US1852162A - Refining of copper - Google Patents

Refining of copper Download PDF

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Publication number
US1852162A
US1852162A US345258A US34525829A US1852162A US 1852162 A US1852162 A US 1852162A US 345258 A US345258 A US 345258A US 34525829 A US34525829 A US 34525829A US 1852162 A US1852162 A US 1852162A
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United States
Prior art keywords
copper
crucible
lining
refining
molten
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Expired - Lifetime
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US345258A
Inventor
James E Harris
John H White
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AT&T Corp
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Bell Telephone Laboratories Inc
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Publication date
Application filed by Bell Telephone Laboratories Inc filed Critical Bell Telephone Laboratories Inc
Priority to US345258A priority Critical patent/US1852162A/en
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Publication of US1852162A publication Critical patent/US1852162A/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22BPRODUCTION AND REFINING OF METALS; PRETREATMENT OF RAW MATERIALS
    • C22B15/00Obtaining copper
    • C22B15/0026Pyrometallurgy
    • C22B15/006Pyrometallurgy working up of molten copper, e.g. refining

Description

April 5, 1932. J. E. HARRIS ET Al.
REFINING OF COPPER Filed March 8, 1929 I7.. MA UL pm wm GA WM U/ .J E. HAP/ws Wig/57095 WH/TE j r ATTORNEY Patented Apr. 5, 1932 .l
Imural) STATES PpxrrzNr OFFICE JAMES E. HARRIS, OF NEWARK, AND JOHN H. WHITE, 0E CRANFORD, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNORS T0 BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORIES, INCORPORATED, 0F NEW YORK,
N. Y., A CORPORATION OF NEW YORK REFINING 0F COPPER Application led March 8,
The present invention relates to improvements in the rening of'copper; it is of particular usefulness and finds ready applicacation in the production of copper signaling conductors, particularly such conductors which are to be Continuously loaded With magnetic material.
An object of the invention is to produce metallic copper Which may be subsequently heated in a reducing atmosphere Without becoming embrittled, and which at the same time possesses high electrical conductivity.-
A feature of the invention relates to an improved method of producing copper and to copper with properties improved for the purpose of its utilization in manufacturing conductors loaded with magnetic material.
While it is' known in the art to produce copper free from oxygen, this copper has a low electrical conductivity. The present improvements apply the discovery that if, first, copper having high electrical conductivity is melted in a receptacle lined With any material which in pure form may be applied as a lining to a Crucible and which will not be readily reduced, at the temperature of molten copper, by the agent used for deoxidizing the molten copper, and if, second, a suitable deoxidizing agent is added to the molten bath immediately preceding its casting, there will result a Copper which possesses the combined advantages of freedom from oxygen and high conductivity. It has been found that aluminumoxide is a material particularly suitable for lining the Crucible or for the construction of the Crucible in which the copper is to be melted since it can be made to readily adhere to the inside of a Crucible, and the use of such oxide or its equivalent is consequently an important feature. Adherence to the Crucible under conditions of operation is an important feature of the lining.
One method of practicing this invention Will be described in connection With the accompanying drawing, in which is shown a furnace 1 of the electric resistance type by means of which the temperature inside the furnace may be easily controlled. The furnace encloses the Crucible 2. The Crucible 2 1929. Serial No. 345,258.
may be made of any suitable material; a mixture of fire-Clay and graphite has been found to be particularly suitable. The inside of Crucible 2 is lined as shown at 3 with a layer of aluminum oxide (A1208) Cover 4 is provided with the same lining. A simple procedure for applying the lining to the Crucible is by Washing the inside with a mixture of about 50% A1203 in water. The drying of the aluminum oxide may be accelerated 'by heating the Crucible to a moderate temperature. If any fissures should develop in the lining, a second coat may be a plied. After drying, pieces 'of commercia ly pure electrolytic cathode copper of dimensions about` 2" x 2" x 1%, are placed into the Crucible and the Crucible and Contents inserted into the furnace. The electric current is turned on, and after the copper is molten and just before pouring, the deoxidizing agent is added; preferably calcium boride is to be used in an amount of about 0.1%. The calcium boride is well mixed With the copper bath by stirring and the heat is then immediately teemed into molds or ingots and after solidifi- Cation is ready for rolling or forging. This procedure furnishes a Copper which may be subsequently heated in a reducin 0' atmosphere4 without becoming embrittled andjwhich at the same time possesses a conductivity of around 101% (Matthissen standard) measured after annealing in hydrogen at 850 C. for about 30 minutes.
Copper possessing these properties is of particular usefulness in the manufacture of continuously loaded signaling conductors which require an annealing after the loading material has been applied thereto. During the annealing there are usually present in the space .surrounding the conductor a Certain amount of reducing gases which, if the copper Contai ns oxygen, Combine with the oxygen and thereby embrittle the Copper. The attendant high conductivity of the product of this invention enhances its usefulness for this particular purpose.
' While one method of practicing this invention has been described With particular reference to aluminum oxide as lining material and calcium boride as deoxidizmg 1GO agent, it is understood that the materials mentioned and the proportions and details of their use are onlyT given by way of example and that other materials may be used without 5 departing from the scope of the invention. For instance, magnesium oxide if used as a lining material was found to produce a copper of a conductivity of 96-98%.
Another method of practicing the inven-v tion is to dip or pour molten copper in a ladle lined with aluminum oxide and add calcium boride or place particles thereof in the ladle. There is a reason to believe that the lining functions to prevent the copper from taking up from the Crucible impurities, such, for example, as iron, which would tend to lower its conductivity. What is claimed is: 1. Method of producing metallic coppei having high electrical conductivity, which method comprises adding calcium boride to the copper when molten' to deoxidize the copper and to render it immune to the action of hot reducing agents during subsequent annealing treatments, vsaid addition taking place when the molten copper is contained in a vessel which presents to the copper only surfaces of pure aluminum oxide.
2. Method in accordance with claim 1 characterized in this, that the calcium boride is added to the molten copper bath immediately prior to the casting operation.
' In witness whereof, I hereunto subscribe my name this 7th da of March, 1929.
JyAMES E. HARRIS. In witness whereof, 'I hereunto subscribe my name this 7th day of March, 1929.
JOHN I-I. WHITE.
US345258A 1929-03-08 1929-03-08 Refining of copper Expired - Lifetime US1852162A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US345258A US1852162A (en) 1929-03-08 1929-03-08 Refining of copper

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US345258A US1852162A (en) 1929-03-08 1929-03-08 Refining of copper
GB2958229A GB340497A (en) 1929-03-08 1929-09-30
FR690219D FR690219A (en) 1929-03-08 1930-02-19 Copper refining

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US1852162A true US1852162A (en) 1932-04-05

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FR (1) FR690219A (en)
GB (1) GB340497A (en)

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2772949A (en) * 1952-06-07 1956-12-04 Columbia Southern Chem Corp Calcination of barium carbonate
US2817509A (en) * 1954-08-19 1957-12-24 Electro Refractories & Abrasiv Lined crucibles
US2874953A (en) * 1956-08-20 1959-02-24 Dow Chemical Co Lining for titanium-contacting apparatus
US2890879A (en) * 1954-09-09 1959-06-16 Kaiser Aluminium Chem Corp Apparatus for melting and handling molten metals
US3196056A (en) * 1959-09-28 1965-07-20 Blaw Knox Co Methods for protecting furnace parts and the like
US3669435A (en) * 1970-02-26 1972-06-13 American Optical Corp All-ceramic glass making system
US4802425A (en) * 1982-12-16 1989-02-07 The Babcock & Wilcox Company High temperature fiber system with controlled shrinkage and stress resistance

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2772949A (en) * 1952-06-07 1956-12-04 Columbia Southern Chem Corp Calcination of barium carbonate
US2817509A (en) * 1954-08-19 1957-12-24 Electro Refractories & Abrasiv Lined crucibles
US2890879A (en) * 1954-09-09 1959-06-16 Kaiser Aluminium Chem Corp Apparatus for melting and handling molten metals
US2874953A (en) * 1956-08-20 1959-02-24 Dow Chemical Co Lining for titanium-contacting apparatus
US3196056A (en) * 1959-09-28 1965-07-20 Blaw Knox Co Methods for protecting furnace parts and the like
US3669435A (en) * 1970-02-26 1972-06-13 American Optical Corp All-ceramic glass making system
US4802425A (en) * 1982-12-16 1989-02-07 The Babcock & Wilcox Company High temperature fiber system with controlled shrinkage and stress resistance

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB340497A (en) 1930-12-30
FR690219A (en) 1930-09-17

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