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, the curvature of curved layer [0139] 338 produces collimation rather than focusing of the light exiting from end 350 of core 328 onto the electro-optic component 320.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 8C, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 7 in accordance with yet another embodiment of the present invention wherein a reflective grating [0140] 360 replaces reflective surface 340. The additional provision of grating 360 causes separation of light impinging thereon according to its wavelength, such that multispectral light existing from end 350 of core 328 is focused at multiple locations on electro-optic component 320 in accordance with the wavelengths of components thereof.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 9A, 9B, [0141] 9C, 9D and 9E, which are simplified pictorial illustrations of initial stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated circuit constructed and operative in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention. As seen in FIG. 9A, one or more electrical circuits 400 are preferably formed onto a portion of a surface 402 of a substrate 404, preferably a glass, silicon or ceramic substrate, typically of thickness between 300-1000 microns. The electrical circuits 400 are preferably formed by conventional photolithographic techniques employed in the production of integrated circuits, and included within a planarized layer 406 formed onto substrate 404.
  • Turning now to FIG. 9B, it is seen that another portion of the surface [0142] 402 is formed with an array of parallel, spaced, elongate optical fiber positioning elements 412 by any suitable technique, such as etching or notching. As seen in FIG. 9C, an array of optical fibers 416 is engaged with substrate 404, each fiber being positioned between adjacent positioning, elements 412. The fibers are fixed in place relative to positioning elements 412 and to substrate 404 by means of a suitable adhesive 418, preferably epoxy, as seen in FIG. 9D. As seen in FIG. 9E, a plurality of electro-optic components 420, such as diode lasers, are mounted in operative engagement with electrical circuits 400, each electro-optic component 420 preferably being aligned with a corresponding fiber 416. It is appreciated that electro-optic component 420 may be any suitable electro-optic component, such as a laser diode, diode detector, waveguide, array waveguide gratings or a semiconductor optical amplifier.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 10A, 10B, [0143] 10C, and 10D, which are simplified sectional illustrations, taken along the lines X-X in FIG. 9E, of further stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated circuit. As seen in FIG. 10A, which corresponds to FIG. 9E, electro-optic components 420 are each mounted onto an electrical circuit (not shown), included within planarized layer 406 formed onto substrate 404. As shown in FIG. 10B, a transverse notch 424 is preferably formed to extend through the adhesive 418 entirely through each optical fiber 416 and partially into substrate 404. Specifically, in this embodiment, the notch 424 extends through all of cladding 426 of each fiber 416 and entirely through the core 428 of each fiber. It is appreciated that the surfaces defined by the notch 424 are relatively rough, as shown.
  • Turning now to FIG. 10C, it is seen that a partially flat and partially concave mirror assembly [0144] 430 is preferably mounted parallel to one of the rough inclined surfaces 432 defined by notch 424. Mirror assembly 430 preferably comprises a glass substrate 434 having formed thereon a curved portion 436 over which is formed a curved metallic layer or a dichroic filter layer 438. Mirror assembly 430 also defines a planar surface 440, generally opposite layer 438, having formed thereon a metallic layer or a dichroic filter layer 442 underlying part of the curved portion 436.
  • As seen in FIG. 10D, preferably, the mirror assembly [0145] 430 is securely held in place partially by any suitable adhesive 444, such as epoxy, and partially by an optical adhesive 446, such as OG 146, manufactured by Epoxy Technology, 14 Fortune Drive, Billerica, Mass. 01821, USA, whose refractive index preferably is precisely matched to that of the cores 428 of the optical fibers 416. It is appreciated that optical adhesive 446 may be employed throughout instead of adhesive 444.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 11A, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 10D. Here it is seen that a generally uninterrupted optical path is defined for light, preferably in the wavelength range of 400-1650 nm, from each electro-optic component [0146] 420 through glass substrate 434 and curved portion 436 of mirror assembly 430 into reflective engagement with layer 438 and thence through curved portion 436 and substrate 434 to layer 442 and reflected from layer 442 through substrate 434 and adhesive 446 to focus at an end 450 of a core 428. In the embodiment of FIG. 11A, the operation of curved layer 438 is to focus light exiting from electro-optic component 420 onto end 450 of core 428.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 11B, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 10D in accordance with a further embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, the curvature of curved layer [0147] 438 produces collimation rather than focusing of the light exiting from electro-optic component 420 onto end 450 of core 428.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 11C, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 10D in accordance with yet another embodiment of the present invention wherein a grating [0148] 460 is added to curved layer 438. The additional provision of grating 460 causes separation of light impinging thereon according to its wavelength, such that only one component of multispectral light exiting electro-optic component 420 is focused on end 450 of core 428.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 12, which is a simplified sectional illustration of an electro-optic integrated circuit constructed and operative in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention. The embodiment of FIG. 12 corresponds generally to that described hereinabove with respect to FIG. 10D other than in that a mirror with multiple concave reflective surfaces is provided rather than a mirror with a single such reflective surface. As seen in FIG. 12, it is seen that light from all electro-optic component [0149] 520, such as a laser diode, is directed onto a partially flat and partially concave mirror assembly 530, preferably mounted parallel to one of the rough inclined surfaces 532 defined by notch 524. It is appreciated that electro-optic component 520 may be any suitable electro-optic component, such as a laser diode, diode detector, waveguide, array waveguide grating or a semiconductor optical amplifier. Mirror assembly 530 preferably comprises a glass substrate 534 having formed thereon a plurality of curved portions 536 over which are formed a curved metallic layer or a dichroic filter layer 538. Mirror assembly 530 also defines a reflective surface 540, which is disposed on a planar surface 542 generally opposite layer 538.
  • Preferably, the mirror assembly [0150] 530 is securely held in place partially by any suitable adhesive 544, such as epoxy, and partially by an optical adhesive 546, such as OG 146, manufactured by Epoxy Technology, 14 Fortune Drive, Billerica, Mass. 01821, USA, whose refractive index preferably is precisely matched to that of the cores 528 of the optical fibers 516. It is appreciated that optical adhesive 546 may be employed throughout instead of adhesive 544.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 13A, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 12. Here it is seen that a generally uninterrupted optical path is defined for light, preferably in the wavelength range of 400-1650 nm, from each electro-optic component [0151] 520 through substrate 534 and a first curved portion 536 of mirror assembly 530 into reflective engagement with a part of layer 538 overlying first curved portion 536 and thence through first curved portion 536 and substrate 534 to reflective surface 540, where it is reflected back through substrate 534 and a second curved portion 536 to another part of layer 538 overlying second curved portion 536 and is reflected back through second curved portion 536 and substrate 534 to reflective surface 540 and thence through substrate 534 and adhesive 546 to focus at an end 550 of a core 528. In the embodiment of FIG. 13A, the operation of curved layer 538 overlying first and second curved portions 536 is to focus light exiting from electro-optic component 520 onto end 550 of core 528, with enhanced optical properties.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 13B, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 12 in accordance with a further embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, the curvature of curved layer [0152] 538 produces collimation rather than focusing of the light exiting from electro-optic component 520 onto end 550 of core 528.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 13C, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 12 in accordance with yet another embodiment of the present invention wherein a reflective grating [0153] 560 replaces part of reflective surface 540. The additional provision of grating 560 causes separation of light impinging thereon according to its wavelength, such that only one component of multispectral light exiting electro-optic component 520 is focused on end 550 of core 528.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 14A, 14B, [0154] 14C and 14D, which are simplified pictorial illustrations of further stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated circuit constructed and operative in accordance with yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention. As seen in FIG. 14A, similarly to that shown in FIG. 5A, electro-optic components 600, such as edge emitting diode lasers, are mounted onto an electrical circuit (not shown), included within a planarized layer 602 formed onto a surface 603 of a substrate 604, at the opposite surface 606 of which are mounted optical fibers 616 by means of adhesive 618. It is appreciated that electro-optic components 600 may be any suitable electro-optic component, such as a laser diode, diode detector, waveguide, array waveguide grating or a semiconductor optical amplifier.
  • As shown in FIG. 14B, a transverse notch [0155] 624 is preferably formed, extending completely through substrate 604 and entirely through each optical fiber 616 and partially into adhesive 618. Specifically, in this embodiment, the notch 624 extends through all of cladding 626 of each fiber 616 and entirely through the core 628 of each fiber. It is appreciated that the surfaces defined by the notch 624 are relatively rough, as shown.
  • Turning now to FIG. 14C, it is seen that a partially flat and partially concave mirror assembly [0156] 630 is preferably mounted parallel to one of the rough inclined surfaces 632 defined by notch 624. Mirror assembly 630 preferably comprises a glass substrate 634 having formed thereon a curved portion 636. A partially planar and partially curved metallic layer or a dichroic filter layer 638 is formed over a surface 640 of substrate 634 and curved portion 636 formed thereon. A reflective layer 642 is formed on an opposite surface 643 of substrate 634 opposite layer 638.
  • As seen in FIG. 14D, preferably, the mirror assembly [0157] 630 is securely held in place partially by any suitable adhesive 644, such as epoxy, and partially by an optical adhesive 646, such as OG 146, manufactured by Epoxy Technology, 14 Fortune Drive, Billerica, Mass. 01821, USA, whose refractive index preferably is precisely matched to that of the cores 628 of the optical fibers 616. It is appreciated that optical adhesive 646 may be employed throughout instead of adhesive 644.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 15A, which is a simplified optical illustration of FIG. 14D. Here it is seen that a generally uninterrupted optical path is defined for light, preferably in the wavelength range of 400-1650 nm, from each electro-optic component [0158] 600 through glass substrate 634 and curved portion 636 of mirror assembly 630 into reflective engagement with a curved portion 660 of layer 638 and thence through curved portion 636 and substrate 634 into reflective engagement with layer 642 and thence through multiple reflections through substrate 634 between layer 638 and layer 642, and then through substrate 634 and adhesive 646 to focus at an end 650 of a core 628. In the embodiment of FIG. 15A, the operation of the curved portion of layer 638 is to focus light exiting from electro-optic component 600 onto end 650 of core 628.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 15B, which is a simplified optical illustration of FIG. 14D in accordance with a further embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, the curvature of the curved portion [0159] 660 of layer 638 produces collimation rather than focusing of the light exiting from electro-optic component 600 onto end 650 of core 628.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 15C, which is a simplified optical illustration of FIG. 14D in accordance with yet another embodiment of the present invention wherein a grating [0160] 662 is added to the curved portion 660 of layer 638. The additional provision of grating 662 causes separation of light impinging thereon according to its wavelength, such that only one component of multispectral light exiting electro-optic component 600 is focused on end 650 of core 628.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 16, which is a simplified sectional illustration of an electro-optic integrated circuit constructed and operative in accordance with still another preferred embodiment of the present invention. The embodiment of FIG. 16 corresponds generally to that described hereinabove with respect to FIG. 14D other than in that a mirror with multiple concave reflective surfaces is provided rather than a mirror with a single such reflective surface. As seen in FIG. 16, it is seen that light from an electro-optic component [0161] 720, such as a diode laser, is directed onto a partially flat and partially concave mirror assembly 730, preferably mounted parallel to one of the rough inclined surfaces 732 defined by notch 724. It is appreciated that electro-optic component 720 may be any suitable electro-optic component, such as a laser diode, diode detector, waveguide, array waveguide grating or a semiconductor optical amplifier. Mirror assembly 730 preferably comprises a glass substrate 734 having formed thereon a plurality of curved portions 736 over which are formed a curved metallic layer or a dichroic filter layer 738. Mirror assembly 730 also defines a reflective surface 740, which is disposed on a planar surface 742 generally opposite layer 738.
  • Preferably, the mirror assembly [0162] 730 is securely held in place partially by any suitable adhesive 744, such as epoxy, and partially by an optical adhesive 746, such as OG 146, manufactured by Epoxy Technology, 14 Fortune Drive, Billerica, Mass. 01821, USA, whose refractive index preferably is precisely matched to that of the cores 728 of the optical fibers 716. It is appreciated that optical adhesive 746 may be employed throughout instead of adhesive 744.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 17A, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 16. Here it is seen that a generally uninterrupted optical path is defined for light, preferably in the wavelength range of 400-1650 nm, from each electro-optic component [0163] 720 through glass substrate 734 of mirror assembly 730 into reflective engagement with a part of layer 738 overlying the flat portion thereof, and thence through substrate 734 to reflective surface 740, where it is reflected back through substrate 734 and a first curved portion 736 into reflective engagement with a part of layer 738 overlying first curved portion 736, and thence through first curved portion 736 and substrate 734 to reflective surface 740, where it is reflected back through substrate 734 and a second curved portion 736 to another part of layer 738 overlying second curved portion 736 and is reflected back through second curved surface 736 and substrate 734 to reflective surface 740 and thence through substrate 734 and adhesive 746 to focus at an end 750 of a core 728. In the embodiment of FIG. 17A, the operation of curved layer 738 overlying first and second curved portions 736 is to focus light exiting from electro-optic component 720 onto end 750 of core 728, with enhanced optical properties.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 17B, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 16 in accordance with a further embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, the curvature of curved layer [0164] 738 produces collimation rather than focusing of the light exiting from electro-optic component 720 onto end 750 of core 728.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 17C, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 16 in accordance with yet another embodiment of the present invention wherein a reflective grating [0165] 760 replaces a middle portion of reflective surface 740. The additional provision of grating 760 causes separation of light impinging thereon according to its wavelength, such that only one component of multispectral light exiting electro-optic component 720 is focused on end 750 of core 728.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 18A, 18B, [0166] 18C and 18D, which are simplified illustrations of a method for fabricating optical elements employed in the embodiments of FIGS. 4A-6C in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. A glass substrate 800, typically of thickness 200-400 microns, seen in FIG. 18A, has formed thereon an array of microlenses 802, typically formed of photoresist, as seen in FIG. 18B. The microlenses 802 preferably have an index of refraction which is identical or very close to that of substrate 800. This may be achieved by one or more conventional techniques, such as photolithography and thermal reflow, photolithography using of a grey scale mask, and jet printing.
  • A thin metal layer [0167] 804, typically aluminum, is formed over the substrate 800 and microlenses 802 as seen in FIG. 18C, typically by evaporation or sputtering. The substrate 800 and the metal layer 804 formed thereon are then diced by conventional techniques, as shown in FIG. 18D, thereby defining individual optical elements 806, each including a curved portion defined by a microlens 802.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 19A, 19B, [0168] 19C, 19D and 19E, which are simplified illustrations of a method for fabricating optical elements employed in the embodiments of FIGS. 1A-6C in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention. A glass substrate 810, typically of thickness 200-400 microns, seen in FIG. 19A, has formed thereon an array of microlenses 812, typically formed of photoresist, as seen in FIG. 19B. The microlenses 812 preferably have an index of refraction which is identical or very close to that of substrate 810. This may be achieved by one or more conventional techniques, such as photolithography and thermal reflow, photolithography using of a grey scale mask, and jet printing.
  • A thin metal layer [0169] 814, typically aluminum, is formed over the substrate 810 and microlenses 812 as seen in FIG. 19C, typically by evaporation or sputtering. The substrate 810 is then notched from underneath by conventional techniques. As seen in FIG. 19D, notches 815 are preferably formed at locations partially underlying microlenses 812.
  • Following notching, the substrate [0170] 810, the microlenses 812 and the metal layer 814 formed thereon are diced by conventional techniques, as shown in FIG. 19E, thereby defining individual optical elements 816, each including a curved portion defined by part of a microlens 812.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 20A, 20B, [0171] 20C, 20D, 20E and 20F, which are simplified illustrations of a method for fabricating optical elements employed in tile embodiments of FIGS. 9A-17C in accordance with yet another embodiment of the present invention. A glass substrate 820, typically of thickness 200-400 microns, seen in FIG. 20A, has formed thereon an array of microlenses 822, typically formed of photoresist, as seen in FIG. 20B. The microlenses 822 preferably have an index of refraction which is identical or very close to that of substrate 820. This may be achieved by one or more conventional techniques, such as photolithography and thermal reflow, photolithography using of a grey scale mask, and jet printing.
  • A thin metal layer [0172] 824, typically aluminum, is formed over the substrate 820 and microlenses 822 as seen in FIG. 20C, typically by evaporation or sputtering. An additional metal layer 825, typically aluminum, is similarly formed on an opposite surface of substrate 820. Metal layers 824 and 825 are patterned typically by conventional photolithographic techniques to define respective reflective surfaces 826 and 827 as seen in FIG. 20D.
  • The substrate [0173] 820 is notched from underneath by conventional techniques. As seen in FIG. 20E, notches 828 need not be at locations partially underlying, microlenses 822. Following notching, the substrate 820 is diced by conventional techniques, as shown in FIG. 20F, thereby defining individual optical elements 829, each including a curved reflective portion defined by a pair of microlenses 822 as well as a flat reflective surface 829.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 21A, 21B, [0174] 21C, 21D, 21E and 21F which are simplified illustrations of a method for fabricating optical elements employed in the embodiments of FIGS. 1A-17C in accordance with still another embodiment of the present invention. A glass substrate 830, typically of thickness 200-400 microns, seen in FIG. 21A, has formed thereon an array of pairs of microlenses 832, typically formed of photoresist, as seen in FIG. 21B. The microlenses 832 preferably have an index of refraction which is identical or very close to that of substrate 830. This may be achieved by one or more conventional techniques, such as photolithography and thermal reflow, photolithography using of a grey scale mask, and jet printing.
  • A thin metal layer [0175] 834, typically aluminum, is formed over the substrate 830 and pairs of microlenses 832 as seen in FIG. 21C, typically by evaporation or sputtering. An additional metal layer 835, typically aluminum, is similarly formed on an opposite surface of substrate 830. Metal layers 834 and 835 are patterned, typically by conventional photolithographic techniques, to define respective reflective surfaces 836 and 837 as seen in FIG. 21D.
  • The substrate [0176] 830 is notched from underneath by conventional techniques, defining notches 838, as seen in FIG. 21E. Following notching, the substrate 830 is diced by conventional techniques, as shown in FIG. 21F, thereby defining individual optical elements 839, each including a curved reflective portion defined by a pair of microlenses 823 as well as a flat reflective surface 837.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 22A, 22B, [0177] 22C, 22D, 22E, 22F and 22G, which are simplified illustrations of a method for fabricating optical elements employed in the embodiments of FIGS. 1A-8C in accordance with a further embodiment of the present invention. A glass substrate 840, typically of thickness 200-400 microns, seen in FIG. 22A, has formed in an underside surface thereof an array of reflective diffraction gratings 841, as seen in FIG. 22B, typically by etching. Alternatively, the gratings 841 may be formed on the surface of the substrate 840, typically by lithography or transfer. An array of pairs of microlenses 842, typically formed of photoresist, is formed on an opposite surface of substrate 840, as seen in FIG. 22C. The microlenses 842 preferably have an index of refraction which is identical or very close to that of substrate 840. This may he achieved by one or more conventional techniques, such as photolithography and thermal reflow, photolithography using of a grey scale mask, and jet printing.
  • A thin metal layer [0178] 844, typically aluminum, is formed over the substrate 840 and pairs of microlenses 842 as seen in FIG. 22D, typically by evaporation or sputtering. Metal layer 844 is preferably patterned, typically by conventional photolithographic techniques, to define a reflective surface 846, as seen in FIG. 22E.
  • The substrate [0179] 840 is notched from underneath by conventional techniques, defining notches 848, as seen in FIG. 22F. Following notching, the substrate 840 is diced by conventional techniques, as shown in FIG. 22G, thereby defining individual optical elements 849, each including a curved reflective portion defined by a pair of microlenses 842 as well as a flat reflective grating 841.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 23A, 23B, [0180] 23C, 23D, 23E, 23F and 23G, which are simplified illustrations of a method for fabricating optical elements employed in the embodiments of FIGS. 9A-17C in accordance with yet a further embodiment of the present invention. A glass substrate 850, typically of thickness 200-400 microns, seen in FIG. 23A, has formed in an underside surface thereof an array of reflective diffraction gratings 851, as seen in FIG. 23B, typically by etching. Alternatively, the gratings 851 may be formed on the surface of the substrate 850, typically by lithography or transfer. An array of pairs of microlenses 852, typically formed of photoresist, is formed on an opposite surface of substrate 850, as seen in FIG. 23C. The microlenses 852 preferably have an index of refraction which is identical or very close to that of substrate 850. This may be achieved by one or more conventional techniques, such as photolithography and thermal reflow, photolithography using of a grey scale mask, and jet printing.
  • A thin metal layer [0181] 854, typically aluminum, is formed over the substrate 850 and pairs of microlenses 852 as seen in FIG. 23D, typically by evaporation or sputtering. An additional metal layer 855 is similarly formed on an opposite surface of the substrate 850. Metal layers 854 and 855 are preferably patterned, typically by conventional photolithographic techniques, to define respective reflective surfaces 856 and 857, as seen in FIG. 23E.
  • The substrate [0182] 850 is notched from underneath by conventional techniques, defining notches 858, as seen in FIG. 23F. Following notching, the substrate 850 is diced by conventional techniques, as shown in FIG. 23G, thereby defining individual optical elements 859, each including a curved reflective portion defined by a pair of microlenses 852 as well as a flat reflective grating 851 and flat reflective surfaces 857.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 24A, 24B, [0183] 24C, 24D, 24E, 24F and 24G, which are simplified illustrations of a method for fabricating optical elements employed in the embodiments of FIGS. 1A-17C in accordance with a still further embodiment of the present invention. A glass substrate 860, typically of thickness 200-400 microns, seen in FIG. 24A, has formed therein an array of reflective diffraction gratings 861, as seen in FIG. 24B, typically by etching. Alternatively, the gratings 861 may be formed on the surface of the substrate 860, typically by lithography or transfer. An array of microlenses 862, typically formed of photoresist, is formed on the same surface of substrate 860, as seen in FIG. 24C. The microlenses 862 preferably have an index of refraction which is identical or very close to that of substrate 860. This may be achieved by one or more conventional techniques, such as photolithography and thermal reflow, photolithography using of a grey scale mask, and jet printing.
  • A thin metal layer [0184] 864, typically aluminum, is formed over the substrate 860 and microlenses 862 as seen in FIG. 24D, typically by evaporation or sputtering. An additional metal layer 865 is similarly formed on an opposite surface of the substrate 860. Metal layers 864 and 865 are preferably patterned, typically by conventional photolithographic techniques, to define respective reflective surfaces 866 and 867, as seen in FIG. 24E.
  • The substrate [0185] 860 is notched from underneath by conventional techniques, defining notches 868, as seen in FIG. 24F. Following notching, the substrate 860 is diced by conventional techniques, as shown in FIG. 24G, thereby defining individual optical elements 869, each including a curved reflective surface 866 defined by a microlens 862 as well as a flat reflective grating 861 and a flat reflective surface 867.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 25A, 25B, [0186] 25C and 25D, which are simplified illustrations of multiple stages in the production of a multi-chip module in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention. As seen in FIG. 25A, a substrate 900, typically formed of silicon and having a thickness of 300-800 microns, has formed thereon at least one dielectric passivation layer 902, at least one metal layer 904 and at least one overlying dielectric layer 906. The dielectric layers are preferably transparent to light preferably in both the visible and the infrared bands. Vias 908, connected to at least one metal layer 904, extend through layer 902 to the substrate 900.
  • As seen in FIG. 25B, an array of openings [0187] 910 is formed by removing portions of substrate 900 at a location underlying vias 908. Preferably, the entire thickness of the substrate 900 is removed. The removal of substrate 900 may be achieved by using conventional etching techniques and, preferably, provides a volume of dimensions of at least 600 microns in width.
  • As seen in FIG. 25C, metallic bumps [0188] 912, preferably solder bumps, are preferably formed onto the thus exposed surfaces of vias 908. As seen in FIG. 25D, integrated circuit chips 914 are preferably located in openings 910 and operatively engaged with vias 908 by being soldered to bumps 912, thus creating a multi-chip module, wherein integrated circuit chips 914 reside within the substrate of the module.
  • Reference is now made FIG. 26, which is a simplified illustration of a multi-chip module of the type referenced in FIGS. [0189] 25A-25D, including a laser light source 920 formed on an integrated circuit chip 922, located in an opening 924 formed in a module substrate 926.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 27, which is a simplified illustration of a multi-chip module of the type referenced in FIGS. [0190] 25A-25D, including an optical detector 930 formed on an integrated circuit chip 932, located in an opening 934 formed in a module substrate 936.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 28, which is a simplified illustration of a multi-clip module of the type referenced in FIGS. [0191] 25A-25D, including an electrical element 940 formed on an integrated circuit chip 942 located in an opening 944 formed in a module substrate 946.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 29, which is a simplified illustration of a multi-chip module of the type referenced in FIGS. [0192] 25A-25D, including multiple elements 950 located in multiple recesses 952 formed within a substrate 954. These elements may by any suitable electrical or electro-optic element.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 30, which is a simplified illustration of a multi-chip module of the type referenced in FIGS. [0193] 25A-25D, including multiple stacked elements located in recesses formed within substrates. As seen in FIG. 30, a substrate 1000, typically formed of silicon and having a thickness of 500-1000 microns, has formed thereon at least one dielectric passivation layer 1002, at least one metal layer 1004 and at least one overlying dielectric layer 1006. The dielectric layers are preferably transparent to light preferably in both the visible and the infrared bands. Vias 1008, connected to at least one metal layer 1004 extend through layer 1002 to the substrate 1000. At least one opening 1010 is formed by removing a portion of substrate 1000 at a location underlying vias 1008. Preferably, the entire thickness of substrate 1000 is removed. The removal of substrate 1000 may be achieved by using conventional etching techniques and provides a volume of dimensions of at least 1000 microns in width. Metallic bumps 1012, preferably solder bumps, are preferably formed onto the thus exposed surfaces of vias 1008.
  • Disposed within opening [0194] 1010 is a substrate 1020, typically formed of silicon and having a thickness of 300-800 microns, having formed thereon at least one dielectric passivation layer 1022, at least one metal layer 1024 and at least one overlying dielectric layer 1026. The dielectric layers are preferably transparent to light preferably in both the visible and the infrared bands. Vias 1028, connected to at least one metal layer 1024, extend through layer 1022 to the substrate 1020. At least one opening 1030 is formed by removing portions of substrate 1020 at a location underlying vias 1028. Preferably, the entire thickness of substrate 1020 is removed. The removal of substrate 1090 may be achieved by using conventional etching techniques and provides a volume of dimensions of at least 600 microns in width. Metallic bumps 1032, preferably solder bumps, are preferably formed onto the thus exposed surfaces of vias 1028. Additional metallic bumps 1034, preferably solder bumps, are preferably formed onto ends of vias 1036 which are preferably connected to at least one metal layer 1024, which need not necessarily be connected to bumps 1032. Bumps 1012 and 1034 are preferably soldered together to mount substrate 1020 within substrate 1000.
  • An integrated circuit chip [0195] 1040 is preferably located in opening 1030 and operatively engaged with vias 1028 by being soldered to bumps 1032, thus creating a multi-chip module, wherein at least one integrated circuit chip 1040 resides within substrate 1020, which in turn resides within substrate 1000.
  • It is appreciated that any suitable number of substrates, such as substrates [0196] 1000 and 1020, may be nested within each other, as shown in FIG. 30, and that each such substrate may have multiple openings formed therein.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 31A, 31B, [0197] 31C and 31D, which are simplified sectional illustrations of stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated assembly in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention. In the embodiment of FIG. 31A, similarly to FIG. 2A described hereinabove, electro-optic components 1120, such as diode lasers, are mounted onto an electrical circuit (not shown), included within a planarized layer 1122 formed onto a substrate 112. It is appreciated that electro-optic components 1120 may be any suitable electro-optic component, such as a laser diode, diode detector, waveguide, array waveguide grating, or a semiconductor optical amplifier.
  • As shown in FIG. 31B, a transverse notch [0198] 1124 is preferably formed, at least partially overlapping the locations of the electro-optic components 1120 and extending through an adhesive 1125 and partially through each of a plurality of optical fibers 1126. Specifically, in this embodiment, the notch 1124 extends entirely through the cladding 1127 of each fiber 1126 and entirely through the core 1128 of each fiber. It is appreciated that the surfaces defined by the notch 1124 are relatively rough, as shown.
  • Turning now to FIG. 31C, it is seen that a mirror [0199] 1130, typically of the type illustrated in FIGS. 2C and 3, is preferably mounted parallel to one of the rough inclined surfaces 1132 defined by notch 1124. Mirror 1130 preferably comprises a glass substrate 1134 having formed on a surface 1136 thereof, a metallic layer or a dichroic filter layer 1138. A partially flat and partially concave mirror 1139, typically similar to the type illustrated in FIGS. 5C and 6A, is preferably mounted parallel to an opposite one of the rough inclined surfaces, here designated 1140. Mirror 1139 preferably comprises a glass substrate 1142 having formed thereon a curved portion 1144 over which is formed a curved metallic layer or a dichroic filter layer 1146.
  • As seen in FIG. 31D, the mirrors [0200] 1130 and 1139 are securely held in place by any suitable adhesive 1148, such as epoxy, and partially by an optical adhesive 1150, such as OG 146, manufactured by Epoxy Technology, 14 Fortune Drive, Billerica, Mass. 01821, USA, whose refractive index preferably is precisely matched to that of the cores 1128 of the optical fibers 1126. The adhesive 1150 preferably fills the interstices between the roughened surfaces 1132 and 1140 defined by notch 1124 and respective mirrors 1130 and 1139. It is appreciated that optical adhesive 1150 may be employed throughout instead of adhesive 1148. It is noted that the index of refraction of adhesive 1150 is close to but not identical to that of substrates 1123, 1134 and 1142.
  • Reference is now made to FIG. 32, which is an enlarged simplified optical illustration of a portion of FIG. 31D. Here it is seen that a generally uninterrupted optical path is defined for light, preferably in the wavelength range of 600-1650 nm, from an end [0201] 1151 of a core 1128, through adhesive 1150 and glass substrate 1134 to a reflective surface 1152 of mirror 130 and thence through glass substrate 1134, adhesive 1150, substrate 1123 and layer 1122, which are substantially transparent to this light. Similarly, a generally uninterrupted optical path is defined for light, preferably in the wavelength range of 600-1650 nm, from an end 1161 of core 1128, through adhesive 1150, glass substrate 1142 and curved portion 1144 to a reflective surface 1162 of mirror 1139 and thence through curved portion 1144, glass substrate 1142, adhesive 1150, substrate 1123 and layer 1122, which are substantially transparent to this light.
  • It is noted that mirror [0202] 1130 typically reflects light onto an electro-optic component 1120, here designated 1170, without focusing or collimating the light, while mirror 1139 focuses light reflected thereby onto another electro-optic component 1120, here designated 1172. It is appreciated that any suitable combination of mirrors having any suitable optical properties, such as collimating and focusing, may alternatively be employed.
  • Reference is now made to FIGS. 33A, 33B, [0203] 33C and 33D, which are simplified sectional illustrations of stages in the production of an electro-optic integrated assembly in accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention. In the embodiment of FIG. 33A, similarly to FIG. 31A described hereinabove, electro-optic components 1220, such as diode lasers, are mounted onto an electrical circuit (not shown), included within a planarized layer 1222 formed onto a substrate 1223. It is appreciated that electro-optic components 1220 may be any suitable electro-optic component, such as a laser diode, diode detector, waveguide, array waveguide grating or a semiconductor optical amplifier. In contrast to the embodiment of FIG. 31A, here the electro-optic components 1220 are located in openings or recesses formed within the substrate 1223, similarly to the structure shown in FIG. 29.
  • As shown in FIG. 33B, a transverse notch [0204] 1224 is preferably formed, at least partially overlapping the locations of at least one of the electro-optic components 1220 and extending though an adhesive 1225 and partially through each of a plurality of optical fibers 1226. Specifically, in this embodiment, the notch 1224 extends through part of the cladding 1227 of each fiber 1226 and entirely through the core 1228 of each fiber. It is appreciated that the surfaces defined by the notch 1224 are relatively rough, as shown.
  • Turning now to FIG. 33C,