US1949383A - Electronic device - Google Patents

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Publication number
US1949383A
US1949383A US42803830A US1949383A US 1949383 A US1949383 A US 1949383A US 42803830 A US42803830 A US 42803830A US 1949383 A US1949383 A US 1949383A
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Prior art keywords
bodies
body
specific conductivity
surfaces
electron
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Harold C Weber
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Industrial Development Corp
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Industrial Development Corp
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03FAMPLIFIERS
    • H03F3/00Amplifiers with only discharge tubes or only semiconductor devices as amplifying elements
    • H03F3/04Amplifiers with only discharge tubes or only semiconductor devices as amplifying elements with semiconductor devices only
    • H03F3/16Amplifiers with only discharge tubes or only semiconductor devices as amplifying elements with semiconductor devices only with field-effect devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/16Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising cuprous oxide or cuprous iodide
    • H01L21/161Preparation of the foundation plate, preliminary treatment oxidation of the foundation plate, reduction treatment
    • H01L21/167Application of a non-genetic conductive layer

Description

Feb. 27, 1934. c WEBER 1,949,383

ELECTRONIC DEVICE Filed Feb. 13 1930 Inventor.- Hamoid C. 4 6583,

Patented Feb. 27, 1934 UNITED I STATES PATENT OFFICE dustrial Development Corporation,

Salem,

Mesa, a corporation of Maine Application February 13, 1930. Serial No. 428,038

8Claima.

My invention, which relates to electronic devices having provision for controlling an electron stream, and which has among its objects the provision of a non-thermionic device of this character suitable for use under high-current, lowpotential electrical conditions, will be best understood from the following description when read in the light of the accompanying drawing of several modifications of the invention, the scope of the latter being more particularly pointed out in the appended claims.

In the drawing:-

Fig. 1 is an elevation of an electronic device constructed according to the invention;

Fig. 2 is a section on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a modified form of electronic device constructed according to the invention;

Fig. 4 is a schematic diagram showing the electronic device constructed according to Figs. 1 and 2 in a circuit for generating high-frequency electrical oscillations; and

Fig. 5 is a schematic diagram showing the electronic device constructed according to Figs. 1 and 2 connected for detecting high-frequency g5 electrical oscillations.

It is known that if a body of relatively high specific conductivity is positioned with one of its surfaces in very close proximity to the surface of a body of relatively low specific conductivity,

and said bodies are connected to opposite terminals of a source of electromotive force, an electron fiow will occur from the good conductor to the poor conductor.

Apparently, a body of conductive material is 5 surrounded by a field of electrons, this field being of minute thickness, and the intensity of the field being a function of the specific conductivity of the body. The necessary distance between the surfaces of two bodies of different specific conductivity to cause an electron flow apparently is in the order of that which will cause each body to be within the electron field of the other. Roughly speaking, under such conditions the bodies are almost in physical contact, yet are insulated from each other by the dielectric substance between them.

Conveniently, for spacing the surfaces of the two bodies, one of the bodies may be a metal capable of being coated by chemical treatment with a sulphide, oxide, or other insulating compound of the metal to produce an insulating film on its surface, say in the order of 0.00005 inch in thickness, while the other body may be a metal or compound of less specific conductivity than the first mentioned metal. As example;

of substances suitable, but without limitation thereto, the body of relatively high specific conductivity may be copper, and the body of less specific conductivity copper oxide (CuO) the two bodies being separated by a copper sulphide film formed on the surface of the copper. Other examples are magnesium and copper oxide bodies separated by a film of magnesium sulphide on the surface of the magnesium body, and silver and lead oxide with a surface of silver sulphide 05 on the silver.

Referring to Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawing, according to the present invention a disk 1 of material of relatively high specific conductivity, say copper with a film of copper sulphide formed on 7 its surface 3, may be placed in abutting relation with the corresponding surface of a disk 5 of copper oxide; the two bodies being held in assembled relation, and urged one toward the other, by a bow spring 7 or by other suitable means, which spring or means preferably is outside of the electron field in the space between the bodies. As shown. between the ends of the spring 7 and the respective bodies 1 and 5 are plates 9 of insulating material, as for example mica, while 30 between these plates and said bodies are plates 11 of conductive material, the latter formed to present terminal lugs 13 for connecting conductors to the two bodies. As shown (Fig. 2), one of the bodies, say the body 5 of copper oxide, has en- 5 graved on its surface which is in contact with the sulphide film on the body 3, a spiral groove 15, in which groove is laid a conductor 17, the latter being insulated from the two bodies, say by coating the conductor with a thin layer of go easily fused glass, insulating enamel, or other suitable insulation; and, when the two bodies are placed together, the conductor 17 then being substantially between the opposed surfaces of the two bodies and therefore substantially in the g5 electron field of said bodies, may be employed as an electron control element or grid.

In the modification of the invention shown by Fig. 3, two pairs of bodies 1 and 5 are provided, the bodies of the right and left hand pairs being [no separated by the hereinbefore mentioned film and having electron control elements or grids between their opposed surfaces, while the two middle bodies 1 and 5 are in actual physical and electrical contact. It will be understood that, 105 within limits, any desired number of bodies 1 and 5 may be employed, the result of increasing the number of bodies being to increase the potential of the electrical conditions under which it is necessary to operate the device.

Fig. schematically indicates the device of Figs. 1 and 2 connected for generating a highfrequency current. As shown, the bodies 1 and 5 are connected in series with a battery 19 and an 6 inductance 21, the latter being in inductive relation to an inductance 23. Opposite ends of the inductance 23, as shown, are connected respectively to the electron control element 17 and the body 5 of the electronic device, the particular body of the latter to which the return from the inductance 23 is made depending, if the return circuit is capable of conducting direct current, upon whether a positive or negative bias is desired on the electron control element. If no bias is desired it will be understood that a blocking condenser may be placed in the return from the inductance 23. With the circuit according to Fig. 4, a high-frequency oscillations will be set up in the inductances 21 and 23, the frequency of which may be varied by means of a variable condenser 27 shunted across the terminals of the inductance 23. Herein the coil 28 in inductive relation to the inductance 21 may be connected into the input circuit of the system to be supplied with the high-frequency oscillations generated.

It will be observed that, in the circuit shown by Fig. 4, the body 1 of relatively high specific conductivity and the body 5 of relatively low specific conductivity respectively form a cathode and anode, while the electron control element 17 being in a circuit which is in inductive relation to the circuit which includes said bodies causes an oscillating condition to be set up in a manner similar to that set up when a so-called three element vacuum tube is connected in a similar manner, the difference being that a three element vacuum tube, because of its high impedance, is necessarily limited to high-voltage, low-amperage conditions, say in the order of 150 to 400 volts at 50 milli-amperes, whereas the electronic device constructed according to the present invention has a low impedance permitting the amperage to be high and the voltage low, as for example the battery 19 may be in the order of from 1 to 25 volts, and the amperage in the order of from to 3 amperes.

In the arrangement schematically indicated by Fig. 5,'the electronic device is used as a so-called detector for high-frequency potentials impressed upon the electron control element 17. As shown, the positive terminal of a battery 29 is connected to the body 5 of relatively low specific conductivity, while the other terminal of the battery is connected to the body 1 of relatively high specific conductivity, so as to set up a variable or intermittent electron fiow from the body 1 to the body 5, and a current flow from the body 5 to the body 1, when the charge on electron control element 17 is varied or said element is intermittently charged and discharged. As shown, the electron control element 1'? is connected to one terminal of an inductance 31 which herein constitutes the input for a modulated high-frequency source of energy. As shown, a so-called grid leak and condenser combination 33 is provided for demodulating or rectifying the signal, it being understood however that this effect may be accomplished in other suitable ways known to the art with omission of the leak and condenser. A transformer primary winding 35 in the battery 29 circuit is in inductive relation to the secondary 37 of the transformer, the latter constituting the output for the detected amplified signal.

The necessary bias on the electron control element 1'7 may be secured by connecting the return of the electron control circuit to either the body 1 or body 5, depending on the voltage used and the rectification desired, or a so-called "C- battery" may be inserted in the grid circuit in the common manner. As shown, however, the return is made to the movable arm of a voltage divider 39 connected across the terminals of the battery 29.

By omission of the grid leak condenser combination 33 of Fig. 5, the circuit schematically illustrated by said figure may be employed as an amplifier for high-frequency currents within either the so-called radio or voice ranges, any suitable voltage bias when desired or necessary being applied to the grid or control element by the use of the expedients above mentioned, or in any other suitable way.

It will also be understood that the device may be used as an electric relay, in which case the current flowing in a battery circuit in which the two bodies of different specific conductivity are connected in series will respond to the potential impressed upon the electron control element.

It will be understood that the invention is not limited to the materials, constructions, or uses herein described, but that wide deviations from these may be made within the spirit of the invention.

I claim 1. A device of the character described having, in combination, bodies of different specific conductivity positioned with surfaces in such close proximity as to permit electron flow from the body of higher specific conductivity to the body of lower specific conductivity and means substantially between the opposed surfaces of said bodies for impressing electrical charges on the electron field in the space between said surfaces.

2. A device of the character described having, in combination, bodies of different specific conductivity positioned with surfaces in such close proximity as to permit electron fiow from the body of higher specific conductivity to the body of lower specific conductivity, and an electron control element of conductive material substantially between said surfaces and insulated from said bodies.

3. A device of the character described having, in combination, bodies of different specific conductivity having surfaces separated by a film of substance efiective to insulate one from the other and being in such close proximity as to permit electron fiow from the body of higher specific conductivity to the body' of lower specific conductivity, and a grid-like conductor substantially between said surfaces and insulated from said bodies.

4. A device of the character described having, in combination, a metal body having a surface coated with a film of insulating material, a body of less specific conductivity than said metal body having a surface abutting with said film, and conductive means forming an electron control element positioned substantially between said surfaces and insulated from said bodies.

5. A device of the character described having, in combination, bodies of different specific conductivity positioned with surfaces in close proximity, and an electron control element, one of said'surfaces being recessed for receiving said element.

6. A device of the character described having, in combination, bodies of different specific conductivity, one of said bodies being of metal and having a surface coated with an insulating film, the other body having a surface in contact with said film, means for holding said bodies in assembled relation under pressure effective to urge one body toward the other, a grid-like element of conductive material coated with an insulating film, one of said surfaces being recessed for receiving said element.

7. A device of the character described having, in combination, bodies of difierent specific conductivity positioned with surfaces in close proximity, one of said surfaces recessed to form a shallow spiral groove, a conductor coiled within HAROLD C. WEBER.

US1949383A 1930-02-13 1930-02-13 Electronic device Expired - Lifetime US1949383A (en)

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Cited By (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2517960A (en) * 1948-04-23 1950-08-08 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Self-biased solid amplifier
US2524035A (en) * 1948-02-26 1950-10-03 Bell Telphone Lab Inc Three-electrode circuit element utilizing semiconductive materials
US2524033A (en) * 1948-02-26 1950-10-03 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Three-electrode circuit element utilizing semiconductive materials
US2560579A (en) * 1948-08-14 1951-07-17 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Semiconductor amplifier
US2569347A (en) * 1948-06-26 1951-09-25 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Circuit element utilizing semiconductive material
US2575200A (en) * 1947-01-28 1951-11-13 Teszner Stanislas Ultrahigh-frequency pulse oscillator
US2579590A (en) * 1946-12-13 1951-12-25 Westinghouse Electric Corp Frequency modulator
US2585077A (en) * 1948-11-06 1952-02-12 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Control of impedance of semiconductor amplifier circuits
US2585078A (en) * 1948-11-06 1952-02-12 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Negative resistance device utilizing semiconductor amplifier
US2595497A (en) * 1949-01-22 1952-05-06 Rca Corp Semiconductor device for two-stage amplifiers
US2609428A (en) * 1949-08-31 1952-09-02 Rca Corp Base electrodes for semiconductor devices
US2612567A (en) * 1949-10-04 1952-09-30 Stuetzer Otmar Michael Transconductor employing field controlled semiconductor
US2623102A (en) * 1948-06-26 1952-12-23 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Circuit element utilizing semiconductive materials
US2648805A (en) * 1949-05-30 1953-08-11 Siemens Ag Controllable electric resistance device
US2666139A (en) * 1949-09-30 1954-01-12 Rca Corp Semiconductor relaxation oscillator
US2673948A (en) * 1948-08-13 1954-03-30 Westinghouse Freins & Signaux Crystal device for controlling electric currents by means of a solid semiconductor
US2691750A (en) * 1948-08-14 1954-10-12 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Semiconductor amplifier
US2758260A (en) * 1952-05-02 1956-08-07 Gen Electric Blocking rectifier circuit
US2780767A (en) * 1954-05-31 1957-02-05 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Circuit arrangement for converting a low voltage into a high direct voltage
DE966492C (en) * 1948-02-26 1957-08-14 Western Electric Co Electrically controllable switching element of semiconductor material
US2826725A (en) * 1953-11-10 1958-03-11 Sarkes Tarzian P-n junction rectifier
US2862107A (en) * 1951-04-06 1958-11-25 Gen Electric Means for and method of controlling the generation of x-rays
US2870046A (en) * 1955-02-04 1959-01-20 Monsanto Chemicals Electrical current rectifier
US2874325A (en) * 1952-02-05 1959-02-17 Ets Claude Paz & Silva Electrode for electric discharge apparatus
US2913642A (en) * 1953-05-28 1959-11-17 Rca Corp Method and apparatus for making semi-conductor devices
US2926296A (en) * 1954-10-27 1960-02-23 Honeywell Regulator Co Transistor inverter

Cited By (27)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2579590A (en) * 1946-12-13 1951-12-25 Westinghouse Electric Corp Frequency modulator
US2575200A (en) * 1947-01-28 1951-11-13 Teszner Stanislas Ultrahigh-frequency pulse oscillator
US2524035A (en) * 1948-02-26 1950-10-03 Bell Telphone Lab Inc Three-electrode circuit element utilizing semiconductive materials
US2524033A (en) * 1948-02-26 1950-10-03 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Three-electrode circuit element utilizing semiconductive materials
DE966492C (en) * 1948-02-26 1957-08-14 Western Electric Co Electrically controllable switching element of semiconductor material
US2517960A (en) * 1948-04-23 1950-08-08 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Self-biased solid amplifier
US2569347A (en) * 1948-06-26 1951-09-25 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Circuit element utilizing semiconductive material
US2681993A (en) * 1948-06-26 1954-06-22 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Circuit element utilizing semiconductive materials
US2623102A (en) * 1948-06-26 1952-12-23 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Circuit element utilizing semiconductive materials
US2673948A (en) * 1948-08-13 1954-03-30 Westinghouse Freins & Signaux Crystal device for controlling electric currents by means of a solid semiconductor
US2691750A (en) * 1948-08-14 1954-10-12 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Semiconductor amplifier
US2560579A (en) * 1948-08-14 1951-07-17 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Semiconductor amplifier
US2585078A (en) * 1948-11-06 1952-02-12 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Negative resistance device utilizing semiconductor amplifier
US2585077A (en) * 1948-11-06 1952-02-12 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Control of impedance of semiconductor amplifier circuits
US2595497A (en) * 1949-01-22 1952-05-06 Rca Corp Semiconductor device for two-stage amplifiers
US2648805A (en) * 1949-05-30 1953-08-11 Siemens Ag Controllable electric resistance device
US2609428A (en) * 1949-08-31 1952-09-02 Rca Corp Base electrodes for semiconductor devices
US2666139A (en) * 1949-09-30 1954-01-12 Rca Corp Semiconductor relaxation oscillator
US2612567A (en) * 1949-10-04 1952-09-30 Stuetzer Otmar Michael Transconductor employing field controlled semiconductor
US2862107A (en) * 1951-04-06 1958-11-25 Gen Electric Means for and method of controlling the generation of x-rays
US2874325A (en) * 1952-02-05 1959-02-17 Ets Claude Paz & Silva Electrode for electric discharge apparatus
US2758260A (en) * 1952-05-02 1956-08-07 Gen Electric Blocking rectifier circuit
US2913642A (en) * 1953-05-28 1959-11-17 Rca Corp Method and apparatus for making semi-conductor devices
US2826725A (en) * 1953-11-10 1958-03-11 Sarkes Tarzian P-n junction rectifier
US2780767A (en) * 1954-05-31 1957-02-05 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Circuit arrangement for converting a low voltage into a high direct voltage
US2926296A (en) * 1954-10-27 1960-02-23 Honeywell Regulator Co Transistor inverter
US2870046A (en) * 1955-02-04 1959-01-20 Monsanto Chemicals Electrical current rectifier

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