US1724858A - Pneumatic pumping apparatus - Google Patents

Pneumatic pumping apparatus Download PDF

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US1724858A
US1724858A US313773A US31377328A US1724858A US 1724858 A US1724858 A US 1724858A US 313773 A US313773 A US 313773A US 31377328 A US31377328 A US 31377328A US 1724858 A US1724858 A US 1724858A
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line
valve
chamber
pressure
well
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US313773A
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George B Small
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TIDAL OIL Co
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TIDAL OIL Co
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04FPUMPING OF FLUID BY DIRECT CONTACT OF ANOTHER FLUID OR BY USING INERTIA OF FLUID TO BE PUMPED; SIPHONS
    • F04F1/00Pumps using positively or negatively pressurised fluid medium acting directly on the liquid to be pumped
    • F04F1/06Pumps using positively or negatively pressurised fluid medium acting directly on the liquid to be pumped the fluid medium acting on the surface of the liquid to be pumped

Description

Aug. 13, 1929. G. B. SMALL. 1,724,858
PNEUMATIC PUMPING ArfARATUs Filed Oct. 20, 1928 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 llmlrl-llllimu` G. E. SMALL PNEUMAT I C PUMP I NG APPARATUS Filed Oct. 2G, 1928A 2 Sheets-Sheet NM Y INVENTOR. y 66W' E5/77a# ATTORNEY n* Patented Aug. 13, 1929. f
GEORGE B. SMALL, OF TULSA, OKLAHOMA,
ASSIGNOR OF THREE-FOURTHS TO TIDAL OIL COIPANY, OF TULSA, OKLAHOMA, A CORPORATION 0F OKLAHOMA.
rimumarrc PUMPING APPAaATUa Application leclv October 20, A1928. Seriall No. 313,773.
invention relates to pneumatic apparatus for pumping wells and more articularly to displacement of liquid petro cum from wells with air or gas, under automatic control to supply the pressure medium when.
fluid has risen to a determined level in the well and discontinue the supply when the fluid has been discharged,"thereby avoiding waste of the pressure'medium and saving rl0 the expense of manual operation of the pumping apparatus; the present application being a continuation in part of my application Serial No. 299,923, and the invention having for its principal object to simplify control of the pressure medium by employment of 'differential pressures in the line through which the well is dischargedv 1n one phase of the air control. y
Other objects ofthe invention will become apparentas disclosure ofthe invention proi ceeds. A j 4 E In the accompanying drawings whereln a preferred form of my apparatus 1s illustrat-ed:
Fig. 1 is a central vertical section of the apparatus and of a well to which 1t 1s applied, part of the well casing, flow line and trap being ,in central vertical section, thex /f apparatus being illustrated as it appears between well flowing periods. E Fig. 2 is a similar view illustrating the partsias they appear immediately following opening of the main air valve.
Referring more in detail to the drawlngs: l designates a well hole leading through cap rock 2 and Aterminating in a shot hole 3 in oil sand 4. 5 designates a well casing supported on the ca rock by a shoe 6, and having a casing hea 7 at the to of the well provided with a vent hole 8 or` relieving pressure in the well to permit accumulatlon of well fluid from the sands. Extending through the casing head 7 and casing 5 is a tube 9 terminating at the bottom of the well in a trap 10 provided with a standing valve 11 and with the ordinary strainer extension 12 through which fluid in the well is led to the trap through the standing valve. The tubing is provided exteriorly of the casing no head with a T-union 13, and extending through the union 13 and tube 9 is a flow line 14 through'which oil displaced from the trap is delivered from' the well.
The air control valve comprises a housing l5 arranged vertically on supporting legs tainer connected with the line 31, through,
16, and having end chambers 17 and 18 connected by a throat 19 and closed by top and bottom plates 20 nd- 21 heldto the bod of the housing by stud bolts 22,` the chambers 17 and 18 having oppositely facing valve seats 23 and 24 at the junctions of the chambers with the throat 19.
Leading from the throat 19 through the side of the housing 15 is a port 25, and threaded into said port is the reducing coupling nipple 26 of a major flow line 27 which opens into the T-union 13 for discharge through tube 9 onto oil accumulated in the trap and tube for displacing 'the oil through the flow line 14.
A hand valve 28 on the line 27 rovides means for manual control of flow o a fluidpressure medium presently' mentioned through the major flow line.
The bottom plate 21 of the housing 15 has a port 29 opening to the lower chamber 18, and threaded into said port is' an elbow fitting 30 connected through a line 31v witha source of supply of fluid pressure medium such as air o r gas and which may consist of a. compressor indicated by the cylinder C. A hand valve 32 provides means for manually controlling flow through' the line 31. 33v designates a lubricant conwhich lubricant may be supplied to the line under control of the valve 34 and hand press 35.
Mounted on the top housing plate 20 is a diaphragm housing 36, including the oppositely cupped sections 37-38 having rim Hanges 39-40, connected by bolts 41 and a neck 42 preferably formed integral with the lower cupped ction 38 and threaded into a socket 43 in the late 20. A flexible 95 diaphragm 44 is clamped) between thelanges 39-40 and divides the space enclosed by said sections into upper and lower chambers 45 and 46. 1 i
Extending freely from the lower chamber 18 through the throat 19 and chamber 17 and snugly through the bore of the neck 42, into the lower housing chamber 46, is a combination piston rod and valve stem 47 (hereafter referred to as a stem) having a reduced upper end 48 extended through an' opening in the center of the dia hragm 44 and forming a shoulder 49. head 50 threaded onto the upper end of said stem clamps the diaphragm tothe stem. A chanthrough throat 19 to the fiow line 27. Also fixed to the stemis another valve 54 adapted to work in the vent chamber 17 and for cooperation with the seat 23 to control escape of air from the iiow line and well to atmosphere through the chamber 17 and vent openings 55 in the wall of said chamber `to relieve the well of pressure and permit recharging from the sandsv after each displacing operation. The vent openings lpreferably connect with a manifold chamber 56 having an outlet line 57 throughl which the vented' air is conducted away from the apparatus and to any desired distance from the welle d Mounted on the upper diaphragm housing member 37 and communicating with the upper diaphragm chamber is a T-fitting 58, having branches 59 and 69 for a purpose presently described. The head of stem 47 .has a greater face area than valve `53; consequently the valve, which -is nor-l mally held to its seat by-full hne pressure,
. may be unseated under lower pressure on head 50.
Referring now to the means for unseatmg the primary piston valve topermit iow ofv pressure medium to the well through line 27, 61 designates a diaphragm housing including the outer and inner members 62 and 63, having the usual rim iangesconnected vby bolts 64 with a flexible diaphragm 65 held between the flanges andrseparating the interior of the housing into outer and lnner chambers 66 and 67. The 'inner' housing member 63 is provided with a lneck, 68 threaded onto an extension of the upper main housing head 2O to mount the diaphragm housing thereon, and includin 4a valve chamber 69 having downwardlyV acing seat 70 spaced below the body of the housing member 63 to provide a throat 71.
lA stem 72 extends snugly through an opening 73 in the housing member 63 and carries a ball valve 74 within the chamber `69 adapted to seat on the valveseat 70. The stem also extends through the diaphragm into guiding seat in a socket 75 in the outer diaphragm housing member and is fixed to the diaphragm by nuts 76 and` 77 arranged on the stem at opposite sides of the diaphragm.
A. spring 78 surrounding the stem und bearing in a seat 7 9 in the inner diaphragm housing member andfagainst the inner nut of .the kT-litting 58 leading to the primary' diaphragm piston chamber 44. 82 designates a line leading from the major flow supply line 31 to a port 83 in the neck 68 for delivering pressure medium from the line 31 to the valve chamber 69 in'minor flow, a filter 84 being preferably interposed in the line 82 to restrain particles of foreign matter that might-interfere with proper seating of the valve 74. Branching from the line 82 is a line 85 opening through a port 86 into the outer diaphragm housing chamber 66, and leading from said outer chamber 66 through a port 87 is a line 88 leading through the casing head of the well and through the casing exteriorly of the tubing to a point in the well adjacent the top of the trap 10. The line 88 is provided with a hand valve' 89 for manual control of flow through the line and with a gauge 90 for indicating pressure in lthe line. An orifice valve 91 in the branch line `85 restricts flow through the branch line, thereby reducing pressure in the line `88 below vthat in the supply and major flow lines. Consequently the line 88 may constitute a low pressure line and the line 27 a high pressure line because of ydiHerential in pressure induced by the orifice valve.
With the parts heretofore described, automatic control of the'apparatus may result from variation of conditions in the well, in that the supply of pressure medium for displacing an accumulated charge in the trap may be let into 4the well as follows:
Assuming that the fluid in the wellv is at or below the level shown in Fig. 1, then the minor iiow .or low pressure line 88 is exposed above the fluid vin the well and pressure medium escaping through the line 82, branch 85, the outer diaphragmvchamber 66 and low pressure line 88,*flows freely from the open end of the line 88 and escapes through the vent 8 in the casing head, the spring 78 in the diaphragm chamber 67 retaining the diaphragm inits upwardly flexed condition and the valve 74 against its seat so that none of the pressure medium is admitted through the line to the top oi the primary vpiston chamber 45. Pressure medium admitted through the line 31 to the valve chamber 18 urges the valve 53 to its seat, shutting off fiow of pressure medium to the major ow or high pressure line. When, however, fiuid in the well reaches a suficiently high ievel to submerge the Olltli @nd Of the minor ow line, this ico line is liquid sealed and pressure ofthe medium admitted to the line 82, branch 85, chamber 66 and line 88 from the line 31, accumulates in these elements until it gradually assumes a sufficient degree to unseat the valve 74 against the tension of the spring 78 and pressure from line 82, whereupon pressure medium is admitted through the valve seat 70, port 81 and line 80 to the top ofthe diaphragm chamber where it accumulates until, because of the differential area of the piston headand valve 53, it will unseat the valve 53 to admit the pressure medium in major or high pressure flow ythrough the throat 19, coupling nipple 26 and line 27 todischarge into the trap for displacement of accumulated content of the tra is soon as the primary piston valve is opened to admit pressure medium in major flow to the well, the supply of pressure medium to the upper portion of the diaphragm piston chamber 45 is cut off by by-passing pressure medium from the major flow line back to the lower chamber 67 of the minor flow line through a line 118, preferably leading from the coupling nipple 26 through a port 119 in the lower diaphragm member 63. Cutting off supply to the top of the piston chamber 45. doesl not interfere with the unseating ofthe primaryvalve, as pressure abovewmd below the piston remains balanced because of the connection of the lupper portion of the piston chamber with the throat 19 through the channel 51 in the piston Valve stem.
Attention is here called tothe fact that the differential yin size of the line and reduced port 52 in ,the primary piston stem Iwill permit accumulation of the pressure.
medium in the piston chamber for displacing e the primary piston valve, and because of differential in area of the top of piston head 50 and the face of the valve head, there will v be a preponderance of pressure on the rpiston head tending to hold the diaphragm down and the valve open, after the pressure has balanced in the chamber 45 and throat 19, resulting from communication between the chamber 45 and throat 19 through the channel 51 in the piston valve stem.
When the major or high pressure line is open, lcontent of the trap is discharged and the pressure medium would continue to flow into the well unless means be provided for interrupting the flow; Such interruption of the major or high pressure flow is accomplished automatically through the following mechanism:
92 designates a diaphragm housing in-a `builds up in the upper chambers. 97 andl 98, the housing being mounted on the upper main housing plate 20 by a neck 99 containing a valve chamber 100 provided with a downwardly facing seat 101-spaced from the body of the diaphragm housing to provide a throat 102. The throat 102 has an open port 103 leading to atmosphere and the chamber 100 connects with the branch 60 ofthe T-fitting 58 opening to the primary piston chamber 45 through a line 104.
Extending snugly through an opening 105 in the inner diaphragm housing member 93 into the chamber 1001s a. stem 106 carrying'a valve 107 adapted for seating on the seat 101 to close the line 104 and retain ressuemedium in the primary piston c amber.` The stem 106 extends through the diaphragm and is connected thereto by the outer and inner nuts 108 and 109, and 1s projected loosely through a port 110 in the outer diaphragm housing member into a chamber 111 in an extension 112 on said housing member. A nut 113 on the outer end of the stem confines a spring 114 against the bottom of the chamber 111 and tends to normally yieldinglyJ retain the valve 107 closed. A cap 115 seals the top of the chamber 111 to make the chamber air tight. wall of the extension 112 isa port 116 for the chamber 111, and leading from said port to the welldischarge line or tubing 14 is a pressure 'line 117 through which fluid medium, which may be wellfluid under force of pressure medium, may be passed from the flow line into the upper diaphragm chamber Opening through the to flex the diaphragm 96 and unseat the valve chamber to permit return vof the primary piston valve to initial position.
Assuming the parts to be constructed and assembledv as described the operation is as follows: f
With the level of the` liquid in the well at or below that shown in Fig. 1, tlie'primary valve will be retained closed by pressure of the fluid medium supplied from the compressor or other source, and a minor flow un- `der low pressure will escape through the line 82, branch 85, diaphragm chamber 66, line 88 and the annular space between the casing and tubing of the well, to atmosphere through the vent 8 in the casing head, thereby avoiding back pressure on the sand which might interfere with flow of fluid to the well.
Under these conditions fluid enters the trap through the standing valve and rises in the trap, s1multaneously rising in the well about the trap. When the fluid inthe well reaches a level at which the outlet end of the minor flow or low pressure line is submerged, the minor flow or low pressure line is liquid sealed and pressure 'continuing to flow thereinto through the line 82, etc., gradually diaphragm chamber 66 until it is suilicient to displace the valve 74. When the valve 7 4 is displaced the pressure medium passes to the top ofthe piston chamber 45 'through line 80 and accumulates therein, the relatively small port 52 in the primary piston valve stem being insuliicient in size to permit escape of the pressure medium admitted to chamber 45 through the line 80 fast enough to otlset accumulation in the chamber.
When a suliicient amount of pressure has accumulated in the chamber 45, the diaphragm 44 is ileXed and the stem 47 .shifted to open the valve 53 and seat the valve 54 on its seat 23, thereby admitting the pressure medium to the well in major itlow and under high pressure and closing the vent trom the throat 19. i
Substantially immediately upon opening of the primary valve, pressure medium is passed through the line 118 to the lower diaphragm chamber 07 to shut od flow from the line 82 to the piston chamber 45, the primary valve remaining unseated because of the balance of pressure above and below the piston induced through the stem channel 51 and preponderance of downward pressure on the piston resulting from differential in area between the top of the piston head and bottom of the valve head 53.
Pressure medium liowing through the line 27 under high pressure then displaces content of v1the trap through the discharge line Air for displacement of liquid rom the well is under pressure only slightly greater than is necessary to overbalance the head of liquid in the discharge line, so that during the initial period of displacement, and until the trap and tube are substantially empty, pressure in the flow line does not exceed about ten pounds to the square inch, which is insufficient to overcome the tension of the spring 114 which retains the vent valve 107 closed. When the trap is'emptied, balance between the head of liquid in the discharge line and the air pressure in the trap is disturbed and pressure rapidly rising in the discharge line backs up through the line 117 and unseats the valve 107, thereb o ening the vent 101 and relieving the 'ap ragm piston chamber 45 so that the pressure on the piston is unbalanced; ,whereupon pressure medium admitted through the line 31 reseats the valve 53 and lifts the stem 47, unseating the valve 54 from its seat 23, thereby opening a passage to the vents 55 and relieving the major lowline to eliminate back pressure in the` well that might interfere with inflow of fluid from the sands.
The parts remain at the position last described until oil again rises in the 'well to a level for submerging the minor flow or low pressure line, whereupon the cycle of operation is repeated for discharging a subsequent charge of fluid rom'the well,
Thus it is apparent that the apparatus is ioperated automatically to admit displacing medium to the well only as it is required, irrespective of 'the length of time it takes -the well to ilhand that when a charge' is ters Patent is:
1. In combination with a well having a discharge line, a source of supply of iluid pressure medium, a pis-ton chamber, connected valve and vent chambers having oppositely facing valve seats, a flexible diaphragm in the piston chamber, a valve in the valve chamber having a stem'connected with said diaphragm, a primary conduit including a section leading from said source ot supply to the valve chamber, and a section leading from the valve and vent chamber connection to the well, means for conducting pressure medium from said source of supply to the piston chamber, a secondary conduit y connecting said source of supply with the well, means responsive to variation in pressure in the'secondary conduit induced by variation in level of liquid in the well controlling ow of pressure medium to the piston chamber, and means responsive to change in pressure -in the discharge line controlling outlet of pressure medium from the piston chamber.
2. In combination with a well having a discharge line, a source of supply of fluid pressure medium, a piston chamber, a ilexible diaphragm in the piston chamber, connected valve and vent chambers having valve seats, a valve unit including a valve located in the valve chamber and a larger area piston head connected with said diaphragm, a major flow conduit having a primary section `connecting said source of supplywith the valve chamber and a. section leading from the valve and vent chamber connection to the well, means for conducting pressure medium from said source of supply to the piston chamber, a secondary conduitleading from said source of supply into the well, and adapted td be liquid sealed by iluid in the well, means responsive to variation in pressure in the secondary conduit controlling flow of pressure medium to the piston chamber, and means responsive to change in pressu're in the discharge line controlling outlet o-pressure medium from the piston chamber,
3. In combination with a well having a discharge line, a piston chamber, a iex'ible diaphragm. in the piston chamber, connected valve and vent chambers having spaced valve seats, a valve unit including piston and main valve members of differential area located in the piston and valve chambers, connected one to the other and with thediaphragm, a valve in said unit co-operative with the seat in the vent chamber, a source of supply of lluid pressure medium having a conduit section leading to the valve chamber, whereby said main valve is normall retained on itsv seat by pressure of the me ium supplied through said section, a conduit section icommunicating with the valve and vent chamber connection and leading to the Well, a secondary valve chamber having a line of communication to the piston chamber, a secondary piston chamber, a piston in said secondary chamber, a valve in the secondary valve chamber 'connected with said secondary piston and normally closing said line of communication, means for conducting fluidl pressure medium to the secondary valve chamber and to the upper portion of the secondary piston chamber, aline leading from the uppe'rportion of the secondary piston chamberifnto the well and adapted for liquid sealing by- 'fluid' in the Well, and pressure controlled means controlling outlet from the primary piston chamber.
4. In combination with a Well having adischarge line, a piston chamber, a flexible diaphragm in, the piston chamber, connected valve and vent chambers having spaced valve seats, a valve unit including piston and main valve members of differential area located in the piston and valve chambers, connected one to the other and with the diaphragm, a valve in said unit co-operative with the seat in the vent chamber, a source of supply of fluid pressure medium having a conduit section yleading to the valve cham# ber, whereby said main valve is normally', pressure of the me# retained on its at byl dium supplied hroug saidsection, a conduit section communicating with the valve and vent chamber connection and leading to the well, a secondary valve chamber having a line'of communication to the piston chamber, a secondary piston chamber, a plston in said secondary chamber, a valve in the secondary valve chamber connected ,with said secondary piston and normally closing sald line of. communication means for conduct-l ing Huid pressure medlum to the secondary valve chamber and to the upper portion of the secondary piston chamber, a line leading from the upper portion of the secondaryv trolled means controlling outlet from the primary piston chamber.
5. In combination with a well'having a discharge line, a'source of supply of fluid pressure medium, a housing containing valve and vent chambers and a throat connecting said chambers havingl oppositely facing valve seats on its respective ends, a major pressure line having sections leading to vthe valve chamber from said source of supply and from said throat-to the Well, aidiaphragm housing, a flexible diaphragm .insaid housing forming a piston chamber, a stem connected with said diaphragm and extending through the vent chamber and throat, having a channel opening to the piston chamber and to the throat, major line and vent valves on said stem and co-operative with said seats, a pressure line'leading from said source of supply to said vpiston chamber, means responsive to variationv in pressure in the minor pressure line controlling the line to the piston chamber, a vent for the piston chamber and means responsive to change in pressure in the dis# charge line controlling said vent.
6. In combination with a Well having a discharge line, a source of supply offluid pressure medium, a housing containing valve and vent chambers and a throat connecting said chambers having oppositely facing valve seats on its respective ends, a major pressure line having sections leading to the valve chamber from said source of suppl and from said throat lto the well, a dlap ragm housing, 'a flexible diaphragm in said housing forming a piston chamber, 'a stem connected with said diaphragm and extending through the vent chamber and throat, having a channel opening to the piston chamber and to the throat, major line and vent valves on said stem and co-operative with said seats, a piston head on said stem within the piston chamber having an operative face area greater than that of the main line valve, a pressure line leading from said sourceof supply to said piston chamber, means responsive to .variation in pressure in the minor pressure line controlling the line to the' pistonchamber, a vent for the piston chamber, andl -means responswe to change 1n pressurein the discharge line controlling said vent.
7. In combination with a well having a discharge line,` a source of "supply of fluid pressure medium, a housing containing va'lve and vent chambers and a throat/connecting` said chambers having oppositely facing valve seats on its respectiveends, a majo pressure line having sections leading to the valve chamber from said source of supply and from said throat to the well, a diaphragm housing, a flexible diaphragm in said housing forming a piston chamber, a stem connected with said diaphragm and extending through the vent chamber and throat, having a channel opening to the piston chamber and to the throt, major line and vent valves ,on said stem and o-operatiye withpsaid sei1ts,a' pliston head on said stem within thepiston c amber having an operativeffce area'4 greater than that of the main line valve, a T-itting communicating with the piston chamber, a pressure lineleading fr'om said source of supply to one branch of said T-itting, a vent line leading from the 10 other branch 'of said fitting, means respon- 4sive'to variation in pressure in the minor pressure line controlling the line to the piston chamber, I and means responsive to variation in pressure 'in the well discharge 15 `line controlling the vent line.
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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3647319A (en) * 1969-02-06 1972-03-07 Terresearch Ltd Pumping equipment
US3704962A (en) * 1971-08-30 1972-12-05 Nl Industries Inc Fluidized material pump
US4826406A (en) * 1987-10-08 1989-05-02 S&Me, Incorporated Pressure extraction pump system for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from ground water
US4844797A (en) * 1988-03-22 1989-07-04 S&Me, Incorporated Vacuum extraction system

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3647319A (en) * 1969-02-06 1972-03-07 Terresearch Ltd Pumping equipment
US3704962A (en) * 1971-08-30 1972-12-05 Nl Industries Inc Fluidized material pump
US4826406A (en) * 1987-10-08 1989-05-02 S&Me, Incorporated Pressure extraction pump system for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from ground water
US4844797A (en) * 1988-03-22 1989-07-04 S&Me, Incorporated Vacuum extraction system

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