US1990306A - Internal combustion engine - Google Patents

Internal combustion engine Download PDF

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Publication number
US1990306A
US1990306A US562938A US56293831A US1990306A US 1990306 A US1990306 A US 1990306A US 562938 A US562938 A US 562938A US 56293831 A US56293831 A US 56293831A US 1990306 A US1990306 A US 1990306A
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Prior art keywords
engine
member
means
clutch
gear train
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Expired - Lifetime
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US562938A
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Romeo M Nardone
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Eclipse Aviation Corp
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Eclipse Aviation Corp
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Priority to US562938A priority Critical patent/US1990306A/en
Priority claimed from US79335 external-priority patent/US2077253A/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02NSTARTING OF COMBUSTION ENGINES; STARTING AIDS FOR SUCH ENGINES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F02N19/00Starting aids for combustion engines, not otherwise provided for
    • F02N19/001Arrangements thereof

Description

Feb. 5, 1935. R. M. NARDONE I 1,990,306

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed Sept. 15, 1951 INVENTOR Pamea M A/arabne J M ATTORNEY Patented Feb. 5, 1935 UNITED STATES 1,990,306 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Romeo M. Nardone, Orange, N. J., assignor, by

mesne assignments, to Eclipse Aviation Qorporation, East Orange, N. J., a corporation of New Jersey Application September 15, 1931, Serial No. 562,938

16 Claims.

This invention,relates to internal combustion engines, and more particularly to starting mechanism for such engines. 4

An object of the invention is to provide in an engine starting mechanism, novel driving means interposed between the prime mover and the engine and adapted to protect the parts from injury in the event of excessive loads or shocks.

Another object of the invention is to provide means for starting an internal combustion engine through mechanism which normally functions with the engine to maintain the engine in eflicient operation, as distinguished from starting mechanism which disengage and become inoperative as, soon as the engine starts under its own power.

In the embodiment herein shown, the starting mechanism is of novel construction which utilizes the gearing normally employed for driving a supercharger, or compression-increasing mechanism, thereby making it unnecessary to provide separate speed changing mechanism for the sole purpose of starting the engine. It is to be understood however, that the invention may be utilized with other component engine parts in cases where a supercharger is otherwise actuated, or omitted; and that in its broad aspect, the invention contemplates the utilization of any engine operated part to which the prime mover of the starter may be directly connected, as distinguished from the use of starting mechanism which incorporates separate torque transmitting and engine-engaging mechanism.

Another object is to provide novel means for establishing a driving connection between the prime mover of a starting mechanism and a component part of the engine to be started, together with means for releasing such driving connection as soon as the engine becomes self-operat- Another object is to provide means operative upon the release of driving connection between the starter, prime mover and the engine proper to automatically establish driving connection between the engine proper and a component part thereof which is operated thereby during normal rotation of the engine. In the embodiment herein shown, such component part is in the nature of a supercharger or a compression-increasing device, but broadly considered, such component part may be a generator, oil pump, fuel pump, or other engine accessory.

A further object is to provide'engine starting mechanism embodying novel means including a plurality of mechanisms for drivably connecting the prime mover and engine proper, and for transferring the drive to some other component part of the complete engine after starting thereof.

Another object is to provide, in conjunction with an engine starter of the type adapted to turn over the engine accessories, novel clutch mechanism operable as a one way driving connection during the starting operation and thereafter capable of drivably connecting the engine proper with an engine accessory for transmission of torque in either direction. In this connection, a feature of the invention is the provision of a clutch of a novel construction, operable at first to drive in one direction and thereafter to drive in another direction.

A further object is to provide an inertia starter in which the engine engaging member and power energizing means are both normally disconnected from the inertia member, and in which the prime mover is adapted to be automatically connected to the inertia member in response to initial rotation thereof, while the engine is adapted to be drivably connected 'to the inertia member by manually operated means.

Another object is to provide novel operable means drivably connecting the starter to the engine proper, such means being adapted to effect such driving connection through actuation of a speed responsive clutch mechanism.

These and other objects of the invention will become apparent from inspection of the following specification when read with reference to the accompanying drawing wherein is illustrated the preferred embodiment of the invention. It is to be expressly understood, however, that the drawing is for the purpose of illustration only, and is not designed as adefinition of the limits of the invention, reference being had to the appended claims for this purpose.

In the drawing:

Fig. 1 is a central longitudinal section of one form of mechanism embodying the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a transverse sectional view of one of the clutch assemblies constituting part of the mechanism shown in Fig. 1, the view being taken along the line 22 of Fig. 1;

.Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary-detail of the clutch assembly shown in Fig. 2; and

Fig.4 is a section along line 4-4 of Fig. 2.

The illustrated embodiment of the invention comprises a housing indicated generally by reference character 1, the said housing being adapted'to be attached to a suitable mounting flange or bracket, not shown. of an internal combustion engine, the mounting means preferably being located at such position as to bring the engine cranking member 2 in coaxial alignment with the engine crankshaft or some member operatively suitable construction comprising preferably a series of radially disposed blades radiating from a hub 5 rigidly connected to a shaft 6 adapted to be actuated by the driving mechanisms to be described.

. The impeller 4 is indicated as mounted in a casing 8 of large diameter, the casing terminating in an annular enlargement 9 constituting a ring from which the air is compressed in passing through the impeller through suitable conduits not shown to the intake manifold of the engine. The starting mechanism preferably comprises, first, a prime mover such as an .electric motor whose casing 13 is adapted to be attached to the housing as indicated at 14, in a position to rotate about an axis at right angles to the axis of rotation of the propeller shaft 6, between which shaft and the motor 13, are provided novel driving connections adapted to be rendered operative auto matically in response to energ'ization of the motor.

The novel driving connections and operating means therefor, serving to establish operative relation between the motor 13 and gear 43, comprise preferably a set of bevel gears 16 and 17, the former being secured to the lower end of the armature shaft 18 and the latter being secured to the end of shaft 19 which as herein shown is in coaxial alignment with the propeller shaft 6 and is rotatably supported by a bearing 20 formed in the transverse supporting wall 21. As shown, the shaft 19 terminates in a threaded end 22 of considerably smaller diameter, on which end is threaded a cup member or retaining member 24 for a coiled spring 25, the opposite end of which engages and normally holds a clutch member 26 in the position indicated in Fig. 1. As shown, the clutch member 26 is mounted on the shaft 19 in threaded engagement with the thread 27 thereof, said thread being of a relative large pitch as a result of which construction, rotation of the shaft 19 causes an axial movement of the jaw member 26 into engagement with the complemental jaw member 29 riveted or otherwise suitably secured as indicated at 30 to a web 31 of a flywheel 32 constituting an inertia member of suitable mass to produce the desired inertia effect. The web 31 of the flywheel turns outward near the central portion thereof to form a hub 33 splined or otherwise suitably connected to a shaft 36 rotatably supported on bearings 37 mounted in a boss 40 formed on the casing 1.

One of the novel features of the invention resides in the means employed for drivably connecting the aforesaid shaft 36 with the engine-engaging member 2 while at the same time rendering ineffective the driving -connection between the latter and the supercharger shaft 6. As shown, such means comprises .an overrunning clutch mechanism of novel construction interposed between the shafts 36 and 6 and effective after starting of the engine, to transmit a driving torque from the engine to the supercharger. As best shown in Fig. 2, suclrmechanism comprises a toothed member or pinion 43 having cam surfaces 44 formed on the internal cylindrical surface thereof at equally spaced radial distances for the reception of rollers 45-which are thus interposed between the pinion and the forward end 46 of the propeller shaft 6.

A cage 47 surrounds and guides the rollers 45 while at one end of the cage are threaded or otherwise secured two or more. conical surfaced members 49 adapted to register with cam surfaces 50 in a control ring 51, the latter being pressed into or otherwise rigidly retained in the pinion 43. Normally, that is while the engine is in operation, the cage is urged to the left, as shown in the drawing (Fig.- 3) by spring 53, thereby moving the conical members 49 to the position shown in Fig. 3, in which position there is permitted'a slight relative movement of the cage and rollers, with respect to the control ring 51 and also with respect to the pinion 43. This movement permits rollers 45 to be carried into wedging driving relation with the sh'aft 46 in response to the application of driving torque to the teethof pinion 43in the manner to be described.

Associated with the novel overrunning clutch mechanism just described is an additional clutch mechanism adapted to render said first named clutch mechanism inefiective to drive the supercharger in response to rotation of the parts driven by the starting motor 13. As shown, such clutch mechanism is similar in construction to that indicated at 26 and 29 and involves a similar pair of complemental clutch members 60 and 61, the latter being drivably connected to, or as herein shown, constituting an integral extension of the pinion 43, while the former has a hub 59 threaded to the threaded portion 62 of the shaft 36 for longitudinal movement thereof in response to rotation of the shaft 36. When such meshing movement of the clutch member 60 occurs, it is evident that the cage 47 will be pushed to the right by the hub 59 of member 60, against the force of the spring 53 so that the conical members 49 willmake contact around the whole circumference ofcam surfaces 50 of the ring 51 as shown best in Fig. 4.' In this position the rollers 45 are held out of their wedging relation to the shaft 46, that is, in the neutral overrunning position indicated in Fig. 2. Thus the supercharger fails to respond to the energization of the motor 13, the drive being transmitted instead, to the engine crankshaft by way of the driving connections now to be described.

The means for establishing driving connection between the pinion 43 and the engine-engaging member 2 preferably includes a gear 67 adapted to mesh with the pinion 43 and constituting part of a centrifugal clutch mechanism. In the form shown, the centrifugal clutch mechanism includes a circular disc 70 rigidly affixed to, or, as herein shown integral with a shaft 71 to be further described; the disc 70 being disposed at substantially right angles to the axis of the shaft. The shaft 71 is rotatably supported near one end in a bearing 72 mounted in an apertured portionof the transversely disposed wall 21, and at its other, by a similar bearing 74 mounted in a hub 75 extending inwardly from the wall 76 ofthe supercharger casing. The shaft extends through a hub 78 of a member '79 which is rigidly secured to the gear 67 by suitable means such as bolt 80; the inner surface of hub 78 being rotatably supported on hearing 81 surrounding the extended end 82 of the sleeve 83 which fits within the hub 75 between said hub and the bearing 74, as indicated clearly in Fig. 1.v

to frictionally engage a portion of the disc '70 adjacent its periphery and to permit relative rotation therebetween so long as the clutch is in open position.

The frictional engagement of the clutch ele-' ments '7089 and 91' is obtained by means of pivoted bell crank levers 94-, the outer arms of which are enlarged to form centrifugal weights 93. Levers 94 are pivotally mounted on suitably journaled axles 95 carried by member 8'7. Means are of frictional pressure, one against the other, even when the weighted levers are in the clutch-releasing position shown in the drawing.

Any suitable number of weighted levers are employed to distribute the pressure uniformly about the clutch discs. The levers are normally held in clutch-releasing position by moving thrust bearing 98 to the right, as shown in Fig. 1, into engagement with the inner ends of the bell crank levers 94. Any convenient manual or power means may be employed for moving the bearing 98 into or out of contact with the levers. As shown, such means includes a sleeve 99 having a flange engaging the inner race of bearing 98 and a pin or slot connection 100 between sleeve 99 and a lever 101 having a hub for reception of a suitable operating shaft, as shown.

The preferred means for drivably connecting the shaft 71 with thecranking jaw 2 preferably comprises a spur gear reduction mechanism including a pinion 102 splined or otherwise suitably mounted on the end of shaft '71 for rotation therewith and held thereto by the provision of a suitable adjusting member such as the retaining plug 104 having a threaded shank 105 engaging the inner circumferential surface of the reduced end portion of hollow shaft 71. Meshing with the pinion 102 is a gear 106 drivably secured to a hollow shaft 107 by suitable splined or other equivalent connection as indicated at 108, the said shaft being rotatably supported on bearings 1'09 and 110 provided at the ends of the hub 111 formed in the end wall 112 of the casing 1, towhich end wall may be aflixed suitable means not shown, for attachment of the unit to the engine proper.

Prior to starting of the engine, the parts are at rest in the relative positions indicated in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 in which position the clutch members 26-29, 6061, and the centrifugal clutch are all in non-driving positions, while theroller clutch shown in Fig. 2 is under the influence of spring 53.

With the parts in these positions, when it is desired to start the engine, the motor 13 is energized, whereupon bevel gears 16 and 17 and shaft 19 are caused to rotate, thereby moving clutch member 26 into registry with the complemental clutch member 29 and establishing driving connection with the flywheel 32.. This .driving relation causes the flywheel to be accelerated to a relatively high speed so that when sufficient energy has been stored therein, such energy may be transmitted to the cranking member -2 to cause initial rotation of the engine crankshaft, the time of such transfer of torque to the member 2 being controlled by the operator who establishes the necessary driving connection by actuation of the yoke 101. Meanwhilerotation of flywheel 32 and shaft 36, connected thereto, has caused clutch member 60 to move to the right on threads 62; its rotary tendency being restrained by friction spring 118. This movement to the right drivably connects members 60 and 61 and hence drives gear 6''! through pinion 43. Thereafter the centrifugal clutch is caused to drivably connect the gear 67 with the engine cranking member 2 through actuation of the yoke 101 which acts to withdraw the thrust bearing 98 from blocking relation to the weights 93, thereby allowing them to move outwardly by centrifugal action to drivably connect the friction discs. After the engine has by this means been started, the resulting superior speed of the engine crankshaft will cause a return torque transmission by way of gears 106 and 102, shaft 71, and gears 67 and 43, whereupon the rollers 45 will be rendered operative to drive the shaft 46 underthe action of spring 53, as above explained, and hence the supercharger 5; the clutch operation being as above explained.

There is thus disclosed a novel compact apparatus which is eflicient in operation and which combines in a single unit the functions of starting the engine and maintaining proper supercharging action thereafter. For claims to the clutch elements per se or to combinations thereof, irrespective of the field of .use to which said parts are applied, reference is to be made to my co-pending application, No. 793 filed January '7, 1935.

What is claimed is:

1. In a device of the class described, a driving member, a driven member, means including a gear train drivably connecting said members, a third member adapted to be driven through said gear train, and means for rendering said gear train effective to drive said third member only after discontinuance of the drive from said first named member to said gear train.

2. In combination with an internal combustion engine, an engine starter drive adapted to be connected with and to crank the engine for starting the same, a plurality of clutch mechanisms interposed between said starter and member to be cranked, an auxiliary engine unit adapted to be driven-through said clutch mechanisms, and means co-axially disposed with respect to one of said clutch mechanisms for rendering the latter ineffective to drive said unit until the cranking operation is completed.

3. In combination, a member adapted for driving engagement with a member of the engine to be started, an auxiliary engine unit adapted to be driven by the engine through said first named member, an engine starter adapted to drive said first named member, and common means for drivably connecting said starter and first named member and for drivably connecting the-latter to said unit, said common means including a member operative to prevent actuation of the unit until deenergization of the starting device.

4. In a device of the class described, a driving member, a driven member, means including a gear train drivably connecting said members, a third member adapted to be driven through said gear train, means for rendering said gear train effective to drive said third member only after discontinuance of the drive from said first named member to said gear train, said last named means including an overrunning clutch mechanism, and means for rendering said clutch mechanism ineffective during the maintenance of said driving relation between said first named member and said gear train.

5. In a device of the class described, a driving member, a driven member, means including a gear train drivably connecting said members, a third member adapted to be driven through said gear train, means for rendering said gear train effective to drive said third member only after discontinuance of the drive from said first named member to said gear train, said last named means including a clutch mechanism mounted within one of the gears of said gear train, and means for rendering said clutch mechanism ineffective during the maintenance of said driving relation between said first named member and said gear train, said last named means comprising a clutch restraining member movable axially of said driving member in response to rotation thereof.

6. In apparatus of the class described, an engine starting member, an engine member, means including a gear train drivably connecting said members, an auxiliary engine unit adapted to be driven through said gear train, and means for rendering said gear train eflective to drive said unit only after discontinuance of the drive from said first named member to said gear train.

7. In apparatus of the class described, an engine starting member, an engine member, means including a gear train drivably connecting said members, an auxiliary engine unit adapted to be driven through said gear train, means for rendering said gear train elfective to drive said unit only after discontinuance of the drive from said first named member to said gear train, said last named means including a clutch mechanism mounted within one of the gears of said gear train, and means for rendering said clutch mechanism inefiective during the maintenance of said' driving relation between said first named member and said gear train.

8. In apparatus of the class described, an engine starting member, an engine member, means including a gear train drivably connecting said members, a supercharger adapted to be driven through said gear train, means for rendering said gear train effective to drive said supercharger only after discontinuance of the drive from said first named member to said gear train, said last named means including an overrunning clutch mechanism mounted within one of the gears of said gear train, and means-tor rendering said clutch mechanism ineffective during the maintenance of said driving relation between said first named member and said gear train, said last named means comprising a clutch restraining member movable axially of said driving member in response to rotation thereof.

9. In combination with an internal combustion engine, a starter for said engine, an auxiliary engine unit mounted adjacent said starter, means for operatively connecting the engine and auxiliary unit during the normal operation of the engine, and means eifective in response to energization of the starter for rendering said last named means ineffective to drive the auxiliary unit during the engine starting operation.

10. In combination with an internal combustion engine, a starter for said engine, said starter being normally disengaged from the engine, an auxiliary engine unit mounted adjacent said starter, means operatively connecting the starter and engine to impart rotary movement to the latter to facilitate starting thereof under its own power, and means for rendering said last named means effective to drive said auxiliary unit only after termination of the cranking operation.

11. In combination with an internal combustion engine, an auxiliary engine unit, a starting device for the engine, means including a clutch mechanism for drivably connecting the engine and auxiliary unit, means for maintaining said clutch mechanism in non-driving position during operation of the starting device, and. means operable automatically in response to starting of the engine under its own power to move said clutch mechanism into driving position.

12. In combination with an internal combustion engine, an auxiliary engine unit, a starting device for the engine, means including a reduction gear train for drivably connecting the starter to the engine and for establishing driving connection between the engine and said auxiliary unit, and means associated with said reduction gear train for rendering the latter ineffective to drive the auxiliary unit during operation of said starting device.

13. In combination with an internal combustion engine, an engine starter drive adapted to be connected with and to crank the engine for starting the same, a plurality of clutch mechanisms interposed between said starter and member to be cranked, an auxiliary engine unit, and

means for rendering one of said clutch mechanisms ineffective to drive said auxiliary unit until the cranking operation is completed.

14. In apparatus of the class described, an engine starting member, an engine member, means including a gear train drivably connecting said members, an auxiliary engine unit mounted on the engine, and means for rendering said gear train effective to drive said auxiliary unit only after discontinuance of the drive from said first named member to said gear train,

15. In a device of the class described, a driving member, a driven member, means including a clutch mechanism drivably connecting said members, a third member adapted to be driven through said clutch mechanism, and means for rendering said clutch mechanism effective to drive said third member only after discontinuance of the drive from said first-named member to. said clutch mechanism.

16. In combination with an internal combustion engine having a crank-shaft, a starting mo-' tor mounted adjacent said crank-shaft, a clutch normally connected to be driven from said crankshaft, means for holding said clutch disengaged during the starting process, said means being responsive to energization of said starting motor,

an auxiliary engine unit mounted in position to be driven from said crank-shaft, through the instrumentality of said clutch, and means responsive to the acceleration of the crank-shaft to disengage said holding means from said clutch and thereby render said clutch effective to drivably connect said crank-shaft and auxiliary unit.

ROMEQ M. NARDONE.

US562938A 1931-09-15 1931-09-15 Internal combustion engine Expired - Lifetime US1990306A (en)

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US562938A US1990306A (en) 1931-09-15 1931-09-15 Internal combustion engine
US79335 US2077253A (en) 1931-09-15 1935-01-07 Driving mechanism

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4503338A (en) * 1982-11-26 1985-03-05 Societe De Paris Et Du Rhone System for controlling the advance and rotation of the actuator of a starter for heat engine
US4884535A (en) * 1987-11-11 1989-12-05 Kioritz Corporation Starting system for internal combustion engine
US4930467A (en) * 1987-11-25 1990-06-05 Kioritz Corporation Internal combustion engine with automatic starter for portable working machine
US20060180130A1 (en) * 2005-02-14 2006-08-17 St James David Motor assisted mechanical supercharging system
US20080053417A1 (en) * 2006-08-31 2008-03-06 Eaton Corporation Supercharger drive system

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4503338A (en) * 1982-11-26 1985-03-05 Societe De Paris Et Du Rhone System for controlling the advance and rotation of the actuator of a starter for heat engine
US4884535A (en) * 1987-11-11 1989-12-05 Kioritz Corporation Starting system for internal combustion engine
US4930467A (en) * 1987-11-25 1990-06-05 Kioritz Corporation Internal combustion engine with automatic starter for portable working machine
US20060180130A1 (en) * 2005-02-14 2006-08-17 St James David Motor assisted mechanical supercharging system
US20080053417A1 (en) * 2006-08-31 2008-03-06 Eaton Corporation Supercharger drive system
US7621263B2 (en) * 2006-08-31 2009-11-24 Eaton Corporation Supercharger drive system

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