US1962756A - Gas burner - Google Patents

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US1962756A
US1962756A US636777A US63677732A US1962756A US 1962756 A US1962756 A US 1962756A US 636777 A US636777 A US 636777A US 63677732 A US63677732 A US 63677732A US 1962756 A US1962756 A US 1962756A
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fuel
chamber
burner
air
combustion
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US636777A
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Zander John
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D14/00Burners for combustion of a gas, e.g. of a gas stored under pressure as a liquid
    • F23D14/02Premix gas burners, i.e. in which gaseous fuel is mixed with combustion air upstream of the combustion zone
    • F23D14/04Premix gas burners, i.e. in which gaseous fuel is mixed with combustion air upstream of the combustion zone induction type, e.g. Bunsen burner

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  • the present invention relates generally to improvements in gas burners, and has particular reference to burners especially adapted for use in domestic gas ranges. 5
  • One of the primary objects of the present invention resides in the provision of a novel gas burner which is adapted to burn e'iciently all kinds of gaseous. or vapor fuels in common use.
  • a more specific object resides in the provision of a cracking chamber intermediate the main combustion chamber and the source of fuel where the air-fuel mixture is highly heated, partially burned and cracked in preparation for final combustion, thus insuring rapid and complete combustion. Further obj ects and advantages will become apparent as the description proceeds.
  • Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view, taken along line 1-1 of Fig. 2, of a gas burner embodying the features of the invention.
  • Fig. 2 is a plan view of the burner.
  • Fig. 3 is a fragmentary horizontal sectional view of the burner taken along line 3-3 of Fig. 1.
  • the burner constituting the preferred embodiment of the invention comprises generally a burner head 10, an inlet line, preferably in the form of a tube 11, connected to the head, and a suitable mixing device 12 for supplying an air-fuel mixture to the tube.
  • the mixing device 12 per se forms-no part of the present invention, and in the present instance is shown as comprising an air inlet housing 13 adjustably mounted on the inlet end of the tube 11.
  • the housing 13' has an end wall 14 formed with a central sleeve 15 and with avplurality of air inlet openings 16 spaced about the sleeve.
  • a suitable apertured damper plate 17 is ⁇ rotatably adjustable on the sleeve 15 against the Wall 14 55 to control the effective inlet area of the openings 16.
  • Mounted in the sleeve 15 is a fuel nozzle 18 having a jet orifice 19 opening axially into the tube 11.
  • a hand valve 20 adapted to be connected to a suitable source of fuel (not shown) is connected to the nozzle 18.
  • the fuel may be natural gas alone, or natural gas mixed with another gas such as manufactured gas, or air carburized with light oils, etc.
  • these various gases present Widely different burner requirements. Thus considerable difficulty is encountered in burning natural gas due to its slow rate of flame propagation.
  • natural gas is used alone or as a constituent of a mixed gas, adjustment of the burner for a long flame causes some partially unburned gas to leave the zone of combustion and lick around the vessel on the range, While adjustment for a shorter flame results in too much excess air and in a reduced volume of heat.
  • Prior burners are not capable of satisfactory regulation to render them universally adapted for all fuel gases.
  • the present burner head 10 has structural features and operating characteristics which overcome ⁇ the foregoing difficulties,V and which more particularlyrender the burner capable of burning efficiently any kind of available fuel gas. Hence, the entire heating value of the gas is made available for useful work.
  • the burner head 10 comprises a hollow body 21 which is preferably generally vertically cylindrical in form and the interior of which constitutes a fuel chamber 22.
  • the discharge end of the tube 1l is connected to the side of the body 21 in communication With the chamber 22.
  • a peripheral mounting flange 23 on the exterior of the body 21 intermediate its ends is 100 adapted to support the burner assembly on the range.
  • Extending upwardly and axially throughl and above the body 2l is an air tube 24 which renders the fuel chamber 22 annular in form.
  • a member 25 Mounted about the upper end of the body 21 105 is a member 25 defining an annular concentric cracking chamber 26 to which the air-fuel mixture from the fuel chamber 22 is discharged.
  • a pluralityA of closely peripherally spaced burner ports 2'/ are formed in the upper end of the pe- 110 ripheral wall of the body 21 to permit the discharge of fuel in an annular series of jets.
  • the ports 27 are arranged in a single row, with each port extending substantially radially but slightly inclined upwardly. and outwardly.
  • the member 25 may be varied in form, it is herein disclosed as a circular upwardly opening bowl having an upright peripheral wall and a flat bottom wall.
  • the latter is formed with a central opening 28 receiving the upper end of the body 2l, and is seated at the marginal edge of the-opening on a plurality of peripherally spaced lugs 29.
  • the opening 28 is made larger in diameter than the body 21, and the marginal edge thereof engages in notches 30 formed respectively in the upper outer edges of the lugs 29, thereby defining an annular inlet space.
  • the ports 27 is induced upwardly through the cracking chamber 26 during the operation of the burner.
  • the fiange 23 underlies the inlet opening 28, and
  • the air-fuel mixture is heated andpartially burned in the cracking chamber 26, and the heat generated thereby is mostly converted into radiant form, so as to create a preliminary zone of high temperature in which the mixture is prepared for final and complete combustion.
  • the interior of the member 25 is fully lined with refractory material 3l. Fitted tightly on the upper end of the tube 24 against the top of the body 21 is a small ring 32 of refractory material.
  • a disk 33 of refractory material sub.- stantially closing the; top of the cracking chamber 26 is mounted on the tube 24 against the top of the ring 32, and is formed in its periphery with a plurality of radial slots 34. terminating in circular openingsthrough which the flame of the burning fuel mixture is adapted to pass.
  • Refractory material is used to obtain the greatest possible degree of radiation. It will be understood, however, that any suitable heat resisting material may be employed.
  • the slots 34 while constituting fiame apertures also serve to-increase the surface area of the edge of the disk 33. It will be understood that the form of the disk 33, particularly at the periphery, may be varied, preferably to obtain the greatest available surface area for both heat absorption and emission.
  • the high temperature resulting from the radiant heat serves to effect cracking of the fuel into carbon dust and various hydrocarbon homologues before combustion is complete, and also serves to increase the rate of combustion thus insuring complete combustion and full utilization of the heat generated.
  • the flange 23 serves to prevent downward radiation of the heat from the interior of the cracking chamber 26.
  • the burner head -10 thus serves to convert the heat of combustion largely into radiant form.
  • both radiant and convected heat are applied to the vessel on the range.
  • the cracking chamber 26 intermediate the final combustion space and the source of fuel, and the supply of secondary airin two consecutive stages, one stage to support partial combustion in the cracking chamber and the other stage, including the air passing through thetube 2a with the atmosphere about the flame, to support final combustion, 'the fuel is burned in the presence 0f a high temperature without a long flame. Consequently, the vessel to be heated can be positioned closely to the top of the burner head 10, leaving only sufficient room for the products of combustion to escape, thereby resulting in the effective utilization of the radiant heat to produce a high degree of heat absorption.
  • the interception of combustion through chilling of the flame by cold outside surfaces, as is common with the long blue flame of prior burners, is not possible with the present radiant burner head.
  • burner head 'need not necessarily be ofthe circular type, but
  • a gas burner comprising, in combination, a hollow vertical cylindrical body defining a fuel chamber, a secondary air tube extending axially E05 through saidbody, means for supplying an airfuel mixture to said chamber, an annular ⁇ bowlshaped member mounted aboutsaid body and dening an upwardly opening annular cracking chamber therewith, theA inner periphery of said member being spaced from said body to define a secondary air inlet to said cracking chamber, the interior of said member being lined with radiant refractory material, said body being formed with a plurality of peripherally spaced ports opening from said fuel chamber to said cracking chamber, a refractory ring mounted on said tube against the top of said body, and a refractory disk mounted on said tube against the top of said ring and v overlying saidvcracking chamber, said disk being formed in its periphery with a plurality of fiame openings.
  • a gas burner comprising, in combination, a hollow body defining a fuel chamber, a secondary air tube extending vertically through said body, means for supplying an air-fuel mixture to said chamber, a bowl-shaped member surrounding said body and defining an upwardly opening A cracking chamber therewith, said member having an aperture' through which said body extends, 130 the edge of said aperture'being vspaced from said body to provide a secondary air inlet to said cracking chamber, the interior of said member being lined with radiant refractory material, said body having a plurality of ports opening from said fuel chamber to said cracking chamber, and a refractory disk surrounding said tube and overlying said-cracking chamber, said disk having a plurality of flame apertures opening from said cracking chamber.
  • a gas burner comprising, in combination, a vhollow body defining a fuel chamber, means for supplying an air-fuel mixture to said chamber, a bowl-shaped member of refractory material surrounding said body and forming a cracking chamber around said body, said body having a plurality of radial ports opening into the lower part of said cracking chamber, said member having an opening adjacent said ports to form a secondary air inlet to said cracking chamber, a cloamargas sure member of refractory material mounted within and adjacent the upper edgeoi said bowl-v shaped member and having a plurality oi iiame openings directly over the cracking chamber, and
  • a gas burner comprising, in combination, a bowl-shaped 'member of refractory material forming a cracking chamber, means positioned" ⁇ centrally of saidl chamber i'or projecting an air-- fuel mixture radially outward into said chamber, said member having an opening adjacent said means forming a secondary air inlet to said cracking chamber, means dening an upper wall for vsaid cracking chamber and having a plurality of annularly arranged flame apertures opening from said crackingchamber, and means ior supplying air centrally through said last-menondary air -to the 'Products issuing from said openings to complete the combustion thereof.

Description

,J. ZANDER June 12, 1934.
GAS BURNER Filed Oct. 8, 1952 GMW Patented June l2, 1934 UNITED STATES mais@ PAT i Claims.
The present invention relates generally to improvements in gas burners, and has particular reference to burners especially adapted for use in domestic gas ranges. 5 One of the primary objects of the present invention resides in the provision of a novel gas burner which is adapted to burn e'iciently all kinds of gaseous. or vapor fuels in common use.
Other objects reside in the provision of a new and improved gas burner. which converts a substantial portion of the generated heat into radiant heat, and which fully utilizes all of the heat both radiant and convected for useful work.
A more specific object resides in the provision of a cracking chamber intermediate the main combustion chamber and the source of fuel where the air-fuel mixture is highly heated, partially burned and cracked in preparation for final combustion, thus insuring rapid and complete combustion. Further obj ects and advantages will become apparent as the description proceeds.
In the accompanying drawing, Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view, taken along line 1-1 of Fig. 2, of a gas burner embodying the features of the invention.
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the burner.
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary horizontal sectional view of the burner taken along line 3-3 of Fig. 1.
While the invention is susceptible of various modifications and alternative constructions, I have shown in the drawing and will herein describe in detail the preferred embodiment, but it is to be understood that I do not thereby intend to limit the invention to the specific form disclosed, but intend to cover all modifications and alternative constructions falling Within the spirit and scope of the invention as expressed in the appended claims.
Referring more particularly to the drawing, the burner constituting the preferred embodiment of the invention comprises generally a burner head 10, an inlet line, preferably in the form of a tube 11, connected to the head, and a suitable mixing device 12 for supplying an air-fuel mixture to the tube.
The mixing device 12 per se forms-no part of the present invention, and in the present instance is shown as comprising an air inlet housing 13 adjustably mounted on the inlet end of the tube 11. The housing 13'has an end wall 14 formed with a central sleeve 15 and with avplurality of air inlet openings 16 spaced about the sleeve. A suitable apertured damper plate 17 is` rotatably adjustable on the sleeve 15 against the Wall 14 55 to control the effective inlet area of the openings 16. Mounted in the sleeve 15 is a fuel nozzle 18 having a jet orifice 19 opening axially into the tube 11. A hand valve 20 adapted to be connected to a suitable source of fuel (not shown) is connected to the nozzle 18. It will be evident that the jet of fuel from the nozzle 18 will induce a proportionate flow of primary air from the housing 13 into the tube 1l wherein the fuel and air will be intimately mixed. The air-fuel ratio may be varied by adjusting the damper plate 17. The volume of the air-fuel mixture supplied to the burner head 10 is under the control of the valve 20. A
Many kinds of fuel gas are now in common use.
Thus, the fuel may be natural gas alone, or natural gas mixed with another gas such as manufactured gas, or air carburized with light oils, etc. These various gases present Widely different burner requirements. Thus considerable difficulty is encountered in burning natural gas due to its slow rate of flame propagation. Where natural gas is used alone or as a constituent of a mixed gas, adjustment of the burner for a long flame causes some partially unburned gas to leave the zone of combustion and lick around the vessel on the range, While adjustment for a shorter flame results in too much excess air and in a reduced volume of heat. Prior burners are not capable of satisfactory regulation to render them universally adapted for all fuel gases.
The present burner head 10 has structural features and operating characteristics which overcome `the foregoing difficulties,V and which more particularlyrender the burner capable of burning efficiently any kind of available fuel gas. Hence, the entire heating value of the gas is made available for useful work.
Specifically, the burner head 10 comprises a hollow body 21 which is preferably generally vertically cylindrical in form and the interior of which constitutes a fuel chamber 22. The discharge end of the tube 1l is connected to the side of the body 21 in communication With the chamber 22. A peripheral mounting flange 23 on the exterior of the body 21 intermediate its ends is 100 adapted to support the burner assembly on the range. Extending upwardly and axially throughl and above the body 2l is an air tube 24 which renders the fuel chamber 22 annular in form.
Mounted about the upper end of the body 21 105 is a member 25 defining an annular concentric cracking chamber 26 to which the air-fuel mixture from the fuel chamber 22 is discharged. A pluralityA of closely peripherally spaced burner ports 2'/ are formed in the upper end of the pe- 110 ripheral wall of the body 21 to permit the discharge of fuel in an annular series of jets. Preferably, the ports 27 are arranged in a single row, with each port extending substantially radially but slightly inclined upwardly. and outwardly.
While the member 25 may be varied in form, it is herein disclosed as a circular upwardly opening bowl having an upright peripheral wall and a flat bottom wall. The latter is formed with a central opening 28 receiving the upper end of the body 2l, and is seated at the marginal edge of the-opening on a plurality of peripherally spaced lugs 29. To afford a primary inlet for secondary air of combustion, the opening 28 is made larger in diameter than the body 21, and the marginal edge thereof engages in notches 30 formed respectively in the upper outer edges of the lugs 29, thereby defining an annular inlet space. Thus, a substantial flow of secondary air nearly at right angles tothe fuel jets issuing from. the ports 27 is induced upwardly through the cracking chamber 26 during the operation of the burner. The fiange 23 underlies the inlet opening 28, and
. causes the secondary air to flow thereto in a tortuous path.
The air-fuel mixture is heated andpartially burned in the cracking chamber 26, and the heat generated thereby is mostly converted into radiant form, so as to create a preliminary zone of high temperature in which the mixture is prepared for final and complete combustion. To this end, the interior of the member 25 is fully lined with refractory material 3l. Fitted tightly on the upper end of the tube 24 against the top of the body 21 is a small ring 32 of refractory material. A disk 33 of refractory material sub.- stantially closing the; top of the cracking chamber 26 is mounted on the tube 24 against the top of the ring 32, and is formed in its periphery with a plurality of radial slots 34. terminating in circular openingsthrough which the flame of the burning fuel mixture is adapted to pass. Refractory material is used to obtain the greatest possible degree of radiation. It will be understood, however, that any suitable heat resisting material may be employed.
The slots 34 while constituting fiame apertures also serve to-increase the surface area of the edge of the disk 33. It will be understood that the form of the disk 33, particularly at the periphery, may be varied, preferably to obtain the greatest available surface area for both heat absorption and emission.
The high temperature resulting from the radiant heat serves to effect cracking of the fuel into carbon dust and various hydrocarbon homologues before combustion is complete, and also serves to increase the rate of combustion thus insuring complete combustion and full utilization of the heat generated. The flange 23 serves to prevent downward radiation of the heat from the interior of the cracking chamber 26.
'I'he flame of the partially burned and highly heated cracked air-fuel mixture passes from the chamber 26 upwardly about the disk 33 and through the openings 34 to the main combustion space above the burner head 10 where the combustion is quickly completed. A central stream of secondary air of combustion passes upwardly through the tube 24, and'in addition to supporting combustion also serves to keep the flame above the disk 33 spread apart. The free carbon dust resulting from thev cracking serves to make the flame semi-luminous.
The burner head -10 thus serves to convert the heat of combustion largely into radiant form. Hence, both radiant and convected heat are applied to the vessel on the range. By reason of the cracking chamber 26 intermediate the final combustion space and the source of fuel, and the supply of secondary airin two consecutive stages, one stage to support partial combustion in the cracking chamber and the other stage, including the air passing through thetube 2a with the atmosphere about the flame, to support final combustion, 'the fuel is burned in the presence 0f a high temperature without a long flame. Consequently, the vessel to be heated can be positioned closely to the top of the burner head 10, leaving only sufficient room for the products of combustion to escape, thereby resulting in the effective utilization of the radiant heat to produce a high degree of heat absorption. The interception of combustion through chilling of the flame by cold outside surfaces, as is common with the long blue flame of prior burners, is not possible with the present radiant burner head.
it will be understood that the burner head 'need not necessarily be ofthe circular type, but
may have any shape best adapted to the specific requirements of each installation.
i claim as my invention:
l. A gas burner comprising, in combination, a hollow vertical cylindrical body defining a fuel chamber, a secondary air tube extending axially E05 through saidbody, means for supplying an airfuel mixture to said chamber, an annular` bowlshaped member mounted aboutsaid body and dening an upwardly opening annular cracking chamber therewith, theA inner periphery of said member being spaced from said body to define a secondary air inlet to said cracking chamber, the interior of said member being lined with radiant refractory material, said body being formed with a plurality of peripherally spaced ports opening from said fuel chamber to said cracking chamber, a refractory ring mounted on said tube against the top of said body, and a refractory disk mounted on said tube against the top of said ring and v overlying saidvcracking chamber, said disk being formed in its periphery with a plurality of fiame openings.
2. A gas burner comprising, in combination, a hollow body defining a fuel chamber, a secondary air tube extending vertically through said body, means for supplying an air-fuel mixture to said chamber, a bowl-shaped member surrounding said body and defining an upwardly opening A cracking chamber therewith, said member having an aperture' through which said body extends, 130 the edge of said aperture'being vspaced from said body to provide a secondary air inlet to said cracking chamber, the interior of said member being lined with radiant refractory material, said body having a plurality of ports opening from said fuel chamber to said cracking chamber, and a refractory disk surrounding said tube and overlying said-cracking chamber, said disk having a plurality of flame apertures opening from said cracking chamber. 14
3. A gas burner comprising, in combination, a vhollow body defining a fuel chamber, means for supplying an air-fuel mixture to said chamber, a bowl-shaped member of refractory material surrounding said body and forming a cracking chamber around said body, said body having a plurality of radial ports opening into the lower part of said cracking chamber, said member having an opening adjacent said ports to form a secondary air inlet to said cracking chamber, a cloamargas sure member of refractory material mounted within and adjacent the upper edgeoi said bowl-v shaped member and having a plurality oi iiame openings directly over the cracking chamber, and
means for supplying secondary air to above'said iiame opening centrally within the areavdefined thereby. s
4. A gas burner comprising, in combination, a bowl-shaped 'member of refractory material forming a cracking chamber, means positioned"` centrally of saidl chamber i'or projecting an air-- fuel mixture radially outward into said chamber, said member having an opening adjacent said means forming a secondary air inlet to said cracking chamber, means dening an upper wall for vsaid cracking chamber and having a plurality of annularly arranged flame apertures opening from said crackingchamber, and means ior supplying air centrally through said last-menondary air -to the 'Products issuing from said openings to complete the combustion thereof.
' 'A JOHN zANDER.
US636777A 1932-10-08 1932-10-08 Gas burner Expired - Lifetime US1962756A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2638975A (en) * 1948-04-23 1953-05-19 Michael F Berry Combustion chamber for gaseous fuels
US3089538A (en) * 1958-08-26 1963-05-14 Johus Manville Fiber Glass Inc Apparatus for generating a high velocity hot gaseous blast
US20060147865A1 (en) * 2005-01-05 2006-07-06 Charles Czajka Cooking range burner head assembly
US20100154776A1 (en) * 2005-01-05 2010-06-24 Charles Czajka Cooking range burner head assembly

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2638975A (en) * 1948-04-23 1953-05-19 Michael F Berry Combustion chamber for gaseous fuels
US3089538A (en) * 1958-08-26 1963-05-14 Johus Manville Fiber Glass Inc Apparatus for generating a high velocity hot gaseous blast
US20060147865A1 (en) * 2005-01-05 2006-07-06 Charles Czajka Cooking range burner head assembly
US20100154776A1 (en) * 2005-01-05 2010-06-24 Charles Czajka Cooking range burner head assembly

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