US1904952A - Apparatus for making emulsified compounds including hydrocarbons - Google Patents

Apparatus for making emulsified compounds including hydrocarbons Download PDF

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Publication number
US1904952A
US1904952A US52529231A US1904952A US 1904952 A US1904952 A US 1904952A US 52529231 A US52529231 A US 52529231A US 1904952 A US1904952 A US 1904952A
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gas
apparatus
compound
oil
hydrocarbons
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Robert H Russell
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GAS FUEL Corp
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GAS FUEL CORP
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Priority to US425857A priority Critical patent/US2059535A/en
Application filed by GAS FUEL CORP filed Critical GAS FUEL CORP
Priority to US52529231 priority patent/US1904952A/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G9/00Thermal non-catalytic cracking, in the absence of hydrogen, of hydrocarbon oils
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F7/00Mixers with rotary stirring devices in fixed receptacles, i.e. movement of the receptacle not being meant to effect the mixing; Kneaders
    • B01F7/02Mixers with rotary stirring devices in fixed receptacles, i.e. movement of the receptacle not being meant to effect the mixing; Kneaders with stirrers rotating about a horizontal or inclined axis
    • B01F7/04Mixers with rotary stirring devices in fixed receptacles, i.e. movement of the receptacle not being meant to effect the mixing; Kneaders with stirrers rotating about a horizontal or inclined axis with paddles, blades or arms
    • B01F7/041Mixers with rotary stirring devices in fixed receptacles, i.e. movement of the receptacle not being meant to effect the mixing; Kneaders with stirrers rotating about a horizontal or inclined axis with paddles, blades or arms comprising two or more shafts, e.g. in consecutive mixing chambers
    • B01F7/042Mixers with rotary stirring devices in fixed receptacles, i.e. movement of the receptacle not being meant to effect the mixing; Kneaders with stirrers rotating about a horizontal or inclined axis with paddles, blades or arms comprising two or more shafts, e.g. in consecutive mixing chambers with intermeshing paddles
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G9/00Thermal non-catalytic cracking, in the absence of hydrogen, of hydrocarbon oils
    • C10G9/34Thermal non-catalytic cracking, in the absence of hydrogen, of hydrocarbon oils by direct contact with inert preheated fluids, e.g. with molten metals or salts
    • C10G9/36Thermal non-catalytic cracking, in the absence of hydrogen, of hydrocarbon oils by direct contact with inert preheated fluids, e.g. with molten metals or salts with heated gases or vapours

Description

APPARATUS FOR MAKING EMULSIFIED COMPOUNDS INCLUDING HYDROCARBONS Original Filed Feb. 4, 1950 s Sheets-Sheet 1 A ril 18, 1933. R. H. RUSSELL I APPARATUS FOR MAKING EMULSIFIED COMPOUNDS INCLUDING HYDROCARBONS s SheetsSheet 2 Original Filed Feb. 4; 1930 gnve'nkoz April 18, 1933. R. H. Russau. 1,904,952

APPARATUS FOR MAKING EMULSIFIED COMPOUNDS INCLUDING HYDROCARBONS H Original Filed Feb. 4, 1930 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Patented Apr. 18, 1933 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ROBERT E. RUSSELL, OF CLEVELAND, OHIO, ASSIGNOB -'1'O GAS FUEL CORPORATION,

- OF NEW YORK, N. Y., A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE APPARATUS FOR MAKING EMULSIFIED COMPOUNDS INCLUDING HYDROGARBONS Original application filed February 4, 1930, Serial No. 425,857. Divided and this application filed March 25, 1931. Serial No. 525,292.

This invention relates to emulsified compounds including hydrocarbons, and to a novel apparatus for making such compounds.

This application is a division of my applica- Serial No. 425,857 filed February 1th, 0.

It is well known that at the present time, oil emulsions are generally treated in order to dehydrate the same. The dehydration methods may be classified'into six groups, as follows: 1. Gravity settling; 2. Heat treatment; 3. Electrical treatment; 4. Chemical treatment; 5. Centrifugal treatment; and 6. Filtration. It has been found necessary to treat emulsified oils by such methods before subjecting the oil to refining processes.

One of the objects of the present invention is to incorporate such emulsified oils in emulsified compounds which may be directly treated in order to burn the same, produce a fixed gas, or to refine the oil without the necessity of dehydrating the emulsified oil.

Furthermore, I have found that in processing relatively heavy oils, for instance, low grade and low specific gravity hydrocarbons, such as heavy crude petroleum, oil field emulsions, still bottoms and the like, it is advantageous to thoroughly miXI the same with aqueous fluids, providing the mixture is admixed with a gaseous agent such as air, CO2 or the like. For example, I have discovered that if heavy hydrocarbons, water and a suitable gas are thoroughly agitated in the presence of one another under super-atmospheric pressure, that a compound will result, in which each globule of gas or other elastic fiuid is coated with a film of Water arranged within a film or coating of oil, and this compound will remain in such condition indefinitely, so that it may be immediately or subsequently used for fuel purposes; may be processed to produce a fixed gas, or may be refined for the purpose of converting the heavy hydrocarbons into lighter hydrocarbons.

By adding suitable hydrocarbons for instance, to the heavy oils which are to form constituents of the compound, I can also obtain from the refining of the compound, motor fuels having desired characteristics. For

example, if benzole is mixed with the heavy oil that forms a constituent of the compound, andthis compound is subsequently refined, for instance, by a cracking operation, miotor fuels extracted from the refining process will have benzole characteristics, that is, antiknock properties.

With the foregoing objects outlined and with other objects in view which will appear as the description proceeds, the invention consists in the novel features hereinafter described, in detail, illustrated in the accom panying drawings, and more particularly pointed out in the appended claim. Referring to the drawings,

Fig. 1 is a longitudinal vertical sectional view of a mixer which I have devised f0 use in producing the compounds.

' Fig- 2 is a transverse vertical sectional view of the same on the line 22 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a perspective view of such a mixer combined with the means for forcing the oil,- water and gas into the mixer; this view being taken, from oneside of the apparatus. Fig. 4 is a similar view taken from the other side of the apparatus.

The apparatus employed for producing emulsified compounds in accordance with the present invention, comprises a closed chamber 15, (see Figs. 1 and 2), capable of withstanding relatively high super-atmospheric pressures, and provided with horizontally disposed rotatable shafts 16 which expetroleum, oil field emulsions, still bottoms and the like, which are ordinarily unsuitable or uneconomical for use as fuels or refining, are introduced into the casing through the oil inlet'20, and water or any other suitable batch operation, a suitable quantity of compressed air or other suitable gas will be introduced into the casing through an inlet 23, and after the desired proportions of oil, aqueous liquid and gas are introduced, the shafts 16 will be rapidly rotated to cause the blades to violently agitate the contents of the casing, so as to force the constituents of the compound to coalesce and tenaciously v of the apparatus may be of the character adhere to one another. Under the microscope it has been found that the gas, such as air, due to the agitation, will disperse and form globules or bubbles, each one of which will be coated with a film of water contained within a skin of oil, and it has been found that a compound of this nature will remain in the foamy condition indefinitely. Actual- 1y, such a compound has remained in stable condition for a period of more than a year without any noticeable Stratification.

The amounts of air and water used in the compound manufacturing phase of the invention, will vary and depend on the characteristics of the oil processed.

I also contemplate mixing the constituents continuously instead of by batch treatment, and in either treatment, the mixing portion shown in Figs. 3' and 4. For example, the aqueous liquid introduced through the inlet 21 may be conducted by a. pipe 24;, having a regulating valve 25; this pipe leading from the outlet of a pump 26 which receives the water from a supply pipe 27. The pump 26 is arranged at one side of the casing 15, as

shown in Fig. 3, and at the opposite sideof the casing, the oil pump 28 is located, as

shown inFig. 4.. The intake 29 of this pump is connected to any suitable oil supply, while the outlet pipe 30 of the pump leads to the inlet 20 of the' casing.

To facilitate proper proportioning of the oil and water, Iprefer-to employ pumps of variable. capacity, and the piston rods of these pumps may be* driven by connecting rods 31 which have their outer ends pivotally connected to cranks 32 that project from opposite sides of a gear casing 33. The latter is mounted on a suitable support 34 at one end of the casing 15, vand the gearing whlch drives the cranks 32 is rotated by means of any suitable prime mover, such as mosses an electric motor 35, positioned-on the plat form 34;

The shafts 16 of the agitator may be driven by any suitable means, such as an electric motor 36 arranged at the opposite end of the casing, and mountedon the casin -is a motor driven compressor 37 that is emp oyed to force the air or other gas through the inlet 23 of the agitator casing.

Suitable temperature, pressure, etc., gauges,

Referring againto Fig. 1, it will be noted that the interior of the casing 15 at the end -opposite where the oil and water enters, is provided with a depending imperforate partition 38 which cooperates with an upstanding weir 39, over which the mixture flows into an outlet compartment 40 which communicates with an outlet pipe 41 that conveys the compound from the lower portion of the casing to any point of storage or use.

If it is desired to produce gas, some gas, such as natural gas, water gas, blue gas,etc.,

may be substituted for the heated air in the mixer. v

From the foregoing it will be understood that I have devised a novel apparatus for producing a compound of hydrocarbons, air

or other gas, and an aqueous liquid, that may be used as a fuel, for the production of. gas for illumination, heating, etc., and for the production of refined petroleum products.

The invention permits the production of a fuel from low grade and low specific gravity hydrocarbons, such as heavy crude petroleum,

oil field emulsions, still bottoms and the like, which are ordinarily unsuited for use in fuels or refining. The invention also allows of the production'of a compound from the same low grade starting stocks, which may be economically used for theproduction of illuminatin and heating gas, and for the production o refined petroleum products.

For the purpose of producing a fuel, by

- way of repetition, it may be stated briefly that heavy crude petroleum, still bottoms or like hydrocarbons, and water, are pumped into the mixer and thoroughly agitated in the presence of air or-any other suitable gas under super-atmospheric pressure, the pressure required depending upon the nature of the hydrocarbons undergoing treatment. Likewise, the amount of water that may be put into the mixture depends upon the char-;

With particuacter of the hydrocarbons. larly heavy hydrocarbons, it will be necessary to preheat the same to increase its fluidity to permit it to be properly handled by the pumps.

Upon proper agitation for a suficient length of time, the compound is formed, and it is substantially permanent in character, and does not tend to separate. Microscopic examination indicates that the compound is composed of minute globules of air or other gas, surrounded by films of water and oil, in

the order named.

The compound thus produced may be stored or, if desired, may be consumed as produced.

If refined petroleum products are desired, as the end products, the initial procedure, so far as the production of the compound is concerned, is the same as when the compound is to be produced for fuel purposes, that is, a

compound composed of hydrocarbons, water and gas is made, and to the same is added other elements that may be desired in the end products, for example, benzole.

On the other hand, as before stated, if it is desired to produce gas, then some gas such as natural gas, water gas or blue gas, is substituted for the-heated air in the mixer, so tlat the compound includes such gas instead 0 air.

While I have disclosed the principle of my invention, as well as my apparatus in such manner that they may be readily understood by those skilled in the art, I am aware that changes may be made in the details disclosed,

I without departing from the spirit of the invention, as expressed in the claim.

What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

An apparatus for use in making emulsified compounds, comprising a closed pressure chamber, a movable mechanical agitator arranged within the chamber, means for forcing water and oil into one end of said chamber near the bottom of the latter, means for introducing a pressure gas into the top of an intermediate pbrtion of the chamber, a depending partition arranged within the opposite end portion of the chamber, a weir rising from the bottom of the chamber and positioned between said partition and the last mentioned end of the chamber, and means for discharging the compound from a point between said weir and the last mentioned end of the chamber.

In testimony whereof, I have signed this specification.

ROBERT H. RUSSELL.

US52529231 1930-02-04 1931-03-25 Apparatus for making emulsified compounds including hydrocarbons Expired - Lifetime US1904952A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US425857A US2059535A (en) 1930-02-04 1930-02-04 Compound including hydrocarbon
US52529231 US1904952A (en) 1930-02-04 1931-03-25 Apparatus for making emulsified compounds including hydrocarbons

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4719056A (en) * 1984-06-25 1988-01-12 Isoworth Limited Fluid treatment

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4719056A (en) * 1984-06-25 1988-01-12 Isoworth Limited Fluid treatment

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