US20030199538A1 - Pharmaceutical formulation comprising an immune response modifier - Google Patents

Pharmaceutical formulation comprising an immune response modifier Download PDF

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US20030199538A1
US20030199538A1 US10306019 US30601902A US2003199538A1 US 20030199538 A1 US20030199538 A1 US 20030199538A1 US 10306019 US10306019 US 10306019 US 30601902 A US30601902 A US 30601902A US 2003199538 A1 US2003199538 A1 US 2003199538A1
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Raymond Skwierczynski
Terri Busch
Amy Gust-Heiting
Mary Fretland
Matthew Scholz
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3M Innovative Properties Co
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3M Innovative Properties Co
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients
    • A61K31/33Heterocyclic compounds
    • A61K31/395Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins
    • A61K31/435Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with one nitrogen as the only ring hetero atom
    • A61K31/4353Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with one nitrogen as the only ring hetero atom ortho- or peri-condensed with heterocyclic ring systems
    • A61K31/437Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with one nitrogen as the only ring hetero atom ortho- or peri-condensed with heterocyclic ring systems the heterocyclic ring system containing a five-membered ring having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. indolizine, beta-carboline
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients
    • A61K31/33Heterocyclic compounds
    • A61K31/395Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins
    • A61K31/435Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with one nitrogen as the only ring hetero atom
    • A61K31/4353Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with one nitrogen as the only ring hetero atom ortho- or peri-condensed with heterocyclic ring systems
    • A61K31/4355Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with one nitrogen as the only ring hetero atom ortho- or peri-condensed with heterocyclic ring systems the heterocyclic ring system containing a five-membered ring having oxygen as a ring hetero atom
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients
    • A61K31/33Heterocyclic compounds
    • A61K31/395Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins
    • A61K31/435Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with one nitrogen as the only ring hetero atom
    • A61K31/4353Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with one nitrogen as the only ring hetero atom ortho- or peri-condensed with heterocyclic ring systems
    • A61K31/4365Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with one nitrogen as the only ring hetero atom ortho- or peri-condensed with heterocyclic ring systems the heterocyclic ring system having sulfur as a ring hetero atom, e.g. ticlopidine
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients
    • A61K31/33Heterocyclic compounds
    • A61K31/395Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins
    • A61K31/435Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with one nitrogen as the only ring hetero atom
    • A61K31/4353Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with one nitrogen as the only ring hetero atom ortho- or peri-condensed with heterocyclic ring systems
    • A61K31/4375Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with one nitrogen as the only ring hetero atom ortho- or peri-condensed with heterocyclic ring systems the heterocyclic ring system containing a six-membered ring having nitrogen as a ring heteroatom, e.g. quinolizines, naphthyridines, berberine, vincamine
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients
    • A61K31/33Heterocyclic compounds
    • A61K31/395Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins
    • A61K31/435Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with one nitrogen as the only ring hetero atom
    • A61K31/47Quinolines; Isoquinolines
    • A61K31/4738Quinolines; Isoquinolines ortho- or peri-condensed with heterocyclic ring systems
    • A61K31/4745Quinolines; Isoquinolines ortho- or peri-condensed with heterocyclic ring systems condensed with ring systems having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. phenantrolines
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K47/00Medicinal preparations characterised by the non-active ingredients used, e.g. carriers or inert additives; Targeting or modifying agents chemically bound to the active ingredient
    • A61K47/06Organic compounds, e.g. natural or synthetic hydrocarbons, polyolefins, mineral oil, petrolatum or ozokerite
    • A61K47/08Organic compounds, e.g. natural or synthetic hydrocarbons, polyolefins, mineral oil, petrolatum or ozokerite containing oxygen, e.g. ethers, acetals, ketones, quinones, aldehydes, peroxides
    • A61K47/10Alcohols; Phenols; Salts thereof, e.g. glycerol; Polyethylene glycols [PEG]; Poloxamers; PEG/POE alkyl ethers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K47/00Medicinal preparations characterised by the non-active ingredients used, e.g. carriers or inert additives; Targeting or modifying agents chemically bound to the active ingredient
    • A61K47/06Organic compounds, e.g. natural or synthetic hydrocarbons, polyolefins, mineral oil, petrolatum or ozokerite
    • A61K47/08Organic compounds, e.g. natural or synthetic hydrocarbons, polyolefins, mineral oil, petrolatum or ozokerite containing oxygen, e.g. ethers, acetals, ketones, quinones, aldehydes, peroxides
    • A61K47/14Esters of carboxylic acids, e.g. fatty acid monoglycerides, medium-chain triglycerides, parabens or PEG fatty acid esters
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K47/00Medicinal preparations characterised by the non-active ingredients used, e.g. carriers or inert additives; Targeting or modifying agents chemically bound to the active ingredient
    • A61K47/30Macromolecular organic or inorganic compounds, e.g. inorganic polyphosphates
    • A61K47/32Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, e.g. carbomers, poly(meth)acrylates, or polyvinyl pyrrolidone
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K47/00Medicinal preparations characterised by the non-active ingredients used, e.g. carriers or inert additives; Targeting or modifying agents chemically bound to the active ingredient
    • A61K47/30Macromolecular organic or inorganic compounds, e.g. inorganic polyphosphates
    • A61K47/36Polysaccharides; Derivatives thereof, e.g. gums, starch, alginate, dextrin, hyaluronic acid, chitosan, inulin, agar or pectin
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K47/00Medicinal preparations characterised by the non-active ingredients used, e.g. carriers or inert additives; Targeting or modifying agents chemically bound to the active ingredient
    • A61K47/44Oils, fats or waxes according to two or more groups of A61K47/02-A61K47/42; Natural or modified natural oils, fats or waxes, e.g. castor oil, polyethoxylated castor oil, montan wax, lignite, shellac, rosin, beeswax or lanolin
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K9/00Medicinal preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K9/0012Galenical forms characterised by the site of application
    • A61K9/0014Skin, i.e. galenical aspects of topical compositions

Abstract

Pharmaceutical formulations comprising an immune response modifier (IRM) chosen from imidazoquinoline amines, imidazotetrahydroquinoline amines, imidazopyridine amines, 6,7-fused cycloalkylimidazopyridine amines, 1,2-bridged imidazoquinoline amines, thiazolo-quinolineamines, oxazolo-quinolinamines, thiazolo-pyridinamines, oxazolo-pyridinamines, imidazonaphthyridine amines, tetrahydroimidazonaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines; a fatty acid; and a hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid are useful for the treatment of dermal associated conditions. Novel topical formulations are provided. In one embodiment, the topical formulations are advantageous for treatment of actinic keratosis, postsurgical scars, basal cell carcinoma, atopic dermatitis, and warts.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • [0001]
    This application claims priority to Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 60/340,605, filed Nov. 29, 2001 and Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 60/378,452, filed May 6, 2002.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    The present invention is directed to pharmaceutical formulations comprising at least one immune response modifier chosen from imidazoquinoline amines, imidazopyridine amines, 6,7-fused cycloalkylimidazopyridine amines, 1,2-bridged imidazoquinoline amines, thiazoloquinoline amines, oxazoloquinoline amines, thiazolopyridine amines, oxazolopyridine amines, imidazonaphthyridine amines, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines. Embodiments of the present invention are directed to topical formulations for application to the skin of a mammal. Other embodiments of the present invention are directed to methods for treating dermal diseases.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0003]
    Many imidazoquinoline amine, imidazopyridine amine, 6,7-fused cycloalkylimidazopyridine amine, 1,2-bridged imidazoquinoline amine, thiazoloquinoline amine, oxazoloquinoline amine, thiazolopyridine amine, oxazolopyridine amine, imidazonaphthyridine amine, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amine, and thiazolonaphthyridine amine compounds have demonstrated potent immunostimulating, antiviral and antitumor (including anticancer) activity, and have also been shown to be useful as vaccine adjuvants. These compounds are hereinafter collectively referred to as “IRM” (immune response modifier) compounds. One of these IRM compounds, known as imiquimod, has been commercialized in a topical formulation, Aldara™, for the treatment of anogenital warts associated with human papillomavirus.
  • [0004]
    The mechanism for the antiviral and antitumor activity of these IRM compounds is thought to be due in substantial part to enhancement of the immune response by induction of various important cytokines (e.g., interferons, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor, etc.). Such compounds have been shown to stimulate a rapid release of certain monocyte/macrophage-derived cytokines and are also capable of stimulating B cells to secrete antibodies which play an important role in these IRM compounds' antiviral and antitumor activities. One of the predominant immunostimulating responses to these compounds is the induction of interferon (IFN)-α production, which is believed to be very important in the acute antiviral and antitumor activities seen. Moreover, up regulation of other cytokines such as, for example, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 also have potentially beneficial activities and are believed to contribute to the antiviral and antitumor properties of these compounds.
  • [0005]
    Although some of the beneficial effects of IRMs are known, the ability to provide therapeutic benefit via topical application of an IRM compound for treatment of a particular condition at a particular location may be hindered by a variety of factors. These factors include irritation of the skin to which the formulation is applied, formulation wash away, insolubility and/or degradation of the IRM compound in the formulation, physical instability of the formulation (e.g., separation of components, thickening, precipitation/agglomerization of active ingredient, and the like), poor permeation, and undesired systemic delivery of the topically applied IRM compound. Accordingly, there is a continuing need for new methods and formulations to provide the greatest therapeutic benefit from this class of compounds.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0006]
    At several locations throughout the specification, guidance is provided through lists of examples. In each instance, the recited list serves only as a representative group; it is not meant that the list is exclusive.
  • [0007]
    In one aspect, the present invention is directed to a pharmaceutical formulation comprising an immune response modifier selected from imidazoquinoline amines, imidazotetrahydroquinoline amines, imidazopyridine amines, 6,7-fused cycloalkylimidazopyridine amines, 1,2-bridged imidazoquinoline amines, thiazoloquinoline amines, oxazoloquinoline amines, thiazolopyridine amines, oxazolopyridine amines, imidazonaphthyridine amines, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines; a fatty acid; a hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid and comprising a hydrocarbyl group of 7 or more carbon atoms; and a hydrophilic viscosity enhancing agent selected from cellulose ethers and carbomers.
  • [0008]
    In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical formulation comprises an immune response modifier selected from imidazonaphthyridine amines, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines; a fatty acid; and a hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid and comprising a hydrocarbyl group of 7 or more carbon atoms.
  • [0009]
    The formulation can further comprise one or more of a preservative system, an emulsifier, and water.
  • [0010]
    In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a method of treatment of a dermal associated condition comprising applying to skin a topical formulation comprising an immune response modifier selected from imidazoquinoline amines, imidazotetrahydroquinoline amines, imidazopyridine amines, 6,7-fused cycloalkylimidazopyridine amines, 1,2-bridged imidazoquinoline amines, thiazoloquinoline amines, oxazoloquinoline amines, thiazolopyridine amines, oxazolopyridine amines, imidazonaphthyridine amines, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines; a fatty acid; a hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid and comprising a hydrocarbyl group of 7 or more carbon atoms; and a hydrophilic viscosity enhancing agent selected from cellulose ethers and carbomers.
  • [0011]
    In one embodiment, the method of treatment of a dermal associated condition comprises applying to skin a formulation comprising an immune response modifier selected from imidazonaphthyridine amines, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines; a fatty acid; and a hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid and comprising a hydrocarbyl group of 7 or more carbon atoms.
  • [0012]
    In other embodiments, the method of treatment of a dermal associated condition comprises applying to skin a formulation comprising an immune response modifier selected from imidazonaphthyridine amines, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines; a fatty acid; a hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid and comprising a hydrocarbyl group of 7 or more carbon atoms; and further comprising one or more of a preservative system, an emulsifier, and water.
  • [0013]
    In one embodiment, the dermal associated condition is selected from actinic keratosis, postsurgical scars, basal cell carcinoma, atopic dermatitis, and warts.
  • [0014]
    In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a method for delivering an immune response modifier to a dermal surface, the method comprising the steps of selecting a formulation comprising a compound selected from imidazoquinoline amines, imidazotetrahydroquinoline amines, imidazopyridine amines, 6,7-fused cycloalkylimidazopyridine amines, 1,2-bridged imidazoquinoline amines, thiazoloquinoline amines, oxazolo-quinoline amines, thiazolopyridine amines, oxazolopyridine amines, imidazonaphthyridine amines, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines; a fatty acid; a hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid and comprising a hydrocarbyl group of 7 or more carbon atoms; and a hydrophilic viscosity enhancing agent selected from cellulose ethers and carbomers; and applying the selected formulation to the dermal surface for a time sufficient to allow the formulation to deliver the IRM to the dermal surface.
  • [0015]
    In one embodiment, the selected formulation comprises an immune response modifier selected from imidazonaphthyridine amines, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines; a fatty acid; and a hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid and comprising a hydrocarbyl group of 7 or more carbon atoms.
  • [0016]
    Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities, ratios, and numerical properties of ingredients, reaction conditions, and so forth used in the specification and claims are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term “about”.
  • [0017]
    As used herein, “a” or “an” or “the” are used interchangeably with “at least one”, to mean “one or more” of the element being modified.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0018]
    In one aspect, the present invention is directed to a formulation comprising an immune response modifier compound selected from imidazoquinoline amines, imidazotetrahydroquinoline amines, imidazopyridine amines, 6,7-fused cycloalkylimidazopyridine amines, 1,2-bridged imidazoquinoline amines, thiazoloquinoline amines, oxazoloquinoline amines, thiazolopyridine amines, oxazolopyridine amines, imidazonaphthyridine amines, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines; a fatty acid; a hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid and comprising a hydrocarbyl group of 7 or more carbon atoms, and a hydrophilic viscosity enhancing agent selected from cellulose ethers and carbomers.
  • [0019]
    These immune response modifier compounds, methods of making them, methods of using them and compositions containing them are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,689,338; 4,929,624; 4,988,815; 5,037,986; 5,175,296; 5,238,944; 5,266,575; 5,268,376; 5,346,905; 5,352,784; 5,367,076; 5,389,640; 5,395,937; 5,446,153; 5,482,936; 5,693,811; 5,741,908; 5,756,747; 5,939,090; 6,039,969; 6,083,505; 6,110,929; 6,194,425; 6,245,776; 6,331,539; 6,376,669; and 6,451,810; European Patent 0 394 026; US Publication 2002/0055517; and PCT Publications WO 00/47719; WO 00/76518; WO 01/74343; WO 02/46188; WO 02/46189; WO 02/46190; WO 02/46191; WO 02/46192; WO 02/46193; WO 02/46194; and WO 02/46749 the disclosures of which are incorporated by reference herein.
  • [0020]
    As noted above, many of the IRM compounds useful in the present invention have demonstrated significant immunomodulating activity. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the IRM compound can be chosen from imidazoquinoline amines, for example, 1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amines defined by one of Formulas I-V below:
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00001
  • [0021]
    wherein
  • [0022]
    R11 is chosen from alkyl of one to ten carbon atoms, hydroxyalkyl of one to six carbon atoms, acyloxyalkyl wherein the acyloxy moiety is alkanoyloxy of two to four carbon atoms or benzoyloxy, and the alkyl moiety contains one to six carbon atoms, benzyl, (phenyl)ethyl and phenyl, said benzyl, (phenyl)ethyl or phenyl substituent being optionally substituted on the benzene ring by one or two moieties independently chosen from alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, alkoxy of one to four carbon atoms and halogen, with the proviso that if said benzene ring is substituted by two of said moieties, then said moieties together contain no more than six carbon atoms;
  • [0023]
    R21 is chosen from hydrogen, alkyl of one to eight carbon atoms, benzyl, (phenyl)ethyl and phenyl, the benzyl, (phenyl)ethyl or phenyl substituent being optionally substituted on the benzene ring by one or two moieties independently chosen from alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, alkoxy of one to four carbon atoms and halogen, with the proviso that when the benzene ring is substituted by two of said moieties, then the moieties together contain no more than six carbon atoms; and
  • [0024]
    each R1 is independently chosen from alkoxy of one to four carbon atoms, halogen, and alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, and n is an integer from 0 to 2, with the proviso that if n is 2, then said R1 groups together contain no more than six carbon atoms;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00002
  • [0025]
    wherein
  • [0026]
    R12 is chosen from straight chain or branched chain alkenyl containing two to ten carbon atoms and substituted straight chain or branched chain alkenyl containing two to ten carbon atoms, wherein the substituent is chosen from straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to four carbon atoms and cycloalkyl containing three to six carbon atoms; and cycloalkyl containing three to six carbon atoms substituted by straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to four carbon atoms; and
  • [0027]
    R22 is chosen from hydrogen, straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to eight carbon atoms, benzyl, (phenyl)ethyl and phenyl, the benzyl, (phenyl)ethyl or phenyl substituent being optionally substituted on the benzene ring by one or two moieties independently chosen from straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to four carbon atoms, straight chain or branched chain alkoxy containing one to four carbon atoms, and halogen, with the proviso that when the benzene ring is substituted by two such moieties, then the moieties together contain no more than six carbon atoms; and
  • [0028]
    each R2 is independently chosen from straight chain or branched chain alkoxy containing one to four carbon atoms, halogen, and straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to four carbon atoms, and n is an integer from zero to 2, with the proviso that if n is 2, then said R2 groups together contain no more than six carbon atoms;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00003
  • [0029]
    wherein
  • [0030]
    R23 is chosen from hydrogen, straight chain or branched chain alkyl of one to eight carbon atoms, benzyl, (phenyl)ethyl and phenyl, the benzyl, (phenyl)ethyl or phenyl substituent being optionally substituted on the benzene ring by one or two moieties independently chosen from straight chain or branched chain alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, straight chain or branched chain alkoxy of one to four carbon atoms, and halogen, with the proviso that when the benzene ring is substituted by two such moieties, then the moieties together contain no more than six carbon atoms; and
  • [0031]
    each R3 is independently chosen from straight chain or branched chain alkoxy of one to four carbon atoms, halogen, and straight chain or branched chain alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, and n is an integer from zero to 2, with the proviso that if n is 2, then said R3 groups together contain no more than six carbon atoms;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00004
  • [0032]
    wherein
  • [0033]
    R14 is —CHRxRy wherein Ry is hydrogen or a carbon-carbon bond, with the proviso that when Ry is hydrogen Rx is alkoxy of one to four carbon atoms, hydroxyalkoxy of one to four carbon atoms, 1-alkynyl of two to ten carbon atoms, tetrahydropyranyl, alkoxyalkyl wherein the alkoxy moiety contains one to four carbon atoms and the alkyl moiety contains one to four carbon atoms, or 2-, 3-, or 4-pyridyl, and with the further proviso that when Ry is a carbon-carbon bond Ry and Rx together form a tetrahydrofuranyl group optionally substituted with one or more substituents independently chosen from hydroxy and hydroxyalkyl of one to four carbon atoms;
  • [0034]
    R24 is chosen from hydrogen, alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, phenyl, and substituted phenyl wherein the substituent is chosen from alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, alkoxy of one to four carbon atoms, and halogen; and
  • [0035]
    R4 is chosen from hydrogen, straight chain or branched chain alkoxy containing one to four carbon atoms, halogen, and straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to four carbon atoms;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00005
  • [0036]
    wherein
  • [0037]
    R15 is chosen from: hydrogen; straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to ten carbon atoms and substituted straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to ten carbon atoms, wherein the substituent is chosen from cycloalkyl containing three to six carbon atoms and cycloalkyl containing three to six carbon atoms substituted by straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to four carbon atoms; straight chain or branched chain alkenyl containing two to ten carbon atoms and substituted straight chain or branched chain alkenyl containing two to ten carbon atoms, wherein the substituent is chosen from cycloalkyl containing three to six carbon atoms and cycloalkyl containing three to six carbon atoms substituted by straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to four carbon atoms; hydroxyalkyl of one to six carbon atoms; alkoxyalkyl wherein the alkoxy moiety contains one to four carbon atoms and the alkyl moiety contains one to six carbon atoms; acyloxyalkyl wherein the acyloxy moiety is alkanoyloxy of two to four carbon atoms or benzoyloxy, and the alkyl moiety contains one to six carbon atoms; benzyl; (phenyl)ethyl; and phenyl; said benzyl, (phenyl)ethyl or phenyl substituent being optionally substituted on the benzene ring by one or two moieties independently chosen from alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, alkoxy of one to four carbon atoms, and halogen, with the proviso that when said benzene ring is substituted by two of said moieties, then the moieties together contain no more than six carbon atoms;
  • [0038]
    R25 is
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00006
  • [0039]
    wherein
  • [0040]
    RS and RT are independently chosen from hydrogen, alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, phenyl, and substituted phenyl wherein the substituent is chosen from alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, alkoxy of one to four carbon atoms, and halogen;
  • [0041]
    X is chosen from alkoxy containing one to four carbon atoms, alkoxyalkyl wherein the alkoxy moiety contains one to four carbon atoms and the alkyl moiety contains one to four carbon atoms, hydroxyalkyl of one to four carbon atoms, haloalkyl of one to four carbon atoms, alkylamido wherein the alkyl group contains one to four carbon atoms, amino, substituted amino wherein the substituent is alkyl or hydroxyalkyl of one to four carbon atoms, azido, chloro, hydroxy, 1-morpholino, 1-pyrrolidino, alkylthio of one to four carbon atoms; and
  • [0042]
    R5 is chosen from hydrogen, straight chain or branched chain alkoxy containing one to four carbon atoms, halogen, and straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to four carbon atoms;
  • [0043]
    and a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of any of the foregoing.
  • [0044]
    The IRM compound can also be chosen from 6,7 fused cycloalkylimidazopyridine amines defined by Formula VI below:
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00007
  • [0045]
    wherein m is 1, 2, or 3;
  • [0046]
    R16 is chosen from hydrogen; cyclic alkyl of three, four, or five carbon atoms; straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to ten carbon atoms and substituted straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to ten carbon atoms, wherein the substituent is chosen from cycloalkyl containing three to six carbon atoms and cycloalkyl containing three to six carbon atoms substituted by straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to four carbon atoms; fluoro- or chloroalkyl containing from one to ten carbon atoms and one or more fluorine or chlorine atoms; straight chain or branched chain alkenyl containing two to ten carbon atoms and substituted straight chain or branched chain alkenyl containing two to ten carbon atoms, wherein the substituent is chosen from cycloalkyl containing three to six carbon atoms and cycloalkyl containing three to six carbon atoms substituted by straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to four carbon atoms; hydroxyalkyl of one to six carbon atoms; alkoxyalkyl wherein the alkoxy moiety contains one to four carbon atoms and the alkyl moiety contains one to six carbon atoms; acyloxyalkyl wherein the acyloxy moiety is alkanoyloxy of two to four carbon atoms or benzoyloxy, and the alkyl moiety contains one to six carbon atoms, with the proviso that any such alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, substituted alkenyl, hydroxyalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, or acyloxyalkyl group does not have a fully carbon substituted carbon atom bonded directly to the nitrogen atom; benzyl; (phenyl)ethyl; and phenyl; said benzyl, (phenyl)ethyl or phenyl substituent being optionally substituted on the benzene ring by one or two moieties independently chosen from alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, alkoxy of one to four carbon atoms, and halogen, with the proviso that when said benzene ring is substituted by two of said moieties, then the moieties together contain no more than six carbon atoms;
  • [0047]
    and —CHRxRy
  • [0048]
    wherein
  • [0049]
    Ry is hydrogen or a carbon-carbon bond, with the proviso that when Ry is hydrogen Rx is alkoxy of one to four carbon atoms, hydroxyalkoxy of one to four carbon atoms, 1-alkynyl of two to ten carbon atoms, tetrahydropyranyl, alkoxyalkyl wherein the alkoxy moiety contains one to four carbon atoms and the alkyl moiety contains one to four carbon atoms, or 2-, 3-, or 4-pyridyl, and with the further proviso that when Ry is a carbon-carbon bond Ry and Rx together form a tetrahydrofuranyl group optionally substituted with one or more substituents independently chosen from hydroxy and hydroxyalkyl of one to four carbon atoms,
  • [0050]
    R26 is chosen from hydrogen, straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to eight carbon atoms, straight chain or branched chain hydroxyalkyl containing one to six carbon atoms, morpholinoalkyl, benzyl, (phenyl)ethyl and phenyl, the benzyl, (phenyl)ethyl or phenyl substituent being optionally substituted on the benzene ring by a moiety chosen from methyl, methoxy, and halogen; and
  • [0051]
    —C(RS)(RT)(X) wherein RS and RT are independently chosen from hydrogen, alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, phenyl, and substituted phenyl wherein the substituent is chosen from alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, alkoxy of one to four carbon atoms, and halogen;
  • [0052]
    X is chosen from alkoxy containing one to four carbon atoms, alkoxyalkyl wherein the alkoxy moiety contains one to four carbon atoms and the alkyl moiety contains one to four carbon atoms, haloalkyl of one to four carbon atoms, alkylamido wherein the alkyl group contains one to four carbon atoms, amino, substituted amino wherein the substituent is alkyl or hydroxyalkyl of one to four carbon atoms, azido, alkylthio of one to four carbon atoms, and morpholinoalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety contains one to four carbon atoms, and
  • [0053]
    R6 is chosen from hydrogen, fluoro, chloro, straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to four carbon atoms, and straight chain or branched chain fluoro- or chloroalkyl containing one to four carbon atoms and at least one fluorine or chlorine atom; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
  • [0054]
    In other embodiments of the present invention, the IRM compound can be chosen from imidazopyridine amines defined by Formula VII below:
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00008
  • [0055]
    wherein
  • [0056]
    R17 is chosen from hydrogen; —CH2RW wherein RW is chosen from straight chain, branched chain, or cyclic alkyl containing one to ten carbon atoms, straight chain or branched chain alkenyl containing two to ten carbon atoms, straight chain or branched chain hydroxyalkyl containing one to six carbon atoms, alkoxyalkyl wherein the alkoxy moiety contains one to four carbon atoms and the alkyl moiety contains one to six carbon atoms, and phenylethyl; and —CH═CRZRZ wherein each RZ is independently straight chain, branched chain, or cyclic alkyl of one to six carbon atoms;
  • [0057]
    R27 is chosen from hydrogen; straight chain or branched chain alkyl containing one to eight carbon atoms; straight chain or branched chain hydroxyalkyl containing one to six carbon atoms; alkoxyalkyl wherein the alkoxy moiety contains one to four carbon atoms and the alkyl moiety contains one to six carbon atoms; benzyl, (phenyl)ethyl and phenyl, the benzyl, (phenyl)ethyl oand phenyl being optionally substituted on the benzene ring by a moiety chosen from methyl, methoxy, and halogen; and morpholinoalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety contains one to four carbon atoms;
  • [0058]
    R67 and R77 are independently chosen from hydrogen and alkyl of one to five carbon atoms, with the proviso that R67 and R77 taken together contain no more than six carbon atoms, and with the further proviso that when R77 is hydrogen then R67 is other than hydrogen and R27 is other than hydrogen or morpholinoalkyl, and with the further proviso that when R67 is hydrogen then R77 and R27 are other than hydrogen;
  • [0059]
    and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
  • [0060]
    In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the IRM compound can be chosen from 1,2-bridged imidazoquinoline amines defined by Formula VIII below:
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00009
  • [0061]
    wherein
  • [0062]
    Z is chosen from:
  • [0063]
    —(CH2)p— wherein p is 1 to 4;
  • [0064]
    —(CH2)a—C(RDRE)(CH2)b—, wherein a and b are integers and a+b is 0 to 3, RD is hydrogen or alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, and RE is chosen from alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, hydroxy, —ORF wherein RF is alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, and —NRGR′G wherein RG and R′G are independently hydrogen or alkyl of one to four carbon atoms; and
  • [0065]
    —(CH2)a—(Y)—(CH2)b— wherein a and b are integers and a+b is 0 to 3, and Y is O, S, or —NRJ— wherein RJ is hydrogen or alkyl of one to four carbon atoms;
  • [0066]
    and wherein q is 0 or 1 and R8 is chosen from alkyl of one to four carbon atoms, alkoxy of one to four carbon atoms, and halogen,
  • [0067]
    and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
  • [0068]
    In a further embodiment, the IRM compound can be chosen from thiazoloquinoline amines, oxazoloquinoline amines, thiazolonaphthyridine amines, thiazolopyridine amines, and oxazolopyridine amines of Formula IX:
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00010
  • [0069]
    wherein:
  • [0070]
    R19 is chosen from oxygen, sulfur and selenium;
  • [0071]
    R29 is chosen from
  • [0072]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0073]
    -alkyl;
  • [0074]
    -alkyl-OH;
  • [0075]
    -haloalkyl;
  • [0076]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0077]
    -alkyl-X-alkyl;
  • [0078]
    -alkyl-X-alkenyl;
  • [0079]
    -alkenyl-X-alkyl;
  • [0080]
    -alkenyl-X-alkenyl;
  • [0081]
    -alkyl-N(R59)2;
  • [0082]
    -alkyl-N3;
  • [0083]
    -alkyl-O—C(O)—N(R59)2;
  • [0084]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0085]
    -alkyl-X-heterocyclyl;
  • [0086]
    -alkenyl-X-heterocyclyl;
  • [0087]
    -aryl;
  • [0088]
    -alkyl-X-aryl;
  • [0089]
    -alkenyl-X-aryl;
  • [0090]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0091]
    -alkyl-X-heteroaryl; and
  • [0092]
    -alkenyl-X-heteroaryl;
  • [0093]
    R39 and R49 are each independently:
  • [0094]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0095]
    —X-alkyl;
  • [0096]
    -halo;
  • [0097]
    -haloalkyl;
  • [0098]
    —N(R59)2;
  • [0099]
    or when taken together, R39 and R49 form a fused aromatic, heteroaromatic, cycloalkyl or heterocyclic ring;
  • [0100]
    X is chosen from —O—, —S—, —NR59—, —C(O)—, —C(O)O—, —OC(O)—, and a bond; and
  • [0101]
    each R59 is independently H or C1-8alkyl;
  • [0102]
    and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
  • [0103]
    In another embodiment, the IRM compound can be chosen from imidazonaphthyridine amines and imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amines of Formulae X and XI below:
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00011
  • [0104]
    wherein
  • [0105]
    A is ═N—CR═CR—CR═; ═CR—N═CR—CR—; ═CR—CR═N—CR═; or ═CR—CR═CR—N═;
  • [0106]
    R110 is chosen from:
  • [0107]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0108]
    —C1-20alkyl or C2-20alkenyl that is unsubstituted or substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0109]
    -aryl;
  • [0110]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0111]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0112]
    —O—C1-20alkyl,
  • [0113]
    —O—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0114]
    —O—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0115]
    —O—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heterocyclyl;
  • [0116]
    —CO—O—C1-20alkyl;
  • [0117]
    —S(O)0-2—C1-20alkyl;
  • [0118]
    —S(O)0-2—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0119]
    —S(O)0-2—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0120]
    —S(O)0-2—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heterocyclyl;
  • [0121]
    —N(R310)2;
  • [0122]
    —N3;
  • [0123]
    oxo;
  • [0124]
    -halogen;
  • [0125]
    —NO2;
  • [0126]
    —OH; and
  • [0127]
    —SH; and
  • [0128]
    —C1-20alkyl-NR310-Q-X—R410 or —C2-20alkenyl-NR310-Q-X—R410 wherein Q is —CO— or —SO2—; X is a bond, —O— or —NR310— and R410 is aryl; heteroaryl; heterocyclyl; or —C1-20 alkyl or C2-20alkenyl that is unsubstituted or substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0129]
    -aryl;
  • [0130]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0131]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0132]
    —O—C1-20alkyl,
  • [0133]
    —O—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0134]
    —O—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0135]
    —O—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heterocyclyl;
  • [0136]
    —CO—O—C1-20alkyl;
  • [0137]
    —S(O)0-2—C1-20alkyl;
  • [0138]
    —S(O)0-2—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0139]
    —S(O)0-2—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0140]
    —S(O)0-2—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heterocyclyl;
  • [0141]
    —N(R310)2;
  • [0142]
    —NR310—CO—O—C1-20alkyl;
  • [0143]
    —N3;
  • [0144]
    oxo;
  • [0145]
    -halogen;
  • [0146]
    —NO2;
  • [0147]
    —OH; and
  • [0148]
    —SH; or R410 is
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00012
  • [0149]
    wherein Y is —N— or —CR—;
  • [0150]
    R210 is chosen from:
  • [0151]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0152]
    —C1-10alkyl;
  • [0153]
    —C2-10alkenyl;
  • [0154]
    -aryl;
  • [0155]
    —C1-10alkyl-O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0156]
    —C1-10alkyl-O—C2-10alkenyl; and
  • [0157]
    —C1-10alkyl or C2-10alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0158]
    —OH;
  • [0159]
    -halogen;
  • [0160]
    —N(R310)2;
  • [0161]
    —CO—N(R310)2;
  • [0162]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0163]
    —N3;
  • [0164]
    -aryl;
  • [0165]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0166]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0167]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [0168]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0169]
    each R310 is independently chosen from hydrogen and C1-10alkyl; and
  • [0170]
    each R is independently chosen from hydrogen, C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, halogen and trifluoromethyl,
  • [0171]
    and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00013
  • [0172]
    wherein
  • [0173]
    B is —NR—C(R)2—C(R)2—C(R)2—; —C(R)2—NR—C(R)2—C(R)2—; —C(R)2—C(R)2—NR—C(R)2— or —C(R)2—C(R)2—C(R)2—NR—;
  • [0174]
    R111 is chosen from:
  • [0175]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0176]
    —C1-20alkyl or C2-20alkenyl that is unsubstituted or substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0177]
    -aryl;
  • [0178]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0179]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0180]
    —O—C1-20alkyl;
  • [0181]
    —O—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0182]
    —O—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0183]
    —O—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heterocyclyl;
  • [0184]
    —CO—O—C1-20alkyl;
  • [0185]
    —S(O)0-2—C1-20alkyl;
  • [0186]
    —S(O)0-2—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0187]
    —S(O)0-2—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0188]
    —S(O)0-2—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heterocyclyl;
  • [0189]
    —N(R311)2;
  • [0190]
    —N3;
  • [0191]
    oxo;
  • [0192]
    -halogen;
  • [0193]
    —NO2;
  • [0194]
    —OH; and
  • [0195]
    —SH; and
  • [0196]
    —C1-20alkyl-NR311-Q-X—R411 or —C2-20alkenyl-NR311-Q-X—R411 wherein Q is —CO— or —SO2—; X is a bond, —O— or —NR311— and R411 is aryl; heteroaryl; heterocyclyl; or —C1-20alkyl or C2-20alkenyl that is unsubstituted or substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0197]
    -aryl;
  • [0198]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0199]
    -heterocycyl;
  • [0200]
    —O—C1-20alkyl,
  • [0201]
    —O—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0202]
    —O—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0203]
    —O—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heterocyclyl;
  • [0204]
    —CO—O—C1-20alkyl;
  • [0205]
    —S(O)0-2—C1-20alkyl;
  • [0206]
    —S(O)0-2—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0207]
    —S(O)0-2—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0208]
    —S(O)0-2—(C1-20alkyl)0-1-heterocyclyl;
  • [0209]
    —N(R311)2;
  • [0210]
    —NR311—CO—O—C1-20alkyl;
  • [0211]
    —N3;
  • [0212]
    oxo;
  • [0213]
    -halogen;
  • [0214]
    —NO2;
  • [0215]
    —OH; and
  • [0216]
    —SH; or R411 is
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00014
  • [0217]
    wherein Y is —N— or —CR—;
  • [0218]
    R211 is chosen from:
  • [0219]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0220]
    —C1-10alkyl;
  • [0221]
    —C2-10alkenyl;
  • [0222]
    -aryl
  • [0223]
    —C1-10alkyl —O—C1-10-alkyl;
  • [0224]
    —C1-10alkyl-O—C2-10alkenyl; and
  • [0225]
    —C1-10alkyl or C2-10alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0226]
    -OH;
  • [0227]
    -halogen;
  • [0228]
    —N(R311)2;
  • [0229]
    —CO—N(R311)2;
  • [0230]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0231]
    —N3;
  • [0232]
    -aryl;
  • [0233]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0234]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0235]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [0236]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0237]
    each R311 is independently chosen from hydrogen and C1-10alkyl; and
  • [0238]
    each R is independently chosen from hydrogen, C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, halogen and trifluoromethyl,
  • [0239]
    and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
  • [0240]
    In a further embodiment, the IRM compound can be chosen from imidazoquinoline amines and imidazotetrahydroquinoline amines, for example, 1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amines and tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amines defined by Formulas XII, XIII and XIV below:
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00015
  • [0241]
    wherein
  • [0242]
    R112 is -alkyl-NR312—CO—R412 or -alkenyl-NR312—CO—R412 wherein R412 is aryl, heteroaryl, alkyl or alkenyl, each of which may be unsubstituted or substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0243]
    -alkyl;
  • [0244]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0245]
    -alkynyl;
  • [0246]
    -(alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0247]
    -(alkyl)0-1-(substituted aryl);
  • [0248]
    -(alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0249]
    —(alkyl)0-1-(substituted heteroaryl);
  • [0250]
    —O-alkyl;
  • [0251]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0252]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-(substituted aryl);
  • [0253]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0254]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-(substituted heteroaryl);
  • [0255]
    —CO-aryl;
  • [0256]
    —CO-(substituted aryl);
  • [0257]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0258]
    —CO-(substituted heteroaryl);
  • [0259]
    —COOH;
  • [0260]
    —CO—O-alkyl;
  • [0261]
    —CO-alkyl;
  • [0262]
    —S(O)0-2-alkyl;
  • [0263]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0264]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-(substituted aryl);
  • [0265]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0266]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-(substituted heteroaryl);
  • [0267]
    —P(O)(OR312)2;
  • [0268]
    —NR312—CO—O-alkyl;
  • [0269]
    —N3;
  • [0270]
    -halogen;
  • [0271]
    —NO2;
  • [0272]
    —CN;
  • [0273]
    -haloalkyl;
  • [0274]
    —O-haloalkyl;
  • [0275]
    —CO-haloalkyl;
  • [0276]
    —OH;
  • [0277]
    —SH; and in the case of alkyl, alkenyl, or heterocyclyl, oxo;
  • [0278]
    or R412 is
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00016
  • [0279]
    wherein R512 is an aryl, (substituted aryl), heteroaryl, (substituted heteroaryl), heterocyclyl or (substituted heterocyclyl) group;
  • [0280]
    R212 is chosen from:
  • [0281]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0282]
    -alkyl;
  • [0283]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0284]
    -aryl;
  • [0285]
    -(substituted aryl);
  • [0286]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0287]
    -(substituted heteroaryl);
  • [0288]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0289]
    -(substituted heterocyclyl);
  • [0290]
    -alkyl-O-alkyl;
  • [0291]
    -alkyl-O-alkenyl; and
  • [0292]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0293]
    —OH;
  • [0294]
    -halogen;
  • [0295]
    —N(R312)2;
  • [0296]
    —CO—N(R312)2;
  • [0297]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0298]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0299]
    —N3;
  • [0300]
    -aryl;
  • [0301]
    -(substituted aryl);
  • [0302]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0303]
    -(substituted heteroaryl);
  • [0304]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0305]
    -(substituted heterocyclyl);
  • [0306]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [0307]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0308]
    each R312 is independently chosen from hydrogen; C1-10alkyl-heteroaryl; C1-10alkyl-(substituted heteroaryl); C1-10alkyl-aryl; C1-10alkyl-(substituted aryl) and C1-10alkyl;
  • [0309]
    v is 0 to 4;
  • [0310]
    and each R12 present is independently chosen from C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, halogen and trifluoromethyl;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00017
  • [0311]
    wherein
  • [0312]
    R113 is -alkyl-NR313—SO2—X—R413 or -alkenyl-NR313—SO2—X—R413;
  • [0313]
    X is a bond or —NR513—;
  • [0314]
    R413 is aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, alkyl or alkenyl, each of which may be unsubstituted or substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0315]
    -alkyl;
  • [0316]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0317]
    -aryl;
  • [0318]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0319]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0320]
    -substituted cycloalkyl;
  • [0321]
    -substituted aryl;
  • [0322]
    -substituted heteroaryl;
  • [0323]
    -substituted heterocyclyl;
  • [0324]
    —O-alkyl;
  • [0325]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0326]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-substituted aryl;
  • [0327]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0328]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-substituted heteroaryl;
  • [0329]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-heterocyclyl;
  • [0330]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-substituted heterocyclyl;
  • [0331]
    —COOH;
  • [0332]
    —CO—O-alkyl;
  • [0333]
    —CO-alkyl;
  • [0334]
    —S(O)0-2-alkyl;
  • [0335]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0336]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-substituted aryl;
  • [0337]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0338]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-substituted heteroaryl;
  • [0339]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-heterocyclyl;
  • [0340]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-substituted heterocyclyl;
  • [0341]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR313R313;
  • [0342]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR313—CO—O-alkyl;
  • [0343]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR313—CO-alkyl;
  • [0344]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR313—CO-aryl;
  • [0345]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR313—CO-substituted aryl;
  • [0346]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR313—CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0347]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR313—CO-substituted heteroaryl;
  • [0348]
    —N3;
  • [0349]
    -halogen;
  • [0350]
    -haloalkyl;
  • [0351]
    -haloalkoxy;
  • [0352]
    —CO-haloalkyl;
  • [0353]
    —CO-haloalkoxy;
  • [0354]
    —NO2;
  • [0355]
    —CN;
  • [0356]
    —OH;
  • [0357]
    —SH; and in the case that R413 is alkyl, alkenyl, or heterocyclyl, oxo;
  • [0358]
    R213 is chosen from:
  • [0359]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0360]
    -alkyl;
  • [0361]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0362]
    -aryl;
  • [0363]
    -substituted aryl;
  • [0364]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0365]
    -substituted heteroaryl;
  • [0366]
    -alkyl-O-alkyl;
  • [0367]
    -alkyl-O-alkenyl; and
  • [0368]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0369]
    —OH;
  • [0370]
    -halogen;
  • [0371]
    —N(R313)2;
  • [0372]
    —CO—N(R313)2;
  • [0373]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0374]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0375]
    —N3;
  • [0376]
    -aryl;
  • [0377]
    -substituted aryl;
  • [0378]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0379]
    -substituted heteroaryl;
  • [0380]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0381]
    -substituted heterocyclyl;
  • [0382]
    —CO-aryl;
  • [0383]
    —CO-(substituted aryl);
  • [0384]
    -CO-heteroaryl; and
  • [0385]
    -CO-(substituted heteroaryl);
  • [0386]
    each R313 is independently chosen from hydrogen, C1-10alkyl, and when X is a bond R313 and R413 can combine to form a 3 to 7 membered heterocyclic or substituted heterocyclic ring;
  • [0387]
    R513 is chosen from hydrogen, C1-10alkyl, and R413 and R513 can combine to form a 3 to 7 membered heterocyclic or substituted heterocyclic ring;
  • [0388]
    v is 0 to 4 and each R13 present is independently chosen from C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, halogen and trifluoromethyl;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00018
  • [0389]
    wherein
  • [0390]
    R114 is -alkyl-NR314—CY—NR514—X—R414 or -alkenyl-NR314—CY—NR514—X—R414
  • [0391]
    wherein
  • [0392]
    Y is ═O or ═S;
  • [0393]
    X is a bond, —CO— or —SO2—;
  • [0394]
    R414 is aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, alkyl or alkenyl, each of which may be unsubstituted or substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0395]
    -alkyl;
  • [0396]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0397]
    -aryl;
  • [0398]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0399]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0400]
    -substituted aryl;
  • [0401]
    -substituted heteroaryl;
  • [0402]
    -substituted heterocycyl;
  • [0403]
    —O-alkyl;
  • [0404]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0405]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-substituted aryl;
  • [0406]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0407]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-substituted heteroaryl;
  • [0408]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-heterocyclyl;
  • [0409]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-substituted heterocyclyl;
  • [0410]
    —COOH;
  • [0411]
    —CO—O-alkyl;
  • [0412]
    —CO-alkyl;
  • [0413]
    —S(O)0-2-alkyl;
  • [0414]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0415]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-substituted aryl;
  • [0416]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0417]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-substituted heteroaryl;
  • [0418]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-heterocyclyl;
  • [0419]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-substituted heterocyclyl;
  • [0420]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR314R314;
  • [0421]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR314—CO—O-alkyl;
  • [0422]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR314—CO-alkyl;
  • [0423]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR314—CO-aryl;
  • [0424]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR314—CO-substituted aryl;
  • [0425]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR314—CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0426]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR314—CO-substituted heteroaryl;
  • [0427]
    —N3;
  • [0428]
    -halogen;
  • [0429]
    -haloalkyl;
  • [0430]
    -haloalkoxy;
  • [0431]
    —CO-haloalkoxy;
  • [0432]
    —NO2;
  • [0433]
    —CN;
  • [0434]
    —OH;
  • [0435]
    —SH; and, in the case that R414 is alkyl, alkenyl or heterocyclyl, oxo; with the proviso that when X is a bond R414 can additionally be hydrogen;
  • [0436]
    R214 is chosen from:
  • [0437]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0438]
    -alkyl;
  • [0439]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0440]
    -aryl;
  • [0441]
    -substituted aryl;
  • [0442]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0443]
    -substituted heteroaryl;
  • [0444]
    -alkyl-O-alkyl;
  • [0445]
    -alkyl-O-alkenyl; and
  • [0446]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0447]
    —OH;
  • [0448]
    -halogen;
  • [0449]
    —N(R314)2;
  • [0450]
    —CO—N(R314)2;
  • [0451]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0452]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0453]
    —N3;
  • [0454]
    -aryl;
  • [0455]
    -substituted aryl;
  • [0456]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0457]
    -substituted heteroaryl;
  • [0458]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0459]
    -substituted heterocyclyl;
  • [0460]
    —CO-aryl;
  • [0461]
    —CO-(substituted aryl);
  • [0462]
    —CO-heteroaryl; and
  • [0463]
    —CO-(substituted heteroaryl);
  • [0464]
    each R314 is independently chosen from hydrogen and C1-10alkyl;
  • [0465]
    R514 is chosen from hydrogen, C1-10alkyl, and R414 and R514 can combine to form a 3 to 7 membered heterocyclic or substituted heterocyclic ring;
  • [0466]
    v is 0 to 4 and each R14 present is independently chosen from C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, halogen and trifluoromethyl,
  • [0467]
    and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
  • [0468]
    In yet another embodiment, the IRM compound can be chosen from imidazoquinoline amines and imidazotetrahydroquinoline amines, for example, 1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amines and tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amines defined by Formulas XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX, XX, XXI, XXII, XXIII, XXIV, XXV, and XXVI below
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00019
  • [0469]
    wherein:
  • [0470]
    X is —CHR515—, —CHR515-alkyl-, or —CHR515-alkenyl-;
  • [0471]
    R115 is chosen from:
  • [0472]
    —R415—CR315-Z-R615-alkyl;
  • [0473]
    —R415—CR315-Z-R615-alkenyl;
  • [0474]
    —R415—CR315-Z-R615-aryl;
  • [0475]
    —R415—CR315-Z-R615-heteroaryl;
  • [0476]
    —R415—CR315-Z-R615-heterocyclyl;
  • [0477]
    —R415—CR315-Z-H;
  • [0478]
    —R415—NR715—CR315—R615-alkyl;
  • [0479]
    —R415—NR715—CR315—R615-alkenyl;
  • [0480]
    —R415—NR715—CR315—R615-aryl;
  • [0481]
    —R415—NR715—CR315—R615-heteroaryl;
  • [0482]
    —R415—NR715—CR315—R615-heterocyclyl; and
  • [0483]
    —R415—NR715—CR315—R815;
  • [0484]
    Z is —NR515—, —O—, or —S—;
  • [0485]
    R215 is chosen from:
  • [0486]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0487]
    -alkyl;
  • [0488]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0489]
    -aryl;
  • [0490]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0491]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0492]
    -alkyl-Y-alkyl;
  • [0493]
    -alkyl-Y- alkenyl;
  • [0494]
    -alkyl-Y-aryl; and
  • [0495]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of:
  • [0496]
    —OH;
  • [0497]
    -halogen;
  • [0498]
    —N(R515)2;
  • [0499]
    —CO—N(R515)2;
  • [0500]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0501]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0502]
    —N3;
  • [0503]
    -aryl;
  • [0504]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0505]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0506]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [0507]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0508]
    R315 is ═O or ═S;
  • [0509]
    R415 is alkyl or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups;
  • [0510]
    each R515 is independently H or C1-10alkyl;
  • [0511]
    R615 is a bond, alkyl, or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups;
  • [0512]
    R715 is H, C1-10alkyl, arylalkyl, or R415 and R715 can join together to form a 5 to 7 membered heterocylcic ring;
  • [0513]
    R815 is H, C1-10alkyl, or R715 and R815 can join together to form a 5 to 7 membered heterocyclic ring;
  • [0514]
    Y is —O— or —S(O)0-2—;
  • [0515]
    v is 0 to 4; and
  • [0516]
    each R15 present is independently chosen from C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen and trifluoromethyl;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00020
  • [0517]
    wherein:
  • [0518]
    X is —CHR516—, —CHR516-alkyl-, or —CHR516-alkenyl-;
  • [0519]
    R116 is chosen from:
  • [0520]
    —R416—CR316-Z-R616-alkyl;
  • [0521]
    —R416—CR316-Z-R616-alkenyl;
  • [0522]
    —R416—CR316-Z-R616-aryl;
  • [0523]
    —R416—CR316-Z-R616-heteroaryl;
  • [0524]
    —R416—CR316-Z-R616-heterocyclyl;
  • [0525]
    —R416—CR316-Z-H;
  • [0526]
    —R416—NR716—CR316—R616-alkyl;
  • [0527]
    —R416—NR716—CR316—R616-alkenyl;
  • [0528]
    —R416—NR716—CR316—R616-aryl;
  • [0529]
    —R416—NR716—CR316—R616-heteroaryl;
  • [0530]
    —R416—NR716—CR316—R616-heterocyclyl; and
  • [0531]
    —R416—NR716—CR316—R816;
  • [0532]
    Z is —NR516—, —O—, or —S—;
  • [0533]
    R216 is chosen from:
  • [0534]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0535]
    -alkyl;
  • [0536]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0537]
    -aryl;
  • [0538]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0539]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0540]
    -alkyl-Y-alkyl;
  • [0541]
    -alkyl-Y-alkenyl;
  • [0542]
    -alkyl-Y-aryl; and
  • [0543]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0544]
    —OH;
  • [0545]
    -halogen;
  • [0546]
    —N(R516)2;
  • [0547]
    —CO—N(R516)2;
  • [0548]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0549]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0550]
    —N3;
  • [0551]
    -aryl;
  • [0552]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0553]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0554]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [0555]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0556]
    R316 is ═O or ═S;
  • [0557]
    R416 is alkyl or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups;
  • [0558]
    each R516 is independently H or C1-10alkyl;
  • [0559]
    R616 is a bond, alkyl, or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups;
  • [0560]
    R716 is H, C1-10alkyl, arylalkyl, or R416 and R716 can join together to form a 5 to 7 membered hetercyclic ring;
  • [0561]
    R816 is H or C1-10alkyl; or R716 and R816 can join together to form a 5 to 7 membered heterocyclic ring;
  • [0562]
    Y is —O— or —S(O)0-2—;
  • [0563]
    v is 0 to 4; and
  • [0564]
    each R16 present is independently chosen from C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen, and trifluoromethyl;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00021
  • [0565]
    wherein:
  • [0566]
    X is —CHR317—, —CHR317-alkyl-, or —CHR317-alkenyl-;
  • [0567]
    R117 is chosen from:
  • [0568]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0569]
    -aryl; and
  • [0570]
    —R417-aryl;
  • [0571]
    R217 is chosen from:
  • [0572]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0573]
    -alkyl;
  • [0574]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0575]
    -aryl;
  • [0576]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0577]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0578]
    -alkyl-Y-alkyl;
  • [0579]
    -alkyl-Y-alkenyl;
  • [0580]
    -alkyl-Y-aryl; and
  • [0581]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0582]
    —OH;
  • [0583]
    -halogen;
  • [0584]
    —N(R317)2;
  • [0585]
    —CO—N(R317)2;
  • [0586]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0587]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0588]
    —N3;
  • [0589]
    -aryl;
  • [0590]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0591]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0592]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [0593]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0594]
    R417 is alkyl or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups;
  • [0595]
    each R317 is independently H or C1-10alkyl;
  • [0596]
    each Y is independently —O— or —S(O)0-2—;
  • [0597]
    v is 0 to 4; and
  • [0598]
    each R17 present is independently chosen from C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen and trifluoromethyl;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00022
  • [0599]
    wherein:
  • [0600]
    X is —CHR318—, —CHR318-alkyl-, or —CHR318-alkenyl-;
  • [0601]
    R118 is chosen from:
  • [0602]
    -aryl;
  • [0603]
    -alkenyl; and
  • [0604]
    —R418-aryl;
  • [0605]
    R218 is chosen from:
  • [0606]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0607]
    -alkyl;
  • [0608]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0609]
    -aryl;
  • [0610]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0611]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0612]
    -alkyl-Y-alkyl;
  • [0613]
    -alkyl-Y-aryl;
  • [0614]
    -alkyl-Y-alkenyl; and
  • [0615]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0616]
    —OH;
  • [0617]
    -halogen;
  • [0618]
    —N(R318)2;
  • [0619]
    —CO—N(R318)2;
  • [0620]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0621]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0622]
    —N3;
  • [0623]
    -aryl;
  • [0624]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0625]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0626]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [0627]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0628]
    R418 is alkyl or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups;
  • [0629]
    each R318 is independently H or C1-10alkyl;
  • [0630]
    each Y is independently —O— or —S(O)0-2—;
  • [0631]
    v is 0 to 4; and
  • [0632]
    each R18 present is independently chosen from C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen and trifluoromethyl;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00023
  • [0633]
    wherein:
  • [0634]
    X is —CHR319—, —CHR319-alkyl-, or —CHR319-alkenyl-;
  • [0635]
    R119 is chosen from:
  • [0636]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0637]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0638]
    —R419-heteroaryl; and
  • [0639]
    —R419-heterocyclyl;
  • [0640]
    R219 is chosen from:
  • [0641]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0642]
    -alkyl;
  • [0643]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0644]
    -aryl;
  • [0645]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0646]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0647]
    -alkyl-Y-alkyl;
  • [0648]
    -alkyl-Y- alkenyl;
  • [0649]
    -alkyl-Y-aryl; and
  • [0650]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0651]
    —OH;
  • [0652]
    -halogen;
  • [0653]
    —N(R319)2;
  • [0654]
    —CO—N(R319)2;
  • [0655]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0656]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0657]
    —N3;
  • [0658]
    -aryl;
  • [0659]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0660]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0661]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [0662]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0663]
    R419 is alkyl or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups;
  • [0664]
    each R319 is independently H or C1-10alkyl;
  • [0665]
    each Y is independently —O— or —S(O)0-2—;
  • [0666]
    v is 0 to 4; and
  • [0667]
    each R19 present is independently chosen from C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen and trifluoromethyl;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00024
  • [0668]
    wherein:
  • [0669]
    X is —CHR320—, —CHR320-alkyl-, or —CHR320-alkenyl-;
  • [0670]
    R120 is chosen from:
  • [0671]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0672]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0673]
    —R420-heteroaryl; and
  • [0674]
    —R420-heterocyclyl;
  • [0675]
    R220 is chosen from:
  • [0676]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0677]
    -alkyl;
  • [0678]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0679]
    -aryl;
  • [0680]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0681]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0682]
    -alkyl-Y-alkyl;
  • [0683]
    -alkyl-Y- alkenyl;
  • [0684]
    -alkyl-Y-aryl; and
  • [0685]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0686]
    —OH;
  • [0687]
    -halogen;
  • [0688]
    —N(R320)2;
  • [0689]
    —CO—N(R320)2;
  • [0690]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0691]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0692]
    —N3;
  • [0693]
    -aryl;
  • [0694]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0695]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0696]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [0697]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0698]
    R420 is alkyl or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups;
  • [0699]
    each R320 is independently H or C1-10alkyl;
  • [0700]
    each Y is independently —O— or —S(O)0-2—;
  • [0701]
    v is 0 to 4; and
  • [0702]
    each R20 present is independently chosen from C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen and trifluoromethyl;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00025
  • [0703]
    wherein:
  • [0704]
    X is —CHR521—, —CHR521-alkyl-, or —CHR521-alkenyl-;
  • [0705]
    R121 is chosen from:
  • [0706]
    —R421—NR321—SO2—R621-alkyl;
  • [0707]
    —R421—NR321—SO2—R621-alkenyl;
  • [0708]
    —R421—NR321—SO2—R621-aryl;
  • [0709]
    —R421—NR321—SO2—R621-heteroaryl;
  • [0710]
    —R421—NR321—SO2—R621-heterocyclyl;
  • [0711]
    —R421—NR321—SO2—R721;
  • [0712]
    —R421—NR321—SO2—NR521—R621-alkyl;
  • [0713]
    —R421—NR321—SO2—NR521—R621-alkenyl;
  • [0714]
    —R421—NR321—SO2—NR521—R621-aryl;
  • [0715]
    —R421—NR321—SO2—NR521—R621-heteroaryl;
  • [0716]
    —R421—NR321—SO2—NR521—R621-heterocyclyl; and
  • [0717]
    —R421—NR321—SO2—NH2;
  • [0718]
    R221 is chosen from:
  • [0719]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0720]
    -alkyl;
  • [0721]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0722]
    -aryl;
  • [0723]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0724]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0725]
    -alkyl-Y-alkyl;
  • [0726]
    -alkyl-Y-alkenyl;
  • [0727]
    -alkyl-Y-aryl; and
  • [0728]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0729]
    —OH;
  • [0730]
    -halogen;
  • [0731]
    —N(R521)2;
  • [0732]
    —CO—N(R521)2;
  • [0733]
    —CO-C1-10alkyl;
  • [0734]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0735]
    —N3;
  • [0736]
    -aryl;
  • [0737]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0738]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0739]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [0740]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0741]
    Y is —O— or —S(O)0-2—;
  • [0742]
    R321 is H, C1-10alkyl, or arylalkyl;
  • [0743]
    each R421 is independently alkyl or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups, or R321 and R421 can join together to form a 5 to 7 membered heterocyclic ring;
  • [0744]
    each R521 is independently H, C1-10alkyl, or C2-10alkenyl;
  • [0745]
    R621 is a bond, alkyl, or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups;
  • [0746]
    R721 is C1-10alkyl, or R321 and R721 can join together to form a 5 to 7 membered heterocyclic ring;
  • [0747]
    v is 0 to 4; and
  • [0748]
    each R21 present is independently chosen from C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen and trifluoromethyl;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00026
  • [0749]
    wherein:
  • [0750]
    X is —CHR522—, —CHR522-alkyl-, or —CHR522-alkenyl-;
  • [0751]
    R122 is chosen from:
  • [0752]
    —R422—NR322—SO2—R622-alkyl;
  • [0753]
    —R422—NR322—SO2—R622-alkenyl;
  • [0754]
    —R422—NR322—SO2—R622-aryl;
  • [0755]
    —R422—NR322—SO2—R622-heteroaryl;
  • [0756]
    —R422—NR322—SO2—R622-heterocyclyl;
  • [0757]
    —R422—NR322—SO2—R722;
  • [0758]
    —R422—NR322—SO2—NR522—R622-alkyl;
  • [0759]
    —R422—NR322—SO2—NR522—R622-alkenyl;
  • [0760]
    —R422—NR322—SO2—NR522—R622-aryl;
  • [0761]
    —R422—NR322—SO2—NR522—R622-heteroaryl;
  • [0762]
    —R422—NR322—SO2—NR522—R622-heterocyclyl; and
  • [0763]
    —R422—NR322—SO2—NH2;
  • [0764]
    R222 is chosen from:
  • [0765]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0766]
    -alkyl;
  • [0767]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0768]
    -aryl;
  • [0769]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0770]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0771]
    -alkyl-Y-alkyl;
  • [0772]
    -alkyl-Y- alkenyl;
  • [0773]
    -alkyl-Y-aryl; and
  • [0774]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0775]
    —OH;
  • [0776]
    -halogen;
  • [0777]
    —N(R522)2;
  • [0778]
    —CO—N(R522)2;
  • [0779]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0780]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0781]
    —N3;
  • [0782]
    -aryl;
  • [0783]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0784]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0785]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [0786]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0787]
    Y is —O— or —S(O)0-2—;
  • [0788]
    R322 is H, C1-10alkyl, or arylalkyl;
  • [0789]
    each R422 is independently alkyl or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups, or R322 and R422 can join together to form a 5 to 7 membered heterocyclic ring;
  • [0790]
    each R522 is independently H, C1-10alkyl, or C2-10alkenyl;
  • [0791]
    R622 is a bond, alkyl, or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups;
  • [0792]
    R722 is C1-10alkyl, or R322 and R722 can join together to form a 5 to 7 membered heterocyclic ring;
  • [0793]
    v is 0 to 4; and
  • [0794]
    each R22 present is independently chosen from C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen, and trifluoromethyl;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00027
  • [0795]
    wherein:
  • [0796]
    X is —CHR323—, —CHR323-alkyl-, or —CHR323-alkenyl-;
  • [0797]
    Z is —S—, —SO—, or —SO2—;
  • [0798]
    R123 is chosen from:
  • [0799]
    -alkyl;
  • [0800]
    -aryl;
  • [0801]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0802]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0803]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0804]
    —R423-aryl;
  • [0805]
    —R423-heteroaryl;
  • [0806]
    —R423-heterocyclyl;
  • [0807]
    R223 is chosen from:
  • [0808]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0809]
    -alkyl;
  • [0810]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0811]
    -aryl;
  • [0812]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0813]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0814]
    -alkyl-Y-alkyl;
  • [0815]
    -alkyl-Y- alkenyl;
  • [0816]
    -alkyl-Y-aryl; and
  • [0817]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0818]
    —OH;
  • [0819]
    -halogen;
  • [0820]
    —N(R323)2;
  • [0821]
    —CO—N(R323)2;
  • [0822]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0823]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0824]
    —N3;
  • [0825]
    -aryl;
  • [0826]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0827]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0828]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [0829]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0830]
    each R323 is independently H or C1-10alkyl;
  • [0831]
    each R423 is independently alkyl or alkenyl;
  • [0832]
    each Y is independently —O— or —S(O)0-2—;
  • [0833]
    v is 0 to 4; and
  • [0834]
    each R23 present is independently chosen from C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen and trifluoromethyl;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00028
  • [0835]
    wherein:
  • [0836]
    X is —CHR324—, —CHR324-alkyl-, or —CHR324-alkenyl-;
  • [0837]
    Z is —S—, —SO—, or —SO2—;
  • [0838]
    R124 is chosen from:
  • [0839]
    -alkyl;
  • [0840]
    -aryl;
  • [0841]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0842]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0843]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0844]
    —R424-aryl;
  • [0845]
    —R424-heteroaryl; and
  • [0846]
    —R424-heterocyclyl;
  • [0847]
    R224 is chosen from:
  • [0848]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0849]
    -alkyl;
  • [0850]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0851]
    -aryl;
  • [0852]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0853]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0854]
    -alkyl-Y-alkyl;
  • [0855]
    -alkyl-Y- alkenyl;
  • [0856]
    -alkyl-Y-aryl; and
  • [0857]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituent chosen from:
  • [0858]
    —OH;
  • [0859]
    -halogen;
  • [0860]
    —N(R324)2;
  • [0861]
    —CO—N(R324)2;
  • [0862]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0863]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0864]
    —N3;
  • [0865]
    -aryl;
  • [0866]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0867]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0868]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [0869]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0870]
    each R324 is independently H or C1-10alkyl;
  • [0871]
    each R424 is independently alkyl or alkenyl;
  • [0872]
    each Y is independently —O— or —S(O)0-2—;
  • [0873]
    v is 0 to 4; and
  • [0874]
    each R24 present is independently chosen from C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen and trifluoromethyl;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00029
  • [0875]
    wherein:
  • [0876]
    X is —CHR525—, —CHR525-alkyl-, or —CHR525-alkenyl-;
  • [0877]
    R125 is chosen from:
  • [0878]
    —R425—NR825—CR325—NR525-Z-R625-alkyl;
  • [0879]
    —R425—NR825—CR325—NR525-Z-R625-alkenyl;
  • [0880]
    —R425—NR825—CR325—NR525-Z-R625-aryl;
  • [0881]
    —R425—NR825—CR325—NR525-Z-R625-heteroaryl;
  • [0882]
    —R425—NR825—CR325—NR525-Z-R625-heterocyclyl;
  • [0883]
    —R425—NR825—CR325—NR525R725;
  • [0884]
    —R425—NR825—CR325—NR925-Z-R625-alkyl;
  • [0885]
    —R425—NR825—CR325—NR925-Z-R625-alkenyl;
  • [0886]
    —R425—NR825—CR325—NR925-Z-R625-aryl;
  • [0887]
    —R425—NR825—CR325—NR925-Z-R625-heteroaryl; and
  • [0888]
    —R425—NR825—CR325—NR925-Z-R625-heterocyclyl;
  • [0889]
    R225 is chosen from:
  • [0890]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0891]
    -alkyl;
  • [0892]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0893]
    -aryl;
  • [0894]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0895]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0896]
    -alkyl-Y-alkyl;
  • [0897]
    -alkyl-Y-alkenyl;
  • [0898]
    -alkyl-Y-aryl; and
  • [0899]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0900]
    —OH;
  • [0901]
    -halogen;
  • [0902]
    —N(R525)2;
  • [0903]
    —CO—N(R525)2;
  • [0904]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0905]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0906]
    —N3;
  • [0907]
    -aryl;
  • [0908]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0909]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0910]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [0911]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0912]
    each R325 is ═O or ═S;
  • [0913]
    each R425 is independently alkyl or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups;
  • [0914]
    each R525 is independently H or C1-10alkyl;
  • [0915]
    R625 is a bond, alkyl, or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups;
  • [0916]
    R725 is H, C1-10alkyl which may be interrupted by a hetero atom, or R725 can join with R525 to form a 5 to 7 membered heterocyclic ring;
  • [0917]
    R825 is H, C1-10alkyl, arylalkyl, or R425 and R825 can join together to form a 5 to 7 membered heterocyclic ring;
  • [0918]
    R925 is C1-10alkyl which can join together with R825 to form a 5 to 7 membered heterocyclic ring;
  • [0919]
    each Y is independently —O— or —S(O)0-2—;
  • [0920]
    Z is a bond, —CO—, or —SO2—;
  • [0921]
    v is 0 to 4; and
  • [0922]
    each R25 present is independently chosen from C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen and trifluoromethyl;
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00030
  • [0923]
    wherein:
  • [0924]
    X is —CHR526—, —CHR526-alkyl-, or —CHR526-alkenyl-;
  • [0925]
    R126 is chosen from:
  • [0926]
    —R426—NR826—CR326—NR526-Z-R626-alkyl;
  • [0927]
    —R426—NR826—CR326—NR526-Z-R626-alkenyl;
  • [0928]
    —R426—NR826—CR326—NR526-Z-R626-aryl;
  • [0929]
    —R426—NR826—CR326—NR526-Z-R626-heteroaryl;
  • [0930]
    —R426—NR826—CR326—NR526-Z-R626-heterocyclyl;
  • [0931]
    —R426—NR826—CR326—NR526R726;
  • [0932]
    —R426—NR826—CR326—NR926-Z-R626-alkyl;
  • [0933]
    —R426—NR826—CR326—NR926-Z-R626-alkenyl;
  • [0934]
    —R426—NR826—CR326—NR926-Z-R626-aryl;
  • [0935]
    —R426—NR826—CR326—NR926-Z-R626-heteroaryl; and
  • [0936]
    —R426—NR826—CR326—NR926-Z-R626-heterocyclyl;
  • [0937]
    R226 is chosen from:
  • [0938]
    -hydrogen;
  • [0939]
    -alkyl;
  • [0940]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0941]
    -aryl;
  • [0942]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0943]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0944]
    -alkyl-Y-alkyl;
  • [0945]
    -alkyl-Y-alkenyl;
  • [0946]
    -alkyl-Y-aryl; and
  • [0947]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [0948]
    —OH;
  • [0949]
    -halogen;
  • [0950]
    —N(R526)2;
  • [0951]
    —CO—N(R526)2;
  • [0952]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0953]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [0954]
    —N3;
  • [0955]
    -aryl;
  • [0956]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0957]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0958]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [0959]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [0960]
    each R326 is ═O or ═S;
  • [0961]
    each R426 is independently alkyl or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups;
  • [0962]
    each R526 is independently H or C1-10alkyl;
  • [0963]
    R626 is a bond, alkyl, or alkenyl, which may be interrupted by one or more —O— groups;
  • [0964]
    R726 is H, C1-10alkyl which may be interrupted by a hetero atom, or R726 can join with R526 to form a 5 to 7 membered heterocyclic ring;
  • [0965]
    R826 is H, C1-10alkyl, arylalkyl, or R426 and R826 can join together to form a 5 to 7 membered heterocyclic ring;
  • [0966]
    R926 is C1-10alkyl which can join together with R826 to form a 5 to 7 membered heterocyclic ring;
  • [0967]
    each Y is independently —O— or —S(O)0-2—;
  • [0968]
    Z is a bond, —CO—, or —SO2—;
  • [0969]
    v is 0 to 4; and
  • [0970]
    each R26 present is independently chosen from C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen, and trifluoromethyl;
  • [0971]
    and pharmaceutically acceptable salts of any of the foregoing.
  • [0972]
    In another embodiment, the IRM compound can be chosen from 1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-amines compounds defined by Formula XXVII
    Figure US20030199538A1-20031023-C00031
  • [0973]
    wherein
  • [0974]
    X is alkylene or alkenylene;
  • [0975]
    Y is —CO—, —CS—, or —SO2—;
  • [0976]
    Z is a bond, —O—, —S—, or —NR527—;
  • [0977]
    R127 is aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, C1-20alkyl or C2-20alkenyl, each of which may be unsubstituted or substituted by one or more substituents independently chosen from:
  • [0978]
    -alkyl;
  • [0979]
    -alkenyl;
  • [0980]
    -aryl;
  • [0981]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [0982]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [0983]
    -substituted cycloalkyl;
  • [0984]
    —O-alkyl;
  • [0985]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0986]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0987]
    —O-(alkyl)0-1-heterocyclyl;
  • [0988]
    —COOH;
  • [0989]
    —CO—O-alkyl;
  • [0990]
    —CO-alkyl;
  • [0991]
    —S(O)0-2-alkyl;
  • [0992]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-aryl;
  • [0993]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-heteroaryl;
  • [0994]
    —S(O)0-2-(alkyl)0-1-heterocyclyl;
  • [0995]
    -(alkyl)0-1-N(R527)2;
  • [0996]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR527—CO—O-alkyl;
  • [0997]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR527—CO-alkyl;
  • [0998]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR527—CO-aryl;
  • [0999]
    -(alkyl)0-1-NR527—CO-heteroaryl;
  • [1000]
    —N3;
  • [1001]
    -halogen;
  • [1002]
    -haloalkyl;
  • [1003]
    -haloalkoxy;
  • [1004]
    —CO-haloalkyl;
  • [1005]
    —CO-haloalkoxy;
  • [1006]
    —NO2;
  • [1007]
    —CN;
  • [1008]
    —OH;
  • [1009]
    —SH; and in the case of alkyl, alkenyl, and heterocyclyl, oxo;
  • [1010]
    R227 is chosen from:
  • [1011]
    -hydrogen;
  • [1012]
    -alkyl;
  • [1013]
    -alkenyl;
  • [1014]
    -alkyl-O-alkyl;
  • [1015]
    -alkyl-S-alkyl;
  • [1016]
    -alkyl-O-aryl;
  • [1017]
    -alkyl-S-aryl:
  • [1018]
    -alkyl-O-alkenyl;
  • [1019]
    -alkyl-S-alkenyl; and
  • [1020]
    -alkyl or alkenyl substituted by one or more substituents chosen from:
  • [1021]
    —OH;
  • [1022]
    -halogen;
  • [1023]
    —N(R527)2;
  • [1024]
    —CO—N(R527)2;
  • [1025]
    —CS—N(R527)2;
  • [1026]
    —SO2—N(R527)2;
  • [1027]
    —NR527—CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [1028]
    —NR527—CS—C1-10alkyl;
  • [1029]
    —NR527—SO2—C1-10alkyl;
  • [1030]
    —CO—C1-10alkyl;
  • [1031]
    —CO—O—C1-10alkyl;
  • [1032]
    —N3;
  • [1033]
    -aryl;
  • [1034]
    -heteroaryl;
  • [1035]
    -heterocyclyl;
  • [1036]
    —CO-aryl; and
  • [1037]
    —CO-heteroaryl;
  • [1038]
    R327 and R427 are independently chosen from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, halogen, alkoxy, amino, alkylamino, dialkylamino and alkylthio;
  • [1039]
    each R527 is independently H or C1-10alkyl;
  • [1040]
    and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
  • [1041]
    As used herein, the terms “alkyl”, “alkenyl” and the prefix “alk-” are inclusive of both straight chain and branched chain groups and of cyclic groups, i.e. cycloalkyl and cycloalkenyl. Unless otherwise specified, these groups contain from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, with alkenyl groups containing from 2 to 20 carbon atoms. Preferred groups have a total of up to 10 carbon atoms. Cyclic groups can be monocyclic or polycyclic and preferably have from 3 to 10 ring carbon atoms. Exemplary cyclic groups include cyclopropyl, cyclopropylmethyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl and adamantyl.
  • [1042]
    The term “haloalkyl” is inclusive of groups that are substituted by one or more halogen atoms, including perfluorinated groups. This is also true of groups that include the prefix “halo-”. Examples of suitable haloalkyl groups are chloromethyl, trifluoromethyl, and the like.
  • [1043]
    The term “aryl” as used herein includes carbocyclic aromatic rings or ring systems. Examples of aryl groups include phenyl, naphthyl, biphenyl, fluorenyl and indenyl. The term “heteroaryl” includes aromatic rings or ring systems that contain at least one ring hetero atom (e.g., O, S, N). Suitable heteroaryl groups include furyl, thienyl, pyridyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, indolyl, isoindolyl, triazolyl, pyrrolyl, tetrazolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, benzofuranyl, benzothiophenyl, carbazolyl, benzoxazolyl, pyrimidinyl, benzimidazolyl, quinoxalinyl, benzothiazolyl, naphthyridinyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, purinyl, quinazolinyl, and so on.
  • [1044]
    “Heterocyclyl” includes non-aromatic rings or ring systems that contain at least one ring hetero atom (e.g., O, S, N) and includes all of the fully saturated and partially unsaturated derivatives of the above mentioned heteroaryl groups. Exemplary heterocyclic groups include pyrrolidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, thiazolidinyl, imidazolidinyl, isothiazolidinyl, and the like.
  • [1045]
    In some embodiments, the topical formulations of the present invention are prepared using the free base form of the IRM compound.
  • [1046]
    The amount of an IRM compound that will be therapeutically effective in a specific situation will depend on such things as the activity of the particular compound, the dosing regimen, the application site, the particular formulation and the condition being treated. As such, it is generally not practical to identify specific administration amounts herein; however, those skilled in the art will be able to determine appropriate therapeutically effective amounts based on the guidance provided herein, information available in the art pertaining to these compounds, and routine testing. The term “a therapeutically effective amount” means an amount of the compound sufficient to induce a therapeutic effect, such as cytokine induction, inhibition of TH2 immune response, antiviral or antitumor activity, reduction or elimination of postsurgical scarring, or reduction or resolution of actinic keratosis or pre-actinic keratosis lesions.
  • [1047]
    In general, the amount of the IRM compound present in a topical formulation of the invention will be an amount effective to treat a targeted condition, to prevent recurrence of the condition, or to promote immunity against the condition. The amount or concentration of the IRM compound can range from 0.001% to 10% by weight based on the total formulation weight, such as, for example, from 0.03% to 5.0% by weight, or from 0.1 to 1.0% by weight. In certain embodiments, the amount of the IRM compound is at least 0.003% by weight, such as, for example, at least 0.005%, at least 0.01%, at least 0.03%, at least 0.10%, at least 0.30% and at least 1.0%. In other embodiments, the amount of the IRM compound is at most 5.0% by weight, such as, for example, at most 3.0%, and at most 1.0%.
  • [1048]
    The topical formulations of the invention additionally comprise a fatty acid. As used herein, the term “fatty acid” means a carboxylic acid, either saturated or unsaturated, comprising 6 to 28 carbon atoms, such as, for example, from 10 to 22 carbon atoms. Non-limiting examples of such fatty acids include isostearic acid, oleic acid, and linear- or- branched chained carboxylic acids of 6 to 18 carbon atoms. The fatty acid may be present in the formulation in an amount sufficient to solubilize the IRM compound. In one embodiment, the amount of the fatty acid can range from 0.05% to 40% by weight based on the total weight of the formulation, such as, for example, from 1% to 30%, from 3% to 15% and from 5% to 10%. In certain embodiments, the amount of the fatty acid is at least 3.0% by weight, such as, for example, at least 5.0%, at least 10.0%, and at least 25%. The fatty acid component of the formulation can comprise one or more fatty acids.
  • [1049]
    The topical formulations of the invention additionally comprise at least one hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid and comprising a hydrocarbyl group of 7 or more carbon atoms. By “hydrophobic” is meant that the component is essentially insoluble in water, i.e. immiscible with water and unable to form a micelle in water, and does not contain polyoxyethylene or acid salt groups. Preferably the hydrophobic, aprotic component has a hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) of less than 2. The HLB of a component may be determined as described, for example, in Attwood, D., Florence, A. T. Surfactant Systems: Their Chemistry Pharmacy, and Biology. New York: Chapman & Hall, 471-473, 1983. By “aprotic” is meant that the component cannot donate a proton to the IRM and does not contain groups such as carboxyl, hydroxy, primary and secondary amino, primary and secondary amido, or quaternary ammonium groups. Preferably this component has a pKa of at least 14.2 and does not substantially solubilize or form a complex such as an acid-base pair or complex or a hydrogen bond complex with the IRM compound. By “not substantially” is meant that the ratio of the IRM compound's solubility in the hydrophilic, aprotic component to that in isostearic acid is less than 1:40.
  • [1050]
    Formulations intended for dermal or topical use desirably have a certain minimum amount of an oil phase to provide qualities such as spreadability, feel on the skin, texture, and so on. However, if all the components of the oil phase solubilize the IRM, then the degree of saturation of the IRM in the formulation will decrease, making it more difficult to deliver the IRM from the formulation to the skin. Addition of the hydrophobic, aprotic component can increase the oil phase volume of the topical formulation to provide desirable qualitites such as spreadability and feel, while at the same time not appreciably altering the degree of saturation or thermodynamic activity of the IRM. For example, the amount of fatty acid, which solubilizes the IRM, can be reduced to increase the degree of IRM saturation while maintaining a sufficient oil phase volume by virtue of the addition of the hydrophobic, aprotic component, which does not offset the increased IRM saturation. Thus, the topical formulation of the present invention can facilitate both physical property and drug delivery requirements. Degree of saturation and thermodynamic activity of the IRM in these formulations is equal to the IRM concentration in the oil phase divided by the saturation concentration of the IRM in the oil phase. When the topical formulations of the present invention contain saturated IRM the thermodynamic activity or degree of saturation is unity, and when partially saturated the thermodynamic activity or degree of saturation is less than unity.
  • [1051]
    The amount of the hydrophobic, aprotic component present in a formulation of the invention can range from 1% to 30% by weight based on the total formulation weight, for example, from 3% to 15% by weight, and from 5 to 10% by weight. In certain embodiments, the amount of the hydrophobic, aprotic component is at least 3.0% by weight, for example, at least 5.0%, and at least 10.0%. The weight ratio of the hydrophobic, aprotic component to the fatty acid can be 0.025:1 to 600:1, for example, 0.5:1 to 50:1, and 2:1 to 30:1. The combined amount (weight percent of the total topical formulation weight) of the hydrophobic, aprotic component and the fatty acid can be 2% to 50% by weight, for example 2% to 30%, 5% to 30%, 5% to 20%, and 10% to 20%.
  • [1052]
    Examples of useful hydrophobic, aprotic components include but are not limited to fatty acid esters, for example, isopropyl mysristate, isopropyl palmitate, diisopropyl dimer dilinoleate; triglycerides, for example, caprylic/capric triglyceride; cetyl esters wax; hydrocarbons of 8 or more carbon atoms, for example, light mineral oil, white petrolatum; and waxes, for example, beeswax. In some embodiments, the hydrophobic, aprotic component is chosen from one or more of isopropyl mysristate, isopropyl palmitate, caprylic/capric triglyceride, and diisopropyl dimer dilinoleate.
  • [1053]
    The formulations of the present invention can also comprise a hydrophilic viscosity enhancing agent. Examples of suitable hydrophilic viscosity enhancing agents include cellulose ethers such as hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, and carboxymethylcellulose; polysaccharide gums such as xanthan gum; and homopolymers and copolymers of acrylic acid crosslinked with allyl sucrose or allyl pentaerythriol such as those polymers designated as carbomers in the United States Pharmacopoeia. Suitable carbomers include, for example, those available as Carbopol™ 934P, Carbopol 971P, Carbopol 940, Carbopol 974P, Carbopol 980, and Pemulen™ TR-1 (USP/NF Monograph; Carbomer 1342), all available from Noveon, Cleveland, Ohio. In one embodiment of the present invention, the viscosity enhancing agent is chosen from Carbopol 974P and 980. When included, the viscosity enhancing agent is generally present in an amount ranging from 0.1% to 10% by weight of total formulation weight, such as, for example, from 0.5% to 5% by weight, from 0.5% to 1.5% by weight, and from 0.7% to 3% by weight. In certain embodiments, the amount of the viscosity enhancing agent is at least 0.5% by weight, for example, at least 0.6% by weight, at least 0.7% by weight, at least 0.9% by weight, and at least 1.0% by weight.
  • [1054]
    The formulations of the invention can additionally comprise an emulsifier. Suitable emulsifiers include non-ionic surfactants such as, for example, polysorbate 60, sorbitan monostearate, polyglyceryl-4 oleate, polyoxyethylene(4) lauryl ether, etc. In certain embodiments, the emulsifier is chosen from poloxamers (e.g., Pluronic™ F68, also known as Poloxamer 188, a poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol), available from BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany) and sorbitan trioleate (e.g., Span 85 available from Uniqema, New Castle, Del.). If included, the emulsifier is generally present in an amount of 0.1% to 10% by weight of total formulation weight, for example, from 0.5% to 5% by weight, and from 0.75% to 3.5% by weight. In certain embodiments, the amount of the emulsifier is at least 1.0% by weight, for example, at least 2.5%, at least 3.5%, and at least 5.0%.
  • [1055]
    In certain embodiments of the present invention, the formulation can also include at least one chelating agent. The chelating agent functions to chelate metal ions that may be present in the formulation. Suitable chelating agents include salts of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), such as the disodium salt. If included, the chelating agent is generally present in an amount ranging from 0.001% to 0.1% by weight, and preferably from 0.01% to 0.05% by weight. In certain embodiments, the amount of the chelating agent is at least 0.005% by weight, such as, for example, at least 0.01%, and at least 0.05%.
  • [1056]
    The formulation can also include a preservative system. The preservative system is generally comprised of at least one preservative compound chosen from methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, phenoxyethanol, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, sorbic acid, a fatty acid monoester of glycerin such as glycerol monolaurate, and a fatty acid monoester of propylene glycol such as propylene glycol monocaprylate. The preservative system may also include a preservative enhancing solubilizer which enhances the solubility of the preservative in the aqueous phase, examples of which include diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and propylene glycol. In one embodiment, the preservative system can be comprised of methylparaben, propylparaben, and propylene glycol. In another embodiment, the preservative system can be comprised of methylparaben, ethylparaben, and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether. In one embodiment, the preservative system can be comprised of phenoxyethanol, methylparaben or methyl- and ethylparaben, and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether. In another embodiment, the preservative system can be comprised of iodopropynyl butylcarbamate. In another embodiment, the preservative system can be comprised of iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, and poly(ethylene glycol)(4) monolaurate. In another embodiment, the preservative system can be comprised of iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, one or more of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, or phenoxyethanol, and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether. In the above embodiments, the methylparaben, ethylparaben, and propylparaben can each be present in the formulations in an amount ranging from 0.01% to 0.5% by weight of the formulation weight, for example, from 0.05% to 0.25% by weight, and from 0.1% to 0.2% by weight. The iodopropynyl butylcarbamate can be present in the formulations in an amount ranging from 0.01% to 0.1%. The phenoxyethanol can be present in the formulations in an amount ranging from 0.1% to 1%. The propylene glycol and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether can each be present in the formulations in an amount ranging from 1% to 30% by weight of the formulation weight, such as, for example, from 5% to 25% by weight, and from 10% to 15% by weight. The preservative system can be present in the formulations in an amount ranging from 0.01% to 30% by weight of the formulation weight, for example, from 0.05% to 30%, from 0.1% to 25% by weight, and from 0.2% to 15% by weight. In a further embodiment, the methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, and phenoxyethanol can be solubilized in propylene glycol, poly(ethylene glycol)(4) monolaurate, or diethylene glycol monoethyl ether prior to addition to the formulation. The preservative system can be selected such that it meets the criteria for antimicrobial effectiveness set forth in the United States Pharmacopeia <51>.
  • [1057]
    The formulations of the present invention may additionally comprise at least one pH adjuster. Suitable pH adjusters include organic bases and inorganic bases such as, for example, KOH, NaOH. The pH of the topical formulations of the present invention generally ranges from 3.5 to 7.0. In one embodiment, the pH of the topical formulations of the present invention can range from 4.0 to 6.0, preferably 5.0. In another embodiment of the invention, the pH of the topical formulations of the present invention can range from 5.5 to 6.5, preferably 6.0.
  • [1058]
    Any of the foregoing formulations can be in the form of an oil-in-water emulsion such as a cream or a lotion. Such an emulsion can comprise an oil phase comprising the IRM compounds, a fatty acid in an amount sufficient to solubilize the IRM compounds, a hydrophobic, aprotic component; and an aqueous phase comprising a hydrophilic viscosity enhancing agent, for example, a carbomer. In certain embodiments, the amount or concentration of the IRM in the oil phase can be at least 0.01%, for example, at least 0.02%, at least 0.1%, and at least 1% with respect to oil phase weight. In other embodiments, the amount or concentration of the IRM in the oil phase can be at most 20%, for example, at most 10%, and at most 5% with respect to oil phase weight. The emulsion can be preserved so that when challenged by an antimicrobial effectiveness test, it meets regulatory requirements for topical creams packaged in multiple-use containers.
  • [1059]
    Any of the foregoing formulations according to the present invention can be applied to the dermal surfaces of a mammal. Depending on the IRM compound concentration, formulation composition, and dermal surface, the therapeutic effect of the IRM compound may extend only to the superficial layers of the dermal surface or to tissues below the dermal surface. Thus, another aspect of the present invention is directed to a method for the treatment of a dermal associated condition comprising applying to skin one of the foregoing formulations. As used herein, a “dermal associated condition” means an inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic or other condition that involves a dermal surface or that is in sufficient proximity to a dermal surface to be affected by a therapeutic agent topically applied to the dermal surface. Examples of a dermal associated condition include warts, atopic dermatitis, basal cell carcinoma, postsurgical scars, and actinic keratosis.
  • [1060]
    In one embodiment, the formulations can be applied to the surface of skin for treatment of actinic keratosis (AK). Actinic keratoses are premalignant lesions considered biologically to be either carcinoma in-situ or squamous intraepidermal neoplasia. AK is the most frequent epidermal tumor and is induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, typically from sunlight. Because of its precancerous nature, AK may be considered the most important manifestation of sun-induced skin damage.
  • [1061]
    In some embodiments, the above described formulations are particularly advantageous for dermal application for a period of time sufficient to obtain a desired therapeutic effect without undesired systemic absorption of the IRM.
  • EXAMPLES
  • [1062]
    The following Examples are provided to further describe various IRM formulations and methods according to the invention. The examples, however, are not intended to limit the formulations and methods within the spirit and scope of the invention.
  • Examples 1-7 and Comparative Example C1
  • [1063]
    Table 1 summarizes topical formulations made in accordance with the present invention in a percentage weight-by-weight basis.
    TABLE 1
    Topical Cream
    (percentage weight-by-weight)
    Ingredient Comparative Example
    (Compendial Status) C1 (Placebo) Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Example 5 Example 6 Example 7
    IRM Compound 1 0.00 0.001 0.003 0.010 0.03 0.10 0.30 1.00
    Isostearic Acid 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 7.00 10.00
    Isopropyl Myristate (NF) 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 8.00 5.00
    Carbomer 974P (NF) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
    Poloxamer 188 (NF) 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
    Propylene Glycol (USP) 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00
    Methylparaben (NF) 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
    Propylparaben (NF) 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
    Edetate Disodium (USP) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
    Sodium Hydroxide (NF) 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
    Solution, 20% w/w
    Purified Water (USP) 65.65 65.649 65.647 65.64 65.62 65.55 65.35 64.60
    Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
  • [1064]
    The formulations set forth in Table 1 were prepared in the following manner:
  • [1065]
    Oil phase preparation: 2-methyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c] [1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine (IRM compound 1) was dissolved in isostearic acid and isopropyl myristate, with heat if necessary. Carbomer 974P was then dispersed in the oil phase.
  • [1066]
    Water phase preparation: Edetate disodium was dissolved in the water. Methylparaben and propylparaben were dissolved in propylene glycol and the solution was subsequently added to the water phase. Poloxamer 188 was then added to the water phase and mixed until dissolved.
  • [1067]
    Phase combination: The oil phase was added to the water phase at ambient conditions. The emulsion was then homogenized. After homogenization, sodium hydroxide solution (20% w/w) was added and the resulting cream was mixed until smooth and uniform. The pH of the cream was measured and a pH adjustment was made with additional sodium hydroxide solution, if necessary, to meet the in-process target pH of 5.
  • [1068]
    Formulations containing 2-methyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine (IRM Compound 1) were tested for their ability to induce increases in cytokine concentrations in rats following topical application. This study was undertaken to evaluate cytokine induction following a single dosing of various strengths and timepoints or a multiple vs. single dosing of IRM Compound 1. The formulations described above were tested by examining tissue and serum concentrations of TNF-α, MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and IFN-α cytokines following drug treatment.
  • [1069]
    Female CD hairless rats (Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington, Mass.) weighing 200-250 grams were used in all studies. Animals were randomized to treatment groups and dosed five per treatment group.
  • [1070]
    The rats were acclimated to collars around the neck on two consecutive days prior to actual dosing. The rats were collared before dosing to prevent ingestion of the drug, and were then dosed topically with 50 μL of active cream or the appropriate placebo on right flank and then housed individually following dosing. At various times following dosing, the rats were anesthetized and blood was collected by cardiac puncture. Blood was allowed to clot at room temperature and serum was separated from the clot via centrifugation and stored at −20° C. until it was analyzed for cytokine concentrations.
  • [1071]
    Following blood collection, the rats were euthanized and their skins removed. Tissue from both treated site (at) and contralateral site (away) were obtained using an 8 mm punch biopsy, weighed, placed in a sealed 1.8 ml cryovial and flash frozen in liquid nitrogen. The frozen tissue sample was then suspended in 1.0 mL RPMI medium (Celox, Hopkins, Minn.) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo.), 2 mM L-glutamine, penicillin/streptomycin, and 2-mercaptoethanol (RPMI complete) combined with a protease inhibitor cocktail set III (Calbiochem, San Diego, Calif.). The tissue was homogenized using a Tissue Tearor™ (Biospec Products, Bartlesville, Okla.) for approximately 1 minute. The tissue suspension was then centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 10 minutes under refrigeration to pellet debris, and the supernatant collected and stored at −20° C. until analyzed for cytokine concentrations.
  • [1072]
    ELISAs for rat MCP-1 were purchased from BioSource Intl. (Camarillo, Calif.) and rat TNF-α were purchased from BD Pharmingen (San Diego, Calif.) and performed according to manufacturer's specifications. Results for both TNF-α, and MCP-1 were expressed in pg/200 mg tissue or pg/ml serum. The sensitivity of the TNF-α ELISA was 31.2 pg/ml and of the MCP-1 ELISA was 11.7 pg/ml. IFN-α concentrations in both serum and skin tissue were determined using a bioassay that measured inhibition of the viral cytopathic effect of vesicular stomatitis virus on rat LMS-C2 fibroblast cells as previously described (Reiter, M. J., Testerman, T. L., Miller, R. L., Weeks, C. E., and Tomai, M. A. (1994) “Cytokine Induction in Mice by the Immunomodulator Imiquimod.” J. Leukocyte Biol. 55, 234-240). IIT Research Institute, Chicago Ill., performed these assays. Results for IFN-α concentrations were normalized to a standard reference rat IFN-α, preparation with results being reported in U/mL and are normalized per mg of tissue.
  • [1073]
    The data shown below in Tables 2-4 are from three separate experiments and analyzed to 1) measure pharmacokinetics by full time course, 2) measure dose response and 3) measure multiple vs. single dosing.
  • [1074]
    In order to determine the kinetics of local and systemic cytokine production following local administration of IRM Compound 1, the full time course study (Study 1 with results in Table 2) was done by topically dosing rats with the topical cream formulation of Example 7. Serum and tissue samples were taken at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 hours post dose. Multiple cytokines (MCP-1, TNF-α and IFN-α) were analyzed separately.
  • [1075]
    With the tissue data, for each hour measured, a paired t-test (used to eliminate within subject variability) analyzed the difference between treated tissue and control tissue from the same animal. A p-value less than alpha=0.05 indicated a statistically significant difference between the treated and control tissue at that hour. The data are presented in Table 2.
    TABLE 2
    Cytokine Concentrations in Rat Serum and Dermal Tissue
    Following Application of the Topical Formulation of
    Example 7 Full Time Coursea
    Cytokine Concentrationb
    Time (hours) TNF-α
    Post Dose Dose Serum Treated Site Control site
    0 untreated  0 NA  96 ± 5
    16 placebo  0  103 ± 8  71 ± 6
    1 1%  6 ± 6  318 ± 33c  96 ± 13
    2 1%  0 1125 ± 74c 124 ± 18
    4 1%  0 1120 ± 51c 129 ± 11
    8 1% 24 ± 16  429 ± 56c  91 ± 12
    16 1%  6 ± 4  231 ± 22c  87 ± 27
    24 1% 32 ± 32  198 ± 28c 103 ± 13
    48 1% 49 ± 49  74 ± 10  69 ± 15
    MCP-1
    0 untreated  81 ± 30 NA 44 ± 2
    16 placebo 144 ± 9  144 ± 41 42 ± 3
    1 1%  86 ± 29  40 ± 8 42 ± 3
    2 1% 123 ± 31  234 ± 29c 50 ± 4
    4 1% 101 ± 28  723 ± 89c 41 ± 5
    8 1% 438 ± 91c 1474 ± 202c 38 ± 3
    16 1% 424 ± 96c 1209 ± 325c 31 ± 5
    24 1% 187 ± 39  813 ± 151c 39 ± 1
    48 1% 141 ± 24  145 ± 48c 36 ± 6
    IFN-α
    0 untreated <200 NA <650
    16 placebo <200 <650 <650
    1 1% <200 <650 <650
    2 1% <200 <650 <650
    4 1% <200 <650 <650
    8 1% <200 3/5≧650 <650
    16 1% <200 <650 <650
    24 1% <200 <650 <650
    48 1% <200 <650 <650
  • [1076]
    A multiple dose study was done to monitor effects of a multiple dose regimen (Study 2 with results shown in Table 3). Rats were dosed two times a week for six hours for three weeks with topical cream formulation of Example 5. Placebo (Comparative Example C1) and single dosed rats were done for comparison and done simultaneously with the last dosing of the multiple dose set. Serum and tissue samples were taken at 8 and 24 hours post dose and analyzed for MCP-1.
  • [1077]
    An analysis identical to that of Study 1 was performed for Study 2. This data set was broken up by treatment (multiple- or single-use) and time point prior to analysis. Again, placebo data were recorded only at the 8-hour time point for single use, but were used to compare placebo to every treatment and time point combination separately. The results are set forth in Table 3 below.
    TABLE 3
    Cytokine Concentrations in Rat Serum and Dermal Tissue
    Following Topical Application of the Topical Cream
    Formulation of Example 5 Multiple vs. Single Dosea
    Time Cytokine Concentrationb
    (hours) MCP-1
    Post Dose Dose Serum Treated Site Control Site
    0 None  89 ± 11 NA 20 ± 10
    (untreated)
    24 Placebo  41 ± 14  42 ± 15 28 ± 6
    8 Multiple  71 ± 13 784 ± 48c 42 ± 5
    0.1%
    24 Multiple 105 ± 36 145 ± 23c 32 ± 6
    0.1%
    8 Single  73 ± 9 519 ± 99c 33 ± 6
    0.1%
    24 Single  82 ± 3c 412 ± 130c 35 ± 7
    0.1%
  • [1078]
    A dose response study (Study 3 with results shown in Table 4) was performed by dosing with the topical cream formulations of Examples 3-5 and 7, containing various concentrations of IRM Compound 1. Serum and tissue samples were taken at 8 and 24 hours post dose and analyzed for MCP-1. The studies tested topical delivery of creams comprising IRM Compound 1 for its ability to affect a local MCP-1 induction at four concentrations.
  • [1079]
    Serum data compared active treatment to placebo (Comparative Example C1) separately at each specified time point. Note that the placebo group was only measured at 24 hours post dose and these observations were compared to each time point for the active group.
    TABLE 4
    Cytokine Concentrations in Rat Serum and Dermal Tissue
    Following Topical Application of the Formulations of
    Examples 3-5 and 7a
    Cytokine Concentrationb
    Time (hours) MCP-1
    Post Dose Dose Serum Treated Site Control Site
    0 controls 207 ± 96 NA 38 ± 12
    24 placebo 367 ± 178  61 ± 14 20 ± 5
    (Comparative
    Example C1)
    8 0.01%  81 ± 23  61 ± 12 36 ± 7
    (Example 3)
    8 0.03%  81 ± 20  271 ± 29 48 ± 5
    (Example 4)
    8  0.1% 153 ± 14 1119 ± 122c 51 ± 8
    (Example 5)
    8  1.0% 136 ± 23 1370 ± 99c 50 ± 15
    (Example 7)
    24 0.01%  71 ± 18  183 ± 49c 33 ± 13
    (Example 3)
    24 0.03%  71 ± 20  212 ± 49c 40 ± 7
    (Example 4)
    24  0.1% 226 ± 73  628 ± 127c 40 ± 11
    (Example 5)
    24 ‘1.0% 149 ± 45  756 ± 38c 30 ± 9
    (Example 7)
  • Examples 8-13
  • [1080]
    Table 5 summarizes topical formulations made in accordance with the present invention in a percentage weight-by-weight basis.
    TABLE 5
    Topical Cream
    Ingredient (percentage weight-by weight)
    (Compendial Status) Example 8 Example 9 Example 10 Example 11 Example 12 Example 13
    IRM Compound 2 0.01 0.03 0.10 1.00 0.003 0.30
    Isostearic Acid 5.00 5.00 5.00 10.00 5.00 5.00
    Isopropyl Myristate (NF) 10.00 10.00 10.00 5.00 10.00 10.00
    Carbomer 974P (NF) 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.75 1.00 1.00
    Poloxamer 188 (NF) 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
    Propylene Glycol (USP) 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00
    Methylparaben (NF) 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
    Propylparaben (NF) 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
    Edetate Disodium (USP) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
    Sodium Hydroxide (NF) 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.35 0.50 0.50
    Solution, 20% w/w
    Purified Water (USP) 65.64 65.62 65.55 65.05 65.647 65.35
    Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
  • [1081]
    The formulations set forth in Table 5 were prepared in the following manner:
  • [1082]
    Oil phase preparation: N-[4-(4-Amino-2-butyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-1-yl)butyl]-N′-cyclohexylurea (IRM Compound 2) was dissolved in isostearic acid and isopropyl myristate, with heat if necessary. Carbomer 974P was then dispersed in the oil phase.
  • [1083]
    Water phase preparation: Edetate disodium was dissolved in the water. Methylparaben and propylparaben were dissolved in propylene glycol, and the solution was subsequently added to the water phase. Poloxamer 188 was then added to the water phase and mixed until dissolved.
  • [1084]
    Phase combination: The oil phase was added to the water phase at ambient conditions. The emulsion was then homogenized. After homogenization, sodium hydroxide solution (20% w/w) was added and the resulting cream was mixed until smooth and uniform. The pH of the cream was measured, and a pH adjustment was made with additional sodium hydroxide solution, if necessary, to meet the in-process target pH of 5.
  • [1085]
    Formulations containing N-[4-(4-Amino-2-butyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-1-yl)butyl]-N′-cyclohexylurea (IRM Compound 2) were tested for their ability to induce increases in cytokine concentrations in rats following topical application. This study was undertaken to evaluate cytokine induction following a single dosing of various strengths and timepoints or a multiple vs. single dosing of IRM Compound 2. The formulations described above were tested by examining tissue and serum concentrations of TNF-α, MCP-1 and IFN-α following drug treatment as described in Examples 1-7.
  • [1086]
    The data shown below in Tables 6-8 are from three separate experiments and analyzed to 1) measure pharmacokinetics by full time course, 2) measure dose response and 3) measure multiple vs. single dosing.
  • [1087]
    In order to determine the kinetics of local and systemic, cytokine production following local administration of IRM Compound 2, the full time course study (Study 1 with results in Table 6) was done by topically dosing rats with the topical cream formulation of Example 11 as described in Examples 1-7. The data are presented in Table 6.
    TABLE 6
    Cytokine Concentrations in Rat Serum and Dermal Tissue
    Following Application of the Topical Formulation of Example 11
    Full Time Coursea
    Cytokine Concentrationb
    Time (hours) TNF-α
    Post Dose Dose Serum Treated Site Control site
    0 untreated 29 ± 15 NA 70 ± 11
    16 placebo 42 ± 9 131 ± 32 69 ± 11
    1 1% 38 ± 38  44 ± 14 35 ± 19
    2 1%  2 ± 2  75 ± 20c 33 ± 13
    4 1%  3 ± 3 321 ± 18c 62 ± 20
    8 1%  0 894 ± 180c 21 ± 9
    16 1% 12 ± 12 377 ± 45c 22 ± 12
    24 1% 16 ± 8 285 ± 15c 52 ± 14
    48 1% 24 ± 7  74 ± 9 65 ± 13
    MCP-1
    0 untreated 100 ± 20 NA 33 ± 7
    16 placebo 144 ± 9  225 ± 106 22 ± 4
    1 1% 117 ± 17  56 ± 9 55 ± 9
    2 1% 126 ± 29  50 ± 13 54 ± 8
    4 1% 136 ± 29  161 ± 18c 71 ± 9
    8 1% 189 ± 28 1020 ± 319 45 ± 15
    16 1% 297 ± 35 1294 ± 122c 40 ± 9
    24 1% 217 ± 12 1044 ± 185c 41 ± 11
    48 1% 120 ± 22  134 ± 14c 34 ± 7
    IFN-α
    0 untreated <65 NA <650
    16 placebo <65 <650 <650
    1 1% <65 <650 <650
    2 1% <65 <650 <650
    4 1% <65 <650 <650
    8 1% <65  901 ± 571 <650
    16 1% <65 1330 ± 386c <650
    24 1% <65 <650 <650
    48 1% <65 <650 <650
  • [1088]
    A multiple dose study was done to monitor effects of a multiple dose regimen (Study 2 with results shown in Table 7). Rats were dosed two times a week for six hours for three weeks with topical cream formulation of Example 10. Placebo (Comparative Example C1) and single dosed rats were done for comparison and done simultaneously with the last dosing of the multiple dose set. Serum and tissue samples were taken at 16 and 24 hours post dose and analyzed for MCP-1.
  • [1089]
    An analysis identical to that of Study 1 was performed for Study 2. This data set was broken up by treatment (multi or single use) and time point prior to analysis. Again, placebo data were recorded only at the 16-hour time point for single use, but were used to compare placebo to every treatment and time point combination separately. The results are set forth in Table 7 below.
    TABLE 7
    Cytokine Concentrations in Rat Serum and Dermal Tissue
    Following Topical Application of the Topical Cream
    Formulation of Example 10 Multiple vs. Single Dosea
    Cytokine Concentrationb
    Time (hours) MCP-1
    Post Dose Dose Serum Treated Site Control Site
    0 None 161 ± 58 NA 80 ± 22
    (untreated
    16 Placebo 214 ± 35  71 ± 16 47 ± 11
    16 Multiple 321 ± 62 1173 ± 117c 86 ± 14
    0.1%
    24 Multiple 217 ± 43  388 ± 80c 58 ± 5
    0.1%
    16 Single 205 ± 32 1448 ± 241c 77 ± 15
    0.1%
    24 Single 279 ± 45 1172 ± 288c 90 ± 15
    0.1%
  • [1090]
    A dose response study (Study 3 with results shown in Table 8) was performed by dosing with the topical cream formulations of Examples 8-11, containing various concentrations of IRM Compound 2. Serum and tissue samples were taken at 16 and 24 hours post dose and analyzed for MCP-1. The studies tested topical delivery of creams comprising IRM Compound 2 for its ability to affect a local MCP-1 induction at four concentrations.
  • [1091]
    Serum data compared active treatment to placebo (Comparative Example C1) separately at each specified time point. Note that the placebo group was only measured at 16 hours post dose and these observations were compared to each time point for the active group.
    TABLE 8
    Cytokine Concentrations in Rat Serum and Dermal Tissue
    Following Topical Application of the Formulations of
    Examples 8-11a
    Cytokine Concentrationb
    Time (hours) MCP-1
    Post Dose Dose Serum Treated Site Control Site
    0 controls 293 ± 23 NA 41 ± 11
    16 placebo 293 ± 76  44 ± 10 36 ± 12
    (Comparative
    Example C1)
    16 0.01% 276 ± 50  257 ± 85 57 ± 20
    (Example 8)
    16 0.03% 318 ± 86  210 ± 10 45 ± 9
    (Example 9)
    16 0.10% 529 ± 141 2622 ± 616c 73 ± 9
    (Example 10)
    16  1.0% 345 ± 51 3166 ± 470c 71 ± 11
    (Example 11)
    24 0.01% 298 ± 65  276 ± 87 94 ± 32
    (Example 8)
    24 0.03% 253 ± 34  427 ± 238 28 ± 14
    (Example 9)
    24 0.10% 331 ± 93 1461 ± 264c 19 ± 7
    (Example 10)
    24  1.0% 358 ± 52 1952 ± 185c 17 ± 6
    (Example 11)
  • Examples 14-18
  • [1092]
    Table 9 summarizes topical formulations made in accordance with the present invention on a percentage weight-by-weight basis.
    TABLE 9
    Topical Creams
    (percentage weight-by-weight)
    Ingredients Ex. 14 Ex. 15 Ex. 16 Ex. 17 Ex. 18
    IRM Compound 1 0.01 0.10 1.00 3.00 1.00
    Isostearic Acid (874) 5.00 5.00 10.00 25.00 10.00
    *Diisopropyl dimer 10.00 10.00 5.00 5.00
    dilinoleate
    **Caprylic/capric 5.00
    triglycerides
    Carbomer 980, NF 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.90 0.70
    Diethylene glycol 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
    monoethyl ether
    USA - NF
    Disodium EDTA, USP 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
    Poloxamer 188, NF 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
    Purified Water 70.94 70.85 69.95 52.55 69.95
    Methylparaben, NF 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
    Ethylparaben 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
    20% (w/w) NaOH 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.60 0.40
    Total % w/w 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
  • Examples 19-24
  • [1093]
    Table 10 summarizes topical formulations made in accordance with the present invention on a percentage weight-by-weight basis.
    TABLE 10
    Topical Creams
    (percentage weight-by-weight)
    Ingredients Ex. 19 Ex. 20 Ex. 21 Ex. 22 Ex. 23 Ex. 24
    IRM 0.003 0.03 0.10 1.00 3.00 1.00
    Compound 2
    Isostearic Acid 5.00 5.00 5.00 10.00 25.00 10.00
    (874)
    Diisopropyl 10.00 10.00 10.00 5.00 5.00
    dimer
    dilinoleate
    Caprylic/capric 5.00
    triglycerides
    Carbomer 980, 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.60 0.70
    NF
    Diethylene 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
    glycol
    monoethyl
    ether
    USA - NF
    Disodium 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
    EDTA, USP
    Poloxamer 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
    188, NF
    Purified Water 70.95 70.92 70.85 69.95 53.19 69.95
    Methylparaben, 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
    NF
    Ethylparaben 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
    20% 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.26 0.40
    (w/w) NaOH
    Total % w/w 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
  • [1094]
    The formulations described in Tables 9 and 10 were prepared using the following general method:
  • [1095]
    Oil Phase Preparation:
  • [1096]
    The IRM compound was dissolved in isostearic acid and diisopropyl dimer dilinoleate (or caprylic/capric acid triglyceride) with heat if necessary.
  • [1097]
    Water Phase Preparation:
  • [1098]
    Edetate disodium was dissolved in the water. Poloxamer 188 was then added to the water phase and mixed until dissolved. Carbomer 980 was then added to the water phase and mixed until the carbomer was fully dispersed and hydrated. Methylparaben and propylparaben were dissolved in diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and the solution was subsequently added to the water phase.
  • [1099]
    Phase Combination:
  • [1100]
    The water phase was added to the oil phase at ambient conditions. The emulsion was then mixed at high speed or homogenized. After homogenization, sodium hydroxide solution (20% w/w) was added and the resulting cream was mixed until smooth and uniform. The pH of the cream was measured and a pH adjustment was made with additional sodium hydroxide solution, if necessary, to meet the in-process target pH of 5.
  • Examples 25-28
  • [1101]
    Table 11 summarizes topical formulations made in accordance with the present invention on a percentage weight-by-weight basis.
    TABLE 11
    Topical Cream
    (percentage weight-by-weight)
    Ingredient Ex. 25 Ex. 26 Ex. 27 Ex. 28
    IRM Compound 1 1 1 1 1
    Isostearic Acid (874) 10 10 10 8
    Diisopropyl dimer 5 5 5 1
    dilinoleate
    Carbomer 980, NF 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
    Diethylene glycol 10 10 10 10
    monoethyl ether
    USA —NF
    Disodium EDTA, USP 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
    Poloxamer 188, NF 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
    Purified Water Qs to 100 Qs to 100 Qs to 100 Qs to 100
    Methylparaben, NF 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
    Ethylparaben 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
    20% (w/w) NaOH 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
    10% iodopropynyl 1
    butylcarbamate in
    PEG-4 laurate
    Phenoxyethanol 0.5
  • Examples 29-135
  • [1102]
    Topical creams containing the IRM compounds listed in Table 12 were prepared using the general methods described above for Examples 1-24. Each IRM was formulated into one or more of the model formulations shown in Tables 13 and 14. Table 15 summarizes the topical creams that were prepared.
    TABLE 12
    IRM
    Compound Chemical Name
    3 1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine
    4 1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,8]naphthyridin-4-
    amine
    5 2-butyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,8]
    naphthyridin-4-amine
    6 1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-
    amine
    7 2-methylthiazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine
    8 2-ethoxymethyl-1-phenylmethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]
    naphthyridin-4-amine
    9 2-ethylthiazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine
    10 4-amino-2-butyl-α,α-dimethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]
    naphthyridine-1-ethanol
    11 N1-[2-(4-amino-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)ethyl]
    benzamide
    12 1-{2-[3-(3-pyridyl)propoxy]ethyl}-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]
    quinolin-4-amine
    13 1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine
    14 1-[(R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-
    4-amine
    15 N4-[4-(4-amino-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)butyl]-4-
    morpholinecarboxamide
    16 N3-[4-(4-amino-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)butyl]
    nicotinamide
    17 1-{2-[3-(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)propoxy]ethyl}-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]
    quinolin-4-amine
    18 1-[2-(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)ethyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]
    quinolin-4-amine
    19 2-methyl-1-[5-(methylsulfonyl)pentyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]
    quinolin-4-amine
    20 N-[3-(4-amino-2-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)
    propyl]cyclohexanecarboxamide
    21 N-[3-(4-amino-2-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)
    propyl]-2-methylpropanamide
    22 N-[3-(4-amino-2-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-
    yl)propyl]butanamide
    23 2-butyl-1-{2-[(1-methylethyl)sulfonyl]ethyl}-1H-imidazo[4,
    5-c]quinolin-4-amine
    24 N-{2-[4-amino-2-(ethoxymethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]
    quinolin-1-yl]ethyl}ethanesulfonamide
    25 N-{2-[4-amino-2-(ethoxymethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-
    c]quinolin-1-yl]ethyl}propanamide
    26 1-[2-(methylsulfonyl)ethyl]-2-propyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-
    c]quinolin-4-amine
    27 N-{2-[4-amino-2-(ethoxymethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-
    c]quinolin-1-yl]ethyl}-N'-ethylthiourea
    28 2-ethyl-1-{4-[(1-methylethyl)sulfonyl]butyl}-1H-
    imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine
    29 2-ethyl-1-[4-(ethylsulfonyl)butyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-
    c]quinolin-4-amine
    30 N-{3-[4-amino-2-(ethoxymethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-
    c]quinolin-1-yl]propyl}cyclopentanecarboxamide
    31 N-{3-[4-amino-2-(ethoxymethyl)-6,7-dimethyl-1H-
    imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-1-y1]propyl}morpholine-4-
    carboxamide
    32 1-(2-methylpropyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-
    c]quinolin-4-amine
    33 8,9,10,11-tetrahydropyrido[1',2':1,2]imidazo[4,5-
    c]quinolin-6-amine
    34 4-amino-α,α,2-trimethyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-1H-
    imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline-1-ethanol
    35 2-hydroxymethyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-
    1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine
    36 2-butyl-1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-
    c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine
    37 N-[3-(4-amino-2-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-
    1-yl)propyl]methanesulfonamide
  • [1103]
    [1103]
    TABLE 13
    Model Formulation
    (percentage weight-by-weight)
    Ingredient A B C D E F G
    IRM 0.01 0.1 1 1 1 1 1
    Isostearic acid 5 5 5 20 42 13 6
    Isopropyl myristate 10 10 10 10 2 10 10
    Carbomer 974P 1 1 1 1 1 1.5 1
    Purified water * * * * * * *
    Poloxamer 188 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
    Propylene glycol 15 15 15 15 13 15 15
    Xanthan gum 0.4
    Methylparaben 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
    Disodium EDTA 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
    20% NaOH 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
  • [1104]
    [1104]
    TABLE 14
    Model Formulation
    (percentage weight-by-weight)
    Ingredient H I J K L M
    IRM 0.01 0.1 1 1 3 5
    Isostearic acid 5 5 5 10 10 10
    Diisopropyl dimer 10 10 10 5 5 5
    dilinoleate
    Carbomer 980 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.0
    Purified water * * * * * *
    Poloxamer 188 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6
    Diethylene glycol 10 10 10 10 10 10
    monoethyl ether
    Xanthan gum 0.1 0.1 0.1
    Methylparaben 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
    Ethylparaben 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
    Disodium EDTA 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
    20% NaOH 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
  • [1105]
    [1105]
    TABLE 15
    Example IRM Compound Model Formulation
    29 3 A
    30 3 B
    31 3 C
    32 4 A
    33 4 B
    34 4 C
    35 5 A
    36 5 B
    37 5 D
    38 6 A
    39 6 B
    40 6 C
    41 7 A
    42 7 B
    43 7 C
    44 8 A
    45 8 B
    46 8 C
    47 9 A
    48 9 B
    49 9 C
    50 10 A
    51 10 B
    52 10 C
    53 11 A
    54 11 B
    55 11 E
    56 12 A
    57 12 B
    58 12 C
    59 13 A
    60 13 B
    61 13 F
    62 14 A
    63 14 B
    64 14 G
    65 15 H
    66 15 I
    67 15 K
    68 16 H
    69 16 I
    70 16 K
    71 17 A
    72 17 B
    73 17 C
    74 18 H
    75 18 I
    76 18 K
    77 19 H
    78 19 I
    79 19 K
    80 20 H
    81 20 I
    82 20 K
    83 20 L
    84 20 M
    85 21 H
    86 21 I
    87 21 K
    88 22 H
    89 22 I
    90 22 J
    91 23 H
    92 23 I
    93 23 J
    94 24 H
    95 24 I
    96 24 K
    97 25 H
    98 25 I
    99 25 K
    100 26 H
    101 26 I
    102 26 K
    103 27 H
    104 27 I
    105 27 K
    106 28 H
    107 28 I
    108 28 K
    109 29 H
    110 29 I
    111 29 K
    112 30 H
    113 30 I
    114 30 K
    115 31 H
    116 31 I
    117 31 K
    118 32 A
    119 32 B
    120 32 C
    121 33 A
    122 33 B
    123 33 C
    124 34 A
    125 34 B
    126 34 C
    127 35 A
    128 35 B
    129 35 C
    130 36 A
    131 36 B
    132 36 C
    133 37 H
    134 37 I
    135 37 K
  • [1106]
    The topical creams of Examples 29-135 were tested using the test method described below. The results are shown in Table 16 below where each value is the mean of the values from the 3rats in the treatment group.
  • Single Dose MCP-1 Induction Test Method
  • [1107]
    Female CD hairless rats (Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington, Mass.) weighing 200-250 grams are used. Animals are randomized to treatment groups and dosed three per treatment group.
  • [1108]
    The rats are acclimated to collars around the neck on two consecutive days prior to actual dosing. A 50 μL dose of active cream or the appropriate placebo is applied to the right flank and gently rubbed into the skin of the rat. The rats are then collared and housed individually to prevent ingestion of the drug. At selected post treatment time points, the rats are anesthetized, and blood (3 mls) is collected by cardiac puncture. Blood is allowed to clot at room temperature. Serum is separated from the clot via centrifugation, and stored at −20° C. until it is analyzed for MCP-1 concentration.
  • [1109]
    Following blood collection, the rats are euthanized, and their skins removed. Tissue samples (4 from each site) from both the treated site and contralateral site (untreated) are obtained using an 8 mm punch biopsy, weighed, placed in a sealed 1.8 ml cryovial, and flash frozen in liquid nitrogen. The frozen tissue sample is then suspended in 1.0 mL RPMI medium (Celox, Hopkins, Minn.) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo.), 2 mM L-glutamine, penicillin/streptomycin, and 2-mercaptoethanol (RPMI complete) combined with a protease inhibitor cocktail set III (Calbiochem, San Diego, Calif.). The tissue is homogenized using a Tissue Tearor™ (Biospec Products, Bartlesville, Okla.) for approximately 1 minute. The tissue suspension is then centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 10 minutes under refrigeration to pellet debris, and the supernatant is collected and stored at −20° C. until analyzed for MCP-1 concentration.
  • [1110]
    ELISAs for rat MCP-1 are purchased from BioSource Intl. (Camarillo, Calif.) and performed according to manufacturer's specifications. Results are expressed in pg/ml, the values for the tissue samples are normalized per 200 mg of tissue. The sensitivity of the MCP-1 ELISA is 12 pg/ml.
    TABLE 16
    MCP-1 (pg/ml)
    IRM Cream
    Cream of 6 hours 24 hours Placebo Cream
    Example Serum Treated Untreated Serum Treated Untreated Serum Untreated
    29 123 202 46 291 55 34 142 59
    30 119 92 31 177 201 43 142 59
    31 212 1235 54 267 606 125 142 59
    32 26 54 59 79 82 69 54 56
    33 54 70 71 56 74 58 54 56
    34 72 88 58 59 319 69 54 56
    35 170 110 55 162 142 62 80 58
    36 94 674 46 86 1216 96 80 58
    37 153 1826 38 136 2036 77 80 58
    38 178 65 120 211 121 86 142 59
    39 193 220 61 259 263 59 142 59
    40 226 1204 58 284 1086 95 142 59
    41 54 82 96 45 88 71 73 96
    42 65 129 78 54 126 88 73 96
    43 77 824 68 89 1016 93 73 96
    44 86 256 * 177 488 * 128 **28
    45 172 1444 * 157 1041 * 128 **28
    46 177 1720 * 406 1023 * 128 **28
    47 58 53 59 81 95 73 37 73
    48 71 200 61 63 112 61 37 73
    49 92 1254 62 83 1436 75 37 73
    50 170 1033 56 * 655 56 88 *
    51 625 551 787 * 149 787 88 *
    52 811 348 314 * 86 314 88 *
    53 70 63 46 76 47 45 7 31
    54 68 35 27 71 26 24 7 31
    55 75 35 21 44 33 32 7 31
    56 115 44 * 115 425 * 201 **42
    57 119 411 * 267 1252 * 201 **42
    58 190 1560 * 476 1508 * 201 **42
    59 155 46 36 271 41 53 107 54
    60 123 53 58 175 80 69 107 54
    61 133 172 52 151 1131 46 107 54
    62 143 211 55 174 428 61 96 26
    63 320 1614 51 230 1217 74 96 26
    64 970 1094 529 425 390 99 96 26
    65 43 34 57 46 81 61 83 59
    66 29 73 28 32 42 74 83 59
    67 19 54 61 25 34 72 83 59
    68 60 77 82 91 72 35 68 72
    69 143 74 52 99 73 59 68 72
    70 59 77 34 91 134 60 68 72
    71 259 79 62 134 84 57 177 53
    72 138 255 65 122 990 63 177 53
    73 251 999 63 293 1411 108 177 53
    74 99 66 71 73 99 89 61 91
    75 76 101 78 3 170 73 61 91
    76 66 6779 64 188 4949 104 61 91
    77 28 47 35 21 43 40 30 38
    78 27 35 37 33 49 59 30 38
    79 24 41 40 27 50 38 30 38
    80 51 59 23 50 163 0 97 15
    81 9 0 15 83 34 10 97 15
      82*** 61 32 0 121 303 45 97 15
      82*** 50 149 36 79 225 76 93 120
    83 110 164 124 61 275 172 93 120
    84 59 177 92 98 629 40 93 120
    85 81 0 0 0 0 0 177 0
    86 116 0 0 0 0 0 177 0
    87 69 0 0 0 0 0 177 0
    88 114 56 41 87 43 42 141 33
    89 74 47 49 132 49 40 141 33
    90 91 96 47 111 109 41 141 33
    91 42 91 53 86 874 57 34 46
    92 83 1238 74 92 1087 67 34 46
    93 98 2037 64 114 1124 74 34 46
    94 102 98 107 48 136 133 110 100
    95 49 130 90 95 158 112 110 100
    96 68 255 79 132 528 81 110 100
    97 34 88 106 54 95 92 36 102
    98 17 116 108 83 123 91 36 102
    99 51 150 89 43 945 76 36 102
    100 111 81 83 55 115 72 82 58
    101 33 72 55 75 209 64 82 58
    102 79 489 54 112 3199 103 82 58
    103 82 88 69 31 107 94 7 61
    104 13 66 55 61 72 63 7 61
    105 75 83 87 54 60 69 7 61
    106 72 96 103 64 168 158 8 137
    107 21 129 98 48 168 75 8 137
    108 95 314 72 135 3267 128 8 137
    109 72 60 71 71 78 62 12 31
    110 44 76 57 92 72 75 12 31
    111 70 143 83 32 2397 68 12 31
    112 66 67 120 28 84 70 30 102
    113 46 107 106 70 1034 93 30 102
    114 14 627 65 196 2880 111 30 102
    115 39 38 41 84 77 90 84 157
    116 73 81 90 64 57 223 84 157
    117 66 113 52 79 91 61 84 157
    118 132 59 59 135 46 52 * *
    119 123 184 31 144 104 42 * *
    120 124 1261 45 171 892 56 * *
    121 90 74 51 88 96 75 78 57
    122 72 415 50 91 613 82 78 57
    123 156 1502 52 226 1043 48 78 57
    124 92 94 27 96 95 110 97 652
    125 123 198 128 107 72 120 97 652
    126 136 1828 97 73 1348 349 97 652
    127 67 66 46 81 90 22 51 81
    128 63 80 58 55 53 35 51 81
    129 49 382 58 35 809 59 51 81
    130 132 55 41 135 162 43 74 32
    131 124 279 59 144 822 60 74 32
    132 124 1901 13 171 1212 11 74 32
    133 64 106 0 52 199 32 26 8
    134 9 76 0 70 59 0 26 8
    135 59 89 0 76 47 0 26 8
  • Examples 136-140
  • [1111]
    Table 17 summarizes topical formulations made in accordance with the present invention on a percentage weight-by-weight basis.
    TABLE 17
    Topical Creams
    (percentage weight-by-weight)
    Ex.
    Ingredients 136 Ex. 137 Ex. 138 Ex. 139 Ex. 140
    IRM 1 1 1 1 1
    Compound 1
    Isostearic 10 10 8 10 10
    Acid
    Diisopropyl 5 1 5 5
    dimer
    dilinoleate
    Caprylic/ 5
    capric
    triglycerides
    Carbomer 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
    980
    Diethylene 10 10 10 10 10
    glycol
    monoethyl
    ether
    Disodium 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
    EDTA
    Poloxamer 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
    188
    Purified Qs to Qs to 100 Qs to 100 Qs to 100 Qs to 100
    Water 100
    Methylparaben 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2
    Ethylparaben 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2
    20% (w/w) Qs to Qs to pH Qs to pH Qs to pH Qs to pH
    pH
    NaOH 5-5.5 5-5.5 5-5.5 6.5 5-5.5
    Iodopropynyl 0.1
    butylcarbamate
    PEG-4 Laurate 0.9
    Phenoxyethanol 1
    Sorbic acid 0.15
  • [1112]
    The topical creams of Examples 136-140 were tested using the test method described below. The results are shown in Table 18 below where each value is the mean of the values from the 3 rats in the treatment group. “Normal animals” did not receive any treatment.
  • Single Dose Cytokine Induction Test Method
  • [1113]
    Female CD hairless rats (Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington, Mass.) weighing 200-250 grams are used. Animals are randomized to treatment groups and dosed three per treatment group.
  • [1114]
    The rats are acclimated to collars around the neck on two consecutive days prior to actual dosing. A 50 μL dose of active cream is applied to the right flank and gently rubbed into the skin of the rat. The rats are then collared and housed individually to prevent ingestion of the drug. At 6 hours post treatment, the rats are anesthetized, and blood (3 mls) is collected by cardiac puncture. Blood is allowed to clot at room temperature, serum is separated from the clot via centrifugation, and stored at −20° C. until it is analyzed for cytokine concentrations.
  • [1115]
    Following blood collection, the rats are euthanized, and their skins removed. Tissue samples (4 from each site) from both the treated site and contralateral site (untreated) are obtained using an 8 mm punch biopsy, weighed, placed in a sealed 1.8 ml cryovial, and flash frozen in liquid nitrogen. The frozen tissue sample is then suspended in 1.0 mL RPMI medium (Celox, Hopkins, Minn.) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo.), 2 mM L-glutamine, penicillin/streptomycin, and 2-mercaptoethanol (RPMI complete) combined with a protease inhibitor cocktail set III (Calbiochem, San Diego, Calif.). The tissue is homogenized using a Tissue Tearor™ (Biospec Products, Bartlesville, Okla.) for approximately 1 minute. The tissue suspension is then centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 10 minutes under refrigeration to pellet debris. The supernatant is collected and stored at −20° C. until analyzed for cytokine concentrations.
  • [1116]
    ELISAs for rat MCP-1 are purchased from BioSource Intl. (Camarillo, Calif.) and rat TNF-α are purchased from BD Pharmingen (San Diego, Calif.) and performed according to manufacturer's specifications. Results are expressed in pg/ml, the values for the tissue samples are normalized per 200 mg of tissue. The sensitivity of the MCP-1 ELISA is 12 pg/ml and the sensitivity of the TNF-α ELISA is 31 pg/ml.
    TABLE 18
    Cytokine Induction
    IRM Cream Treated Animals Normal Animals
    Cream of MCP-1 (pg/ml) TNF-α (pg/ml) MCP-1 (pg/ml) TNF-α (pg/ml)
    Example Serum Treated Untreated Serum Treated Untreated Serum Tissue Serum Tissue
    136 119 1208 51 64 808 85 73 39 64 67
    137 90 1815 78 78 597 78 73 39 64 67
    138 5 1351 27 66 636 69 73 39 64 67
    139 62 1509 85 50 443 75 73 39 64 67
    140 24 2373 28 80 948 95 73 39 64 67

Claims (83)

    What is claimed is:
  1. 1. A pharmaceutical formulation comprising:
    an immune response modifier (IRM) compound selected from imidazoquinoline amines, imidazotetrahydroquinoline amines, imidazopyridine amines, 6,7-fused cycloalkylimidazopyridine amines, 1,2-bridged imidazoquinoline amines, thiazoloquinoline amines, oxazoloquinoline amines, thiazolopyridine amines, oxazolopyridine amines, imidazonaphthyridine amines, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines;
    a fatty acid;
    a hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid and comprising a hydrocarbyl group of 7 or more carbon atoms; and
    a hydrophilic viscosity enhancing agent selected from cellulose ethers and carbomers.
  2. 2. The formulation according to claim 1 wherein the formulation further comprises a preservative system and an emulsifier.
  3. 3. The formulation according to claim 1 wherein the hydrophobic, aprotic component has a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of less than 2.
  4. 4. The formulation according to claim 1 wherein the hydrophobic, aprotic component has a pKa greater than 14.2.
  5. 5. The formulation according to claim 1 wherein the ratio of the hydrophobic, aprotic component to the fatty acid is 0.025:1 to 600:1.
  6. 6. The formulation according to claim I wherein the combined weight percent of the hydrophobic, aprotic component and the fatty acid is 2 to 50.
  7. 7. The formulation according to claim 1 wherein the fatty acid is isostearic acid.
  8. 8. The formulation according to claim 1 wherein the hydrophobic, aprotic component is selected from aprotic fatty acid esters, hydrocarbons of 8 or more carbon atoms, and waxes.
  9. 9. The formulation according to claim 8 wherein the aprotic fatty acid ester is isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, diisopropyl dimer dilinoleate, caprylic/capric triglyceride, cetyl esters wax, or a combination thereof.
  10. 10. The formulation according to claim 8 wherein the hydrocarbon of 8 or more carbon atoms is mineral oil or petrolatum.
  11. 11. The formulation according to claim 1 wherein the hydrophilic viscosity enhancing agent comprises a carbomer.
  12. 12. The formulation according to claim 2 wherein the preservative system comprises methylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation and propylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation.
  13. 13. The formulation according to claim 2 wherein the preservative system comprises methylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation and ethylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation.
  14. 14. The formulation according to claim 2 wherein the preservative system comprises iodopropynyl butylcarbamate.
  15. 15. The formulation according to claim 2 wherein the preservative system comprises iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and one or more of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, or phenoxyethanol.
  16. 16. The formulation according to claim 2 wherein the preservative system comprises iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methylparaben, and ethylparaben.
  17. 17. The formulation according to claim 2 wherein the preservative system comprises phenoxyethanol and one or both of methylparaben and ethylparaben.
  18. 18. The formulation according to claim 2 wherein the preservative system comprises a preservative enhancing solubilizer.
  19. 19. The formulation according to claim 18 wherein the preservative enhancing solubilizer comprises diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, propylene glycol or a combination thereof.
  20. 20. The formulation of claim 2 comprising:
    (a) 0.001 to 5% w/w
    2-methyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    N-[4-(4-amino-2-butyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-1-yl)butyl]-N′-cyclohexylurea,
    1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    2-butyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,8]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    2-methylthiazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    2-ethoxymethyl-1-phenylmethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    2-ethylthiazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    4-amino-2-butyl-α,α-dimethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridine-1-ethanol,
    1-{2-[3-(3-pyridyl)propoxy]ethyl}-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    1-[(R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    1-{2-[3-(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)propoxy]ethyl}-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    1-[2-(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)ethyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    N-[3-(4-amino-2-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)propyl]cyclohexanecarboxamide,
    2-butyl-1-{2-[(1-methylethyl)sulfonyl]ethyl}-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    N-{2-[4-amino-2-(ethoxymethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl]ethyl}ethanesulfonamide,
    N-{2-[4-amino-2-(ethoxymethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl]ethyl}propanamide,
    1-[2-(methylsulfonyl)ethyl]-2-propyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    2-ethyl-1-{4-[(1-methylethyl)sulfonyl]butyl}-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    2-ethyl-1-[4-(ethylsulfonyl)butyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    N-{3-[4-amino-2-(ethoxymethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl]propyl}cyclopentanecarboxamide,
    1-(2-methylpropyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    8,9,10,11-tetrahydropyrido[1′,2′:1,2]imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-6-amine,
    4-amino-α,α,2-trimethyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline-1-ethanol,
    2-hydroxymethyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    2-butyl-1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    or a combination thereof;
    (b) 0.05 to 40% w/w isostearic acid;
    (c) 1 to 30% w/w hydrophobic, aprotic component;
    (d) 0.5 to 10% w/w emulsifier;
    (e) 0.01 to 30% w/w preservative system; and
    (f) 0.1 to 10% carbomer.
  21. 21. The formulation of claim 20 comprising:
    (a) 0.03 to 3% w/w 2-methyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine, N-[4-(4-amino-2-butyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-yl)butyl]-N′-cyclohexylurea, 2-butyl-1-{2-[(1-methylethyl)sulfonyl]ethyl}-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine, or a combination thereof;
    (b) 3 to 25% w/w isostearic acid;
    (c) 3 to 15% w/w hydrophobic, aprotic component;
    (d) 0.75 to 3.5% w/w emulsifier;
    (e) 0.1 to 25% w/w preservative system; and
    (f) 0.5 to 5% w/w carbomer.
  22. 22. A method of treating a dermal associated condition, the method comprising a step of:
    applying to skin a formulation comprising an immune response modifier (IRM) selected from imidazoquinoline amines, imidazotetrahydroquinoline amines, imidazopyridine amines, 6,7-fused cycloalkylimidazopyridine amines, 1,2-bridged imidazoquinoline amines, thiazoloquinoline amines, oxazoloquinoline amines, thiazolopyridine amines, oxazolopyridine amines, imidazonaphthyridine amines, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines; a fatty acid; a hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid and comprising a hydrocarbyl group of 7 or more carbon atoms; and a hydrophilic viscosity enhancing agent selected from cellulose ethers and carbomers.
  23. 23. The method according to claim 22 wherein the ratio of the hydrophobic, aprotic component to the fatty acid is 0.025:1 to 600:1.
  24. 24. The method according to claim 22 wherein the combined weight percent of the hydrophobic, aprotic component and the fatty acid is 2 to 50.
  25. 25. The method according to claim 22 wherein the hydrophobic, aprotic component is selected from the group consisting of aprotic fatty acid esters, hydrocarbons of 8 or more carbon atoms, and waxes.
  26. 26. The method according to claim 25 wherein the aprotic fatty acid ester is isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, diisopropyl dimer dilinoleate, caprylic/capric triglyceride, cetyl esters wax, or combinations thereof.
  27. 27. The method according to claim 22 wherein the hydrophilic viscosity enhancing agent comprises a carbomer.
  28. 28. The method according to claim 22 wherein the topical formulation further comprises:
    a preservative system; and
    an emulsifier.
  29. 29. The method according to claim 22 wherein the IRM is 2-methyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine, N-[4-(4-amino-2-butyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-1-yl)butyl]-N′-cyclohexylurea, 1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    2-butyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,8]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    2-methylthiazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    2-ethoxymethyl-1-phenylmethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    2-ethylthiazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    4-amino-2-butyl-α,α-dimethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridine-1-ethanol,
    1-{2-[3-(3-pyridyl)propoxy]ethyl}-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    1-[(R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    1-{2-[3-(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)propoxy]ethyl}-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    1-[2-(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)ethyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    N-[3-(4-amino-2-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)propyl]cyclohexanecarboxamide,
    2-butyl-1-{2-[(1-methylethyl)sulfonyl]ethyl}-1 H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    N-{2-[4-amino-2-(ethoxymethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl]ethyl}ethanesulfonamide,
    N-{2-[4-amino-2-(ethoxymethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl]ethyl}propanamide,
    1-[2-(methylsulfonyl)ethyl]-2-propyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    2-ethyl-1-{4-[(1-methylethyl)sulfonyl]butyl}-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    2-ethyl-1-[4-(ethylsulfonyl)butyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    N-{3-[4-amino-2-(ethoxymethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl]propyl}cyclopentanecarboxamide,
    1-(2-methylpropyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    8,9,10,11-tetrahydropyrido[1′,2′: 1,2]imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-6-amine,
    4-amino-α,α,2-trimethyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline-1-ethanol,
    2-hydroxymethyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    2-butyl-1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine, or a combination thereof.
  30. 30. The method according to claim 22 wherein the dermal associated condition is selected from actinic keratosis, postsurgical scars, basal cell carcinoma, atopic dermatitis, and warts.
  31. 31. The method according to claim 30 wherein the IRM is 2-methyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    N-[4-(4-amino-2-butyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-1-yl)butyl]-N′-cyclohexylurea,
    1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    2-butyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,8]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    2-methylthiazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    2-ethoxymethyl-1-phenylmethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    2-ethylthiazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    4-amino-2-butyl-α,α-dimethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridine-1-ethanol,
    1-{2-[3-(3-pyridyl)propoxy]ethyl}-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    1-[(R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    1-{2-[3-(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)propoxy]ethyl}-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    1-[2-(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)ethyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    N-[3-(4-amino-2-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl)propyl]cyclohexanecarboxamide,
    2-butyl-1-{2-[(1-methylethyl)sulfonyl]ethyl} -1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    N-{2-[4-amino-2-(ethoxymethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl]ethyl}ethanesulfonamide,
    N-{2-[4-amino-2-(ethoxymethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl]ethyl}propanamide,
    1-[2-(methylsulfonyl)ethyl]-2-propyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    2-ethyl-1-{4-[(1-methylethyl)sulfonyl]butyl}-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    2-ethyl-1-[4-(ethylsulfonyl)butyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    N-{3-[4-amino-2-(ethoxymethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-1-yl]propyl}cyclopentanecarboxamide,
    1-(2-methylpropyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    8,9,10,11-tetrahydropyrido[1′,2′:1,2]imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-6-amine,
    4-amino-α,α,2-trimethyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline-1-ethanol,
    2-hydroxymethyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine,
    2-butyl-1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine, or a combination thereof.
  32. 32. The method according to claim 30 wherein the formulation further comprises a preservative system and an emulsifier.
  33. 33. The method according to claim 32 wherein the preservative system comprises methylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation and propylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation.
  34. 34. The method according to claim 32 wherein the preservative system comprises methylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation and ethylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation.
  35. 35. The method according to claim 32 wherein the preservative system comprises iodopropynyl butylcarbamate.
  36. 36. The method according to claim 32 wherein the preservative system comprises iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and one or more of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, or phenoxyethanol.
  37. 37. The method according to claim 32 wherein the preservative system comprises iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methylparaben, and ethylparaben.
  38. 38. The method according to claim 32 wherein the preservative system comprises phenoxyethanol and one or both of methylparaben and ethylparaben.
  39. 39. The method according to claim 32 wherein the preservative system comprises a preservative enhancing solubilizer.
  40. 40. The method according to claim 39 wherein the preservative enhancing solubilizer comprises diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, propylene glycol or a combination thereof.
  41. 41. A method for delivering an immune response modifier (IRM) to a dermal surface, the method comprising the steps of:
    selecting a formulation comprising:
    (a) an immune response modifier selected from imidazoquinoline amines, imidazotetrahydroquinoline amines, imidazopyridine amines, 6,7-fused cycloalkylimidazopyridine amines, 1,2-bridged imidazoquinoline amines, thiazoloquinoline amines, oxazoloquinoline amines, thiazolopyridine amines, oxazolopyridine amines, imidazonaphthyridine amines, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines;
    (b) a fatty acid;
    (c) a hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid and comprising a hydrocarbyl group of 7 or more carbon atoms; and
    (d) a hydrophilic viscosity enhancing agent selected from cellulose ethers and carbomers; and
    applying the selected topical formulation to the dermal surface.
  42. 42. A pharmaceutical formulation comprising:
    an immune response modifier (IRM) compound selected from the group consisting of imidazonaphthyridine amines, tetrahydroimidazonaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines;
    a fatty acid; and
    a hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid and comprising a hydrocarbyl group of 7 or more carbon atoms.
  43. 43. The formulation according to claim 42 wherein the formulation further comprises a preservative system.
  44. 44. The formulation according to claim 42 wherein the hydrophobic, aprotic component has a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of less than 2.
  45. 45. The formulation according to claim 42 wherein the hydrophobic, aprotic component has a pKa greater than 14.2.
  46. 46. The formulation according to claim 42 wherein the ratio of the hydrophobic, aprotic component to the fatty acid is 0.025:1 to 600:1.
  47. 47. The formulation according to claim 42 wherein the combined weight percent of the hydrophobic, aprotic component and the fatty acid is 2 to 50.
  48. 48. The formulation according to claim 42 wherein the fatty acid is isostearic acid.
  49. 49. The formulation according to claim 42 wherein the hydrophobic, aprotic component is selected from aprotic fatty acid esters, hydrocarbons of 8 or more carbon atoms, and waxes.
  50. 50. The formulation according to claim 49 wherein the aprotic fatty acid ester is isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, diisopropyl dimer dilinoleate, caprylic/capric triglyceride, cetyl esters wax, or combinations thereof.
  51. 51. The formulation of claim 49 wherein the hydrocarbon of 8 or more carbon atoms is mineral oil or petrolatum.
  52. 52. The formulation according to claim 43 wherein the preservative system comprises methylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation and propylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation.
  53. 53. The formulation according to claim 43 wherein the preservative system comprises methylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation and ethylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation.
  54. 54. The formulation according to claim 43 wherein the preservative system comprises iodopropynyl butylcarbamate.
  55. 55. The formulation according to claim 43 wherein the preservative system comprises iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and one or more of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, or phenoxyethanol.
  56. 56. The formulation according to claim 43 wherein the preservative system comprises iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methylparaben, and ethylparaben.
  57. 57. The formulation according to claim 43 wherein the preservative system comprises phenoxyethanol and one or both of methylparaben and ethylparaben.
  58. 58. The formulation according to claim 43 wherein the preservative system comprises a preservative enhancing solubilizer.
  59. 59. The formulation according to claim 58 wherein the preservative enhancing solubilizer comprises diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, propylene glycol or a combination thereof.
  60. 60. The formulation of claim 43 comprising:
    (a) 0.001 to 5% w/w imidazonaphthyridine amine, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amine, thiazolonaphthyridine amine, or a combination thereof;
    (b) 0.05 to 40% w/w isostearic acid;
    (c) 1 to 30% w/w hydrophobic, aprotic component; and
    (d) 0.01 to 30% w/w preservative system.
  61. 61. The formulation of claim 43 further comprising an emulsifier and a hydrophilic viscosity enhancing agent.
  62. 62. The formulation of claim 60 further comprising an emulsifier and a hydrophilic viscosity enhancing agent.
  63. 63. The formulation of claim 62 wherein the viscosity enhancing agent comprises a carbomer.
  64. 64. The formulation of claim 63 comprising:
    (a) 0.03 to 3% w/w
    2-methyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    N-[4-(4-amino-2-butyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-1-yl)butyl]-N′-cyclohexylurea,
    2-butyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,8]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    2-ethoxymethyl-1-phenylmethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    4-amino-2-butyl-α,α-dimethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridine-1-ethanol,
    1-[(R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    2-butyl-1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    or a combination thereof;
    (b) 3 to 25% w/w isostearic acid;
    (c) 3 to 15% w/w hydrophobic, aprotic component;
    (d) 0.1 to 25% w/w preservative system;
    (e) 0.75 to 3.5% w/w emulsifier; and
    (f) 0.5 to 5% w/w carbomer.
  65. 65. A method of treating a dermal associated condition, the method comprising a step of:
    applying to skin a formulation comprising an immune response modifier (IRM) chosen from imidazonaphthyridine amines, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines; a fatty acid; and a hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid and comprising a hydrocarbyl group of 7 or more carbon atoms.
  66. 66. The method according to claim 65 wherein the ratio of the hydrophobic, aprotic component to the fatty acid is 0.025:1 to 600:1.
  67. 67. The method according to claim 65 wherein the combined weight percent of the hydrophobic, aprotic component and the fatty acid is 2 to 50.
  68. 68. The method according to claim 65 wherein the hydrophobic, aprotic component is selected from the group consisting of aprotic fatty acid esters, hydrocarbons of 8 or more carbon atoms, and waxes.
  69. 69. The method according to claim 68 wherein the aprotic fatty acid ester is isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, diisopropyl dimer dilinoleate, caprylic/capric triglyceride, cetyl esters wax, or combinations thereof.
  70. 70. The method according to claim 65 wherein the formulation further comprises:
    a preservative system; and
    an emulsifier.
  71. 71. The method according to claim 65 wherein the IRM is 2-methyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine, N-[4-(4-amino-2-butyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-1-yl)butyl]-N′-cyclohexylurea,
    2-butyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,8]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    2-ethoxymethyl-1-phenylmethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    4-amino-2-butyl-α,α-dimethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridine-1-ethanol,
    1-[(R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    2-butyl-1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine, or a combination thereof.
  72. 72. The method according to claim 65 wherein the dermal associated condition is actinic keratosis, postsurgical scars, basal cell carcinoma, atopic dermatitis, and warts.
  73. 73. The method according to claim 72 wherein the IRM is 2-methyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine, N-[4-(4-amino-2-butyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-1-yl)butyl]-N′-cyclohexylurea,
    2-butyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,8]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    2-ethoxymethyl-1-phenylmethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    4-amino-2-butyl-α,α-dimethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridine-1-ethanol,
    1-[(R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine,
    2-butyl-1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c][1,5]naphthyridin-4-amine, or a combination thereof.
  74. 74. The method according to claim 72 wherein the formulation further comprises: a preservative system; and
    an emulsifier.
  75. 75. The method according to claim 74 wherein the preservative system comprises methylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation and propylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation.
  76. 76. The method according to claim 74 wherein the preservative system comprises methylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation and ethylparaben at 0.01 to 0.5% w/w of the formulation.
  77. 77. The method according to claim 74 wherein the preservative system comprises iodopropynyl butylcarbamate.
  78. 78. The method according to claim 74 wherein the preservative system comprises iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and one or more of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, or phenoxyethanol.
  79. 79. The method according to claim 74 wherein the preservative system comprises iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methylparaben, and ethylparaben.
  80. 80. The method according to claim 74 wherein the preservative system comprises phenoxyethanol and one or both of methylparaben and ethylparaben.
  81. 81. The method according to claim 74 wherein the preservative system comprises a preservative enhancing solubilizer.
  82. 82. The method according to claim 81 wherein the preservative enhancing solubilizer comprises diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, propylene glycol or a combination thereof.
  83. 83. A method for delivering an immune response modifier (IRM) to a dermal surface, the method comprising the steps of:
    selecting a formulation comprising:
    (a) an immune response modifier selected from imidazonaphthyridine amines, imidazotetrahydronaphthyridine amines, and thiazolonaphthyridine amines;
    (b) at fatty acid;
    (c) a hydrophobic, aprotic component miscible with the fatty acid and comprising a hydrocarbyl group of 7 or more carbon atoms; and
    applying the selected formulation to the dermal surface.
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