US1822847A - Elastic yarn - Google Patents

Elastic yarn Download PDF

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US1822847A
US1822847A US543737A US54373731A US1822847A US 1822847 A US1822847 A US 1822847A US 543737 A US543737 A US 543737A US 54373731 A US54373731 A US 54373731A US 1822847 A US1822847 A US 1822847A
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Prior art keywords
elastic
yarn
core
elastic yarn
rubber
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US543737A
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Adamson Percy
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Adamson Percy
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Classifications

    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D02YARNS; MECHANICAL FINISHING OF YARNS OR ROPES; WARPING OR BEAMING
    • D02GCRIMPING OR CURLING FIBRES, FILAMENTS, THREADS, OR YARNS; YARNS OR THREADS
    • D02G3/00Yarns or threads, e.g. fancy yarns; Processes or apparatus for the production thereof, not otherwise provided for
    • D02G3/22Yarns or threads characterised by constructional features, e.g. blending, filament/fibre
    • D02G3/32Elastic yarns or threads ; Production of plied or cored yarns, one of which is elastic
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D15/00Woven fabrics characterised by the material or construction of the yarn or other warp or weft elements used
    • D03D15/08Woven fabrics characterised by the material or construction of the yarn or other warp or weft elements used using stretchable or elastic threads
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D2700/00Woven fabrics; Methods of weaving; Looms
    • D03D2700/01Woven fabrics; General weaving methods
    • D03D2700/0103Elastic fabrics

Description

Patented Sept. 1931 rnacy anmson, or- RYE, new You:

- anaemic ,YABN

No Drawing. Application filed "-Tune 12,

This invention relates to elastic yarn suitable for use in the manufacture of various textile fabrics and articles V This application is a continuation in part r filed July at, 1930.

Elastic been relat1vely large and unsuitable for the manufacture of knit articles; They havebeen w made from cores of vulcanized rubber composition wound with one or more yarns and in one or more layers The cores were of relatively large size out square in cross section. The fibrous covering yarns have been relatively coarse and have substantially aug mented the dimensions of the core. Because of these factors and because also of the lack of uniformity in the built-in elongation of the core and of the covering operations, the old elastic yarns were not employed in knitting machines, especially those of fine gauge. Such old elastic yarns were used largely in the manufacture of woven fabrics such as elastic straps for girdles and for stocking supporters and of such articles as garters, bandages, andthe like, Furthermore, the old elastic yarns, as heretofore utilized in making articles, generally, if not invariably, imparted a capacity ta -stretch in one direction only. in In other words, they'were practically only used for making articles which resisted a onedirection pull or which exerted a constrictive force 1n one direction. v r

The present invention aims 'to provide a new and useful type; of elastic yarn which has characteristics adapting it to be utilized in knitting machines of fine gauge-as fine,

or finer than cylindrical knitting machines of a diameter of 3% inches having 176'needles.

4" With it alarge yariety of articles having new of my prior applicationserial No. 470,400,

yarns as heretofore marketed have articles to be fabricated 1931. serial 1N5. 543,737.

and improved qualities long desired in the art may be manufactured. The capacity of the elastic yarn forknittingin modern fine gauge knitting machines at high speed enables it to be utilized with existing equipment, M without substantially increased labor or handling costs,- and without great reduction, if any, in the speed of the machines. It enables with a capacity to stretch or merely in one direction wherebythe grip of i the article on the body or portions of the body is distributed and made comfortable to the wearer without sacrifice of holding or sustainmg capacity. a I '55 With the elastic yarn of the present invention it is now practicalto manufacture hosiery formen, women, and children of line gauge with an integral garter-like portion for effectively sustaining thehose in a comfortable to manner, to manufacture corsets, foundation garments, brassiere's, bathing suits, surgical bandages, etc., all with a capacity to enhance the lines of the human figure in a comfortable manner and with a positiqnsretaining capacc5 ity not heretofore attained, and to manufacture so-called surgical stockings which are comfortable and eflicacious tothose' afflicted with varicose veins, etc. Many other articles with superior qualities,.as those skilled in the art willlappreciate, may be made of this new elastic yarn. It has already aroused-great. interest among garment manufacturers,'par'- ticula-rly' the hosiery and underwear trade, and great activity has followed its-disclosure. According to my invention, a core of any "suitable elastic material uniformly elongated is covered with relatively inelasticfibrous material "holding-it'stretched. In the 0 yield in any direction rather than as v borhood of 150%,

- gauges of knitting machines the capacity'to manufacture of a particular elastic yarn the elongation uniformly given the yarn is so adjusted with respect to the covering yarn that the finishedyarn has a predetermi ed and limited capacity to stretch. During he covering operation whatever tension is applied to'the core should be applied uniformly and evenly throughout the covering operation. The capacity to stretch of the finished elastic arn may be anything desired but prefera ly, at least for use on fine gauge knitting machines, should be in the neighi. e., 1.,of normal elastic yarn should stretch to 2 To obtain the best speed in the operation. of Ithe finest stretch is desirably made somewhat less and more in the neighborhood of 100%. Of course '26 the stretching capacity of the elastic yarn larger and smaller vulcanized ru ticularly when of circular cross section by the;

.of a grainless character such as that obtained should also be suited to the use to which it is put, and may vary from those percentages which are illustrative.

' For the core of the elastic yarn any vulcanized rubber composition of a high grade is suitable but it is preferred to utilize rubber by suitably compounding rubber latex an fashioning it into fine rubber thread without sharp corners and uniform in cross section, theoptimum being circular and of a gauge suitable for the use in view. poses, the core, at least derived from rubber latex, thickness between .0133 and .0080 of an inch, in its normal or relaxed condition,

but both any suitable .mater als approximating in qualities high rubber content stocks which possess good stretch and return characteristics. Cores made from concentrated rubber latex suitably compounded; to resist aging and to permit vulcanization at moderately low temperatures are preferable, parmethod disclosed in said patent because they may be made readily without irregularaties or 'jagged surfaces commonlypresent in cut threads, and. with less likelihood of. breaking .or parting under successive stretching and .relaxing treatments in service; The imfjp'ortance ofthis 5 such required for fine elastic yarns as are.

For most purwhen made of rubber should be of a cores may be utilized.

yield an even kfiit fabric.

feature of construction-inmost knit articles will be apparent. With some advantage the rubber cores may be made from rubber latex, in other convenient ways as rubber derived from-latexis grainless and possesses greater resistance to tearing. The cores however may be made .of vulcanized rubber composition or any other suitable material that is capable of regaining its normal len th after elongation in the manner of rub er.

The relatively inelastic fibrous covering may be applied in any suitable and conven -ient manner as those-skilled in the art will understand. Yarns of cotton, linen, flax, silk, rayon, wool, orthe like may be employed, and while they may be braided about the core, it is preferred to'use right'and left helical windings of small and either alike or different pitch, the relative pitch of the windings being selected with due consideration to the size and nature of the materials being wound in order to obtain an approximately balanced elastic yarn,-relatively free from a tendency to kink. The helical' windings may be of like or of different materials d 'and either may consist of one or more ends of yarn or plied'yarn depending upon the characteristics-it is desired to build into the elastic yarn to meet the requirements of the service to which it is to be subjected in the article manufactured therefrom.

In: general, in manufacturing the elastic yarn of this invention, the core of elastic material while being wound and substantially completely covered,' should be elongated uniformly, the more uniform the better. While the elongation 01" stretch may vary for different elastic yarns, it should not vary in any one particular yarn in order-to obtain a product which .in knitting on-a machine will not only make stitches without dropping them 7 but will make them uniformly and thereby The yarn selected shonldbe relatively small in cross section. If more. than one end is employed, infother words, if a ribbon of two or more yarns in parallelism is used, the pitch of the helical winding will of course be substantially greater than whema single similar yarn is bemg wound.

Structural characteristics of" specimens of elastic yarn are given in Table I. hereinafter. In-considering the data noted that much of 'it was compiled from a yard length, or' fro1n. a-fraction of a pound, of the elastic yarn, and consequently, any

slight error in measurementthereof may have been-multiplied. Obviously the flexible and yielding nature of the core of elastic material and'of the covering yarn, which together constitute the elastic yarn, renders its analysis diflicult andmeticulous accuracy impossible.

therein it is to be The table following is therefore to. be' taken as illustrative.

variations that ma be introduced'by different degrees of vu caniza-tion of the rubber TABLE L-Analuaes of actual samples (6) Both rubber and covers. Per cent by weight of rubber core Per cent by weight of outside cover-. Per cent by weight of inside cover Yardage of 1 pound of bare rubber corerelaxcd Yardage of relaxed bare rubber in 1 pound elastic yarn- Gauge in inches of elastic yarn (product) Designation A B Y C D 1. Gauge of circular rubber core-normal condition 013+ 01- 008. 2 Elongation of rubber core during winding-approximately 270%.- 370%. 3. Yards per poundnormal.condition 22o 5, 61(L- 15.000. 4. Elongation-increase over normal length on stretching to limit. 115%-- 125% 120% 170%. 5. Material 0! outside cover 5400/1 cotton. 3-100/1 cotton 3-100/1 cotton. 1-2 nply 13/15 s1 6. Material 01 inside cover n 1440/2 cotton. 1420/2 cotton 1-120/2 cotton. 1-2 ply 13/15 s 7. Wraps per inch-outside cover 8 L 8.- Wraps per inch-inside cover a 9. In one yard of normal elastic yarn, the inches of ba rel 10. in one yard of normal elastic yarn, theweight in grams of- (a) Bare rubber The gauge of the elastic yarn (item-16) was measured by an automatic micrometer which pressed upon four adjacent yarns with a uni-. form constant pressure of 6' ounces.- The fourthreads held'at each end about six inches apart were placed under the presser foot which was of an inch in diameter and'the reading recorded The presser foot was TABLE II.-Specificatiom core, if it be of rubber, of the amount of talc or other dusting material picked up by the core of elastic material incident to its manu-.

facture and manipulation, of,the elongation of the core during its winding, of the pitch of the windings of the cover, and of the covering yarns themselves. With these cautions the specifications of Table II are now given.

Designation Gauge of circular rubber corenormal condition Elongation of rubber core Yards per pound-normal condition Elongation-increase over normal le Material of outside cover Material or inside cover Wraps per inch-outside cover Wraps per inch-inside cover In 1 yard of normal elastic yarn, the inches In 1 yard of normal elastic yarn, the weight in grams of- J (c)- Bare rubber 1 (-5) Both rubberand covers, Per cent by weight of rubber core- Per cent by weight of outside cover 55 9 9' x s s m appmnssas:

of bare rubber-relaxed":

1-2 ply 13/15 i i i 1 sillr r 120 3100/1 cotton 1-120/2 cotton 45 L raised a fraction of an. inch from the base and allowed to snap back on the elastic yarns. The pressure spring in this micrometer was equivalent to that obtained by six ounces dead weight dropped a fraction of an inch in vertical position.

The above analyses are but a few of man that have been made. From all of the data accumulated specifications have been formulated for guidance in the production of ordered. Three such specifications for elastic yarns with cotton coverings are given in subsequent Table II under-the columns headed E, F and G, and one for a silk covering in the column headed H. It is not to be ex: pected that these specifications will be ex; actly realized in the: manufacture of. any particular elastic yarn yarns a hood of 150% because of the many i strutting machines in the menu lit will of course be understood that the specifications oi the foregoing tables are not given with any intention to limit the inven-' tion more than is required by the scope of-the prior art, Obviously the relative size and materials of both-the core and the covering yarns may be varied to meet requirements,

likewise also the elongation of the core-durmg Winding and the pitch of the windings orth'e wraps per inch. As before indicated, the. capacity of the elastic yarn to stretch may be varied as desired but it is preferable, at least for knitting 'on fine gau e machine's, to keep such capacity down to t or down to 100%.

ii foregoing the nature .of the rom the vention will art. The elast c yarn may be employed in facture of all e neighbor- -125 I be apparent to one 7 skilled r ins-the I.

"1y above the knee will minimize runs.

' as to objection'ably detract from its appear.-

called articles of manufacture and either as a non-elastic'fibrous y'therewith in solating. The elastic yarn may also be used on sewing machines for stitching purposes. It ma also be used as a substitute or the old elastic yarns where it is. desired to obtain a finer product. Woven or knitted into bandages the universal elasticity of the fabric enables an end of the bandage to be tucked under a convolution and anchored by its own inherent grip )ing properties. Incorporated in articles of wearing apparel such as corsets, brassieres, or bathing suits, desirable figure-enhancing effects may be attained. Golf knickers and socks maybe improved by its use. Great improvements in many old and in many new articles are attending its introduction and disclosure. A few courses of elastic yarn incorporated in womens stockings immedialfsuch cases, and generally in knitting, it is advisable-to relieve the elastic yarn of tension so that when the garment'is com leted the portion thereof constituted by t e elastic yarn, will not contract or narrow in such way or part of knitted articles,

substitute for the ordinar knitting yarns, or joint ance and thismay be done by leading the yarn directly from the source of supply to the knitting needles instead of through the usual tensioningdevices. I The inventioncis not intended to be limited beyond the extent required by thescope of the prior art and all changes and variations as may be made within it are intended to be comprehended. -Reference should therefore be made to the accompanying claims for an understanding of the scope of the invention. In the claims the term elastic material is used to comprehend rubber compositions and any materials equivalent theretofor the purposes of this invention.

-Havingthus described my invention,

what

I claim and desire to protect by LettersPatcut is: a V

1 1. An elastic yarn capable of-being knitted in a'k'nitting mabhine and havin a core of. elastic material under tension, an a covering of relatively inelastic fibrous material holding the core elongated, said elastic yarn being limited to a predetermined and substantially uniform degree in itscapacity to stretch, a pound of said elastic yarn in its normal condition having a total length of more than 2800 yards. a 3 2. An elastic yarn capable of being knitted in a knitting machine and having a coreof elastic'material under tension, and a covering of relatively inelastic-fibrous material holding the core elongated, said elastic yarn being limited to a predetermined and relatively 'unifor degree in its capacity to stretch, alpoulndiof said coreof'elastic material in a normal unstretche'd condition alone material, which core, when freed of said covering and relaxed, m arcs in excess of '1000 yards. V

4. An elastic yarn capable of being knitted in a knittin machine and having a core of elastic material under tension, and a covering of relatively inelastic fibrous material holding the 'core elongated, said elastic yarn bein limited to a predetermined and uniform egree in its capacity to stretch, the greatest dimenof being knitted sion of an average cross section of said elastic yarn being less than..025 of an inch.

5. 'An elastic arn capable of beingi knitted in a fine gauge mittin machine an having a core of vulcanized rub er com osition under tension, right and left helic'a windings of yarn covering said core and holding it elongated,'said yarn haying a predetermined and substantially unifo -m capacity to stretch, a pound of said elastic yarn in its normal condition having a total length of at least 3600 yards. 1 v

6. An elastic yarn capable of bein knitted in a fine gauge mitting machine an having a 'core of vulcanized rubber composition under tension, right and left helical windings of yarn covering said core and holding it elongated, said yarn having a predetermined and substantially uniform capacity to stretch, a pound of said core of elastic material in a norn1al unstretched condition alone measurin at least 5000 yards.

. An elastic arn capable of being knitted in afine gauge mitting machine and having a core of vulcanized rubber composition un-.

der tension, right and left helical windings of yarn covering said core and holding it elongated, said yarn having a predetermined and substantiall uniform capacity to stretch, a pound of sai lastic yarn in its normal condition containin a core .of elastic material, .which core, w en freedof said right and left helicalwindings ofyarn and relaxed measures more than.1200 yards.

8. An elastic arn capable of being knitted in a fine gauge itting machine and having a core of vulcanized rubber composition under tension, right and left helical windings of yarn covering said core and holding it.elongated, said am having a predetermined and substantial yuniform capacity to stretch, the greatest dimension of an average cross section of said elastic yarn not exceeding .021 of an inch. 4

9 An elastic yarnhaving a core of vul-;

canized rubber composition under tension, a plurality of balanced windings of yarn covering said 'core and holding it elongated, said core when uncovered and relieved of tens on and right and left being approximately circular in cross section, said elastic yarn having a predetermined and-uniform capacity to stretch and to flex in any direction throughout its length, and-said elastic yarn having'a, length of more than 2,000 yards in a pound thereof in a relaxed normal condition.

10; An elastic canized rubber composition under tension,

helical windings of, fibrous yarn holding the core elongated, the capacity of said elastic yarn to stretch and to flex in any direction being uniform throughout its length. the flexibility of said elastic yarn being-such as to nermitknitting in a fine gauge knitting machine at normal speeds without dropping stitches, and said -elastic yarn having a length ofmore than 2,000'yards in a pound thereof in a relaxed normal condition.

11. An elastic canized rubber composition under right and leftfhelical windings of yarn holding tension, fibrous the core elongated, the capacity of said elastic yarn to stretch and to flex in canized rubber any direction being uniform throughout its length, the flexibility of said elastic yarn being such as to permit knitting in a fine gauge knitting machine at nominal-speeds without dropping stitches, and"said core being approximately circular in cross section whenfreed of said windings and relieved of ten sion, and said, elastic yarn having a length 'of'more than 2,000 yards in a pound thereof.

in a relaxed normal condition.

- 12. An elastic yarn having a core of vul canized rubber composition under tension, right and left helical windings of fibrous yarn holding the core e'lon 'ated, the capacity of said'elastic yarn to stretch and to flex in any direction being uniform throughout its length. the flexibilityof said elastic yarn being such as to" permit knitting in a fine gauge knitting machine at normal speeds without droppnig stitches, approximately circular incross section when freed of said windings and iameter of less than .021 of an inch.

13. Air elastic and afibrous covering holding said core elongated, said elastic yarn having approximately the characteristics of a non-elastic yarn of yarn having a coreof vulh yarn having acore of vu-lsaid core being relievedof ten 5 sion, and said elastic yarn having an external yarn having a coreof-vulcomposition under tension,

in" a pound thereof in a relaxed normal co'nition.

, 141. An elasticyarn having a core of vulcanized rubber composition" under tension,

and right and left helical windings of yarn covering and holding the core elongated, said core and said windings being of such size and said windings being of such material and so applied as to adapt the elastic yarn for knit-- ting in a fine gauge cylindrical knittingmachine of a dia eter of 3 inches having at least 176 needles, or in an equivalent fine gauge knitting machine, and said elastic yarn aving a length of a pound thereof in tion. a

15. An elastic canized rubber and right and lefthelical windings of yarn covering and holding the size of said elastic yarn having a core of' vul-' yarn approximating composition before it is wound and before it is stretched, and said elastic yarnhaving a length of more than 2,000 yards in apound thereof in .a relaxed normalcondition. 16; An elastic yarn having 'akcore of vulcanized rubber. composition under tension,

said core elongated,

more than,2,00 0 yards in a relaxed normal condicomposition under tension,

the size 'ofsaid core of vulcanized rubber said core being uniform in cross-section and having smooth external surfaces substantially free from corners and irregularities, covering, yarn holding said core elon.gated,

said elastic yarn being uniformly stretchable county of New York, State of New York,

this 10 day of June, 1931. PERCY ADAMSON approximately the same size and of approxi-v Q mately the same materials ering forthe elastic yarn excepting in its stretching characteristics, and said elastic,

as the fibrous covyarn Having a length of more than 2,000 yards yarn having a core of vul- 1 DISCLAIMER 1,822,847.-Percy Adamson, Rye, N. Y. ELAs'neYAnfi. Patent dated September 8, 1931. Disclaimer filed March 10, 1939, by the.assignee,'.UmIted States Rubber Company. Hereb enters its disclaimer to that part of the specification and claims enumerated'as f0 owe, to wit:

From the specification of said patent all data in column A of Table I. and all data m column E of Table II on page 3 thereof, and all reference in such specification to v said data; and

Claims 4 and 15; and a From claim 3 of said patent all elastic yarns therein defined save those which have a core, the average thickness of which does not exceed .0133 of an inch in relax uncovered condition; and

From each of claims 1, 5, 7, and 8 of said patent all elastic arns therein defined save those which are capable of being knitted without appreciab 0' reduction of s of, and without dropping stitches on, knitting machines of fine gauge as fine or or than cylindrical kmtting machines of a diameter of 3% ches having 176 needles I and which yarns are capable of use as a substitute for the ordinary non-elastic fibrous kn1ttmg yarns; and

From each of claims-'10 and 11 of said patent all elastic ams therein defined save those which are capable of being'knitted on knitting mac es of fine gauge as fine or finer than cylindrical knitting machines of a diameter of 3% inches having 176 needles; and r p From claim 13 of said patent all,- elastic yarns therein defined save those which are fcapable of being knitted without appreciable reduction of s eed of, and without dropping stitches on, k-nitting machines of fine gauge as fine or er than "cylindrical knitting machines of a diameter of 3% inches having 17 6 needles. [OfliciqlGazette April 4, 1989.1

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2597580A (en) * 1951-06-26 1952-05-20 Sidney J Gluck Woven elastic fabric
US2883842A (en) * 1955-09-01 1959-04-28 Kendall & Co Surgical stocking
US2884044A (en) * 1954-11-09 1959-04-28 Us Rubber Co Method of making pneumatic tires
US3064456A (en) * 1957-11-29 1962-11-20 Johnson & Johnson Elastic surgical stocking
US3069883A (en) * 1959-02-03 1962-12-25 Burlington Industries Inc Compressive fabric
FR2107990A1 (en) * 1970-09-25 1972-05-12 Turcksin C Elasticated fabric - woven from elastic yarns having a helically wound sheath

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2597580A (en) * 1951-06-26 1952-05-20 Sidney J Gluck Woven elastic fabric
US2884044A (en) * 1954-11-09 1959-04-28 Us Rubber Co Method of making pneumatic tires
US2883842A (en) * 1955-09-01 1959-04-28 Kendall & Co Surgical stocking
US3064456A (en) * 1957-11-29 1962-11-20 Johnson & Johnson Elastic surgical stocking
US3069883A (en) * 1959-02-03 1962-12-25 Burlington Industries Inc Compressive fabric
FR2107990A1 (en) * 1970-09-25 1972-05-12 Turcksin C Elasticated fabric - woven from elastic yarns having a helically wound sheath

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