US20030211383A1 - Primary lithium batteries - Google Patents

Primary lithium batteries Download PDF

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US20030211383A1
US20030211383A1 US10/142,266 US14226602A US2003211383A1 US 20030211383 A1 US20030211383 A1 US 20030211383A1 US 14226602 A US14226602 A US 14226602A US 2003211383 A1 US2003211383 A1 US 2003211383A1
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thermal battery
lithium
battery
electrolyte
thermal
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M. Munshi
Fazlil Coowar
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Lithium Power Technologies Inc
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Lithium Power Technologies Inc
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M4/00Electrodes
    • H01M4/02Electrodes composed of or comprising active material
    • H01M4/36Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids
    • H01M4/58Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids of inorganic compounds other than oxides or hydroxides, e.g. sulfides, selenides, tellurides, halogenides or LiCoFy; of polyanionic structures, e.g. phosphates, silicates or borates
    • H01M4/583Carbonaceous material, e.g. graphite-intercalation compounds or CFx
    • H01M4/5835Comprising fluorine or fluoride salts
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M6/00Primary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M6/14Cells with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M6/16Cells with non-aqueous electrolyte with organic electrolyte
    • H01M6/162Cells with non-aqueous electrolyte with organic electrolyte characterised by the electrolyte
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M6/00Primary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M6/14Cells with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M6/18Cells with non-aqueous electrolyte with solid electrolyte
    • H01M6/181Cells with non-aqueous electrolyte with solid electrolyte with polymeric electrolytes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M6/00Primary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M6/30Deferred-action cells
    • H01M6/36Deferred-action cells containing electrolyte and made operational by physical means, e.g. thermal cells
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M6/00Primary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M6/50Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance, e.g. maintaining operating temperature
    • H01M6/5038Heating or cooling of cells or batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2300/00Electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0017Non-aqueous electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0025Organic electrolyte
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2300/00Electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0017Non-aqueous electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0048Molten electrolytes used at high temperature
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2300/00Electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0017Non-aqueous electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0065Solid electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0082Organic polymers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M4/00Electrodes
    • H01M4/02Electrodes composed of or comprising active material
    • H01M4/36Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids
    • H01M4/38Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids of elements or alloys
    • H01M4/40Alloys based on alkali metals
    • H01M4/405Alloys based on lithium

Abstract

A thermal battery for operation at temperatures below about 250° C. and preferably not above about 200° C. includes a primarily CFx cathode, an electrolyte, and a lithium-based anode. The electrolyte is an organoborate lithium salt or an ionically conductive solid polymer electrolyte.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates generally to primary lithium batteries, particularly thermal batteries; and more particularly to thermal batteries with higher energy densities, that are lightweight, have higher cell voltages, flatter discharge voltages and operate at lower temperatures than presently available thermal batteries. [0001]
  • Applications that require extremely long shelf-life and a burst of power from milliseconds to a few hours use thermal batteries. Thermal batteries are critical to military aviation, equipment, and weapons systems. Applications include aircrew safety systems, air-to-air missiles, air-to-surface missiles, surface-to-surface missiles, surface-to-air missiles and bombs. These systems require the battery to perform reliably under stringent environmental conditions. The less the weight of the battery, the more working payload or the less propulsion lift requirement; thus, every ounce by which the battery weight is reduced means a concomitant increase in agility and acceleration of the missile. Power per unit weight is the crucial figure of merit, with power per unit volume running a close second. [0002]
  • Thermal batteries are non-rechargeable power sources, which use electrolytes of inorganic salts that are solid and considered non-conducting at ambient temperatures. Upon ignition of an internal pyrotechnic heat source, the electrolyte melts and becomes conductive, thereby providing power to an external load. Historically, a large number of military systems have utilized thermal batteries. Today, the accepted industry standard is the lithium or the lithium alloy anode based on Li—Si of which over 1.5 million units have been deployed since 1972. Lithium anode based thermal batteries provide high capacity and capability to withstand high dynamic environments. [0003]
  • Advances in thermal batteries have not been running parallel to advances in consumer electronics or OEM batteries. In fact, today's thermal batteries still use the same operating temperatures as they did twenty years ago and the same type of solid electrolytes; therefore the components for the active electrodes are limited in their choice and performance. Those limitations are attributable to the stringent specifications required of the components of the battery. For instance, the Lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl—KCl) eutectic electrolyte (typically with magnesium oxide (MgO) powder binder) in a thermal battery melts at about 352° C., thereby necessitating a significantly higher decomposition temperature for the electrodes than the eutectic temperature of such electrolyte used in the thermal battery. The melting point of the electrolyte determines the effective operating window for its use in a thermal battery. Because of the high operating temperature of thermal batteries (e.g., 400-600° C.), the cathodes for such batteries must be very high temperature stable materials. Furthermore, these cathodes must be electrochemically and chemically stable with the electrolyte. Unfortunately, very few cathode materials meet these criteria. [0004]
  • The most common cathode materials used for thermal batteries are based on the sulfides of iron and cobalt. FeS[0005] 2 and CoS2 have decomposition temperatures and voltages of 550° C. and 650° C. and 1.94 V and 1.84 V, respectively vs. lithium. The lithium-silicon alloy anode has a decomposition temperature of about 702° C. As a result, significant thermal management is required for this system to contain all the heat during the battery operation, significantly reducing the energy density of the battery. The low voltage combined with a low capacity and high temperature requirement leads to poor energy density of between 50-80 Wh/kg.
  • A two-hour thermal battery requires the use of a molten salt that has a lower melting point and larger liquidus range than the LiCl—KCl eutectic, such as lithium chloride-lithium bromide-potassium bromide (LiCl—LiBr—KBr) eutectic, which melts at 321° C. and has a reasonable liquidus range. Another eutectic that has an even larger liquidus range is lithium bromide-potassium bromide-lithium fluoride (LiBr—KBr—LiF), which melts at 280° C. [0006]
  • Several advanced military applications require thermal batteries capable of providing continuous as well as high power pulsed discharges over extended time periods. This need for operational lives in excess of one hour has necessitated an increase of the heat input to the battery for higher starting temperatures. This allows the electrolyte to remain molten over longer time periods. The higher starting temperature requires active materials that are thermally stable at temperatures close to 600° C. The effect of this evolution not only impacts the active materials, but places increasing importance on overall battery thermal management. Sensors placed inside a nose cone of a missile with the thermal batteries on the outside are more prone to failures at these higher temperatures. More thermal insulations are required to protect these sensors, which in turn leads to heavier missiles. Smaller battery packages, for example, will contain smaller cell stack thermal masses and thinner stack insulations. This puts a considerable strain on the performance of the various components in the cell as well as lowering the energy density due to the extra insulative packaging required for thermal control. [0007]
  • Currently, most missiles incorporate thermal batteries based on the conventional FeS[0008] 2 cathode, while some incorporate thermal batteries based on an advanced CoS2 cathode. The advanced systems are pushing the limits of current technology in terms of higher power and energy and longer run times in smaller and lighter packages. However, the result is only an incremental improvement over the FeS2 system. Typical tactical and advanced tactical battery applications are showing a trend towards higher battery voltages, low-to-moderate base discharge rates with high pulse loads, relatively small battery envelopes, and substantially increasing mission times. Conversely, strategic battery requirements tend to require longer mission lives, higher current requirements with steady and/or pulsing loads, larger battery envelopes due to higher power requirements, and may involve maximum skin temperature specifications primarily due to longer mission lives.
  • A very large number of oxides, because of their refractory properties, have been explored for use as the cathode material, but none to date is believed to have provided a viable system that is highly conductive and thermally stable at the operating temperatures required of these batteries. The materials considered include oxides based on titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), niobium (Nb), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), and copper (Cu). Although desirable attributes were found in many of these oxides, such as high voltages, high energy densities, and good thermal stabilities, many disadvantages were also found, including sloping voltage discharge, inability to utilize full capacity, and oxidation of the halogen-based electrolyte to free halogen by the high voltages. [0009]
  • Some recent reported developments include thin film technologies involving plasma spraying of cathodes and electrolyte components, or tape casting and consolidating all cell layers. Although very high power can be achieved from such designs, the problems of lower energy density and thermal insulation remain, and cost is expected to be higher because of the exotic deposition technique. [0010]
  • As noted above, present thermal batteries operate at very high temperatures (400° C.-600° C.), which is one of their disadvantages. Most of the electrolytes developed so far are based on the halogen derivatives such as LiCl—KCl or LiF—LiCl—LiBr eutectic mixtures or variations of them. However, almost all the electrolytes presently in use or previously proposed for use operate at very high temperatures, thus requiring a cathode with a higher decomposition temperature. Improvements could be made in the energy density and performance characteristics of thermal batteries if a cathode material were found with properties of high capacity per unit weight and volume, thermal stability at high temperatures, high voltage output, very high electronic conductivity, very high thermal conductivity, high reaction kinetics, wide electrochemical stability window, flat voltage with discharge, and, above all, lack of reaction with or oxidation of the electrolyte. The latter is a very important feature that has precluded the use of high voltage cathodes since the common electrolytes are based on the halogen salts, which tend to oxidize to free halogen gases. A wide range of battery chemistries exists today but only a handful may be suitable for use in the development of advanced thermal batteries. Most of the problems are associated with decomposition of the components at the thermal battery temperatures, thermal conductivity, electrochemical instability, or sloping cell voltages. [0011]
  • Clearly, major improvements are needed to reduce the present weight and volume of these batteries in such applications. Future thermal-battery applications envision higher energy densities and lifetimes of up to four hours. The current technology does not meet these requirements, primarily due to limitations of the cathode material. [0012]
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention resides in thermal batteries with flatter discharge and higher voltage cathodes than existing iron sulfide or cobalt sulfide, which can increase the energy density and reduce the stringent packaging constraints, in conjunction with a stable electrolyte that is highly conductive and has a high decomposition temperature. One of the principal aims of the invention is to reduce the operating temperature of the thermal battery, preferably to less than 250° C., and more preferably to not greater than 200° C., while increasing its energy density. [0013]
  • The invention utilizes a cathode material—carbon monofluoride (CF[0014] x)—that apparently has not previously been evaluated for thermal battery cathodes because of its low thermal stability compared to the iron or cobalt sulfides or oxides. This cathode material has been used in non-aqueous liquid electrolyte batteries since the 1970's with practical energy densities reaching as high as 450-500 Wh/kg. The capacity of this cathode is 864 mAh/g versus 290 mAh/g for CoS2, and exceeds 1.1 volts higher than CoS2. This material offers a flat 3 V discharge with a lithium anode; a theoretical energy density of 2180 Wh/kg; excellent chemical and electrochemical stability; extremely good kinetic properties even upon discharge; its discharge product is carbon, thus maintaining excellent conductivity during discharge unlike most cathode materials that tend to increase in cell resistance; and has thermal stability up to 400° C.
  • The invention also contemplates combining the CF[0015] x cathode with a stable low cost, low melting point electrolyte, compared to the presently used high temperature eutectics, in the thermal battery. The low temperature molten salt electrolyte combined with the chemically, thermally and electrochemically stable high voltage cathode are key aspects in the improved battery performance provided by the invention. Also, the use of higher voltage and/or bipolar battery design leads to fewer cells being required to manufacture the battery, reduced cell-to-cell interconnections, lower material and manufacturing costs and greater reliability. All of these improvements, in turn, produce a quantum effect in energy density improvement.
  • The invention may also employ a range of stable electrolytes with lower melting points compared to the high temperature eutectics, for use with this cathode material in a thermal battery. [0016]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The above and other objects, features, aspects and attendant advantages of the invention will be revealed from a consideration of the following detailed description of the best mode presently contemplated for practicing the invention, particularly in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which: [0017]
  • FIG. 1 illustrates the structure of a preferred salt for use as an electrolyte in thermal batteries according to the invention; and [0018]
  • FIG. 2 illustrates the structure of an alternative preferred salt for use as an electrolyte in the thermal batteries.[0019]
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE BEST MODE OF PRACTICING THE INVENTION
  • A preferred embodiment of a thermal battery according to the invention comprises a cathode composed of carbon monofluoride (CF[0020] x) in combination with a halogen-free, highly conductive, molten salt electrolyte based on lithium bis(oxalato)borate (C4O8BLi) (or LiBOB) salt. The salt has the structure shown in FIG. 1. It demonstrates good chemical and electrochemical stability in contact with lithium. Moreover, it is relatively inexpensive and has a high thermal stability of 302° C. Alternatively, the organoborate salt may be chosen from an aromatic bis[bidentate] borate, also known as a bis[chelato] borate, such as bis[benzenediolato (2-)-O,O′] borate, bis[substituted benzenediolato (2-)-O,O′] borate, bis[salicylato] borate, bis[substituted salicylato] borate, bis[2,2′-biphenyldiolato (O,O′)] borate, and bis[substituted 2,2′-biphenyldiolato (O,O′)] borate). The aromatic bis[bidentate] borate may be replaced with a nonaromatic bis[chelato] borate, such as bis[oxalato (2-)-O,O′] borate, bis[malonato (2-)-O,O′] borate, bis[succinato] borate, [α-hydroxy-carboxylato] borate, [α-hydroxy-carboxylato] borate, [β-hydroxy-carboxylato] borate, [β-hydroxy-carboxylato] borate, [α-dicarboxylato] borate, and [α-dicarboxylato] borate. If desired, the organoborate may be a mono[bidentate] borate, a tridentate borate, or a tetradentate borate.
  • The preferred chelated borate anion has a unique tetrahedron structure, in which no acidic hydrogen is present. Electrochemical study indicates this gives the compound a wide electrochemical stability window on platinum electrodes, for example. Further, slow scan cyclic voltammograms showed good compatibility of the salt with graphitizable carbonaceous anode as well as good stability against a charged cathode surface. [0021]
  • FIG. 2 illustrates the structure of 1,3-di-tert-butylimidazolium bis (oxalato) borate, an alternative preferred salt. [0022]
  • Use of this lower temperature, highly conductive molten salt electrolyte reduces the amount of thermal insulation required in a thermal battery package, and commensurately reduces weight, volume and cost of the overall battery. [0023]
  • The invention is also directed to combining a CF[0024] x cathode with a lithium or lithium alloy anode and an aforementioned embodiment of the new salt in a thermal battery design to yield energy densities exceeding 150-200 Wh/kg. Here again, the combination should yield a considerable reduction in the thermal insulation required, with concomitant reductions in weight, volume and cost. By manufacturing the components in thinner form than that of existing components in thermal batteries, the power density can be increased.
  • The use of a standard lithium-silicon alloy anode in the battery design of the invention is preferred; however, graphitic anodes may be used as an alternative that offers improved safety, ease of handling and battery construction, improved chemical and electrochemical stability, lower cost, and higher decomposition temperature, albeit at a slightly lower voltage and capacity. Particular graphitic anodes are based on charged LiC[0025] 6.
  • Another embodiment of the invention comprises a solid polymer electrolyte that is ionically conductive. Operating temperatures of many such electrolytes lie in a range between 25° C. and 150° C., which is lower than the molten salt electrolyte. In an attempt to develop all-solid-state rechargeable lithium polymer electrolyte battery, one polymer that has been examined extensively is polyethylene oxide (PEO), which is able to form stable complexes with a number of salts. Because of its low ionic conductivity at ambient temperature of approximately 10[0026] −9 to 10−8 S/cm, rechargeable batteries examined using this material had to operate at 100° C. and above. A major problem with PEO-based electrolytes at temperatures below 60° C. is their high crystallinity and the associated low ion mobility. In recent years a number of radically different approaches have been taken to improve the conductivity of PEO and PEO-based polymers that have also led to the proposal of other polymers. These approaches included polymer modifications and synthesizing new polymers; random copolymers, block copolymers, comb-branched block copolymer, network structures, and plasticizer salts added to the polymer. Other approaches included forming composite polymers with ceramic materials, using plasticizer salts to increase the ion transport and mobility of the cation, and using plasticizing solvents in the polymer to increase the ionic character of the cation. Several review articles describe these approaches in detail, e.g. “Technology Assessment of Lithium Polymer Electrolyte Secondary Batteries” by M. Z. A. Munshi, Chapter 19 in Handbook of Solid State State Batteries and Capacitors, ed. M. Z. A. Munshi (World Scientific Pub. Singapore) 1995; A. Hooper, M. Gauthier, and A. Belanger, in: “Electrochemical Science and Technology of Polymers-2, Ed. R. G. Linford (Elsevier Applied Science, London), 1987.
  • The block copolymers and comb-branched block copolymers offer conductivities of about 10[0027] −4 to 10−5 S/cm with standard lithium salts such as LiClO4. The use of plasticizer salts such as lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide, LiN(CF3SO2)2, or lithium methide, LiC(SO2CF3)3, can increase the conductivity further by at least half to one order of magnitude, depending on the polymer. Hence, it is possible to increase the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolytes to 10−3 to 10−4 S/cm with some modifications. Inorganic conducting and non-conducting fillers have also been used to increase the ionic conductivity and mechanical property of the polymer. Addition of alpha alumina to (PEO)8.LiClO4 resulted in a negligible effect on the ionic conductivity but dramatically increased the mechanical property at 100° C., while the addition of other ceramic materials such as ionically conductive beta alumina to PEO-NaI and PEO-LiClO4 complexes improved the ionic conductivity of PEO-based electrolytes to approximately 10−5 S/cm. By incorporating a polymer electrolyte instead of the solid eutectic, the battery can be made in a thin and flexible form, and in fact can be wrapped around the nose of the missile cone instead of being relegated to a bulky enclosure with considerable insulation. So far as is known, such a battery does not exist for missile or any other applications. Instead of a pyrotechnic device to heat the battery, a thin film flexible heater may be laminated on both sides of the thin film battery. The heater may be operated from an alkaline battery just before launch. It is calculated that the weight and volume of the battery can thereby possibly be reduced down to 10% of that of existing thermal batteries.
  • A thermal battery incorporating the features of the invention can be readily produced by combining a CF[0028] x cathode with conductive carbon and electrolyte in the ratio of 50-85% CFx, 5-15% electrolyte and 5-15% conductive carbon to form the cathode; an electrolyte consisting of either the organoborate lithium salt or a polymer electrolyte; and an anode comprising either a lithium metal, a lithium alloy, or a lithium ion intercalating carbon electrode. The battery can be heated by any means to liquefy the electrolyte and make it more conductive for reaction to occur.
  • A thermal battery fabricated according to the present invention possesses the following features: [0029]
  • An emf of >3 V (vs. Li) [0030]
  • Thermally stable to >400° C. [0031]
  • High electronic conductivity cathode [0032]
  • Good kinetics (high rate capability) [0033]
  • Little or no solubility in molten salt electrolytes or polymer electrolytes [0034]
  • Low equivalent weight (high coulombs/mole) Non-intercalating (multiphase) discharge [0035]
  • Reaction products insoluble in molten salts, with high electronic conductivity and thermal stability [0036]
  • Reasonable cost [0037]
  • Environmentally friendly (“green”) [0038]
  • It also provides a thermal battery with significantly lower operating temperatures thereby reducing insulation and higher voltage thereby increasing energy density and power density and lowering cost. [0039]
  • Although certain preferred embodiments and methods have been described in conjunction with presenting the best mode of practicing the invention, it will be recognized by those skilled in the art from a consideration of the foregoing description that variations and modifications may be implemented without departing from the true spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, it is intended that the invention shall not be limited except as set forth in the following claims and by the rules and practices of the relevant patent laws. [0040]

Claims (23)

What is claimed is:
1. A thermal battery for operation at temperatures below about 250° C., comprising:
a primarily CFx cathode, a solid electrolyte, and a lithium-based anode.
2. The thermal battery of claim 1, wherein the cathode includes CFx, conductive carbon and electrolyte in the ratio of 50-85% CFx, 5-15% conductive carbon, and 5-15% electrolyte.
3. The thermal battery of claim 1, wherein the electrolyte is an organoborate lithium salt.
4. The thermal battery of claim 1, wherein the solid electrolyte is an ionically conductive polymer electrolyte.
5. The thermal battery of claim 1, wherein the anode is a lithium alloy.
6. The thermal battery of claim 5, wherein the anode is a lithium-silicon alloy.
7. The thermal battery of claim 5, wherein the anode is graphitic.
8. The thermal battery of claim 7, wherein the anode is a lithium ion intercalating carbon electrode.
9. The thermal battery of claim 3, wherein the organoborate lithium salt comprises lithium bis(oxalato)borate (C4O8BLi) (or LiBOB) salt.
10. The thermal battery of claim 3, wherein the organoborate lithium salt comprises an aromatic bis[bidentate] borate.
11. The thermal battery of claim 3, wherein the organoborate lithium salt comprises a non-aromatic bis[chelato] borate.
12. The thermal battery of claim 3, wherein the organoborate lithium salt comprises one of a mono [bidentate] borate, a tridentate borate, or a tetradentate borate.
13. The thermal battery of claim 3, wherein the organoborate lithium salt comprises a chelated borate anion of tetrahedron structure, with no acidic hydrogen.
14. The thermal battery of claim 3, wherein the cathode includes CFx, conductive carbon and electrolyte in the ratio of 50-85% CFx, 5-15% conductive carbon, and 5-15% electrolyte.
15. The thermal battery of claim 14 wherein the anode is a lithium alloy.
16. The thermal battery of claim 14 wherein the anode is a lithium ion intercalating carbon electrode.
17. The thermal battery of claim 4, wherein the polymer electrolyte is polyethylene oxide (PEO) based.
18. The thermal battery of claim 1, wherein the anode is lithium metal.
19. The thermal battery of claim 1, wherein the thermal battery is adapted for operation at temperatures not greater than about 200° C.
20. The thermal battery of claim 1, including thin film heating elements in place of a pyrotechnic device to heat the battery.
21. The thermal battery of claim 1, wherein the components of the battery are structured to render the battery flexible.
22. A thermal battery adapted to operate at temperatures below about 250° C., comprising a cathode composed primarily of carbon monofluoride (CFx), a lithium-based anode, and a halogen-free, highly conductive, molten organoborate salt electrolyte.
23. A thermal battery adapted to operate at temperatures below about 250° C., comprising a cathode composed primarily of carbon monofluoride (CFx), a lithium-based anode, and an ionically conductive solid polymer electrolyte.
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US20120276433A1 (en) * 2007-05-25 2012-11-01 Panasonic Corporation Molten salt and thermal battery
US8445137B1 (en) 2002-11-27 2013-05-21 Quallion Llc Primary battery having sloped voltage decay
RU2528634C1 (en) * 2013-03-14 2014-09-20 Открытое акционерное общество "Энергия" Method to produce electrolyte pellet for heat chemical current source
KR101773745B1 (en) * 2017-03-28 2017-08-31 국방과학연구소 Manufacturing method of cathode for thermal battery including carbon monofluoride, cathode for thermal battery manufactured by same, and thermal battery comprising the same
US10468668B1 (en) 2015-08-27 2019-11-05 Binergy Scientific, Inc. Methods and compositions for anode and cathode nanocomposite materials for thermal batteries
US10529995B2 (en) 2015-09-17 2020-01-07 Raytheon Company Reusable resettable retriggerable rebuildable squibless missile battery

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