US1921624A - Testing apparatus - Google Patents

Testing apparatus Download PDF

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US1921624A
US1921624A US499644A US49964430A US1921624A US 1921624 A US1921624 A US 1921624A US 499644 A US499644 A US 499644A US 49964430 A US49964430 A US 49964430A US 1921624 A US1921624 A US 1921624A
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gauge
cylinder
testing
hammer
shock absorbing
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US499644A
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Goodrich Q Lewis
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W H MINER Inc
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W H MINER Inc
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M17/00Testing of vehicles
    • G01M17/007Wheeled or endless-tracked vehicles
    • G01M17/04Suspension or damping

Description

Aug. 8, 1933. G. Q' LEW|S TESTING APPARATUS Filed Dec.' 5, 195o 2 Sheets-Sheet l lL T1 Allg. 8, G. Q L Ewls TESTING APPARATUS File'd Dec. 3, 1930 2 sheets-sheet 2 ngz .15 shock absorbing,r mechanisms being tested, that velectrical' gauge `Figvile fliS an enlargedy SeC- Patentes-Aug. 8,:1933 f i i .y y1,921,624
UNITEo strates: earliest OFFICE $1,921,624,v v TES'UNG ABPABATUS l Goodrich Q. LcWs,'Wheaton-,-Zlll., assigner to 1 WJ El. Miner, line., Chicago, Eil., a Corporation ci' Delaware 'i i nieuwe@ neember 3, 1939.4 serial No. 499,644
7. Ciainis. (ci. 265-2) `A'This invention relates to improvements' in withV reference tothe compression' and'release machines for testing and registering the opera` strokes of the device. if tion of shock absorbing'mechan vns, especially rther objects of the invention Will'moreelearthose employed in connection with railway. draft ly appear :from the description and claims hereriggings. y inafter following. 'Y
In testing shock'absorbing mechanisms, it is Inl the drawings, forming a partloithis speci- 60 the usual practice to employ ardrop hammer by Aiication, Figure l` is `a iront, elevational' viewi which the mechanism is compressed, a chronoi of'a drop hammer testing apparatus, j ilhis'trat` graph being employed to record the tests.v The ing` my improvementsdin connection therewith, type oi chronograph almost universallyjemcertain of the partsV beingshovvn in section. pioyed for this purpose produces graphs or dia- Figure 2 is an enlarged, vertical, sectional View, grams giving the relation of travel of the gear broken away, correspondingsubstantially to the with reference to the time of corepression of line 22 fof Figure `1.Y Figure 3 isa vertical,
the same. lin order `to obtain the information `section l View lCeiieSpOndng t0 the`1ne'3-'3K0 desired ,or data as to the performance of the Felle Zend illustrating the. deta'sof Certain-[0 ,is thejioifce yexerted with` reference to the travel, ,OIlel View, Shelving in' De''the ,arrangement 0f the prefsure exerted by the gear 'at any instant the hefte Of the eleC'lCl gauge, illustrated in C with relation to the travel of the gear', `andthe Fgli'es .il and 3.' Figure 5 is la ho'rizontalfsectotal amount oi work done bythe shockaosorbi 'Si-0119A View COrreSpOD-dng 130 ,the'lne 5,-5 `0f Fig- ,J ing'inechanism at any point of its travel, it is urefl, the'lleght` 01"' fthe drop hammer being 5 ing the'relation 'of travel of the gear with ref- Dloyed in connection /with the' "apparatuaas i1;
"0 curve and then untel-entiere the velocity-time is of well known type and comprises afbase 9 graph, thereby e" yi'iecessary to transform the informationobtained SllCWD. ill plan, and certain, parts of `the `mechby the chronograph method, thus making necnefo being 'illustrated deglammetelllyf Fg- Vf-:ssary great deal of highly technical analysis. Ule @i5 e daglemmae View HUStW-nthe 3T- Tn@ g5-mph @L1- mined by the lchronograph givrangement ofy av certain magnet 4andmirr'or emerence to the-time'of" compression of the same, lSQeed illrFgllle 5...-, And Fgule '7 ShOWS a in order to obtain the torce travell curve, it is ly'el' ilevlh l'edllqed by -my mplOl/edpnece rry to rst differentiate the travel or pareille-f i ,Y y l l ,gpcgegme "Curve and Obtain 'a Veloctptimg `In said drawings, the" drop har'nmer` illustrated curve ivith referenee to time to robtain the acmember 20, Which'is rigidly Supported andfelms cclerationfor iorce-time curve and then change thev base pOP-el' @fille .meehille-f MeDS.-he1`e the acceleration 'or corresponding `force-time inaiter described, on which'the draft'ge'ar or. curve to force-.travel by replotting the force on cushioning means being tested is. placed' is a travei bese, u g increments of travel cormounted on the base member.v The base mem,- respoi'idine to the increi'nents `of time. n 20 Vhas opstanding spacedv arms 2l- 21' fixed ,y The object or" myinvention to p'rothereto, which are rigidly connected at their vide a testing and registering apparatus which, upper` ends by a cross-tie member 22. The two gives'dii'eetly the desired force-travel diagram orvposts 21-21 are' provided' with guides `23-23 tirely .eliminating` the technion theinner sides thereof and a Weight or drop 2me-lysis here libeore mentioned. H hammer block 241s 'aimable' vertically between More .specifically stated, lthe 'objectfof this the posts 21- 2l and'has guide grooves ori-opf- A, vention is to ,provide Simplefeellll and Dlaoposite sides thereoicooperating with the guides y f tical means for accurately testing and register- 23423] on thcdnner'sides of said posts. 4The 100 v ing action o a shock absorbing device under hammer is so monntedthat .it Will fall freely smiden shocks or blows, and more particularly betvveenthe guides between the posts 21--21jL LA orodiicin' a graph or diagramshowingdirectly lifting head 25fis also guided vbetween the posts the pre. re being exerted by ,anyV` shock ahV 21-421 and is disposed. above the Weight or sorbing mechanism in relation to its travel, block'24, an electroinagnet 26j being suspended 105 While being; compressed byja drop'hammer orV from' the lifting head and cooperating with thev similar testing,T device,A thereby giving an accuhammerin order vto raise the same vWhen desired. rate vreading of thepressure-at any instant with Mechanismof Well'knovvn type is provided' for relation tothe absolutetia'vel of the gear, and lifting the hammer, including a motor; not
further showing the complete cycle of`pressure shown, having a winding. drum thereon, upon 1170 z whicha cable2'7 connected to the lifting headY the cable being guided over the pulleys 28--28 and passed around the last pulleys 28. and 29. a plurality of times. As is well known in testing draft gears, the weightof the testing apparatus is dropped a number of times on the gear. The weight is lifted by means of the headl 25, which is raised through the operation of the motor on which the cable 27 is wound. During the lifting operation, `the weight 24 is raised through theV medium of the electromagnet 26 secured tothe head 25. When the weight 26 has been raised to thedesired height, the current is out off, thereby deenergizing the magnet, thus releasing the weight and permitting the same to drop on the .gear or cushioning means, which is indicated by 30 in Figure 1.
' The gear illustrated is of the well known friction type, having the usual friction shoes and wedge member cooperating with a friction shell, a main spring resistance being disposed within the shell, opposing inward movement of the friction means. The wedge of the friction shock absorbing mechanism is. indicated by 31. The
.weight or hammer 24 is provided with a hardened impact block 32 which directly delivers the blow, and a follower plate 33 is placed on the wedge block 31 and receives the blow directly from the block 32.
In carrying out my invention, I provide a casting 35 in the form of a cylinder having a piston 36 slidable therein, the vpiston 36 forming ananvil member on which the cushioning device 30, being tested, is supported. The cylinder 35 is supported on and fixed to the. base member 20 of the drop hammer, the same being shown as provided, with a base iiange 37 bolted to themember 20. The flange 37 is suitably reinforced by vertical webs 38-38 formed integral therewith and with the-vertical sidewalls of the cylinder proper.
As shown in .Figure 1, thebottom end face of the piston is normally spaced above the bottom wall of the cylinder and thisy space is lled with a suitable iiuid, vas indicated at 39. The fluid employed vis preferably oil.
An electric gauge 40V is mounted within the sidewall of the cylinder, the gauge being exposed to the pressure existing inthe cylinder, at all times. As mostclearly illustrated in'Figures 2, 3 and 4, the electric gauge 4) is composed of a. plurality of quartz vdiscs 41-41 arranged in series and spaced apart by silver foil discs 42 42. Each quartz-disc is cut with the vertical front and rear Vsurfaces thereof perpendicular to the electrical axis of the quartz. The discs .41 and 42 are contained in a cylinder 43 of vinsulating material, preferably bakelite. At the righthand end; as viewed in Figure 2, the discs are capped byl a plug 44, preferably of steel,'the plug being in the form of a half ball member havingthe at face thereof abutting the silver` foil disc inter-posed between the same and the quartz disc 41 at the inner end of the series.
`The plugV 44 is spaced from the inner-end of the cylinder 43, as shown most clearly in Figure 2, and is covered by parain 45, which fills the end of the cylinder and sealsV the same.
The
outer surface of the paraffin ller is directly .adjacent disc by insulating material 142 inter'-V posed between said disc and the tab. The insulating material may be paper, fiber or any other well known substance used for thatv purpose; The cylinder 43 is enclosed in a jacket 46 in the form of an exteriorly threaded steel cylinder, closed at the outer end and fixed in a screw threaded bore 47, in the side wall of the cylinder 35. The electric gauge 40' is in circuit with an amplifying set, indicated generally by 48 in Figure 5, an electric conductor wire 49 having its opposite ends electrically connected respectively to the silver foil discs at the inner and outer ends of thel series of quartz discs 41-41, as
shown in Figure 2. Asis well known, when theY gauge 40 composedl of the plurality of quartz discs 41-41 is placed under compression, an electromotive force is produced, which is directly proportional to the pressure. evident, the 'pressure within the cylinder v35 at any particular instant is directly communicated to the gauge 40 and an electromotive lforce proportional to said pressure is set up in' the circuit provided by the conductor 49 and is amplified by the set 48. The amplifying set, as
As will be shown in Figure 5 preferably includesa trans-.
formerv 50, an amplifying tube 51 and a condenser 52. Electric current for the amplifying set is provided by a conducting wire 53 leading from a source of supply of electrical energy, thesystem being grounded by the wire 154. The transformer 50, amplifying tube 5l andy condenser 52 are connected up in a well known manner, the conductor 53 having branches 54 and 55, the branch 54 being electrically connected to the ycondenser and the tube 51, and the branch 55 being in' circuit with the transformer and electrically connectedto the tube 5l. The outlet conducting wire of -the amplifyingset is indicated by 155. A permanent magnet 5v5'l of the horse shoe type is mounted on a fixed support, not shown, the support being disposedreither in front or in back of the drop hammer. As shown in the present instance, the horse shoe magnet is located infront of the hammer and at such a height that it is opposed to the outerface'V of the hammer as the latter travels downwardly in striking the draft gear 30. A reecting ,mirror 57 is mounted within the fleldof the magnet 55, being supported` on vspaced sections of a coniso ducting wire 58 trained over a small pulley or d sheave 59.
venient part of the building containing the test-V ing apparatus. The branches of the conductor 58: are in circuit-withA the amplifying set of Vthe The siieave 59 is supported from anyV suitable xed means by a spring 60 having its' apparatus, being electrically connected to the wires-154`and 155, as clearly illustrated in Figure 6. the mirror is supported are located 'Within the inasmuch as the wire orrods'on which.V
impulse created Within the wires by the ampli` fying set Willcause a deection ofthe mirror;
that is the mirror will be oscillated about its pivotal center, whichfcorresponds' to the axis of the `supporting coil spring 60. The lefthand post `member 2l of the testing apparatus has aprof jector 161 mounted thereon at such a height that the same projects 'a beam" of light, indicated by 62,' on the mirror 57. ThisA beam Lof lightv is reflected, as indicated at 63, to the facev ofthe. hammer or Weight 24. Any suitable supporting.
means 6ft is provided on the face of the hammer for holdinga record card orv sheet 65 of sensitized paper. As Will be evident, when theham- `mer of thetesting apparatus dropped,` 'the sensitized recording sheet 64 will travel ina vertical path and the .projected beam of light Will trace a lvertical line thereon'during such lmovement, unless the 'mirror is deflected or oscillated. Insuoh movement the straight line traced would have. the position indicated by (5G- 67` in Figure'7.l Any pressurecreated within the cylinder 35 of the testing apparatus, which yis connected to the electrical gauge 40, will cause Aan electrical impulse Withinthe circuit ofthe transformer and this impulse Will 'be amplied, by the amplifying set, thereby causinga current to flow' through the supporting rods or wires ofl the! mirror. Due to the current thus created, the
mirror Will be deflected to a certainextent, the extent of de ectionvarying in accordance With thearnount of current passing throughA the Vsupporting rods or wires vof `the mirror and proportionate tothe variations of pressure encountered in'the cylinder 35. As Willfbe clear in the testing of a shock absorbing mechanism, the diagram orgraph shown in Figure 7 will be produced, that-is `the beam of lightfreected by the mirror will trace aline substantially cor# responding to the line 'S8-469,` shown in AFigure 7, during the dropping of `the hammer While compressingV thegshock absorbing'rnechanismor The amount of vertical travel of the beamy of light in tracingthe line 68-69 represents the'amount or extent to which the shock absorbingr device or cushioning means,
is compressed, kand corresponds to the amount f of travel of the` dropping hammer during such draft'gear being compressed.
ported by the piston 36.
compression. The distance'of displacementA of the line 656-69, at any given point, from the base`line 6667 graphically represents theu proportionate amountof pressure created by the Inth'e operation of myV improved testing apparatus, `the *shock 'absorbing mechanism to be' testedis placed-upon the-piston 36 forming the anvil-member of the In the present'instance, `the shock aband a follower plate 33, as hereinbefore pointed out, is placed on top of the wedgemember thereof. The hammer 24 is new raised to the desired height and dropped Von the shock absorbing mechanism, compressing the same While sup- Thepressure of the shock absorbing mechanism While being come pressed by the hammer 24 is directly communiw cated to melon, indicated by' 39, within the @y1- inder. Inasrnuch as oilis a substantiallynoncompressible id; the pressureis directly com- Due to municated to the electrical gauge 40. the `compression of the quartz discs'forming the gauge, an electrical impulse is created in thev Wires and the light reflecting'mirror 57 oscil-V lated in the manner hereinbefore described,
V-out Vmy invention; Ibutfthe" same is merely illus" sensitized 4recording sheet"65`ivhile the samelis traveling downwardly With the hammer; As will indicates the'initiatio'nfof the compression stroke ofi-'the `shock absorbing device. The upper'termination' "of" the line 68-69 indicatesthe full compressionof the mechanism and the -hori l l85` Zonta-1 line extendingto the left therefrom, which terminates' in a line parallelto theV base kline 664-67 indicates the release-action of the device and' recoilof the same with the'weighted hammer 241? Thus, 'when YtheV hammer is-dropped on the shocki'absorbingdevice; the pressure developed by the latter is shoW'n'to scale in terms of the amount of deflection of the light beam tothe right of Vthe zero 1ine 66-,"67, as shown in -Fig ure 7.` The'absolute pressure atiany instant'is shown in relation tothe absolute travel ofA the gear. ltis, therefore,v obvious that Athef'area "of the diagram in square incheshasa ldirect. rele."- tion" .to` the number of inch- 'or vfoot pounds 'of Work done bythe hammer upon `the gear or vice Versa'.` VDiagrams produced -direct inf terms of force and travel show the two fundamental 'considerations of draft gear# perforrnarice,v thesebe;
ing the force at any point of "traveland-the recorded; the recording "of the samef'be'ing made lioy "possible by employing the electrical gaugeand thefoscillating mirror controlled thereby, which means is fast enough'toinstantly indicateV fthei eact'pressure, byrecording. 'a pressure propertionate f to; thatjactually existingv Within-the cylf': ir ider.` V A sjwill 'bei o bviouaV the 'd gram .pro-Av duced by my improvedrecordin'g .ratusthus' shows'the complete cycle of pressurv ence'jto the i compression and release strokes of the shock absorbing; mechanism; @By 'mounting j the sensitized paperdirectly' on the movingl'iamhier; theA resultof 'forcetravel is dircctlypro-r` duced lWithout Vanyreference 'to timenbefcause at any instant ofphammer, position or `gear travel, n
trativ'e andjI'contemplateall `changes'and modi th referL i Withthe compression travel ofthe cushioning cations thatcome Within thescope'of the AC lain'is appended hereto;
@Ij claim:
1. In'; a deviceH for'v testing Vshock absorbing mechanisms, the combination with afWei-gh'ted impact member'adaptedfto be dropped"ontothe` mechanism being tested 'to compress'thesamefa record 'sheeti operatively vconnected toqa'nd'm'ovr able with said impacti member; a support for a shock absorbing `nf 11ecl'ianism; aoontainergf. a 'non-compressible pressure-transmitting medium confined. by said container and' opposing fdisplacement of said support; an electrical-'pressure gauge constantly subjected to the pressure ex# erted by said non-compressible mediumnwhilelsaid shock absorbing mechanism is being .compy,"
pressed against said support; means for amplify-v ing the electrical impulse produced by Ysaid gauge; and means actuated by said amplifying means for tracing a graph on said sheetvl'lhilel Y dium by said shockabsorbing*mechanism being compressed against said support; means for amplifying the electrical impulse producedv by said gauge; means actuated bysaid amplifying means for tracing a graph on` said sheet while moving with the impact member, said means including an oscillating member; and means for projecting a beamv of light from said oscillating member, said yoscillating member beingv displaced in accordance with the amount of said amplifledelectrical energy, for projecting abeam, ofy light on said sensitized recordk sheet.
3. In a device for testing shockA absorbing mechanisms, the combination with ,a weighted impact member adapted to be dropped onto the mechanism being tested to compress the'same; of al sensitized record sheet supported by and Vmovable with the impact member and in the same direction; a support for the shock absorbing` mechanism being tested, and against which the same is` compressed; iixed means for projecting a beam of light; a reflecting mirror mounted for oscillation about an axis parallel to the direction of'm'ovement of said sheet for reflecting said beam of light and projecting the same on. said sensitized record sheet; .anl electrical` pressure gauge; means for transmitting pressure'from said supportr to said. gauge; means for amplifying the electrical impulse produced by said gauge; a permanent magnet; and armature means in the field of said magnet and energized by, said amplifyingv meansl for oscillating` Y4:. In a` device for testing shockabsorbing mechanisms, the combination with a Weighted impact member adapted-to be dropped ontothe mechanism being tested to compress the same;
of a sensitized-record sheet mounted on and` movable with the impact memberA and in the same direction; a support for the mechanism being tested and against which the same is compressed; fixed means for projecting a beam of light; a mirror mounted for oscillatory movementabout an axis parallel to the direction of movement oi"` said sheet for reflecting the projected beam of light on said sensitized sheet; an armature fixed to said mirror; a permanent magnet `in* the eld. of which said armature isdisposed; anelectrical pressure gauge; means for transmitting pressure from said support to said gauge; means for amplifying the electrical irnpulseY produced by said electrical gauge and energizingfsaidarmature in accordance with the pressure measured by said gauge, thereby causing the mirror to oscillate and the beam of projected light to travel across said sheet.
5. In a device for testing shock absorbing mechanismavthe combination with a 1'ixed base member; of a cylinder mounted on said base member; a piston cooperating with said cylinder. said piston forming the support for the shock absorbing mechanism being tested; a substantially non-compressible` fluidwithin the cylinderl and, confined by said cylinder and'piston;
' a Weight member adaptedto be dropped on said shock absorbing mechanism; 'a record sheet fixed to and movable in unison with said weightmember; a gauge member having communication With the interiorof saidr cylinder and exposed to thepressure of the fluid therein, said gauge including quartz discs adapted tobe compressed through `the pressure of said iluid, thereby creating an electrical impulse; means for amplifying said impulse; and means actuated by said last named means for tracing a graph onV said sheet.
6. In a device` for testing shock absorbing mechanisms, the combination with a Weight member adapted. to be dropped on the' shock absorbing mechanism being tested to compress the latter; of a record sheet iixed toand movable in unison With the weight and in the same. direction.; a base member; a cylinder iixedly supported on the base member; a piston cooperat- 'ing with *said cylinder and directly-sustaining the shock absorbing mechanism .being tested; a substantially non-compressible fluid. coniined by said'cylinder andvpisto'n and directlysustaining said piston; an electrical gauge including. a series of quartz discs and a series of discs of conducting material, 'said quartz discs and.v conducting discs being alternated, saidA conducting discs being electrically connected to each other; a casing' housing said discs, said casing being open at one end, the open end of said` casing communicating with the interior of the cylinder, thereby exposing said two series of discs to the pressure of the fluid Within the cylinder; yan amplifying means cooperating with said gauge; and means actuated by said amplifying means for tracing a graph on said record sheet while the same is moving with the Weight.
7. In a device -for testing shock absorbing mechanisms, the combination with means .for supporting the shock absorbing mechanism being tested, including a cylinder, a cooperating piston and a substantially non-compressible iluid ,confined by said cylinderfand piston, said away from said supporting means and adapted to engage said shock absorbing mechanism and compress the same againstl said supportingy means; a holder for a record sheet` fixed to said impact member; a record sheet fixed Within said holder; an electrical gauge; a sleeve housing said gauge, said sleeve being fixed in the bore ofthe cylinder lwall and being open at the inner end, thereby exposing the gauge to the fluid Within the cylinder; means for tracing a graph on said record sheetY While the same is moving with the impact member; and vmeans controlled by the pressure of said gauge. for
GOODRICH Q. LEWIS.
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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2445234A (en) * 1938-05-31 1948-07-13 Muller Jacques Velocity indicator
US2496420A (en) * 1946-12-18 1950-02-07 Stern Otto Apparatus for dynamic compression testing
US2498291A (en) * 1947-06-02 1950-02-21 Westinghouse Electric Corp High velocity tensile machinery
US2499033A (en) * 1947-05-26 1950-02-28 North American Aviation Inc Impact dynamometer
US2534218A (en) * 1945-06-23 1950-12-19 Arthur J Berger Shock testing device
US2645931A (en) * 1949-05-31 1953-07-21 Kenneth W Johnson Variable duration shock testing machine
US3196671A (en) * 1962-11-01 1965-07-27 Goodrich Co B F Apparatus for tensile testing materials at rapid rates of load application
US3213666A (en) * 1962-11-29 1965-10-26 Gulton Ind Inc Impact sensor
US3226974A (en) * 1962-07-13 1966-01-04 Monterey Res Lab Inc Shock testing apparatus
US3464503A (en) * 1968-06-25 1969-09-02 Black & Decker Mfg Co Measuring device for impact tool
US3739625A (en) * 1971-09-21 1973-06-19 Avco Corp Shock testing machine
US3982418A (en) * 1975-12-24 1976-09-28 The Budd Company Press brake testing apparatus
US4141236A (en) * 1976-10-26 1979-02-27 Koni B.V. Hydraulic shock absorber with out-of-limit indicator
US5325700A (en) * 1993-04-13 1994-07-05 Emerald Hydraulics, Inc. Railcar cushion device tester and method

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2445234A (en) * 1938-05-31 1948-07-13 Muller Jacques Velocity indicator
US2534218A (en) * 1945-06-23 1950-12-19 Arthur J Berger Shock testing device
US2496420A (en) * 1946-12-18 1950-02-07 Stern Otto Apparatus for dynamic compression testing
US2499033A (en) * 1947-05-26 1950-02-28 North American Aviation Inc Impact dynamometer
US2498291A (en) * 1947-06-02 1950-02-21 Westinghouse Electric Corp High velocity tensile machinery
US2645931A (en) * 1949-05-31 1953-07-21 Kenneth W Johnson Variable duration shock testing machine
US3226974A (en) * 1962-07-13 1966-01-04 Monterey Res Lab Inc Shock testing apparatus
US3196671A (en) * 1962-11-01 1965-07-27 Goodrich Co B F Apparatus for tensile testing materials at rapid rates of load application
US3213666A (en) * 1962-11-29 1965-10-26 Gulton Ind Inc Impact sensor
US3464503A (en) * 1968-06-25 1969-09-02 Black & Decker Mfg Co Measuring device for impact tool
US3739625A (en) * 1971-09-21 1973-06-19 Avco Corp Shock testing machine
US3982418A (en) * 1975-12-24 1976-09-28 The Budd Company Press brake testing apparatus
US4141236A (en) * 1976-10-26 1979-02-27 Koni B.V. Hydraulic shock absorber with out-of-limit indicator
US5325700A (en) * 1993-04-13 1994-07-05 Emerald Hydraulics, Inc. Railcar cushion device tester and method

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