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US20020066121A1 - Whisker-mediated transformation of embryogenic cotton suspension cultures - Google Patents

Whisker-mediated transformation of embryogenic cotton suspension cultures Download PDF

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US20020066121A1
US20020066121A1 US09975238 US97523801A US2002066121A1 US 20020066121 A1 US20020066121 A1 US 20020066121A1 US 09975238 US09975238 US 09975238 US 97523801 A US97523801 A US 97523801A US 2002066121 A1 US2002066121 A1 US 2002066121A1
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sample
dna
plant
gene
expression
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Bridget Kosegi
Jeffrey Beringer
Asha Palta
Joseph Petolino
Raghav Ram
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Kosegi Bridget D.
Beringer Jeffrey R.
Palta Asha Mehra
Petolino Joseph F.
Raghav Ram
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/63Introduction of foreign genetic material using vectors; Vectors; Use of hosts therefor; Regulation of expression
    • C12N15/79Vectors or expression systems specially adapted for eukaryotic hosts
    • C12N15/82Vectors or expression systems specially adapted for eukaryotic hosts for plant cells, e.g. plant artificial chromosomes (PACs)
    • C12N15/8201Methods for introducing genetic material into plant cells, e.g. DNA, RNA, stable or transient incorporation, tissue culture methods adapted for transformation
    • C12N15/8206Methods for introducing genetic material into plant cells, e.g. DNA, RNA, stable or transient incorporation, tissue culture methods adapted for transformation by physical or chemical, i.e. non-biological, means, e.g. electroporation, PEG mediated
    • C12N15/8207Methods for introducing genetic material into plant cells, e.g. DNA, RNA, stable or transient incorporation, tissue culture methods adapted for transformation by physical or chemical, i.e. non-biological, means, e.g. electroporation, PEG mediated by mechanical means, e.g. microinjection, particle bombardment, silicon whiskers

Abstract

Embryogenic cotton suspension cultures can be transformed by elongated, needle-like structures called “whiskers”. The process comprises the agitation of cotton suspension cultures in the presence of DNA and whiskers, whereby DNA uptake and integration thereof is facilitated.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATION
  • [0001]
    This application claims priority from Ser. No. 60/239,511 filed Oct. 11, 2000.
  • FIELD OF INVENTION
  • [0002]
    This invention relates to a method of using elongated, needle-like microfibers or “whiskers” to transform embryogenic cotton suspension cultures.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    Until recently, genetically manipulated plants were limited almost exclusively to those events created by application of classical breeding methods. Creation of new plant varieties by breeding was reserved primarily for the most agronomically important crops, such as corn, due to the cost and time needed to identify, cross, and stably fix a gene in the genome, thus creating the desired trait. In comparison, the advent of genetic engineering has resulted in the introduction of many different heterologous genes and subsequent traits into diverse crops including corn, cotton, soybeans, wheat, rice, sunflowers and canola in a more rapid manner. However, the intergression of a new transgene into elite germplasm is still quite a laborious task due to the tissue culturing and back-crossing needed to produce a commercially viable, elite, line.
  • [0004]
    Several techniques exist which allow for the introduction, plant regeneration, stable integration, and expression of foreign recombinant vectors containing heterologous genes of interest in plant cells. One such technique involves acceleration of microparticles coated with genetic material directly into plant cells (U.S. Pat. No. 4,945,050 to Cornell; U.S. Pat. No. 5,141,131 to DowElanco; and U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,538,877 and 5,538,880, both to Dekalb). This technique is commonly referred to as “microparticle bombardment” or “biolistics”. Plants may also be transformed using Agrobacterium technology (U.S. Pat. No. 5,177,010 to University of Toledo, U. S. Pat. No. 5,104,310 to Texas A&M, European Patent Application 0131624B1, European Patent Applications 120516, 159418B1 and 176,112 to Schilperoot, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,149,645, 5,469,976, 5,464,763 and 4,940,838 and 4,693,976 to Schilperoot, European Patent Applications 116718, 290799, 320500 all to Max Planck, European Patent Applications 604662, 627752 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,591,616 to Japan Tobacco, European Patent Applications 0267159, and 0292435 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,231,019 all to Ciba-Geigy, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,463,174 and 4,762,785 both to Calgene, and U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,004,863 and 5,159,135 both to Agracetus). Another transformation method involves the use of elongated needle-like microfibers or “whiskers” to transform maize cell suspension cultures (U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,302,523 and 5,464,765 both to Zeneca). In addition, electroporation technology has been used to transform plant cells from which fertile plants have been obtained (WO 87/06614 to Boyce Thompson Institute; U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,472,869 and 5,384,253 both to Dekalb; U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,679,558, 5,641,664, WO9209696 and WO9321335 to Plant Genetic Systems).
  • [0005]
    Despite all of the technical achievements, genetic transformation and routine production of transgenic plants in a commercially viable, elite, germplasm is still a laborious task. For example, microparticle bombardment, while capable of being used either on individual cells, cell aggregates, or plant tissues, requires preparing DNA-attached gold particles and optimization of an expensive and not yet widely available, “gun” apparatus. Techniques involving Agrobacterium are extremely limited because not all plant species or varieties within a given species are susceptible to infection by the bacterium. Electroporation techniques are not preferred due to the extreme difficulties and cost typically encountered in routinely making protoplast from different plant species and tissues thereof and the concomitant low viability and low transformation rate associated therewith.
  • [0006]
    Heterologous DNA can be introduced into regenerable plant cell cultures via whiskers-mediated transformation. While a general description of the process can be found in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,302,523 and 5,464,765, both to Zeneca, no protocols have been published to date for whisker-mediated transformation of embryogenic cotton cultures.
  • [0007]
    WO 99/38979 describes whisker-mediated transformation of cotton callus, but does not disclose or suggest whisker-mediated transformation of embryogenic cotton suspension cultures.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0008]
    The present invention relates to the production of fertile, transgenic, Gossypium hirsutum L. plants containing heterologous DNA preferably integrated into the chromosome of said plant and heritable by the progeny thereof.
  • [0009]
    Another aspect of the present invention relates to Gossypium hirsutum L. plants, plant parts, plant fibers, plant cells, plant cell aggregates, and seed derived from transgenic plants containing said heterologous DNA. The invention produces the fertile transgenic plants described herein by means of whisker-mediated cell perforation and heterologous DNA uptake, said whisker-mediated cell perforation being performed on embryogenic cotton suspension cultures
  • [0010]
    Other aspects, embodiments, advantages, and features of the present invention will become apparent from the following specification.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0011]
    The following phrases and terms are defined below:
  • [0012]
    By “antisense” is meant an RNA transcript that comprises sequences complementary to a target RNA and/or mRNA or portions thereof and that blocks the expression of a target gene by interfering with the processing, transport, and/or translation of its primary transcript and/or mRNA. The complementarity may exist with any part of the target RNA, i.e., the 5′ non-coding sequence, 3′ non-coding sequence, introns, or the coding sequence. Antisense RNA is typically a complement (mirror image) of the sense RNA.
  • [0013]
    By “cDNA” is meant DNA that is complementary to and derived from a mRNA.
  • [0014]
    By “chimeric DNA construction” is meant a recombinant DNA containing genes or portions thereof from one or more species in either the sense or antisense orientation.
  • [0015]
    By “constitutive promoter” is meant promoter elements that direct continuous gene expression in all cell types and at all times (i.e., actin, ubiquitin, CaMV 35S, 35T, and the like).
  • [0016]
    By “cosuppression” is meant the introduction of a foreign gene having substantial homology to an endogenous gene, and in a plant cell causes the reduction in activity of the foreign gene and/or the endogenous gene product. Cosuppression can be sometimes achieved by introducing into said plant cell either the promoter sequence, the 5′ and/or 3′ ends, introns or the coding region of a gene.
  • [0017]
    By “developmental specific” promoter is meant promoter elements responsible for gene expression at specific plant developmental stages, such as in early or late embryogenesis and the like.
  • [0018]
    By “enhancer” is meant nucleotide sequence elements which can stimulate promoter activity such as those from maize streak virus (MSV), alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), alcohol dehydrogenase intron 1 and the like.
  • [0019]
    By “expression” as used herein, is meant the transcription of enzymatic nucleic acid molecules, mRNA, and/or the antisense RNA inside a plant cell. Expression of genes also involves transcription of the gene and may or may not involve translation of the mRNA into precursor or mature proteins.
  • [0020]
    By “foreign” or “heterologous gene” is meant a gene having a DNA sequence that is not normally found in the host cell, but is introduced by whisker-mediated transformation.
  • [0021]
    By “gene” is meant to include all genetic material involved in protein expression including chimeric DNA constructions, genes, plant genes and portions thereof.
  • [0022]
    By “genome” is meant genetic material contained in each cell of an organism and/or virus.
  • [0023]
    By “inducible promoter” is meant promoter elements which are responsible for expression of genes in response to a specific signal, such as: physical stimuli (heat shock genes); light (RUBP carboxylase); hormone (Em); metabolites, stress and the like.
  • [0024]
    By “modified plant” is meant a plant wherein the mRNA levels, protein levels or enzyme specific activity of a particular protein have been altered relative to that seen in an unmodified plant. Modification can be achieved by methods such as antisense, cosuppression, or over-expression.
  • [0025]
    By “plant tissues” is meant organized tissues including but not limited to meristems, embryos, pollen, cotyledons, germ cells, and the like.
  • [0026]
    By “promoter regulatory element” is meant nucleotide sequence elements within a nucleic acid fragment or gene which controls the expression of that nucleic acid fragment or gene. Promoter sequences provide the recognition for RNA polymerase and other transcriptional factors required for efficient transcription. Promoter regulatory elements from a variety of sources can be used efficiently in plant cells to express sense and antisense gene constructs. Promoter regulatory elements are also meant to include constitutive promoters, tissue-specific promoters, developmental-specific promoters, inducible promoters and the like. Promoter regulatory elements may also include certain enhancer sequence elements that improve transcriptional or translational efficiency.
  • [0027]
    By “tissue-specific” promoter is meant promoter elements responsible for gene expression in specific cell or tissue types, such as the leaves or seeds (i.e., zein, oleosin, napin, ACP, globulin and the like).
  • [0028]
    By “whiskers” is meant elongated needle-like bodies capable of being produced from numerous substances as described in “The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Seventh Edition, Ed. Arthur & Elizabeth Rose, Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York (1966). The invention is not meant to be limited to the material from which the whiskers are made but instead is meant to define a needle-like shaped structure wherein said whisker is smaller than the cell for which it is intended to be used in the transformation thereof. It is within the scope of this invention for whiskers to be shaped in a manner whereby DNA entry into a cell is facilitated. It is also intended that the scope of said invention include any material having a needle-like shape, said needle-like shaped material being able to perforate a plant cell with or without cell walls and thus facilitate DNA uptake and plant cell transformation. It is also intended that the scope of this invention not include microinjection techniques, such as wherein a DNA molecule is inserted into a cell by passing said DNA through an orifice intrinsic to a needle, said needle being first inserted into said cell. Preferably, whiskers are metal or ceramic needle-like bodies, with those most preferred being made of either silicon carbide or silicon nitride and being 30×0.5 μm to 10×0.3 μm in size.
  • [0029]
    By “whisker-mediated transformation” is meant the facilitation of DNA insertion into plant cells and/or plant tissues by whiskers and expression of said DNA in either a transient or stable manner.
  • [0030]
    In producing plant cell lines, tissues of interest are aseptically isolated and placed onto solid initiation medium whereby processes associated with cell differentiation and specialization occurring in organized plant cell tissues are disrupted, thus resulting in said tissues becoming dedifferentiated. Typically, initiation medium is solidified by adding agar or the like because callus cannot be readily initiated in liquid medium. Media are typically based on the N6 salts of Chu et al., (1978, Proc. Symp. Plant Tissue Culture, Peking Press, p 43-56) being supplemented with sucrose, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and in some cases, synthetic hormones. However, callus tissues can also proliferate on media derived from the MS salts of Murashige and Skoog, (1962 Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-497). Cultures are generally maintained in a dark, sterile environment at about 28° C.
  • [0031]
    The heterologous DNA used for transformation herein may be circular, linear, double-stranded or single-stranded. Generally, said DNA is a recombinant vector plasmid and contains coding regions therein which serve to promote expression of the heterologous gene of interest as well as provide a selectable marker whereby those tissues containing said gene can be identified. Preferably, these recombinant vectors are capable of stable integration into the plant genome where selection of transformed plant lines is made possible by having said selectable marker expression driven either by constitutive, tissue-specific, or inducible promoters included therein. One variable present in a heterologous DNA is the choice of the chimeric gene. Chimeric genes, either in the sense or antisense orientation, are expressed in plant cells under control of a constitutive, tissue-specific, developmental, or inducible promoter and the like. Preference for a particular chimeric gene is at the discretion of the artisan; however, chimeric genes can be, but are not limited to, those from plants, animals, or bacteria and the like and can used to express proteins either not found in a non-transformed cell or found in a transformed cell. Chimeric genes can be also used for, but are not limited to, up-regulation or down-regulation of an endogenous gene of interest. The chimeric gene may be any gene that it is desired to express in plants. Particularly useful genes are those that confer tolerance to herbicides, insects, or viruses, and genes that provide improved nutritional value or processing characteristics of the plant. Examples of suitable agronomically useful genes include the insecticidal gene from Bacillus thuringiensis for conferring insect resistance and the 5′-enolpyruvyl-3′-phosphoshikimate synthase (EPSPS) gene and any variant thereof for conferring tolerance to glyphosate herbicides. As is readily understood by those skilled in the art, any agronomically important gene conferring a desired trait can be used.
  • [0032]
    Another variable is the choice of a selectable marker. Preference for a particular marker is at the discretion of the artisan, but any of the following selectable markers may be used along with any other gene not listed herein which could function as a selectable marker. Such selectable markers include but are not limited to aminoglycoside phosphotransferase gene of transposon Tn5 (Aph II) which encodes resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin, neomycin and G418, as well as those genes which encode for resistance or tolerance to glyphosate; hygromycin; methotrexate; phosphinothricin (bialophos); imidazolinones, sulfonylureas and triazolopyrimidine herbicides, such as chlorsulfuron; bromoxynil, dalapon and the like.
  • [0033]
    In addition to a selectable marker, it may be desirable to use a reporter gene. In some instances a reporter gene may be used with or without a selectable marker. Reporter genes are genes which are typically not present in the recipient organism or tissue and typically encode for proteins resulting in some phenotypic change or enzymatic property. Examples of such genes are provided in K. Weising et al. Ann. Rev. Genetics, 22, 421 (1988), which is incorporated herein by reference. Preferred reporter genes include the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) of the uidA locus of E. coli, the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene from Tn9 of E. coli, the green fluorescent protein from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria, and the luciferase genes from firefly Photinus pyralis. An assay for detecting reporter gene expression may then be performed at a suitable time after said gene has been introduced into recipient cells. A preferred such assay entails the use of the gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) of the uidA locus of E. coli as described by Jefferson et al., (1987 Biochem. Soc. Trans. 15, 17-19) to identify transformed cells.
  • [0034]
    Another variable is a promoter regulatory element. In addition to plant promoter regulatory elements, promoter regulatory elements from a variety of sources can be used efficiently in plant cells to express heterologous genes. For example, promoter regulatory elements of bacterial origin, such as the octopine synthase promoter, the nopaline synthase promoter, the mannopine synthase promoter; promoters of viral origin, such as the cauliflower mosaic virus (35S and 19S), 35T (which is a re-engineered 35S promoter, see PCT/US96/1682; WO 97/13402 published Apr. 17, 1997) and the like may be used. Plant promoter regulatory elements include but are not limited to ribulose-1,6-bisphosphate (RUBP) carboxylase small subunit (ssu), beta-conglycinin promoter, phaseolin promoter, ADH promoter, heat-shock promoters and tissue specific promoters.
  • [0035]
    Other elements such as matrix attachment regions, scaffold attachment regions, introns, enhancers, polyadenylation sequences and the like may be present and thus may improve the transcription efficiency or DNA integration. Such elements may or may not be necessary for DNA function, although they can provide better expression or functioning of the DNA by affecting transcription, stability of the mRNA and the like. Such elements may be included in the DNA as desired to obtain optimal performance of the transformed DNA in the plant. Typical elements include but are not limited to Adh-intron 1, the alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein leader sequence, the maize streak virus coat protein leader sequence, as well as others available to a skilled artisan.
  • [0036]
    Constitutive promoter regulatory elements may also be used thereby directing continuous gene expression in all cells types and at all times (e.g., actin, ubiquitin, CaMV 35S, and the like). Tissue specific promoter regulatory elements are responsible for gene expression in specific cell or tissue types, such as the leaves or seeds (e.g., zein, oleosin, napin, ACP, globulin and the like) and may also be used.
  • [0037]
    Promoter regulatory elements may also be active during a certain stage of the plants' development as well as active in specific plant tissues and organs. Examples of such include but are not limited to pollen-specific, embryo specific, corn silk specific, cotton fiber specific, root specific, seed endosperm specific promoter regulatory elements and the like. Under certain circumstances it may be desirable to use an inducible promoter regulatory element responsible for expression of genes in response to a specific signal, such as: physical stimulus (heat shock genes); light (RUBP carboxylase); hormone (Em); metabolites; and stress. Other desirable transcription and translation elements functional in plants may also be used. Numerous plant-specific gene transfer vectors are known and available to the skilled artisan.
  • [0038]
    In whisker-mediated transformation, DNA uptake into plant material is facilitated by very small, elongated, needle-like particles comprised of a biologically inert material. When said particles are agitated in the presence of DNA and plant cell lines, one or more of the particles produce small punctures in the regenerable plant cell aggregates thereby allowing said aggregates to uptake the DNA. Cells which have taken up the DNA are considered to be transformed. Some transformed cells stably retain the introduced DNA and express it.
  • [0039]
    The elongated needle-like particles used in plant cell transformation are termed “whiskers” and are preferably made of a high density material such as silicon carbide or silicon nitride; however, any material having a needle-like structure wherein the size of said structure is smaller than the cell intended to be transformed is within the scope of the invention. More preferably, whiskers are made of silicon carbide and are either Silar SC-9 or Alfa Aesar as described herein.
  • [0040]
    For transformation, whiskers are typically placed in a small container, such as a conical or microfuge tube and the like, wherein is placed a mixture comprising the DNA construct of interest and embryogenic cotton suspension culture. Thereafter, the container is sealed and agitated. Unlike particles used in biolistic transformation of plant tissue (Sanford et al., 1990 Physiol. Plantarum, 79:206-209; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,100,712), whiskers do not require any special pretreatment with DNA carriers or precipitants prior to use such as CaCl2, spermidine, sheared salmon sperm DNA and the like.
  • [0041]
    Agitation time used in the transformation process can vary and is typically from between about 10 sec to about 160 sec. The amount of whiskers added per transformation can also vary from between about 1 mg to about 4 mg per tube. An inverse relationship is observed between the amount of whiskers added and the agitation time needed to obtain optimal transformation. Therefore, the amount of whiskers added and the agitation time needed to achieve transformation is determinable by one having skill in the art. In addition, the volume of liquid medium added can vary from about 200 μL to about 1000 μL, with about 200 μL being preferred. Moreover, the amount of heterologous DNA added can vary from a preferred amount of about 10 μL to about 100 μL of 1 mg/mL solution. The volume of DNA added is not as critical of factor to the invention as disclosed herein as the final DNA concentration. However, preferred final DNA concentrations are from about 0.03 μg/μL to about 0.14 μg/μL. The scope of the present invention is not intended to be limited to said container size, the amount or concentration of heterologous DNA added, the volume of heterologous DNA added, the amount of the liquid medium added, the amount of suspension culture added or the amount of whiskers added as disclosed herein. The scope of the invention is also not intended to be limited by the instrumentation used to agitate the mixture or whether agitation is accomplished by manual or mechanical means.
  • [0042]
    Once the plant cell lines have been perforated and the heterologous DNA has entered therein, it is necessary to identify, propagate, and select those cells which not only contain the heterologous DNA of interest but are also capable of regeneration. Said cells and plants regenerated therefrom can be screened for the presence or absence of the heterologous DNA by various standard methods including but not limited to assessment of reporter gene expression. Alternatively, transmission of a selectable marker gene along with or as part of the heterologous DNA allows those cells containing said DNA to be identified by use of a selective agent.
  • [0043]
    Selection of only those cells containing and expressing the heterologous DNA of interest is a critical step in production of fertile, transgenic plants. Selection conditions must be chosen in such a manner as to allow growth of transformed cells while inhibiting growth of untransformed cells, which initially, are far more abundant. In addition, selection conditions must not be so severe as to cause transformed cells to lose their plant regenerability, future viability or fertility. A skilled artisan can easily determine appropriate conditions for selecting transformed cells expressing a particular selectable marker by performing growth inhibition curves. Growth inhibition curves are generated by plotting cell growth versus selective agent concentration. Typically, selective agent concentrations are set at a concentration whereby almost all non-transformed cells are growth inhibited but yet are not killed. Preferred are selective agent concentrations wherein 90-99% of non-transformed cells are growth inhibited but yet not killed. Most preferred are selective agent concentrations wherein 97-99% of non-transformed cells are growth inhibited but yet not killed.
  • [0044]
    Transformed cells transferred and exposed to selective agents are generally incubated on solid or liquid medium supportive of growth. The medium preferred for each type of tissue has been well defined in the art. After initial exposure to selective agents, the cells are transferred periodically to fresh medium while maintaining selective agent concentrations. After transformed cell mass has essentially doubled in size, masses showing the most growth and appearing to be healthy are selected and transferred to fresh medium having selective agent concentrations wherein non-transformed cells will be killed. Repeated selection and transference of growing cells to fresh medium result eventually in a selected group of cells comprised almost exclusively of transformed cells containing the heterologous DNA of interest.
  • [0045]
    Regeneration, while important to the present invention, may be performed in any conventional manner available to the skilled artisan. If cells have been transformed with selectable marker gene, the selective agent may be incorporated into the regeneration media to further confirm that the regenerated plantlets are transformed. After subsequent weeks of culturing, regenerated plantlet immune to the selective agent can be transferred to soil and grown to maturity.
  • [0046]
    Cells and plant derived therefrom can be identified as transformants by phenotypic and/or genotypic analysis. For example, if an enzyme or protein is encoded by the heterologous DNA, enzymatic or immunological assays specific for the particular enzyme or protein can be used. Other gene products may be assayed by using suitable bioassays or chemical assays. Other techniques include analyzing the genomic component of the plant using methods as described by Southern ((1975) J. Mol. Biol., 98:503-517), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the like.
  • [0047]
    Plants regenerated from transformed cells are referred to as the R0 generation or R0 plants. Seed produced by various sexual crosses from plants of this generation are referred to as R1 progeny. R1 seed are then germinated to produce R1 plants. Successful transmission and inheritance of heterologous DNA to R1 plants and beyond should be confirmed using the methods described herein.
  • [0048]
    Particular embodiments of this invention are further exemplified in the Examples. However, those skilled in the art will readily appreciate that the specific experiments detailed are only illustrative of the invention as described more fully in the claims which follow thereafter.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • [0049]
    Initiation of Embryogenic Cotton Suspension Cultures
  • [0050]
    Embryogenic cotton suspension cultures were established from embryogenic callus, which in turn was derived from cotyledonary segments. Seeds of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were treated with 95% Ethanol for 1 minute, rinsed, and then surface-sterilized with 50% Clorox for 20 minutes. The seeds were washed 3 times with sterile distilled water and planted on MS medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) containing 2% sucrose and 0.8% Noble agar. The cultures were maintained at 28° C. in the light with a photoperiod of 16 hrs light and 8 hrs dark. Seven to ten days after germination, the cotyledon segments (3 mm square) were placed on callus induction medium (Finer, 1988). The callus was maintained on MS medium with 2 mg/l NAA, 1 mg/l Kinetin, 3% glucose, and 0.8% agar for 3 months with a transfer to fresh medium every 3 weeks. Embryogenic callus was obtained after 4 - 8 weeks culture on the basal agar media. Embryogenic suspensions were developed from the embryogenic callus tissue and were maintained in Ep media (MS salts, modified B5 vitamins, 4.42 mg/l 2,4-D and 2% sucrose. Subculture occurred every 14 days and was accomplished by pipetting 0.25 ml pcv (packed cell volume) into an autoclaved 125 ml flask (Bellco #2543-00125) containing 35 ml Ep media. The flask was then capped with a stainless steel closure (Bellco #2005-00025) and wrapped with Parafilm™. A variety of independently derived lines from genotypes GC 510, Coker 310, and Coker 312 were utilized in this work.
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • [0051]
    Construction of the Plasmids
  • [0052]
    The plant expression vector, pDAB219 (8008 bp), contained a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (Sanders et al., 1987.Nucleic Acids Res. 15(4) 543-1558) driving the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene described by Jefferson (1987, Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 5, 387-405). The transcription of the GUS gene was terminated by the 3′ end untranslated region (3′ UTR) of nopaline synthetase (NOS) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Bevan et al., 1983, Nuclei Acids Res. 11(2), 369-385). Vector pDAB219 also contained the 35S promoter driving the Streptomyces hygroscopicus bar gene that conferring resistance to herbicide bialaphos (Thompson et al., 1987, EMBO J. 6, 2519-2523). The transcription termination of the bar gene was terminated by NOS 3′ UTR. This cassette was located downstream of the GUS expression cassette. These 2 plant gene expression cassettes were harbored in the plasmid backbone of pUC19 (Yanish-Perron et al., 1985, Gene 33:103-119).
  • [0053]
    The plant expression vector p179-3, contained SuperMas1 promoter driving GUS. The transcription of GUS was terminated by NOS 3′ UTR. This expression cassette was harbored in the plasmid backbone of pUC19.
  • [0054]
    The plant expression vector pDAB418, contained a Ubi1 promoter from maize Ubiquitinl gene (Quail et al., 1989, U.S. Pat. No. 5,614,339) driving the GUS. The transcription of GUS was terminated by NOS 3′ UTR. Vector pDAB219 also contained the Ubi1 promoter driving the bar gene. Transcription of the bar gene was terminated by NOS 3′ UTR. The expression cassette was located on the downstream of the GUS expression cassette. Both expression cassettes were harbored in the plasmid backbone of pUC19.
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • [0055]
    Whisker Preparation and Optimization for Transient Expression
  • [0056]
    Embryogenic cotton suspension material was placed into liquid Ep media with osmoticants (36.4 g/l Mannitol and 36.4 g/l Sorbitol) and allowed to incubate on a rotary shaker at 150 rpm, at 28° C. in the light for approximately 4 hours. Ahead of time, a sterilized sample of silicon carbide whiskers was prepared as follows: A small hole was made in the top of a 2.0 ml Eppendorf tube and then covered with a piece of tape. The tube was weighed and 60-80 mg of dry whiskers (Advanced Composite, Greer, S.C.) were placed inside. [Note: Gloves and a respirator should be worn, and the transfer done in a fume hood with damp paper towels to immobilize any spilled whiskers.] The tube was weighed again, then placed in a Magenta™ box and autoclaved for 30 minutes. The pretreated embryogenic cotton suspension was divided into 0.125 ml packed cell volume (pcv) samples and placed into 17×100 mm culture tubes (Falcon 2059). Using a wide-bore pipette tip, 20 μg of DNA solution (1.0 μg/μl in TE buffer) was added along with 500 μl of liquid Ep media with osmoticants to each tube. Immediately before use, a 4% (i.e., 40 mg/ml) whisker suspension was prepared by adding an appropriate amount of liquid Ep media with osmoticants to an autoclaved whisker sample and vortexing for 60 seconds to mix thoroughly. Using a filtered wide-bore pipette tip, 100 μl of 4% whisker suspension was added to the cotton suspension/DNA mixture and agitated using a Caulk ‘Vari-Mix II’ dental amalgamator (Estrada Dental Co., Cucamunga, Calif.) modified to hold a 14 ml Falcon tube. Samples are agitated for 20 seconds on medium speed (setting 2). The embryogenic cotton suspension/DNA/whisker mixture was then transferred to fresh Ep media without osmoticants and was placed on a rotary shaker at 150 rpm at 28° C. in 16 hours of light.
  • [0057]
    For transient studies, GUS expression was analyzed by histochemical assay. The suspensions were allowed to recover for 2 days. Following the recovery period, the suspension tissue was placed into GUS assay solution and allowed to incubate in the dark for 48 hours at 37° C. After the GUS developed, the entire sample was pipetted onto a piece of filter paper upon which a grid has been drawn. The grid helps to keep track of which areas of the sample have been counted. The entire sample was examined and all blue expression units were counted, recorded, and analyzed.
  • [0058]
    Transient Results. Several transient experiments were done initially and throughout the project to establish favorable conditions for gene transfer. Six of the parameters tested yielded no significant differences in transient expression of the GUS reporter gene. A comparison of treatment vessels showed no significant difference between a 14 ml culture tube (Falcon 352059), a 6 ml culture tube (Falcon 352063), and a 2 ml Eppendorf tube (see Table 1). However, the highest Gus expression was obtained with 14 ml Falcon tubes and these were used in all subsequent experiments.
    TABLE 1
    Transient GUS Expression in Various Treatment Vessels
    Small
    Falcon Falcon
    Tube Tube Eppendorf Tube
    Cell Line (14 ml) (6 ml) (2 ml)
    C-49-B 89 297 152
    C-49-B 406 234 294
    C-49-B 470 225 134
    Mean GEUs 321.7 252.0 193.3
    Standard 166.6 32.0 71.6
    Deviation
  • [0059]
    Similarly, no significant difference was observed between 10 μg, 20 μg, and 30 μg of DNA added to each sample or between the high 2, medium 2, and low 2 settings for agitation speed on the Vari-Mix™ (see Tables 2 and 3 respectively).
    TABLE 2
    Transient GUS Expression Using Various Amounts of DNA
    Cell line 10 μg DNA 20 μg DNA 30 μg DNA
    C-49-B 887 981 615
    C-49-B 458 515 519
    C-49-B 296 433 363
    C-49-B 354 385 302
    Mean GEUs 498.8 578.5 449.8
    Standard 231.5 237.0 124.0
    Deviation
  • [0060]
    A comparison of three different agitation speeds on the Vari-Mix™ showed no significant difference among them. Zero DNA samples are controls, which are whisker treated but receive no DNA.
    TABLE 3
    Transient GUS Expression Using Various Amounts of a 4%
    Whisker Suspension
    50 μl 100 μl 200 μl 300 μl
    Cell line Whiskers Whiskers Whiskers Whiskers
    C-49-B 568 981 359 631
    C-49-B 506 515 905 921
    C-49-B 629 433 473 251
    C-49-B 286 385 429 990
    Mean GEUs 497.3 578.5 541.5 698.3
    Standard 129.5 237.0 213.8 291.2
    Deviation
  • [0061]
    [0061]
    TABLE 4
    Transient GUS Expression in Samples Agitated at Three
    Different Speeds
    Vari-mix speeds: Low 2 Medium 2 High 2
    sample 1 78 96 89
    sample 2 50 93 97
    sample 3 55 120 109
    sample 4 84 67 74
    sample 5 78 131 79
    sample 6 95 102 74
    Zero DNA 0 0 0
    Mean GEU's 73.3 101.5 87.0
    Standard Deviation 15.8 20.4 12.8
  • [0062]
    An osmotic solution is used in three different places in the transformation protocol. Tissue was pretreated in an osmoticant, 0.5 ml of osmotic solution added to each sample, and the whisker suspension was made up with osmotic solution. Three different osmotic solutions are compared in Table 5.
    TABLE 5
    Transient GUS Expression in Samples Treated with Three
    Different Osmotic Solutions
    Ep plus 36.4 g/l
    mannitol and 36.4 FGI-12% sucrose Ep plus 12%
    Sample # g/l sorbitol (Sunflower Media) sucrose
    sample 1 405 586 308
    sample 2 410 328 322
    sample 3 363 451 362
    sample 4 527 344 373
    sample 5 646 306 367
    sample 6 457 362 359
    sample 7 441 397 393
    sample 8 678 578 359
    sample 9 535 418 336
    sample 10 466 520 441
    Zero DNA 0
    Mean GEU's 492.8 429.0 362.0
    Standard 98.4 96.9 35.4
    Deviation
  • [0063]
    Ep is the standard growth and maintenance media for cotton suspensions. FGI is a similar liquid media with glutamine 15 and slightly higher concentrations of 2, 4 D. Two different osmotic pretreatment times were also tested. Table 6 summarizes the results of an experiment, which included three variables: suspension line and genotype, osmotic pretreatment time, and osmoticant. No differences could be seen between the osmoticants or the pretreatment times, however some differences could be seen between the two suspension lines used in this experiment. The suspension line C-49-B is from the GC 510 genotype and 58-C-BY is a Coker 310 line.
    TABLE 6
    Transient GUS Expression in Samples Treated with Two
    Different Osmotic Pretreatment Times
    58-C-BY tissue C-49-B 58-C-BY
    in Ep4-12% C-49-B tissue in tissue in tissue
    sucrose for 15 Ep + 12% sucrose EpO for in EpO
    Sample # min for 15 min 4 hrs for 4 hrs
    sample 1 150 203 162 44
    sample 2 39 124 153 53
    sample 3 70 88 140 86
    sample 4 39 95 139 49
    sample 5 108 74 183 57
    sample 6 64 117 79 73
    sample 7 68 118 160 65
    sample 8 37 140 156 35
    sample 9 78 87 189 37
    sample 10 54 128 246 35
    Zero DNA 0 0 0 0
    Mean GEU's 70.7 117.4 160.7 53.4
    Standard 33.5 34.9 40.3 16.3
    Deviation
  • [0064]
    Eight other parameters did yield significant differences in transient GUS expression between treatments. Table 7 illustrates a comparison of five different tissue amounts. It appears as though GUS expression falls off after 0.12 ml pcv, but when these data are expressed as the amount of GUS expression per 1 ml pcv of whisker treated suspension tissue, it can be seen that the two smallest tissue amounts yield roughly equivalent GUS expression. However, tissue amount is not as limiting a factor in these experiments as the number of samples that can be treated. The most important measure is the amount of GUS expression per sample. Therefore 0.12 ml pcv was the chosen amount of tissue.
    TABLE 7
    Transient GUS Expression in Two Experiments sing Various
    Amounts of Tissue
    1.0 ml 0.5 ml 0.25 ml 0.12 ml 0.06 ml
    Cell Line pcv pcv pov pcv pcv
    C-49-B 177 415 339
    C-49-B 147 149 232
    C-49-B 213 98 504
    C-49-B 117 268 175.5
    C-49-B 431 368 172
    C-49-B 209 285 156
    C-49-B 371 377 218
    C-49-B 400 216
    Mean GEUs 163.5 232.5 323.1 357.5 190.5
    Standard 35.6 122.1 113.4 43.5 27.1
    Deviation
  • [0065]
    A dramatic difference in transient expression was seen in a side by side comparison of SiC fibers produced by two different companies. Table 8 displays the results of an experiment comparing whiskers from Alfa Aesar with those from Advanced Composite.
    TABLE 8
    Transient GUS Expression Produced by Two Whisker Types
    Advanced
    Alfa Aesar Composite Alfa Aesar
    with 0.25 ml with 0.25 ml with 0.12 ml
    Cell line pcv pcv pcv
    C-49-B 190 471 103
    C-49-B 245 500 256
    C-49-B 149 638 200
    C-49-B 642 249
    Mean GEUs 194.7 562.8 202.0
    Standard 39.3 77.9 61.1
    Deviation
  • [0066]
    The device chosen to agitate samples also proved to be significant. A comparison of samples agitated in 14 ml culture tubes on the Vari-Mix™ and samples agitated in 2 ml Eppendorf tubes on a Vortex Genie 2® mixer with a TurboMix™ attachment (Scientific Industries, 70 Orville Drive, Bohemia, N.Y. 11716 USA) showed that the three dimensional motion of the Vari-Mix™ yielded markedly higher transient expression (see Table 9).
    TABLE 9
    Transient GUS Expression in Samples Agitated by Two
    Different Devices
    Van-Mix, 20 sec, Turbomix, 60
    Treatment Medium 2 sec, full speed
    sample 1 129 17
    sample 2 119 16
    sample 3 166 10
    sample 4 157 24
    sample 5 149 13
    sample 6 144 11
    Zero DNA 0 0
    Mean GEU's 144.0 15.2
    Standard 16.0 4.7
    Deviation
  • [0067]
    Shorter agitation times were found to be more effective than longer agitation times.
    TABLE 10
    Transient GUS Expression in Samples Agitated for Various
    Times
    Vari-mix times: 5 sec 20 sec 40 sec 60 sec
    sample 1 165 119 82 73
    sample 2 196 160 96 74
    sample 3 164 153 93 54
    sample 4 173 184 91 52
    sample 5 184 147 108 107
    sample 6 161 212 100 52
    Zero DNA 0 0 0 0
    Mean GEU's 173.8 162.5 95.0 68.7
    Standard Deviation 12.5 29.3 8.0 19.5
  • [0068]
    Another factor, which has great influence over transient GUS expression, is the cell line used in the transformation experiment. Four experiments were conducted to compare the transformability of several lines. Suspension lines with the prefix 57 are Coker 312 genotype and the prefix 58 designates a Coker 310 genotype. All other lines are GC 510 genotype. Each experiment consisted of six replicates and one negative control (to which no DNA was added). The transformation parameters were the same as those listed for the promoter comparison experiments. The second experiment (table 12) is a repeat of the first (table 11).
    TABLE 11
    Transient GUS Expression in Various Embryogenic Cotton
    Suspension Lines
    cell line 70-C-145 65-C-137 70-C-157 65-C-140 C-49-B
    sample 1 78 25 17 20 116
    sample 2 51 35 21 12 145
    sample 3 27 57 18 13 63
    sample 4 39 38 16 10 128
    sample 5 73 44 27 11 71
    sample 6 65 37 26 24 20
    Zero DNA 0 0 0 0 0
    Mean 55.5 39.3 20.8 15.0 90.5
    GEU's
    Standard 18.3 9.7 4.3 5.2 43.1
    Deviation
  • [0069]
    [0069]
    TABLE 12
    Transient GUS Expression in Various Embryogenic Cotton
    Suspension Lines
    cell line 70-C-145 65-C-137 70-C-157 65-C-140 C-49-B
    sample 1 40 55 118 14 101
    sample 2 71 65 103 8 122
    sample 3 54 39 94 23 214
    sample 4 67 65 118 14 121
    sample 5 82 45 105 6 190
    sample 6 73 30 122 15 164
    Zero DNA 0 0 0 0 0
    Mean GEU's 64.5 49.8 110.0 13.3 152.0
    Standard 13.8 13.0 10.0 5.5 40.6
    Deviation
  • [0070]
    [0070]
    TABLE 13
    Transient GUS Expression in Various Embryogenic Cotton
    Suspension Lines
    cell line C-49-B 78-C-252 58-C-BY 57-C-Z 70-C-159
    sample 1 0 99 64 103 47
    sample 2 0 113 90 84 34
    sample 3 0 122 89 70 32
    sample 4 0 120 108 64 73
    sample 5 0 81 131 16 19
    sample 6 0 65 115 84 47
    Zero DNA 0 0 0 0 0
    Mean GEU's 0.0 100.0 99.5 70.2 42.0
    Standard 0.0 21.0 21.5 27.2 16.9
    Deviation
  • [0071]
    [0071]
    TABLE 14
    Transient GUS Expression in Various Embryogenic Cotton
    Suspension Lines
    cell line C-49-B 70-C-159 C-57-BV 58-C-BQ
    sample 1 213 83 112 67
    sample 2 282 70 93 112
    sample 3 222 40 130 135
    sample 4 163 75 71 85
    sample 5 144 62 87 104
    sample 6 186 47 90 49
    Zero DNA 0 0 0 0
    Mean GEU's 201.7 62.8 97.2 92.0
    Standard 44.8 15.2 19.0 28.6
    Deviation
  • [0072]
    A post-treatment in an osmotic solution was tried as part of the recovery period. Results in table 15 show that no osmotic post-treatment is the most effective treatment. This experiment was conducted with a 15 minute pretreatment in Ep+12% sucrose.
    TABLE 15
    Transient GUS Expression in Samples Placed in Various
    Osmotic Post-treatments
    No Osmotic 1 hour Osmotic 3 day Osmotic
    Treatment: Posttreatment Posttreatment Posttreatment
    sample 1 493 221 404
    sample 2 460 151 273
    sample 3 505 378 270
    sample 4 625 342 468
    Zero DNA 0 0 0
    Mean GEU's 520.8 273.0 353.8
    Standard 62.4 91.3 85.3
    Deviation
  • [0073]
    Finally, a change in protocol yielded an increase in GUS expression in one transient experiment. The protocol change entailed a “one at a time” treatment whereby DNA was added to each tube last, that tube was agitated and the tissue returned to liquid Ep media, before DNA was added to the next sample and the process repeated.
    TABLE 16
    Transient GUS Expression in Samples Treated with a
    Modified Protocol
    “One at a Time”
    Sample # Standard Protocol Treatment
    sample 1 320 278
    sample 2 306 583
    sample 3 221 454
    sample 4 233 403
    sample 5 272 428
    sample 6 304 362
    sample 7 150 311
    sample 8 228 592
    sample 9 296 361
    sample 10 170 295
    Zero DNA 0 0
    Mean GEU's 250.0 406.7
    Standard 56.2 105.1
    Deviation
  • EXAMPLE 4
  • [0074]
    Stable Transformation and Regeneration of Transgenic Plants
  • [0075]
    Several selection strategies were employed to isolate transgenic tissue. The first gene used was the antibiotic resistance gene hpt, which confers resistance to hygromycin. This gene was driven by the maize Ubi1 promoter. Whisker treated tissue was selected in liquid Ep media containing hygromycin B (Calbiochem-Novabiochem Corporation La Jolla, Calif. 92039-2087) at 25, 50, and 75 mg/l. The selection was applied after a recovery period of 0, 2, and 7 days. The high number of escapes obtained combined with the undesirability of antibiotic resistance in a production system for commercial product lead to a switch to the Bar gene, which confers resistance to the herbicide Bialaphos. Both Bialaphos and Herbiace™ (Meiji Seika Tokyo, Japan), a commercial herbicide preparation containing 20% Bialaphos, were used in stable experiments. Controls have survived on 0.25 mg/l and 0.5 mg/l Bialaphos, while no controls have grown out on 1.0 mg/l Bialaphos. Bialaphos selection was also done in liquid Ep media after a variety of recovery periods (0, 2, 3, 7, and 10 days were tried).
  • [0076]
    Stable transformants were obtained from whisker treated embryogenic cotton suspension lines under two different selection systems. The first transformant was selected on hygromycin. Treated tissue was placed in Ep media immediately after transformation. Selection at 25 mg/l was added seven days after that. The first pieces of growing tissue were isolated four weeks after the date of transformation. This line was later grown successfully on 50 mg/l hygromycin. Table 17 summarizes the transformation parameters used to obtain this transformant (#9-21).
    TABLE 17
    Summary of Treatment Parameters which
    Produced One Hygromycin Resistant
    Suspension Line (#9-21)
    Osmotic treatment 4 hour pretreatment in Ep plus 36.4 g/l
    mannitol and 36.4 g/l sorbitol
    Tissue C-49-B (genotype GC 510) 0.125 ml
    pcv/sample
    DNA 10 μg of p 179-3 (SuperMas 1/GUS/nos)
    and 10 μg of Ubi/Hyg (DAS version)
    Whiskers 100 μl/sample of a 4% suspension of
    Advanced Composite whiskers
    Agitation 20 sec, Medium 2 speed on the Van-Mix
    Recovery Period 7 days
    Selection 25 mg/l hygromycin
  • [0077]
    Subsequent Southern analysis showed one hyrbridizing band confirming integration of the hygromycin resistance gene.
  • [0078]
    The second whisker transformed, embryogenic, cotton suspension line was selected on Herbiace™. Growing tissue was first isolated four weeks after transformation. Table 18 summarizes the transformation parameters for line #21-A. Histochemical GUS assay was positive after 11 weeks. Southern analysis confirmed the presence of GUS and bar genes. Plants were regenerated from the transformed embryogenic suspensions and were transferred to the greenhouse.
    TABLE 18
    Summary of Treatment Parameters which
    Produced One Herbiace ™ Resistant
    Suspension Line (#21-A)
    Osmotic treatment 4 hour pretreatment in Ep plus 36.4 g/l
    mannitol and 36.4 g/l sorbitol
    Tissue 58-C-BY (genotype Coker 310) 0.125 ml
    pcv/sample
    DNA 20 μg of pDAB219 (35S/bar::35S(GUS)
    Whiskers 100 μl/sample of a 4% suspension of
    Advanced Composite whiskers
    Agitation 20 sec, Medium 2 speed on the Vari-Mix
    Recovery Period 3 days
    Selection 5.0 mg/l Herbiace
  • [0079]
    Three more GUS positive suspension lines (#29-A, #30-A, and #30-B) were obtained, but have not yet been tested by Southern analysis. Tissue from line #29-A was isolated nine weeks after the date of transformation. A summary of experimental parameters is listed in Table 19. Lines #30-10 A and #30-B are from the same experiment (summarized in Table 20), but were isolated at different times. Line #30-A was isolated four and a half weeks after transformation and #30-B was isolated nine weeks after transformation. All transformed suspension lines have become well established and grow well in 5.0 mg/l Herbiace™. Lines #9-21 and #21-A have produced embryos and shoots.
    TABLE 19
    Summary of Treatment Parameters which
    Produced Herbiace ™ Resistant
    Suspension Line #29-A
    Osmotic treatment 15 min pretreatment in Ep plus 12% sucrose
    Tissue 78-C-252 (genotype GC 510) 0.125 ml
    pcv/sample
    DNA 20 μg of pDAB219 (35S/bar::35S/GUS)
    Whiskers 100 μl/sample of a 4% suspension of
    Advanced Composite whiskers
    Agitation 20 sec, Medium 2 speed on the Vari-Mix
    Recovery Period 2 days
    Selection 5.0 mg/l Herbiace
  • [0080]
    [0080]
    TABLE 20
    Summary of Treatment Parameters which
    Produced Herbiace ™ Resistant Suspension Line #30-A and
    #30-B
    Osmotic treatment 15 min pretreatment in Ep plus 12% sucrose
    Tissue 58-C-BY (genotype Coker 310) 0.125 ml
    pcv/sample
    DNA 20 μg of pDAB219 (35S/bar::35S/GUS)
    Whiskers 100 μl/ sample of a 4% suspension of
    Advanced Composite whiskers
    Agitation 20 sec, Medium 2 speed on the Vari-Mix
    Recovery Period 3 days
    Selection 5.0 mg/l Herbiace
  • [0081]
    Southern Blot Analysis
  • [0082]
    Genomic DNA from callus was extracted from lyophilized tissue using Plant DNA Easy Kit (Qiagen Inc., Chatsworth, Calif., USA). Five micrograms of cotton DNA samples were digested with EcoR I (NEB, Beverly, Miss., USA). The digested DNA was loaded onto a 0.85% SeaKem LE agarose (FMC, Rockland, Me., USA) gel and electrophoresed overnight. The gel was blotted onto a Millipore Immobilon-Ny+ (Bedford, Miss., USA) membrane overnight in 20×SSC. DNA fragments specific to GUS coding region and BAR coding region were isolated from plasmid pDAB219, using restriction enzymes Nco I/Sac I and Pst I/Bgl I (NEB, Beverly, Miss., USA). These fragments were purified using the Qiaex II DNA purification kit (Qiagen Inc., Chatsworth, Calif., USA). The probes were labeled with α32P dCTP (Amersham Life Science, Arlington Heights, Ill., USA) using the Stratagene Prime-it RmT dCTP Labeling Reaction Kit (La Jolla, Calif., USA) and used for hybridization (southern 1975, 1980). After hybridization, the membranes were washed in 0.1×SSC and 0.1% SDA for 30 min at 60° C. and exposed to Hyperfilm MP X-ray films (Amershan Life Sciences, Arlington Heights, Ill., USA), using a BioMax Transcreen-HE intensifying screen (Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y., USA). The films were developed in SRX-101 film processor (Konica, Wayne, N.J., USA) after overnight exposure at −70° C.
  • [0083]
    Southern hybridization results indicated that all four putative transgenic cotton suspension lines (21-C-5; 219-29-A; 219-30-A and 219-30-B) had intact GUS and BAR transgene.

Claims (4)

  1. 1. A method for transforming a cotton cell in an embryogenic cotton suspension culture which comprises:
    inserting DNA into said cell by whisker mediated transformation.
  2. 2. A method for producing a fertile transgenic plant which comprises regenerating a cell produced by the method of claim 1.
  3. 3. A method for producing a fertile transgenic plant comprising the steps of: (i) establishing an embryogenic cotton suspension culture; (ii) transforming at least one cotton cell in said suspension culture with DNA by whisker-mediated transformation; (iv) identifying transformed cell lines therefrom; and (iv) regenerating fertile transgenic plants therefrom.
  4. 4. A fertile transgenic plant produced by the method of of claim 3.
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US7622649B2 (en) 2006-12-22 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Lp Cotton variety STX0502RF
US7622651B2 (en) 2006-12-22 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Lp Cotton variety ST 4427B2RF
US7622650B2 (en) 2006-12-22 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Lp Cotton variety ST 5283RF
US7619144B2 (en) 2007-08-17 2009-11-17 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 02T15
US7619145B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-11-17 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 03Y056
US20090055948A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Curtis Williams Cotton variety 03y056
US7622657B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 05Z629
US20090055954A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Cynthia Green Cotton variety 05z629
US7622656B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 05Y063
US7622653B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 03Y047
US20090055949A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Curtis Williams Cotton variety 03y062
US7622654B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 03Y062
US20090055952A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Albert Santos Cotton variety 05x460
US7622655B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 04W019
US20090055951A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Robert Mcgowen Cotton variety 04w019
US7626097B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-12-01 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 05X460
US7709704B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2010-05-04 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 04T048

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US7166768B2 (en) 2007-01-23 grant
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US20030188333A1 (en) 2003-10-02 application
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WO2002031167A1 (en) 2002-04-18 application

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