US1937514A - Cooling system for internal combustion engines - Google Patents

Cooling system for internal combustion engines Download PDF

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US1937514A
US1937514A US316861A US31686128A US1937514A US 1937514 A US1937514 A US 1937514A US 316861 A US316861 A US 316861A US 31686128 A US31686128 A US 31686128A US 1937514 A US1937514 A US 1937514A
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radiator
engine
cooling medium
pipe
vapor
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US316861A
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Clinton R Foutz
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Clinton R Foutz
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02NSTARTING OF COMBUSTION ENGINES; STARTING AIDS FOR SUCH ENGINES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F02N19/00Starting aids for combustion engines, not otherwise provided for
    • F02N19/02Aiding engine start by thermal means, e.g. using lighted wicks
    • F02N19/04Aiding engine start by thermal means, e.g. using lighted wicks by heating of fluids used in engines
    • F02N19/10Aiding engine start by thermal means, e.g. using lighted wicks by heating of fluids used in engines by heating of engine coolants

Description

Dec. 5, 1933.
c. R. FOUTZ COOLING SYSTEM FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Original Filed Nov. 2. 1928 r I l I l l l II W n WW0.
Patented Dec. 5, 1933 I UNITED STATES COOLING SYSTEM FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Clinton It. Foutz, Baltimore,'-Md.
Application November 2, 1928, Serial No. 316,861 Renewed February 23, 1933 12 Claims. (01. 123-474) This invention is directed to a cooling system for internal combustion engines, being more particularly directed to a means for selectively preheating the coollng medium to effect an unusually rapid warming up of the engine in the initial operation thereof.
Automotive engineers are universally agreed that a considerable proportion of the wear to which the parts of an internal combustion engine are subjected is occasioned while the engine is working substantially cold, that is from its initial start until the parts reach the proper working temperature, maintaining that if the engine parts could be heated to the desired working temperature before the engine was initially started, the effective use and life of the ordinary internal combustion'engine would be very materially increased.
The primary object of the present invention, therefore, is the provision of means whereby the cooling medium may be brought to a comparatively hgh temperature immediately following the initial operation of the engine, and delivered in this highly heated condition to the engine jackets for the purpose of substantially preheating the cylinder walls and adjacent parts and thus very rapidly bringing the engine to a heated condition consistent with the best working temperature to thereby avoid the wear on the operating parts incident thereto and improving the engine operating while cold, and further permitting the engine to develop its normal power in a very much shorter space of time than is required in the usual warming up process.
A further object of the present invention is to combine the preheating step involved in the present invention with the cooling system described more particularly in my co-pending application, Serial No. 292,991, filed July 16, 1928,
in which the cooling system is permanently closed against the admission of air and in which the system initiallyoperates as an aerated system and thereafter as a deaerated system and in which the vapor pressure incident to the gen- 5 eration of steam in the engine jackets is utilized as a pressure medium to control the circulatory speed of the cooling medium and to materially raise the boiling point of the cooling medium in thesrad'ator; and in which the vapor is condensed, with the condensate returned to the cooling medium under a suction induced by the circulation of that medium. In the adaptation of the cooling system described in my copending application above referred to, as such is presented in the present application, the condenser is formed as a central part of the radiator proper, a detail more particularly described and claimed in my co-pending application, Serial No. 308,299, filed September 25, 1928. t
A further object of the present invention is to utilize the vapor or steam of the water jacket as a heating medium for the interior of the vehicle up to a point of predetermined pressure of such steam or vapor, with means for permitting the vapor or steam under such predetermined pressure to reach the condenser for return to the cooling medium as a condensate in accordance with the disclosure in my co-pending application first above referred to.
A further object of the present invention is to provide for the automatic control of the preliminary heating of the cooli'ig medium whereby such cooling medium may be preheated or ad-' mitted to the water jackets of the engine without such preliminary heating, thereby providing for the rapid warming up of the engine and the subsequent interruption of the preliminary heating to permit the normal circulation of the, cooling medium as disclosed in the application first above referred to.
The invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawing, in which:
Figure 1 is a broken view in elevation, partly in section, illustrating the improved system, the engine and connected parts being shown in dotted outline.
Figure 2 is an enlarged sectional view, partly in'elevation, of the preliminary heater or regenerator, showing more particularly the means for controlling such preliminary heating.
Figure 3 is a view in section, partly in elevation, showing the radiator with the condenser element.
Figure 4 is a sectional view of the Venturi section for drawing the condensate from the lower condenser tank into the cooling medium circulation pipe. I
Figure 5 is a vertical sectional view of the valve for cutting out the regenerator.
In order that the present invention may be more thoroughly understood, the details of the co-pending applications above referred to will be first briefly described, it being understood that such details operate and are constructed substantially as described in the said co-p'ending applications, to which reference may be had for a more complete understanding oi. such parts.
Briefly, the said details include a radiator 1, which may be of conventional outline form, incl d g a upper tank 2 into which the return I pipe 3 from the engine Jackets and other parts to be cooled leads. The radiator also includes a lower tank 4 from which a pipe 5 extends to a mechanically driven pump 6 and from the pump 6 through a pipe 7 leading, as indicated in the said applications, to the engine jackets and like parts to be cooled.
The central section of the radiator 1 is formed as a condenser, indicated at 8, having an'upper tank 9 and a lower tank 10. The upper tank 9 of the condenser has an inlet pipe 11 and the lower condenser tank 10 has an outlet or condensate pipe 12. The condenser inlet pipe 11 is, in the system referred to in the above noted applications, in communication with the space in the upper radiator tank 2 above the level of the cooling medium therein through a pipe 13, and in this pipe is arranged a deaerating and safety valve 14, (though it may be elsewhere placed, as directly connected to the tank -2) by which, under certain conditions in the system, the contained air is eliminated during the operation of the system, with said valve also serving as a safety relief under undue and unusual pressure.
The condensate pipe 12 from the lower condenser tank 10 opens into a Venturi section 15 arranged in the pipe 5 leading from the lower radiator tank 4, so that the circulation of the cooling medium past the venturi creates a suction which causes the condensate tobe drawn into the cooling medium at this point. The radiator has the usual filling opening designed to be closed by a cap 16 in a manner to absolutely seal the filling opening against the admission of air, and as the valve 14 will not admit air to the system, it is apparent that the system when working is entirely closed against the admission of air.
In the applications referred to, the pipe '7 beyond the pump 6 is led directly to the water manifold by which the engine jackets and other parts to be cooled are served, and as ordinarily the cooling medium at this point is of lower temperature than at any other point in the system, it will be apparent that under the systems described in the aforesaid applications, the cooling medium, at least in the initial operation of the engine, is delivered in a comparatively cool condition and is only heated as the engine is heated in its continued operation.
The primary purpose of the present invention is to deliver the water from the pump, and which passes through the pipe '7, to the engine jackets and corresonding parts to be cooled, in a heated condition, with the heat derived from a source outside of the engine proper, so that, during the preliminary or warming up stage, the cylinder walls and cooperating parts are heated to a degree above that incident to'their natural operation at that time. Thus, the engine is quickly brought to substantially a normal working temperature, avoiding undue wear incident to the usual cold running during the warming up period, and the normal power of the engine developed in a very much shorter time than here-- tofore possible.
The preliminary heating of the cooling medium for the purposes mentioned consists in providing aregenerator for the cooling medium between the pump 6 and the cylinder jackets, such regenerator including a casing 17 of appropriate diameter and length in which is arranged a fire tubular heater or pipe coil 17 in open communication at one end beyond the casing with the pipe '7 and in open communication at the opposite end beyond the casing with a pipe 19 which leads to the water manifold of the engine. Thus, the cooling medium is compelled to travel through the coil or tubular heater 18.
One end of the casing 1'7 is connected through an appropriate coupling 20 with the exhaust manifold 21 of the engine, the opposite end of the casing being in open communication with the usual exhaust pipe 22 leading to the muffler. The exhaust gases from the engine are thus directed in intimate contact with the tubes or coil 18 and the cooling medium therein is very quickly brought to a high temperature and delivered in this heated condition to the water manifold for distribution in the cylinder and engine jackets.
Experience has demonstrated that the exhaust gases, being practically from the initial explosion of the engine at an extremely high temperature, the cooling medium will be very rapidly brought to a corresponding temperature, so that almost from the start of the engine, the cylinder walls and cooperating parts will be subjected to the heat of the cooling medium, with such heat at a temperature very materially above the normal temperature of such cylinder walls at that time.
As this heated condition of the cooling medium is maintained during the warming up period of the engine, it will be appreciated that the engine,
due to its internal heat to which is added the heat of the preliminary heated cooling medium, will be brought to a normal or substantially normal working condition in a comparatively few number of revolutions, thus not only shortening the warming up" period and developing the power of the engine in a very much less time than ordinarily employed, but more importantly saving a very material proportion of the wear and tear on the engine parts incident to the operation of the engine in a comparatively cold condition.
It will of course be appreciated that the preliminary heating of the cooling medium, that is the use of the regenerator, is not to be desired after the engine has reached a proper working temperature, except when a continuous excess of steam is required to be maintained for use in the heaters for heating the vehicle, and therefore means should be provided whereby the prelimi-- nary heating may be cut off at will. To secure this result, an exhaust by-pass 23 leads from the coupling 20 around the regenerator casing 17 to the exhaust pipe 22 beyond the casing. Mounted in the coupling 20, which is appropriately formed for the purpose, is a hollow piston, rotary or gate valve 24, the stem 25 of which extends through the casing and is connected to an L-shaped lever 26 appropriately mounted at 27 and designed to be operated through an appropriate conection (not shown) leading to a point within the reach of the driver.
A spring 28 is arranged between the coupling and head of the stem 25, the spring being tensioned to normally cause the gate valve to cut off communication between the exhaust manifold 21 and the regenerator casing 17, so that on release of the pull on the lever 26, the regenerator is automatically cut out of the system so far as any preliminary heating is concerned, With the valve 24 in registered position to cut out the regenerator, the exhaust gases pass through it into the by-pass 23 and into the exhaust pipe 22.
It is further desired to utilize the pressure of the exhaust gases as a means of cooling thetubes or coil 18 when the regenerator is cut out. To this end, the terminal of the by-pass 23 within the exhaust -pipe 22 is in the form of an ejector nozzle 29and the exhaust pipe section surrounding such nozzle is of the usual Venturi form, as at 80. At an appropriate point, preferably adjacent the inlet end, the casing 17 is formed with an opening 31 leading to the atmosphere and normally closed by a spring-pressed valve 32. With the exhaust gases passing through the nozsle 29, there is a tendency toward a reduction of pressure within the casing 17, with the effect to open the valve 32 inwardly and permit the admission of more or less cool air to surround and flow over the coil 18 or through the tubes, as will be apparent.
Another useful purpose accomplished by the air entering the regenerator is the muiiiing the explosions by maintaining a more steady or continuous flow of the gases. The entering air is always at such a materially lower temperature than the exhaust gases that in mixing in the vena contracta the latter are greatly reduced in temperature and volume, and though the total volume of entering air and exhaust gases may not be less, the flow through the exhaust pipe 22 will be a continuous stream and not a series of puffs. A cooling of the gases is likewise eiiected when the regenerator is in use, for the heat transferred to the cooling water by the hotter gases when passing through the tubes reduces their temperature and volume and thereby the explosive force and noise.
The present invention contemplates the use of the vapor or steam generated in the engine and cylinder jackets during the normal functioning of the cooling system as a means of performing a desired work or service beyond the engine. Such additional service is here shown as means for heating the interior of the vehicle on which the system is mounted. The vehicle heating elements proper are shown as a system of heating radiators 33 arranged at appropriate points in the vehicle and having an inlet service pipe 34 which communicates with the vapor pipe 13 immediately beyond the deaerating and safety valve 14. The return pipe from the heating radiators 33 is indicated at 35 and leads to and communicates with the condensate pipe 12 in advance of the Venturi pipe section 15.
Each heating radiator 33 has the usual valve 36 by which it may be cut out from the system and the heating system including all the radiators 33 has a steam supply pipe 34 controlled by a globe valve 38 so that the entire heating radiator'system may be cut out at will. The system contemplates the provision of heaters for passenger vehicles of the double deck type, as are frequently used, and to this end the pipe 34 is provided with an upstanding pipe section 37, suitably valve controlled, by which steam. may be led to the heaters of the upper deck. The drain pipe 35 from the radiators is provided with a non-return valve 39 and with a cut-off 40, a similar non-return valve 41 being located in the condensate pipe 12 between the lower condenser tank 10 and the Venturi tube section 15.
It is apparent from the above arrangement that the vapor generated in the cooling system may at will be directed through the heating radiators of the vehicle to furnish heat to the interior of the vehicle, and also that the return or drain from the heating radiators, such radiators acting as incidental condensers, will be delivered to the cooling medium through the Venturi tube section 15, so that in effect the heating radiators when operating serve to condense the vapor in the vapor space of the upper radiator tank 2, with heating radiators or the reduction in circula-.
tionof the heating medium therethrough, as may be desirable, in the particular instance, or for other reasons, the generation of vapor in the cooling medium incident to heat transference in the operation of the engine will be in excess of that necessary to or properly taken care of by the heating radiators 33 in use. Under these circumstances, provision is made for returning the excess vapor to the main condenser. -8.
In providing for this compensation," a pressure valve 42 of any appropriate type is arranged in the pipe 13 beyond the connection with such pipe of the heating radiator inlet pipe 34, or'in other words, the valve 42 is arranged between the juncture of the pipes 13 and 34 and the inlet pipe 11 to the condenser 8. Under excess vapor pressure in the system, the valve 42 opens to admit vapor to the condenser 8, and this condenser, either with orwithout the additional condensers provided in the heating radiators 33, serves to produce a condensation of the vapor in accordance with the necessities of the system and to permit the return of the condensate to the cooling medium. Of course, the valve 42 may be set for opening at any desired pressure and thus the utilization of the main condenserv 8 may be brought into the systemunder any desired vapor pressure.
It is to be understood that no attempt is made in this application to set forth the advantages or details of function or'operation of the cooling system described in the co-pending applications referred to, which cooling system is, however, the essential and underlying feature of the present invention. The present invention is directed to a means for preliminarily heating the cooling medium during the warming up period of theengine, or at any other desired periods, and alsothe utilization of the vapor generated in such cooling medium for extraneous work, as the heating of the vehicle, but the effective operation of these details which form a material part of the present invention is entirely dependent upon the system broadly described and claimed in the aforesaid applications and such a system is therefore to be considered a more or less material part of the present invention.
It is to be particularly noted that the regenerator illustrated in Figure 2 is in the form of a tubular heater including headers 45 defining a water space 46 between them through which a series of tubes 47 extend, with the tubes open beyond the headers to permit the exhaust gases to pass through said tubes. The cooling medium inlet and outlet pipes '7 and 19 communicate with the water space between the headers. The 1' with the inlet pipe '7 and outlet pipe 19, other conventional forms being also contemplated.
What is claimed to.be new is:
1. In a cooling system for internal combustion engines, means for utilizing the exhaust gases of the engine to preliminarily heat the cooling medium prior to its introduction into the water jackets oi' the engine, means for controlling said preliminary heating at will, and means for utilizing the exhaust gases to cause a cooling agent .to cool the cooling medium when the preliminary heating is cut oil.
2. A cooling system for internal combustion engines, including a radiator, a circulatory system, a pump therein, a condenser incommunication with a vapor space in the radiator above the level of the cooling medium therein, and means for directing the vapor from such vapor space through extraneous heating elementswherein throughv the heat exchange the vapor is condensed, and means for returning the condensate from the heating elements to the circulatory system, and means whereby vapor in excess of that for the extraneous heating elements may be delivered to the condenser for condensation and return to the circulatory system.
3. A cooling system for internal combustion engines, including a radiator, a circulatory system, a pump therein, a condenser in communication with a vapor space in the radiator above the level of the cooling mediumtherein, means for directing the vapor from such vapor space through extraneous heating elements, and a pressure responsive valveforadmitting said vapor to the condenser under a predetermined vapor pressure, and means whereby vapor in excess of that for the extraneous heating elements may be delivered to the condenser for condensation and return to the circulatory system.
4. A cooling system for internal combustion engines, including a radiator having a vapor space above the level of the cooling medium therein, a condenser in communication with said vapor space, a circulatory system for the cooling medium connected with the radiator, a pump in said system, a condensate pipe leading from the con-' denser, a Venturi tube section in the circulatory system in advance of the pump and in open communication with the condensate pipe, an extrane-,
ous radiator heater, a communication leading from the vapor space of the radiator to the radiator heater, and a return pipe from the radiator heater leading to said Venturi tube section.
5. A cooling system for internal combustion engines, including a radiator having a vapor space above the level of the cooling medium therein, a condenser in communication with said vapor space, a circulatory system for the cooling medium connected with the radiator, a pump in said system, a condensate pipe leading from the condenser, a Venturi tube section in the circula-.
tory system in advance of the pump and in open communication with the condensate pipe, an extraneous radiator heater, a communication leading from the vapor space of the radiator to the radiator heater, a return pipe from the radiator heater leading to said Venturi tube section, and means whereby the condenser is closed against said radiator vapor space until the vapor in said space has reached a predetermined pressure.
I 6. A cooling system for internal combustion engines, including a radiator having a vapor space above the level of the cooling medium therein, a condenser in communication" with said vapor space, a circulatory system for the cooling medium connected with the radiator, a pump in said system, a condensate pipe leading from the consystem in advance or the pump and in open communication with the condensate pipe, an extraneous radiator heater, a communication leading from the vapor space of the radiator to the radiator heater, a return pipe from the radiator heater leading to said Venturi tube section, and a pressure valve whereby the condenser isclosed against said radiator vapor space until the vapor in said space has reached a predetermined pressure.
7. In a cooling system for internal combustion engines, a radiator having a vapor space above the level of the cooling medium therein for the collection of vapor generated in the heat exchange between the engine ,parts and cooling medium, a circulatory system between the radiator and engine parts, a pump in said system, an extraneous radiator heater, a pipe communication between said vapor space and said extraneous radiator heater, a return pipe from said extraneous radiator heater to the circulatory system in advance of the pump, a condenser having a condensate pipe leading to the circulatory system in advance of the pump, and a communication between said vapor space and the condenser controlled by vapor pressure.
8. In a system for motor vehicles wherein provision is made for cooling the engine and heating the body of the vehicle, a cooling system including a radiator, a main condenser, a vapor space in the upper portion of the radiator for receiving the vapor generated in the cooling system by the heat of. the engine, said vapor space being in communication with the main condenser, a circulatory system for the cooling medium including direct connections with the radiator, means for introducing the condensate from the main condenser into said circulatory system, incidental condensers serving as vehicle heaters, a communication between the vapor space of the radiator and said incidental condensers, and means for introducing the condensate from the incidental condensers into the circulatory system.
9. In a system for motor vehicles wherein provision is made for cooling the engine and heating the body of the vehicle, a cooling system including a radiator, a main condenser, a vapor space in the upper portion of the radiator for receiving the vapor generated in the cooling system by the heat of the engine, a circulatory system for the cooling medium including direct connections with the radiator, means for introducing the condensate from the main condenser into said circulatory system, incidental condensers serving as vehicle heaters, a communication between the vapor space of the radiator and said incidental condensers, means for introducing the condensate from the incidental condensers into the circulatory system, and means for controlling communication between the vapor space and main condenser through the pressure of the vapor in said space.
10. In a system for motor vehicles designed for cooling the engine and for heating the body of the vehicle, comprising a circulatory system for the cooling medium, a radiator in said system, a radiator including a vapor space for the reception of vapor generated from the cooling medium by the heat of the engine, a main condenser arranged in and open to said vapor space, said main condenser being otherwise closed against the radiator, incidental condensers in the form of heaters arranged in the body of the vehicle, direct communication betweensaid vapor space and the inlets of said incidental condensers, and means whereby the condensate o! the main condenser and incidental condensers is returned to the circulatory system under the suction effect of the flow of the cooling medium in said system.
11. In a cooling system for internal combustion engines, a circulatory system for the cooling medium, a regenerator in the circulatory system, means whereby the exhaust gases from the engine may be directed through said regenerator for heating the cooling medium, means whereby said exhaust gases may be directed around said regenerator, manually operable means for controlling the path of the exhaust gases with respect to the regenerator, and a valve operative by the suction effect of the exhaust gases when passing around the regenerator to admit air to the regenerator.
12. In a cooling system for internal combustion engines, a circulatory system for the cooling medium, a regenerator in the circulatory system, means whereby the exhaust gases from the engine may be directed through said regenerator for heating the cooling medium, means whereby said exhaust gases may be directed around said regenerator, manually operable means for controlling the path of the exhaust gases with respect to the regenerator, and a valve operative by the suction effect of the exhaust gases when passing around the regenerator to admit air to the regenerator, the suction effect 01' the exhaust gases compelling a circulation of air admitted past said valve through the regenerator to cool the cooling medium.
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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2727692A (en) * 1950-07-19 1955-12-20 Daimler Benz Ag Heating unit for motor vehicles
FR2454518A1 (en) * 1979-04-17 1980-11-14 Berger Claude Stabilising circuit for engine cooling system - has finned heat exchanger around exhaust pipe with thermostat and secondary circuit leading to radiator
WO1986003719A1 (en) * 1984-12-17 1986-07-03 Robertson Francis E Self contained engine and cabin preheater
US4685430A (en) * 1985-03-20 1987-08-11 Valeo Motor vehicle exhaust gas heat exchanger for heating engine coolant and lubricating oil
US5551384A (en) * 1995-05-23 1996-09-03 Hollis; Thomas J. System for heating temperature control fluid using the engine exhaust manifold

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2727692A (en) * 1950-07-19 1955-12-20 Daimler Benz Ag Heating unit for motor vehicles
FR2454518A1 (en) * 1979-04-17 1980-11-14 Berger Claude Stabilising circuit for engine cooling system - has finned heat exchanger around exhaust pipe with thermostat and secondary circuit leading to radiator
WO1986003719A1 (en) * 1984-12-17 1986-07-03 Robertson Francis E Self contained engine and cabin preheater
US4685430A (en) * 1985-03-20 1987-08-11 Valeo Motor vehicle exhaust gas heat exchanger for heating engine coolant and lubricating oil
US5551384A (en) * 1995-05-23 1996-09-03 Hollis; Thomas J. System for heating temperature control fluid using the engine exhaust manifold

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