US20030183915A1 - Encapsulated organic semiconductor device and method - Google Patents

Encapsulated organic semiconductor device and method Download PDF

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US20030183915A1
US20030183915A1 US10114488 US11448802A US2003183915A1 US 20030183915 A1 US20030183915 A1 US 20030183915A1 US 10114488 US10114488 US 10114488 US 11448802 A US11448802 A US 11448802A US 2003183915 A1 US2003183915 A1 US 2003183915A1
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organic semiconductor
semiconductor material
oxygen
barrier
disposed
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US10114488
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Steven Scheifers
Daniel Gamota
Andrew Skipor
Krishna Kalyanasundaram
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Google Technology Holdings LLC
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Motorola Solutions Inc
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/05Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential- jump barrier or surface barrier multistep processes for their manufacture
    • H01L51/10Details of devices
    • H01L51/107Passivation, containers, encapsulations
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/50Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for light emission, e.g. organic light emitting diodes [OLED] or polymer light emitting devices [PLED];
    • H01L51/52Details of devices
    • H01L51/5237Passivation; Containers; Encapsulation, e.g. against humidity
    • H01L51/524Sealing arrangements having a self-supporting structure, e.g. containers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/50Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for light emission, e.g. organic light emitting diodes [OLED] or polymer light emitting devices [PLED];
    • H01L51/52Details of devices
    • H01L51/5237Passivation; Containers; Encapsulation, e.g. against humidity
    • H01L51/524Sealing arrangements having a self-supporting structure, e.g. containers
    • H01L51/5243Sealing arrangements having a self-supporting structure, e.g. containers the sealing arrangements being made of metallic material
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/50Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for light emission, e.g. organic light emitting diodes [OLED] or polymer light emitting devices [PLED];
    • H01L51/52Details of devices
    • H01L51/5237Passivation; Containers; Encapsulation, e.g. against humidity
    • H01L51/5253Protective coatings
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/50Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for light emission, e.g. organic light emitting diodes [OLED] or polymer light emitting devices [PLED];
    • H01L51/52Details of devices
    • H01L51/5237Passivation; Containers; Encapsulation, e.g. against humidity
    • H01L51/5259Passivation; Containers; Encapsulation, e.g. against humidity including getter material or desiccant
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/0001Technical content checked by a classifier
    • H01L2924/0002Not covered by any one of groups H01L24/00, H01L24/00 and H01L2224/00
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/05Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential- jump barrier or surface barrier multistep processes for their manufacture
    • H01L51/0504Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential- jump barrier or surface barrier multistep processes for their manufacture the devices being controllable only by the electric current supplied or the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or swiched, e.g. three-terminal devices
    • H01L51/0508Field-effect devices, e.g. TFTs
    • H01L51/0512Field-effect devices, e.g. TFTs insulated gate field effect transistors
    • H01L51/0516Field-effect devices, e.g. TFTs insulated gate field effect transistors characterised by the gate dielectric

Abstract

A semiconductor device comprising organic semiconductor material (14) has one or more barrier layers (16) disposed at least partially thereabout to protect the organic semiconductor material (14) from environment-driven changes that typically lead to inoperability of a corresponding device. If desired, the barrier layer can be comprised of partially permeable material that allows some substances therethrough to thereby effect disabling of the encapsulated organic semiconductor device after a substantially predetermined period of time. Getterers (141) may also be used to protect, at least for a period of time, such organic semiconductor material.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • This invention relates generally to semiconductors and more particularly to organic semiconductor materials. [0001]
  • BACKGROUND
  • Components and circuits comprised of semiconductor materials are known in the art. Such technology has been highly successful. For some applications, however, traditional semiconductor processing over-performs and represents unneeded form factors and capabilities at a commensurate additional cost. Traditional semiconductor processing also usually requires batch processing to achieve a reasonable cost per part because the fabrication facilities and equipment required are extremely expensive. Also, many semiconductor devices require a lengthy fabrication time and often require numerous chemicals, some of which are highly toxic and require special handling. These aspects of traditional semiconductor fabrication do not well support low data storage and data transmission rate applications and/or other less expensive needs. [0002]
  • Organic semiconductors have been proposed as an alternative to standard semiconductor paradigms. Organic semiconductors hold the potential for serial or continuous processing and/or otherwise relatively low cost manufacturing requirements. Unfortunately, to date, while working organic semiconductor devices have been demonstrated, the operating life of such devices tends towards extreme brevity. In some instances, failure occurs within an hour or two of fabrication. This results in many cases through interaction of the organic semiconductor material with active contaminants in the environment, including, for example, oxygen and water (H[0003] 2O in both condensed and vaporous form). Such interaction eventually renders the organic material more conductive than semiconductive and this usually leads to device failure.
  • Present industry efforts emphasize searching for an organic semiconductor material that will withstand such environmental conditions. These efforts do not guarantee success, however, and, at a minimum, represent considerable expense and delay of commercialization of the technology.[0004]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The above needs are at least partially met through provision of the encapsulated organic semiconductor device and method described in the following detailed description, particularly when studied in conjunction with the drawings, wherein: [0005]
  • FIG. 1 illustrates a first embodiment configured in accordance with the invention; [0006]
  • FIG. 2 illustrates a detailed depiction of an oxygen barrier embodiment configured in accordance with the invention; [0007]
  • FIG. 3 illustrates a detailed depiction of another oxygen barrier embodiment configured in accordance with the invention; [0008]
  • FIG. 4 illustrates a detailed depiction of a multi-substance barrier embodiment configured in accordance with the invention; [0009]
  • FIG. 5 illustrates a detailed depiction of an adhesion layer used in conjunction with a barrier embodiment configured in accordance with the invention; [0010]
  • FIG. 6 illustrates yet another depiction of an embodiment configured in accordance with the invention; [0011]
  • FIG. 7 illustrates a multi-layer barrier embodiment configured in accordance with the invention; [0012]
  • FIG. 8 illustrates a multi-device embodiment configured in accordance with the invention; [0013]
  • FIG. 9 illustrates another multi-device embodiment configured in accordance with the invention; [0014]
  • FIG. 10 illustrates another barrier embodiment configured in accordance with the invention; [0015]
  • FIG. 11 illustrates yet another barrier embodiment configured in accordance with the invention; [0016]
  • FIG. 12 illustrates a graph that depicts a movement from a state of operability to a state of inoperability over time in accordance with an embodiment of the invention; [0017]
  • FIG. 13 illustrates yet another multi-device embodiment configured in accordance with the invention; [0018]
  • FIG. 14 illustrates a getterer layer embodiment configured in accordance with the invention; [0019]
  • FIG. 15 illustrates a getterer layer embodiment configured in accordance with the invention; and [0020]
  • FIG. 16 illustrates yet another getterer layer embodiment configured in accordance with the invention.[0021]
  • Skilled artisans will appreciate that elements in the figures are illustrated for simplicity and clarity and have not necessarily been drawn to scale. For example, the dimensions of some of the elements in the figures may be exaggerated relative to other elements to help to improve understanding of various embodiments of the present invention. [0022]
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • Generally speaking, pursuant to these various embodiments, an organic semiconductor device or array of devices is at least partially encapsulated by one or more barrier layers of material that are substantially impermeable to one or more environmental substances that would otherwise tend to effect significant electrical performance degradation of the organic semiconductor material itself. In one embodiment, one or more of the layers can be purposefully partially permeable to allow for eventual failure of the corresponding device after a substantially predetermined period of time. In one embodiment, getterer material is used to protect, at least for a time, organic semiconductor material from the substance(s) being absorbed by the getterer. [0023]
  • Referring now to FIG. 1, a first embodiment will be described. An initial substrate [0024] 10 can be comprised of a variety of materials, including flexible and substantially rigid materials. In general, the substrate 10 itself should be an insulator. Various plastics, including thin flexible sheets such as polyester, generally work well for these purposes. Depending upon the application, however, other materials can work as well, including treated cloth and paper. The substrate 10 can be of various sizes as commensurate with the desired size of the final result.
  • An organic semiconductor device (or devices) is formed on the substrate [0025] 10. For purposes of this description, the device is a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) comprised of a gate electrode 11 having a dielectric layer 15 disposed thereover and a source electrode 12 and drain electrode 13 formed on the substrate 10. These electrodes are formed of a conductive material with the gate, source and drain electrodes 11, 12 and 13 being formed of a material, such as copper, gold, silver, nickel, platinum, conductive polymer thick film, conductive polymer, carbon-based material, or tungsten as will result in an ohmic contact as between itself and an organic semiconductor material. An organic semiconductor material 14 overlies at least portions of the source electrode 12 and drain electrode 13. (Conductive paths to each electrode 11, 12, and 13 will ordinarily be provided to facilitate desired functionality though for purposes of clarity, such paths are not depicted in these figures.)
  • Any of the above elements (the electrodes [0026] 11, 12, and 13, the dielectric 15, and the organic semiconductor material 14) can be formed by use of one or more printing processes. For example, contact printing processes (including but not limited to stamping, screen printing, flexographic, and micro-contact printing) and non-contact printing processes (including but not limited to ink jet, electrostatic, laser transfer, and micro-dispensing) can be used to print the indicated materials as described. Depending upon the material form and carrier used, air drying and/or curing steps may be appropriate to ensure the desired adhesion, electrical performance, and mechanical integrity.
  • A typical device will have an overall thickness of only a few microns (depending upon the specific materials, deposition process, and number of layers) and can have a footprint ranging from a few microns to one thousand or more microns. Notwithstanding such sizes, when formed upon a flexible substrate, the result device can maintain normal functionality even when flexed during use (of course, extreme bending of the substrate may, at some point, disrupt the continuity of one of more of the constituent elements of the device). [0027]
  • In this embodiment, an oxygen barrier [0028] 16 is disposed over the organic semiconductor material 14 to thereby protect the organic semiconductor material 14, at least for a time, from significant electrical performance degradation due to oxygen 17 in the local environment. As shown, the barrier 16 completely covers the organic semiconductor material 14. If desired, however, only part of the organic semiconductor material 14 could be covered though less protection will likely result. With reference to FIG. 2, the barrier 16 may be any material that is substantially impermeable to oxygen. In one embodiment, silica is disposed to thereby comprise the barrier layer 16. For example, methods as known in the art such as vacuum deposition, solution processing, and so forth could be used to deposit the silica or other barrier material. With reference to FIG. 3, in another embodiment, the barrier 16 can be a free standing film comprised of an oxygen permeable carrier 31 and an oxygen barrier material 32, such as silica, that is disposed on the carrier 31. For example, mylar with an aluminum coating could be used in this regard. Such a carrier 31 can be flexible if desired and applied to the organic semiconductor material 14 using lamination or other application technique as appropriate to the application. Of course, and referring now to FIG. 4, it is also possible for the oxygen barrier 16 to also serve as a barrier to other potentially damaging substances. For example, as depicted, the barrier 16 can substantially repel both oxygen and H2O (in vapor and/or condensed form). Some suitable materials may be applied directed to the organic semiconductor material 14 and will adhere satisfactorily thereto (either with or without subsequent treatment and/or curing as appropriate to the material used). In other instances it may be appropriate to apply the barrier layer 16 to the organic semiconductor material 14 using an intervening adhesive material 51 as shown in FIG. 5.
  • In each of the above described embodiments, oxygen in the local environment is substantially prevented from reaching the organic semiconductor material [0029] 14 through use of a barrier layer 16 disposed over the organic semiconductor material 14. In embodiments where the substrate 10 layer itself comprises an oxygen impermeable material, such a configuration should contribute to significantly improved operative life of the corresponding organic semiconductor active device(s). When the substrate 10 is not itself impermeable to oxygen, however, then as depicted in FIG. 6 an additional barrier layer 61 as applied to the substrate 10 will serve to protect the organic semiconductor material 14 from harm due to oxygen passing through the substrate 10. As depicted, this additional barrier layer 61 is disposed on a side of the substrate 10 that is common to the organic semiconductor device itself. In an appropriate configuration, however, it may also be possible and or suitable to dispose the additional barrier layer on the opposing side of the substrate 10 or to dispose the additional barrier layer on both sides of the substrate 10.
  • As noted above, oxygen is not the only environmental substance that can contribute to a greatly reduced operating life for an organic semiconductor device. H[0030] 2O (in vapor and/or condensed form) is another common substance that can detrimentally impact operating life expectances. When the oxygen barrier 16 constitutes a barrier to H2O (in vapor and/or condensed form) as described above with respect to FIG. 4, then the barrier 16 will serve to also protect the organic semiconductor material 14 from this substance. When the oxygen barrier 16 does not also constitute an H2O barrier, however, then if desired, an additional H2O barrier layer 71 can be applied as depicted in FIG. 7 to additionally protect the organic semiconductor material 14 from H2O (in vapor and/or condensed form). As shown, the H2O barrier 71 can overly the oxygen barrier 16. If desired, of course, this layering order can be reversed. It should also be noted that substances such as condensed H2O themselves constitute a good solvent and hence often contain yet additional contaminants such as, for example, carbonic acid or free ions. Such contaminants can degrade performance of organic semiconductor materials and hence in many instances it will be appropriate or necessary for the H2O barrier to also be relatively impermeable to such substances that are dissolved in the H2O and/or for an additional barrier layer to be used that is impermeable to such substances.
  • Oxygen and H[0031] 2O (in vapor and/or condensed form) barriers have been used above to illustrate the described embodiments. Other barriers are of course available and can be used in substitution for or in combination with the barriers described to protect the organic semiconductor material 14 against a variety of performance-degrading environmental agents as appropriate to a given set of operating circumstances.
  • A plurality of organic semiconductor devices can be formed on a single substrate. If desired, and as depicted in FIG. 8, each such organic semiconductor device sharing a substrate can be protected by a common barrier layer [0032] 16. Such an embodiment can be used regardless of whether the devices themselves are interconnected or constitute discrete circuits or components. Or, if desired, some such devices can be protected by a barrier layer 16 and others can be left unprotected as illustrated in FIG. 9.
  • As noted earlier, the purpose of the barrier layer (or layers) is to protect the organic semiconductor material from significantly changing in response to environmental constituents. This tendency of organic semiconductor devices to fail after sufficient exposure to such influences, however, may under some circumstances be an exploitable tendency. For example, it may be desirable to limit the useful life of a given circuit or component to a particular time frame (one very simple example would be to use a time-limited circuit to indicate, by its operable status, passage of a predetermined period of time). With such designs in mind, a barrier layer [0033] 101 can be comprised, for example, of material that, while somewhat resistant to the passage of oxygen (or other substance of concern or interest) is nevertheless somewhat permeable to oxygen as illustrated in FIG. 10. As another approach, and as illustrated in FIG. 11, a material 111 that is otherwise substantially impermeable to oxygen (or other substance of concern or interest) can be deposited with small openings 112 disposed therethrough to allow a desired amount of oxygen to pass therethrough (such small openings 112 can be the result of the deposition process itself and/or can be subsequently formed through use of, for example, lasers, mechanical drills, and so forth). By using such a barrier layer, a sufficient amount of oxygen (or other substance of concern or interest) will eventually pass through the barrier layer and cause a corresponding failure of the encapsulated device as generally illustrated in FIG. 12. For example, a particular circuit could be fashioned that, after approximately 90 days, would likely fail due to impairment of the circuit's organic semiconductor material due to this cause. Such circuits, having a substantially controllable lifespan, could be used for a variety of purposes. The relatively low cost of such a circuit makes more reasonable the notion of fielding an intentionally fixed-duration circuit.
  • As described, the entire device is encapsulated within a partially permeable barrier layer. If desired, when a plurality of devices are present on a single substrate [0034] 10 as shown in FIG. 13, some of the devices can be encapsulated within a fully impermeable barrier layer 16 as described earlier while at least one of the remaining devices is encapsulated instead by a partially permeable barrier layer 131. Again, the purpose of such a configuration would be to provide a limited life circuit or circuit element that would likely fail after a reasonably predictable period of time. This failure mode could be detected by the remaining operable circuitry to effect a variety of responses as appropriate to a given application.
  • The embodiments discussed above provide an impermeable, or partially permeable, barrier to one or more environmental components. Another kind of substance is known as a getterer. As illustrated in FIG. 14, a getterer [0035] 141 will absorb rather than bar or pass a corresponding substance. Various getterers are known in the art and include H2O getterers (desiccants of various kinds) and oxygen getterers (so-called oxygen scavengers such as oxygen scavenging polyamides). Such a getterer 141 can be used as a layer around an organic semiconductor device as depicted in FIG. 15. So configured, the getterer 141 will absorb the corresponding environmental substance and protect the organic semiconductor material 14 until the getterer 141 becomes saturated. Once saturated, the getterer 141 will typically begin to release the previously absorbed substance. When this occurs the organic semiconductor material 14 will then react accordingly and the corresponding device will likely fail. So, again, a limited-life device can be enabled with the life expectancy being determined at least in part by the amount of absorbent material provided. If desired, and as illustrated in FIG. 16, a barrier layer 161 can be disposed over the exterior of the getterer 141 to provide additional protection. If the barrier layer 161 is of the type that allows some egress to the controlled substance, as depicted, then this attribute again becomes a parameter that can be utilized to achieve a device having a particular likely operative lifespan.
  • The various embodiments described above provide different ways to fully or partially protect an organic semiconductor device (or devices) from a variety of substances. Some organic semiconductor materials, however, may be sensitive to one or more bandwidths of light energy (including, in particular, violet and ultraviolet bands). Such materials may degrade when exposed to the corresponding light and such degradation may again lead to electronic failure of the device. The substance barrier or barriers (or getterers) described above may therefore also be fully or partially opaque to specific wavelengths of light energy to avoid or control performance degradation due to this contributing factor. Such light barriers can either be single-function in this regard or the desired opacity can be achieved with a dual-purpose barrier that also serves, for example, to block oxygen. A partially opaque light barrier may be used when seeking to provide a limited life device wherein the approximate lifespan of the device is at least partially controllable by appropriate selection of the barrier opacity. [0036]
  • The various embodiments described above provide different ways to fully or partially protect an organic semiconductor device (or devices) over a substantially determinable period of time (widely varying substance concentrations in the ambient environment will of course likely tend to lead to variability in the lifetime estimation as well). Fully or partially impermeable materials and/or getterers can be utilized to effect these embodiments. The various embodiments set forth are relatively inexpensive and do not add undue expense to detract from the already relatively low costs of working with organic semiconductor materials. These techniques are also workable with a variety of substrate materials. Furthermore, these embodiments are ready for immediate deployment and need not await future significant developments with respect to organic semiconductor materials themselves. [0037]
  • The embodiments described above present the various elements as being stacked in a particular order. Other orientations, however, are possible and acceptable (especially with respect to the device elements themselves). Furthermore, and as stated earlier, the MOSFET device has been used as an illustrative mechanism only. These embodiments are usable with virtually all other organic semiconductor device configurations as well. [0038]
  • A wide variety of materials can be used consistently with the above processes and embodiments. Furthermore, a wide range of processing parameters can be varied, including device size and constituent element sizes, to suit a wide variety of application requirements. Those skilled in the art will recognize that a wide variety of modifications, alterations, and combinations can be made with respect to the above described embodiments without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, and that such modifications, alterations, and combinations are to be viewed as being within the ambit of the inventive concept. [0039]

Claims (34)

    We claim:
  1. 1. An apparatus comprising:
    an organic semiconductor device containing at least some organic semiconductor material;
    an oxygen barrier disposed between the organic semiconductor material and local environment such that the organic semiconductor material is substantially protected from significant electrical performance degradation due to oxygen in the local environment.
  2. 2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the organic semiconductor device further includes a substrate and wherein the at least some organic semiconductor material is disposed overlying the substrate.
  3. 3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the substrate comprises a material that is substantially impermeable to oxygen.
  4. 4. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the substrate comprises a material that is permeable to oxygen.
  5. 5. The apparatus of claim 4 wherein the substrate has an oxygen barrier disposed thereon such that the organic semiconductor material is substantially protected from electrical performance degradation due to oxygen in the local environment that would otherwise permeate through the substrate.
  6. 6. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the oxygen barrier is comprised of an oxygen permeable carrier and an oxygen barrier material that is disposed on the carrier.
  7. 7. The apparatus of claim 6 wherein the oxygen permeable carrier comprises mylar and the oxygen barrier material comprises one of a metal and silica.
  8. 8. The apparatus of claim 6 and further comprising an adhesive material disposed between the oxygen barrier and the organic semiconductor material.
  9. 9. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the oxygen barrier is comprised of silica.
  10. 10. The apparatus of claim 9 wherein the silica is disposed on an oxygen permeable carrier layer.
  11. 11. The apparatus of claim 1 and further comprising an H2O barrier disposed between the organic semiconductor material and local environment such that the organic semiconductor material is substantially protected from significant electrical performance degradation due to H2O.
  12. 12. The apparatus of claim 11 wherein the H2O barrier is a barrier to both condensed and gaseous phase H2O.
  13. 13. The apparatus of claim 1 and further comprising a barrier that is opaque with respect to at least one wavelength of light energy and that is disposed between the organic semiconductor material and external light sources such that the organic semiconductor material is substantially protected from significant electrical performance degradation due to the at least one wavelength of light energy from external light sources.
  14. 14. A method comprising:
    providing at least one organic semiconductor device having at least some organic semiconductor material;
    disposing an oxygen barrier between the organic semiconductor material and local environment such that the organic semiconductor material is substantially protected from significant electrical performance degradation due to oxygen in the local environment.
  15. 15. The method of claim 14 wherein disposing an oxygen barrier includes disposing a film comprising a gas permeable carrier and an oxygen non-permeable layer.
  16. 16. The method of claim 14 wherein disposing an oxygen barrier includes disposing silica over the organic semiconductor material.
  17. 17. The method of claim 14 wherein disposing an oxygen barrier includes disposing a first layer comprising a gas barrier over the organic semiconductor material and a second layer comprising a condensed water barrier over the first layer.
  18. 18. The method of claim the 17 wherein disposing a first layer comprising a gas barrier over the organic semiconductor material and a second layer comprising a condensed water barrier over the first layer includes disposing an adhesive between the first layer and the organic semiconductor material.
  19. 19. The method of claim 14 wherein disposing an oxygen barrier includes disposing a first layer comprising a condensed water barrier over the organic semiconductor material and a second layer comprising a gas barrier over the first layer.
  20. 20. The method of claim 14 wherein providing at least one organic semiconductor device comprises providing at least a first and second organic semiconductor device and wherein disposing an oxygen barrier includes disposing a first oxygen barrier over at least a part of the first organic semiconductor device and disposing a second oxygen barrier over at least a part of the second organic semiconductor device, wherein the first and second oxygen barriers are different from one another.
  21. 21. The method of claim 20 wherein the first oxygen barrier is less impermeable to oxygen than the second oxygen barrier.
  22. 22. The method of claim 14 wherein disposing an oxygen barrier includes disposing an oxygen barrier between the organic semiconductor material and local environment such that the organic semiconductor material is substantially protected for a predetermined period of time from electrical performance degradation due to oxygen in the local environment.
  23. 23. The method of claim 22 wherein the predetermined period of time is less than 90 days.
  24. 24. An organic semiconductor assembly comprising:
    a substrate;
    at least one device comprising organic semiconductor material disposed on the substrate;
    environmental barrier means disposed over the organic semiconductor material for substantially preventing, for at least a predetermined period of time, oxygen in a surrounding environment from contacting the organic semiconductor material and causing significant electrical performance degradation of the device.
  25. 25. The organic semiconductor assembly of claim 24 and further comprising a plurality of devices comprised of organic semiconductor material and being disposed on the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier means are disposed over the plurality of devices.
  26. 26. The organic semiconductor assembly of claim 24 wherein the environmental barrier means includes a material that is substantially impermeable to oxygen.
  27. 27. The organic semiconductor assembly of claim 26 wherein the material that is substantially impermeable to oxygen has small openings intentionally disposed therethrough which openings are permeable to oxygen.
  28. 28. The organic semiconductor assembly of claim 24 wherein the environmental barrier means are effective for only a predetermined period of time to substantially prevent oxygen in a surrounding environment from contacting the organic semiconductor material and causing significant electrical performance degradation of the device.
  29. 29. The organic semiconductor assembly of claim 24 wherein at least one device comprised of the organic semiconductor material as disposed on the substrate does not have the environmental barrier means disposed thereover.
  30. 30. An apparatus comprising:
    an organic semiconductor device containing at least some organic semiconductor material;
    a getterer disposed between the organic semiconductor material and an external environment such that the organic semiconductor material is substantially protected from significant electrical performance degradation due to at least some contents of the external environment for at least some period of time.
  31. 31. The apparatus of claim 30 wherein the getterer comprises an H2O desiccant.
  32. 32. The apparatus of claim 30 wherein the getterer comprises an oxygen scavenger.
  33. 33. An apparatus comprising:
    an organic semiconductor device containing at least some organic semiconductor material;
    an H2O vapor barrier disposed between the organic semiconductor material and local environment such that the organic semiconductor material is substantially protected from significant electrical performance degradation due to H2O vapor in the local environment.
  34. 34. A method comprising:
    providing at least one organic semiconductor device having at least some organic semiconductor material, which organic semiconductor material is sensitive to at least one wavelength of light energy;
    disposing a barrier that is partially, but not wholly, opaque to the at least one wavelength of light energy between the organic semiconductor material and local environment such that the organic semiconductor material is substantially protected from significant electrical performance degradation due to the at least one wavelength of light energy for a period of time, but wherein the organic semiconductor material will eventually degrade due to the at least one wavelength of light energy.
US10114488 2002-04-02 2002-04-02 Encapsulated organic semiconductor device and method Abandoned US20030183915A1 (en)

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US8304990B2 (en) 2005-08-18 2012-11-06 Corning Incorporated Hermetically sealing a device without a heat treating step and the resulting hermetically sealed device
US8435604B2 (en) 2005-08-18 2013-05-07 Corning Incorporated Sealing technique for decreasing the time it takes to hermetically seal a device and the resulting hermetically sealed device
US7829147B2 (en) 2005-08-18 2010-11-09 Corning Incorporated Hermetically sealing a device without a heat treating step and the resulting hermetically sealed device
US7722929B2 (en) 2005-08-18 2010-05-25 Corning Incorporated Sealing technique for decreasing the time it takes to hermetically seal a device and the resulting hermetically sealed device
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US8435605B2 (en) 2006-11-30 2013-05-07 Corning Incorporated Flexible substrates having a thin-film barrier
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US8115326B2 (en) 2006-11-30 2012-02-14 Corning Incorporated Flexible substrates having a thin-film barrier
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