US1923169A - Shoe sole and method of making the same - Google Patents

Shoe sole and method of making the same Download PDF

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US1923169A
US1923169A US513629A US51362931A US1923169A US 1923169 A US1923169 A US 1923169A US 513629 A US513629 A US 513629A US 51362931 A US51362931 A US 51362931A US 1923169 A US1923169 A US 1923169A
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fabric
insole
strands
portion
woven
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US513629A
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Ralph C Simmons
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Emhart Enterprises Corp
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Emhart Enterprises Corp
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A43FOOTWEAR
    • A43BCHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF FOOTWEAR; PARTS OF FOOTWEAR
    • A43B13/00Soles; Sole and heel units
    • A43B13/14Soles; Sole and heel units characterised by the constructive form
    • A43B13/141Soles; Sole and heel units characterised by the constructive form with a part of the sole being flexible, e.g. permitting articulation or torsion
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A43FOOTWEAR
    • A43BCHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF FOOTWEAR; PARTS OF FOOTWEAR
    • A43B13/00Soles; Sole and heel units
    • A43B13/38Built-in insoles joined to uppers during the manufacturing process, e.g. structural insoles; Insoles glued to shoes during the manufacturing process
    • A43B13/383Built-in insoles joined to uppers during the manufacturing process, e.g. structural insoles; Insoles glued to shoes during the manufacturing process pieced

Description

' g- 1933- R. c. SIMMONS SHOE SOLE AND METHQD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed Feb. 5, 1931 VE/V 70/1 Patented Aug. 22, 1933 H ,ibzama snos sons AND METHOD or MAKING Tim 1 some 1 Ralph C. simmona lleverly, Masa, assignor to- United Shoe Machinery Corporation, Paterson, V N. 1., a Corporation of'New Jersey Applica ion February 5, 1931. Serial No. 513,029

a 21 Claims. (01. 36-1!) This invention relates to shoe soles and to methods of making the same.

1 It is desirable that'shoe soles. particularly the foreparts thereof, be flexible in the direction in s which they are bent in use and relatively stiff at,right angles. to that direction; that is, flexibility is desirable about axes extending laterally of the shoe sole and relative inflexibility about axes extending longitudinallyof the sole. bjects of thisinvention are to provide an improved sole having these characteristics and an improved method of making. such soles.

Theoabovevmentioned characteristics are particularly desirable in insoles for shoes in which the insoles. overlasted uppers andoutsoles are seeuredtogether within the area in which the three overlap, as is characteristic of throughand-through sewed shoes for example. In the manufacture. of such shoes, particularly light shots for women's wear, there has been a tendency, in order to secure the greatest possible flexibility in the shoe, to make the insole as light as possible and, in some cases, practically to eliminate the insole. However, decided advantages are to be gained by providing a shoe with a substantial insole having a shape and nze corresponding to the last bottom since it provides adequate substance to which the overlasted upper may be secured in lasted position; it takes the transverse strain of the lasted upper; it assists greatly in maintaining the shapeliness of. the shoe during wear by aflording support for the overlasted portion ofv the upper, thereby preventing the. upper from. drawing upwardly away from the outsole which results in a baggy and misshapen upper; it affords further protection for the bottom of the foot in addition to thatprovided by the outsole, so that inequalities i hesround are not so much felt by the foot; and it provides additional heat insulation, .thus making the shoe more comfortable in summer md in winter, V

-In view ofthe foregoing, further objects of 5 ma invention are to'provide an insole which will fulfill all theabove-mentioned requirements and which, at the same will provide maxi- "muin flexibility at the portion and in the directics in which an insole is flexed in wear, that 50 is, "about lateral axes adjacent to the ball line,

but will be relatively inflexible about axes exdesired.

operations involved in incorporating insole in a shoe. r

A feature of the invention consists in a sole for shoes consisting wholly or partly of a woven fabricflexible'to permitthe sole to be readily bent in the direction in which it is bent in walking and relativelyinflexible in another direction. The illustrated fabric has strands extending in one direction which are impregnated with a stiffening. material and strands extending at right angles to the flrst strandswhich are untreated with the stiffening material and hence are relatively flexible. his to be understood, of I course, that the strands of treated yarn may constituteeither'the warp or the fllling of the fabric.

Woven fabric of the type referred to may be produced bytreating yarn which is 'to'constituteo-the warp 'or filling of the fabric by subject-, ing it to the action of an impregnating bath containing a'stiffening agent and then weaving thefabric, employing for the filling or warp, respectively,- untreated V yarn. Preferably the stiffening agent employed is capable ,of' being rendered hard-and insoluble by suitable treatment after the fabric is woven, for example by subjecting it to a moderately high temperature. This method and the fabric produced thereby form the subjects m'atter' of a copendlng application filed by me February 5. 1931, Serial Number 513,628. In using this material in the manufacture of soles, it is desirable to cut the soles or parts thereof with the stiffened yarn or filling strands extending laterally of the sole, so that the sole will be limp in the direction in which it is bent in use and relatively still as to flexure about axes extending lengthwise of the sole.

While a textile fabric having a single ply may be successfully employed, it is preferable under most conditions to "employ a textile fabric of two or more plies. Accordingly, in the illustrated sole a fabric having two plies is shown.

It is within the invention, however, to' employ two or more layers of a single ply fabric if Under some conditions and for certain purposes the material thus produced may be employed to form an entire insole, the insole being cut or died out of the fabric.

Preferably and as illustrated, the novel fabric is employed to constitute a portion only of a composite insole, the ball portion being com-- posed mainly of the fabric having its stiflened. strands extending laterally of the insole and having the end portions composed of material longitudinal and transverse stiffness being desirable at these portions of the insole. As illustrated. the rear part of the insole, constituting the shank and heel portion, and the toe portion comprise pieces of leather, ieatherboard or fiberboard skired at their inner ends and overfortable to the foot andprovides a soft napped' surface in which through and-through stitches,

if employed. may be embedded.

One practical method of making the insole is as follows: A piece of napped fabric as large as the insole .to be made is laid nap down 'on a suitable support. the back or upper face of the fabric having been coated with a suitable cement and allowed to dry. piece of the above-described woven fabric, which is stiff transversely and limp longitudinally, large v enough to reach from the tip line to the balllineis treated with cement on one face and impregnated with cement. at its'front and rear marginal portions. After the cement is dry, the piece of fabric is laid upon that portion of the base layer of nappedfabric which is to constitute the forepart of the insole from tip line to ball'line. The pieces 'of. leather, leather-board, or fiberboard which are to'constitute the end portions of the insole are treated on one face. and ;on their skived portions with cement which is allowed to dry. The end portions are then laid upon the end portions of the base layer with. their skived edges overlapping the cement-impregnated end portions of. the transversely stiff fabric piece, the cemented surfaces being in contact with the base layer. The materials thus assembled are then subjected to pressure, for example, between the rolls, the cemented surfaces of the .parts being thus caused to adhere. The materials thus united are then died or rounded to the shape and size desired for the insole. i

One cement suitable for use as above v described is water-dispersed rubber cement or latex, since, by the use of this cement, the surfaces may be coated and allowed to dry and then caused to. adhere by pressure; that is, the dry cement is pressure sensitive. The abovedescribed method 'results in joints of uniform thickness between the relatively incompressible skived portions of the end pieces and the relatively compressible end portions of the fabric .for the reason that the latex impregnated end portions of the fabric are compressed by the pres.- sure applied to the skived portions of the end pieces and retain the shape given to them by pressure after the pressure has been released; that is, the pressure applied causes the skived portions of the end pieces to compress the impregnated end portions of the fabric which, because of the rubber particles between their fibers, retain pressure.

Inthedrawing, Flgl'l represents an insole made in accordance with the present invention;

Fig. 2'is an enlarged sectional view of a. pertioirof the insole shown in Fig. 1; and

theshape given to them by the I which are phenol condensation products, Du-

Condensite and Redmanol" such as leather, leatherboard or fiberboard, both Fig. 3 is an enlarged perspective view; partly broken away, of a portion of the insole illustrated in Fig. 2.

The novel material for shoe soles provided by the present invention, which is stiff in one direction and flexible in the other, consists, as shown in Fig. 1 of the drawings of warp threads 10, 12 and. 14. which are preferably of soft, short-fiber. cotton yarn and transverse or filling threads 16 which are preferably of eoarse. rela tively stiff, long fiber material such as jute and are treated by impregnation with a stiffening material to increase their rigidity.

The method of manufacture, as herein exemplified, consists in treating the yarn which is to extend transversely of the. fabric, that is the filling 16, with'a stiffening material. allowing it to dry, and then weaving the fabric, employing the treated yarn as-lthe filling and using a warp of.

untreated yarn. As shown, the fabric is twoply; that'is, the filling threads 16 are in two layers one superposed upon the'other, and the filling threads of each layer are bound together by the interlacing of the warp. threads 10 around them. Some of the warp threads, such'as 12 (Fig. 2), are interlaced with the filling threads 16 of both. layers to bind them together and others. of the. warp threads, such as 14, lie between the layers to maintain a distinction between the two layers or plies of the fabric.

After the weaving the fabric is treated to render. the material with which the filling threads havnbeenimpregnated'stifif, hard and insoluble. Variousy materials have been employed for treating the yarn. A colloidsuch as glue has been-employed satisfactorily under certain conditions. 1 When the glue dries upon the yarnfiber it stiffens it immediately and hence, if glue is used for stiffening the filling, thefabric is best woven by hand or in -a hair-cloth loom. However, the fabric may readily be woven in an ordinary loom by using the glue stiffened strands as the warp. -Furthermore, if a watersoluble colloid such as glue is employed, it is desirable to render the glue insoluble by treatment with abichromate or with formaldehyde which may be done either before or after the fabric is woven. I

A hard rubber solution or varnish made in accordance with United States Letters Patent No. 1,745,533, before mentioned, has been found quite satisfactory for impregnating the yarn of the filling threads 16. After drying, the yarn is still flexible so that it "can be used in-the shuttle of a loom to form the filling of the'fabric and, after weaving, the fabric can be treated with heat to render the filling threads hard and stiff.

Many synthetic gums or resins have been pro duced which are-initially soluble are flexible when dried on the yarn, and which, in the dried condition, can be rendered hard and insoluble by heat treatment for a short time, at a temperature not injurious to the fabric. 1

Thesynthetic resin known as Glyptalf, which is a condensation product of glycerine. and phthalic anhydride, may also be used. It, however; requires a longer'heat treatment than the aldehyde. The synthetic of phenol Bakelite. be of phenol and formresins known as are similar to "Bakelite, each being a condensation product of phenol with a higher aldehyde. Bakelite, which is readily obtainable in soluble form as "Bakelite" varnish, has been found very satisfactory.

The jute yarn which is to constitute the transverse strands of the insole material is treated in any suitable manner with one of the varnishes mentioned to impregnate the yarn. The yarn so impregnated is still quite flexible and can be handled in the shuttle of a loom of usual construction, for example a ribbon loom by which strips of a width equal to or slightly in excess of the width of the insoles to be made are produced. In this weaving of the fabric, untreated yarn will, of course, be employed for the warp, soft cotton yarn being preferred. After the fabric is woven it is subjected to heat treatment at a temperature preferably a ove the boiling point of water, but not high eno h to injure the fiber of the fabric, that is preferably under 300 F., for a sufficient length of time to cause the varnish to become hard and insoluble. The time required will vary with the temperature and other conditions; for example. if a separate insole is treated at a temperature of 250 F. for one half an hour, the desired result will be obtained, and if the fabric strip is rolled up into aroll of substantial size. several hours may be required for the heat to penetrate the roll and affect all parts thereof.

The novel fabric produced by the method described may be used to form the entire insole merely by cutting or dieing the insole out of the fabric. and such an insole may be employed with advantage in shoes of certain kinds.

In many shoes, however, particularly womens light shoes. it is desirable to have an insole which, at the shank and heel portion and at the toe portion, is stifl longitudinally as well as transversely. Accordingly, the novel fabric may advantageously be employed only in that 'part of the insole where its characteristics are desired, for example a part or all of that portion of the insole extending from the ball line to the tip line. as shown in Fig. 1. It is desirable that the inner face of the insole present a uniwater-dispersed rubber cement or latex and allowed to dry. A piece of the fabric, designated by the numeral 22 in the drawing, of

sufficient size to constitute the portion of the insole extending from the tip line to the ball line and having its lower face coated with rubber latex whichhas been allowed'todry, is laid upon the fabric layer and then the shank and heel piece 24 and the toe piece 26, made of leatherboard or the like, are placed in position on-the fabric 20. Thelower-faces of the parts 24 and 26are preferably also coated with rubber latex and allowed to dry. In order to form a good joint of the same thickness as the remainder of the insole between the fabric 22 and the leatherboard portions 24 and 26, the leatherboard portions are skived at their inner ends which overlap the ends of the fabric portion 22.

and the skived portions are coated with rubber latex or other suitable cement.

, Since the fabric portion 22 cannot readily be skived, its end portions are impregnated with rubber latex and allowed to dry.

The whole insole is now subjected to compression, for example between rollers, by which adhesion between the latexed surfaces of the various parts is produced. This treatment results in a compressionof the fibers constituting the end portions of the member 22 and the fibers are held in compressed-position by the dried latex. The overlapping portions of the different materials at the joint are thus reduced to the thickness of the other portions of the insole. This condition is illustrated in the central portion of Fig. 2. The composite insole may then be given its final shape, as shown in Fig. 1, by means of a die, rounding machine, or the like.

.Having' thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

1. Ashoe sole comprising a closely woven fiber fabric having flexible lengthwise strands containing nostifiening material to permit the sole to be readily bent in the direction in which it is bent in walking andrelatively inflexible transverse strands-impregnated with stiffening material. y

2. A shoe sole comprising a woven fabric composed of transverse strands impregnated with an artificial stiffening material in a set condition and lengthwise. strands whichv do not contain said stiffening material and are hence relatively flexible. Y

3. A shoe sole comprising a woven fabric composed of transverse strands containing a synthetic resin to render them hard and stiff and lengthwise strands free from said resin, and hence relatively flexible. l v f v 4. A shoe sole comprising a woven fabriccomposed of transverse strands containing a phenolic condensation product in a set condition to render them hard and stiff and lengthwise strands free from said product and relatively flexible. L

5. A shoe sole comprising a woven fabric composed of transverse strands stiffened with an insoluble colloid and longitudinal strands in unstiffened condition. I

6. A shoe sole comprising a woven fabric composed of strands extending in one direction which strands are stifiened with phenolic condensation cementing material, and strands extending in another direction, which strands are unstifiened, the stiffened and unstiffened strands being substantially in the same plane.

7. A shoe sole comprising a woven fabric composed of strands extending laterally of the sole which contain phenolic condensation cementing material in a set condition whereby said strands are rendered hard and stiff and lengthwise strands free from said cementing material and hence relatively flexible.

8. Ashoe sole comprising a woven fabric composed of strands extending in one direction in the plane of the sole, which strands are stiffened with hard rubber, and strands extending in another direction, which strands are unstifiened.

9. A shoe sole comprisinga woven fabric composed of transverse strands containing hard rubber to render them hard and stiff and lengthwise strands free from hard rubber and hence relatively flexible.

10. A shoe sole comprising a woven fabric composed of transverse strands impregnated with rubber in a highly vulcanized condition to render said strands hard and stiff and lengthwise strands free from stiffening material and relatively flexible.

11. An insole comprising a full length base layer on its innerface and three sections adhesively united to the base layer and exposed on the outer face of the sole, the end sections being of still fibrous material and the intermediate section being longitudinally limp and laterally stifl'. Y

12. An insole comprising a full length base layer and threesections adhesively united to the base layer, the end sections being of stiff fibrous material and the intermediate section comprising a woven material consisting of strands extending in onedirection which are stiffened and strands extending in another direction which are unstiffened, the strands of said intermediate section being arranged to render the insole flexible longitudinally and relatively inflexible laterally.

13. An insole comprising a full length base layer and three sections adhesively united to the base layer, the end sections being. of stiff fibrous material and the intermediate section comprising a woven material consisting of strands extending in one direction which are stiffened-and strands extending in another direction which are unstiffened, the strands of said intermediate section being arranged to render the insole limp when bent in the direction in which it is bent in use and stiff when bent in the other directions.

14. An insole for shoes comprising a base layer of suflicient size to cover the insole, a forepart piece applied to thebody layer and extending from ball line to tip line, said piece being composed of a woven fabric the laterally extending threads of which are stiffened and the longitudinally extending threads of which are unstiflened, a stiff toe piece and a stiff shank and heel piece, said parts being united by adhesive into a composite insole.

15. An insole for shoes comprising a toe portion and a heel and shank portion which are still in all directions and a ball portion comprising a woven fabric which is stifl as to bending about axes extending longitudinally of the insole and limp as to bending about axes extending laterally of the insole. v

16. An insole for shoes the forepart of which comprises a woven fabric which is limp as to bending about axes extending laterally of the sole in the region of the ball and is stiff as to geidfing about longitudinally extending axes at 17. That improvement in methods of making insoles having a ball portion transversely stiff and longitudinally flexible which consists in utilizing for the ball portion of the insole a woven fabric having laterally extending strands that are stiffened and longitudinal strands that are limp and unstiflened, and attaching thereto a toe portion and a shank and heel portion that are still in both'directions.

l8. Thatimprovement in methods of making insoles which consists in uniting with a full length base layer three separate pieces, the ,end pieces being stifl both longitudinally and laterally and the intermediateportion comprising a woven fabric which is laterally stiff and longitudinally limp.

19. That improvement in methods of making insoles which consists in providing for one portion of the insole a woven fabric which is limp in the direction in which it is bent in use and still in the other direction, saturating the end portions of the fabric with cementing material, applying to one end of the .fabric a skived piece of still material with the skived portion overlapping one end of the fabric, and applying pressure to the joint to cause the lapped portions to be reduced in thickness.

20. That improvement in methods of making insoles which consists in providing for. one portion of the insole a woven fabric which is stiff in one direction and limp in the other, saturating the end portions of the fabric with cementing material, applying to one end of thefabric a skived piece of stiff material with the skived portion overlapping one end of the fabric, and applying pressure to the joint to cause the lapped portions to be reduced to the thickness of the unskived portion.

21. That improvement in methods of making joints between sectionsof sectional insoles which consists in skiving one end of a piece of relatively incompressible materiaLcoating the skived portion with pressure-responsive cement, providing another section of woven fabric which is relatively compressible and which cannot be successfully skived, impregnating the end portion of the woven fabric section with the cement, placing the end of the woven section in overlapping relation to ,the skived end of the stiff section, and pressing them together thereby reducing the thickness of the end of the woven section.

22. That improvement in methods of making joints between sections of sectional insoles which consists in. skiving 'one end of a piece of stiff material resistant to deformation by pressure, coating the skived portion with pressure-sensitive cement. providing another section of woven fabric which is compressible and which cannot be successfully skived, impregnating the end portion of the woven fabric section with the cement, placing the end of the woven-section in overlapping relation to the skived vend of the stiff section, and pressing them together thereby reducing the end of the woven section to correspond to the skived end of the resistant material Y 23. That improvement in methods of making 24. That improvement in methods of making joints between sections of sectional insoles which consists in placing in overlapping relation the skived ends of a stiff pressure-resistant material and a woven fabric section responsive to pressure. the ends of. said woven section beingimpregnated with water-dispersed rubber cement and dried, and then pressing the Joint to reduce the pressure-responsive section to a beveled condition corresponding'to'the beveled resistant section.

25. That improvement in methods of making Joints between sections of sectional insoles which consists in preparing one section of an insole of woven fabric, impregnating the end portion of the fabric .with water-dispersed rubber cement, allowing it to dry, skiving a section of stiff material which is unresponsive to deformation by pressure, overlapping the skived and the impregnated portions of the sections, and applying pressure thereto whereby the end portion of the woven fabric section is compressed and caused to assume a beveled condition corresponding to the skived portion.

26. That improvement in methods of making insoles which consists in providing a base layer with dried latex on one side, assembling upon the latexed side of the base layer a latexed shank and heel piece and a latexed toe piece with the latexed surfaces in engagement, asscmbling between the end pieces a woven fabric piece the ends of which are latexed, and pressing the pieces and the base layer together to form a composite sole.

2'7. That improvement in methods of making insoles which comprises providing a latexed base layer, placing on the latexed side of the base layer a ball piece of woven fabric having stiffened strands extending laterally of the base layer, said fabric piece having the side next to the base layer latexed and having its end impregnated with latex, placing the shank and heel piece on the base layer, said piece having a skived forward end overlapping the fabric piece, placing a toe piece having a skived rear end in overlapping relation to the fabric piece, and pressing the parts together to cause adhesion between the base layer and the pieces and reduction of the overlapping ends of the fabric piece and the skived ends of the shank and toe piece to a uniform thickness.

RALPH C. SIMNIONS.

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2598297A (en) * 1950-12-23 1952-05-27 E P Reed & Co Insole with a laminated cushion forepart
US3785070A (en) * 1971-10-19 1974-01-15 C Stafford Cushion insole for shoes
US4656760A (en) * 1985-02-26 1987-04-14 Kangaroos U.S.A., Inc. Cushioning and impact absorptive means for footwear
US4805319A (en) * 1985-02-26 1989-02-21 Kangaroos U.S.A., Inc. Cushioning and impact absorptive means for footwear operative component
US4894933A (en) * 1985-02-26 1990-01-23 Kangaroos U.S.A., Inc. Cushioning and impact absorptive means for footwear
WO1991001660A1 (en) * 1989-08-04 1991-02-21 John Jeppson, Iii Footwear insert
US5706590A (en) * 1994-02-23 1998-01-13 Microlite, S.L. Sole for footwear made at least partially of vegetable fibres
WO2012135007A3 (en) * 2011-03-25 2013-12-27 Dashamerica, Inc. D/B/A Pearl Izumi Usa, Inc. Flexible shoe sole
USD709275S1 (en) 2012-07-25 2014-07-22 Dash American, Inc. Shoe sole
USD710079S1 (en) 2012-07-25 2014-08-05 Dashamerica, Inc. Shoe sole
USD711083S1 (en) 2012-07-25 2014-08-19 Dashamerica, Inc. Shoe sole
USD712122S1 (en) 2012-07-25 2014-09-02 Dash America, Inc. Shoe sole
USD713135S1 (en) 2012-07-25 2014-09-16 Dashamerica, Inc. Shoe sole
USD715522S1 (en) 2012-07-25 2014-10-21 Dashamerica, Inc. Shoe sole

Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2598297A (en) * 1950-12-23 1952-05-27 E P Reed & Co Insole with a laminated cushion forepart
US3785070A (en) * 1971-10-19 1974-01-15 C Stafford Cushion insole for shoes
US4656760A (en) * 1985-02-26 1987-04-14 Kangaroos U.S.A., Inc. Cushioning and impact absorptive means for footwear
US4805319A (en) * 1985-02-26 1989-02-21 Kangaroos U.S.A., Inc. Cushioning and impact absorptive means for footwear operative component
US4894933A (en) * 1985-02-26 1990-01-23 Kangaroos U.S.A., Inc. Cushioning and impact absorptive means for footwear
WO1991001660A1 (en) * 1989-08-04 1991-02-21 John Jeppson, Iii Footwear insert
US5022168A (en) * 1989-08-04 1991-06-11 Jeppson Iii John Footwear insert
US5706590A (en) * 1994-02-23 1998-01-13 Microlite, S.L. Sole for footwear made at least partially of vegetable fibres
WO2012135007A3 (en) * 2011-03-25 2013-12-27 Dashamerica, Inc. D/B/A Pearl Izumi Usa, Inc. Flexible shoe sole
USD709275S1 (en) 2012-07-25 2014-07-22 Dash American, Inc. Shoe sole
USD710079S1 (en) 2012-07-25 2014-08-05 Dashamerica, Inc. Shoe sole
USD711083S1 (en) 2012-07-25 2014-08-19 Dashamerica, Inc. Shoe sole
USD712122S1 (en) 2012-07-25 2014-09-02 Dash America, Inc. Shoe sole
USD713135S1 (en) 2012-07-25 2014-09-16 Dashamerica, Inc. Shoe sole
USD715522S1 (en) 2012-07-25 2014-10-21 Dashamerica, Inc. Shoe sole

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