US1684406A - House electric - Google Patents

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US1684406A
US1684406A US1684406DA US1684406A US 1684406 A US1684406 A US 1684406A US 1684406D A US1684406D A US 1684406DA US 1684406 A US1684406 A US 1684406A
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ejector
inter
cooler
chambers
media
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01BMACHINES OR ENGINES, IN GENERAL OR OF POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT TYPE, e.g. STEAM ENGINES
    • F01B25/00Regulating, controlling, or safety means
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01BMACHINES OR ENGINES, IN GENERAL OR OF POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT TYPE, e.g. STEAM ENGINES
    • F01B2250/00Accessories of steam engines; Arrangements or control devices of piston pumps, compressors without crank shafts or condensors for so far as they influence the functioning of the engines
    • F01B2250/009Condenser pumps for steam engines
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S165/00Heat exchange
    • Y10S165/184Indirect-contact condenser
    • Y10S165/187Indirect-contact condenser having pump downstream of condenser
    • Y10S165/188Pump to remove only uncondensed vapor or air
    • Y10S165/19Pump to remove only uncondensed vapor or air including second-stage indirect-contact condenser

Description

Sept. 18, 1928.

D. W. R. MORGAN AIR EJECTOR APPARATUS Filed Oct. 12, i926 INVENTO BY 6 I fg- DWRMor gan.

l l M IIIIIIIII WITNESSES ATTORNEY Patented Sept. 18, 1928 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

DAVID W. R. MORGAN QF SWARTHMOIRE, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO WESTING- HOUSE ELECTRIC. & MANUFACTURING COMPANY, A CORPORATION OF PENNSYL- VANIA.

Amnmc'ron APPARATUS.

Application filed October 12, 1926. Serial No. 141,165.

My invention relates to ejector apparatus and particularly tothat class of ejector apparatus which is employed forexhausting noncondensable fluids from condensers and it has for an object to provide apparatus of the character designated which shall operate with an extraordinary degree of economy in consumption of motive fluid and which shall at the same time conserve both heat of the gases removed fromthe condenser as well as heat of the motive fluid. utilized in the ejector apparatus. Another object is to improve the construction and arrangement'ot parts ofan apparatus of the character described.

These and other objects, which will be made apparent throughout the further description of my invention, may be attained by the employment of the apparatus hereinafter described and illustrated'in' the accompanying drawing'in which: i

Fig. 1 is ardiagrammatic arrangement of a condensing system I which embodies one form of ejector apparatus constructed in accordance with my invention;

Fig. 2 is a side view, partly in section and partly in elevation, of the ejector apparatus utilized in Fig. 1.:

Fig. 3 is an end view, in elevation, of the ejector apparatus shown in Fig. 2; and v Figs and 5 are sectional views taken on the'lincs IV-IV and'V- V of Fig. 2 respectively. j j

The advantage gained'by expanding steam in turbines to a high vacunnipressurc at the exhaust has imposed added dutiesupon; the condensing apparatus-of power plants uti lizingz turbines as pi'i me movers, and'espec-ia l- ;ly son the air removal-apparatus of such plants, since the vacuum pressures which it is practicable .to utilize are, to a large extent, determined by the efficiency of the air removal apparatus. The type of air removal a paratus frequentlyemployed at the presout time consists of a two-stage steam/jet ejector apparatus, each stage discharging into an. intermediate condenser or intercooler.

hen such ejector apparatus was first emjiiloyed, the-'intercoolcr or condenser wasJnot utilized and hence the amount oi motive steam consumed was'rclatively high, about 40 pounds of motive stemn'bc-ing required to removel pound of free dry air at 1" Hg. absolute pressure. Subsequently it was found that by interposing a condenser or cooler etween the two stages of the ejector apparatus, the motive steam required could be reduced from approximately 4.0 pounds to approximately 12 pounds or about 7 0 per cent. In order to further reduce the steam consumption, resort was then had to making various detailed refinements in the ejeotors themselves and in this way the amount of motive steam required to remove 1 pound of free dry airat 1" Hg, absolute pressure was ultimate ly reduced. to approximately 9 pounds.

I have found, however, that such performa-ncccan be materially improved upon by employing an ejector apparatus arranged in three stages instead oftwo and which consists primarily of three ejectors connected in series with inter-coolers and inter-condensers fitted between the first and second ejectors and between the second and third ejectors together with a, cooler fitted. on the discharge side of the third ejector. I have found that with such aform of ejector apparatus, a decrease in steam consumptionover the best performance heretofore obtainable of approximately per cent at an absolute pressure of 28'Hg., 33 per cent at 29" Hg., per cent at 29.25 Hon, and 63 per cent at 29.5" Hz. all referred to a 30 barometer, can be effected. The increase in air handling capacity of a three-stage ejector apparatus ascompared with'a two-stage ejector apparatus is more pronounced at. the lower absolute pressures and this is principally due to the super-cooling of the non-coudensable vapors earlier in the cycle as well as'the elimination ofsome of the motive steam. By employing such a form of ejector apparatus, the efficiency of the entire condensing plant is improved as'not'only does the air ejector consume less motive fiuid, but at the same time a higher vacuum is maintained in the condcnserand consequently the efficiency of the entire condensing apparatus is increased.

Re'ferrlngnow to the drawing fora more detailed description of my invention, I show inFig. 1 a condenser 10 of the conventional type which is provided with a. hot well 11 and a condensate pump 12 for removing condensate therefrom; Connected to the side of the condenser is a first stage air ejector 13 connected to a heat exchange device 14. As shown in Figs. 2 to 5, the heat exchange device 14 comprises a shell 15 which isd vided by suitable pmtition means into a. Iirst SE cooler and condenser '16, a second-stage condenser and .cooler17 and an after cooler '18. Suitable cooling tubes 19 extend through each I of these compartments.

The first-stage e ector 13 discharges. into the first stage compartment 16 through an inlet 21 and a second stage'ejector' 22 removes the air and non-con densable gases fromthe compartment 16 through an outlet 23 which,

is remotely disposed from the inlet'21. The second stage ejector 22 discharges through an inlet 24 into the compartment 17 and the air and non-condensable :jgases areremoved therefrom by a third stage ejector 25 through an outlet 26 remotely disposed from the inlet 2a. The thirdstageejector 25,.inturn, discharges to the compartn'ient 18 through an inlet 27 The compartments 16, 17 and 18 are I provided with respective drains 28, 29 and. .31

while'the compartment 18 is also provided with a vent 32. I

The shell 15 is provided with suitable water boxes 33 and 34. As shown in Figs. 2, .3 and 4, the water box 33 isprovided with two transverse division walls and 35 together with a cold water inlet 36, a condensatc'inlet 36 and a condensate outlet .38, all arran ed in the manner shown. The other water-box 34: is also provided with a division wall 30 and a cold water outlet 37 while its lower portion is so arranged that the condensate received from the central portion of the tube nest returns through the lower portion of the tube nest. Condensate is supplied to the inlet 36. from the condensate pump 12 through a conduit 39. The tubes in the compartments 16 and 17, therefore,receivc .two cooling media, the

upper region of tubes in each compartment receiving water enteri1 1g theinlet- 36 and the lower region of tubes receiving water enter in the inlet 36. v

lhe operation of the above embodiment of my invention is as follows: Upon exhaust steam being admitted to the condenser 10, condensate is-created andthisis removed by means of the condensate ump 12 and discharged to the inlet'36 o the ejector. apparatus. All air and non-condensable gases accumulating in the condenser. are withdrawn by the first stage ejector 13,compressed and discharged into. the first stage cooler and condenser 16 through the inlet 21. Within the compartment 16 the motive steam utilized in this ejector 13 is condensedand the air and non-condensable gases lowered in temperathus conserved. However, in order toifur ther reduce the temperature and volumeoi the air and non-condensable gases as well: as to-further reduce their vapor content,v the gases before reaching the outlet 23 are compelled to pass overthe' upper section of tubes through which extraneous water of relatively lower temperature is circulating. In this way, the gases are further cooled, their specific volume reduced and consequently the amount of motive steam required in the second stage ejector 22 is materially lessened. I

have found'that the thermodynamic loss incurred in transmitting some of the heat tothe extraneous water passing through the upper tubes 1s-.more than compensated for by the increase in efficiency of the secondstage ejector.

The second stage ejector 22 withdraws the 'air and non-condcnsable gases from the com- 'partment 16, further compresses the same and dischargesthem Into the compartment 17 wherein a condensmg and cooling action takes placesi-milar to that-occurring in the compartment 16. After this, the third-cjector 25 removes the air and non-condensable. gases from the compartment 17 and further compresses them to atmospheric pressure after which they aredischargedto the inlet 27 of the compartment or after-cooler 18. In the latter compartment, the motive steam utilized in the third-stage ejector is condensed and the air and non-condensable gases vented to the atmosphere through the rent 32. All condensate orclrainage-accumulating in the compartments- 16, 17 and 18- is removed through the drains 28,29 and 31 to proper portions. of the power plant as determined by the'ir respective temperatures and pressures From the foregoing it will be apparent that I have inventcda form of ejector apparatus which has a greater operating eiticiency than apparatus of this character heretofore employed. In this connection, applicant wishes to emphasize thatthis added .efliciency is obtained not by merely adding an additional ejector to two-stage ejeotors' of the present type, but that it is obtained by so arranging and proportioning the apparatus that cooling and condensing ofthe gases discharged by the initial ejector take place very early in the cycle and in this way, the volume of gases handled by subsequent ejector-s is materially reduced. At the same time, as these gases are reduced in volume, the motive fluid required by the cjectors is lessened proportionally and consequently the entire apparatus has a much improved eliiciency. While I have shown an arrangement wherein the coolers and condensers 16 and 17 have both condensate and extraneous water circulating therethrough, nevertheless, it is to be understood-thatit is within the purview of my invention to employ either condensate or extraneous water singly or any combination of sill both or any other suitable cooling medium.

It will thus be seen that I have provided a single piece of apparatusembodying the three similar and separate chambers 16, 17 and 18, respectively, each of which is rectangular, or oblong in cross-section and thus,

provides for the proper heattransfer with the warmer tubes carrying condensatc and then over the cooler tubes which carry extraneous cooling-media. In this way it is assured that gaseous-media in passing through these chambers will not be heated by condensate dropping from tubes hi gher up, for as the'gaseo'us 'l'i'iedia'progresses through each chamber it comes: into a region where the cooling surface; is at'a lower temperature. Hence, ineach instance, the gaseous media will notrbe heated, but rather cooled by-a rain "of" condensate; .Wh-ile gaseousniedia, in passing I transversely across the lower chamber 18', is not cooled by condensate falling from upper tubes, neither is it heat-ed, since in" this chamber condensate drips d1- rectly acrossthe path of flow of the gaseous media.

A still further economy is effected in the overall spacial requiren'ients for my heat exchange apparatusby arranging the steamoporated ejector pumps vertically the sides thereof, while at the same time it will beobserved that ejector-s, when so disposed, are most effective and efllcient iii-operation.

While I have shown my -iiivehtioi1 in but oneform, it wi'll be obvious to'those skilled in the art that it is noted limited, but is susceptible of'various changes and modifications, without departing from the spirit thereof, and I desire, therefore, that only such limitations shalllbe placed thereupon as-are imposed by the prior art or asare specifi cally set forth in the appended claims;

WVhat '1 claim is 1. In a heat exchanger of the type described, the combination of a: shell, meansdgividing the shell into three adjacent chambers, water tubes in each chamber, and means for passing gaseous mediathrough all ofsaid chambers in series and upwardly-through two of said chambers. I

2.-In a heat exchanger 0t the type de scribed, the combinationof a shelhmeans dividing the shellinto three adj acentchambers,

eachof said chambers beingrectangular in cross section and contiguous to the remaining chambers, heat-transfer tubes in each chamber, and means for passing gaseous media upwardly through two of said chambers 1n series. 3. In a heat exchanger of the type described, the combination of 'a shell, means dividing the shell into three chambers; each of said chambers being rectangular in cross sectron, two of said chambers having their wider sides disposed upwardly, another-of said chambers having its wider sides disposed transversely and theupper of its wider sides contiguous to the lower of the narrower sides of said two of said chambers, heat transfer tubes disposed in each of said chambers, and means for passing gaseous media upwardly through said two of said chambers in series and then transversely through said another of said, chambers.

4. A heat exchanger of the type described comprising a shell, said shell being rectangular in cross section, a partition extending longitudinally and transversely of theshell between the sides thereof, an upright partition extending longitudinally of the shell and be tween the upper side thereof and said trans verse partition, the shell and the partitions being so constructed and arranged as to provide three scpa-r atechambers within the shell,

a nest of tubes traversing each of the separate chambers,-means providing an induction port in an outer side wall of each of the separate chambers, and means providing an eduction port in an outer wall of each of said chambers, the eduction port for each chamber being remote from the induction port of the same chamber.

- 5. A heat exchanger of the typexclcscribed comprising a shell, said shell being rectangular in cross section, a partition extending longitndinally and transversely of the shell. be

tween the sides thereof, an upright partition extending longitudinally of the shell and between-the upper side thereof and said transverse partition. the shell and the partition being so constructed and arranged as to pro vide three separate chambers within the shell,

a. nest of tubes 't-raversing'each of the separate chambers, means providing -]Il(ll1(:l'.l0n ports 'in the outer side walls of the upper chambers and adjacent the transverse partition, means providing an eduction port in the upper wall ofjeach of the upper chambers, and

"means providing-an induction port in one said wall of the lower chamber and an educt-ion port in" the opposite side wall of said lower chamber.

6.- A heat exchanger oi the type described comprising, a shell, said shell being rcctaunw lar in cross section, a partition extending longitudinally and transverselyot the shell between the sides thereof.- an upright partition extending; longitudinally of the shell and be tween the upper side-thereof and said trancverse partition, thesh'elland the partitions being so constructed and: arranged as to provide three separate chambers within the shell, a nest of tubes traversing each oi the sepachambers and adjacent thev transverse partition, means iroviding an eduction portv in the upper wall of eachofthe upper chambers and adjacent the upright-partition.and means providing an-induction port in one sidewall of the lower chamberand an eduction port -in the opposite side-wall of said lower 7. A heat exchanger of the type described comprising a shell, said shell being rectangu lar in cross-section, a partition extending longitudinally and transversely of the shell between the sides there-of, an upr ght part1- tion extending longitudinally of the shell and between the upper side thereof and said transverse partition, the shell'and the partr tions being soconstructed and arranged as to providethree separate chambers within the/shell, a nest of tubes traversing eaclroi the separate cliambers,-.ineans providing induction ports in the outer side walls of the upper chambers and adjacent the transverse partition, means providing aneduction port in the upper wall of each of the upper chamhers, means providing an nduction port in an outer sidewall of the lower chamber, and means providing an eduction port in another outer side wall of said lower chamber and adjacent said transverse partition.

' 8. A device accordin to claim 4, and means for passing cooling media of substantiallythe same temperature through the upper tubes of the upper chambers in parallel, and means for passing condensate through the lower tubes o-f the upper chambers in parallel and then through the tubes in the lower chamber.

9. A device according to; claim 4, and a steam-operated ejector pump connected between the eduction port of one of the upper chambers and the in'ductionport of the other of the upper chambers, and a steam-operated ejector pump connected between the eduction port of said other of the u-ppe-rchambers and the induction port of the lowerchamber.

v1O. A device according to claim 4, and steam-o 'icrated ejector pumps for translating gaseous media to each of said chambers, each pump beingarranged to exhaust through the induction port of one of said chambers,

means for transferring heat from motive fiuid exhausted into the chambers to condensate from a condenser, and means for cooling gaseous media in the upper chambers to a lower temperature than that of the condensate from the condenser.

1.1. The combination with a condensenof' ranged between the'first and second stage ejectors and between the second and third stage ejectors, an after cooler' -arranged to receive media discharged from the third stage ejector, and means for passing eondensate received from the condenser in first and secondpasses through the inter and after coolers, the intercoolers bein g'arranged in parallel in one pass.

l2. Thecmnbination.with a condenser, of

means for withdrawing non-condensable parallel through the inter-coolers-and then through the after cooler.

13.;v The combination with a condenser, of means for withdrawing non-condensab'le media from the condenser including a firststagc ejector, a first inter-cooler having its lower portion receiving media discharged from the first-stage ejector, asecond-stage ejector for withdrawing media from the upper portion of the first inter-cooler, a second inter-cooler havingits lower portion receiving media discharged from the second ejector, a third stage ejector for. withdrawing media from the upper portion of the second intercooler, an aiter cooler. for receiving'm'edia discharged from. the third-stage ejector, and means for passingcondensate received-from the condenser in fiist and second passes through the inter-andaitcr coolers, the inter coolers being arranged in parallel in one pass.

14. The combination with a condenser, of means for withdrawingnon-condensable me dia from the condenser including a first-stage ejector, a first inter-cooler having itslower portion receiving media discharged from the first-stageejector, a second-stage ejector for withdrawing media from the upper portion of the'fir'st inter-cooler, a second inter-cooler havingits lower portion receiving media dis charged from the second cctor, a third stage ejector for withdrawing media from the up per portion of the second inter-cooler, an after cooler for receiving media discharged from the third-stage ejector, means for passing condensate received from the condenser in first and second passes through the lower portions of the inter-coolers and'through the after cooler, the inter-coolers being arran ed in parallel in one pass, and means for passing cooling water derived from a separate source through the upper portions .of the intercool'ers.

15.- The combination with a condenser, of means for withdrawing non-condensable media from the condenser including a housing embodying upper parallel first and second indensate received from the condenser first in ter-cooler chambers and a lower after cooler chamber, a first-stage ejector arranged to withdraw non-condensable media from the condenser and to discharge such media into the lower portion of the first inter-cooler chamber, a second stage ejector for withdrawing media from the upper portion of the first inter-cooler chamber and for discharging media into the lower portion 01 the second inter-cooler chamber, a third-stage ejector for withdrawing media from the upper portion of the second inter-cooler chamber and for discharging media, into the after cooler chamber, nests of tubes arranged in the in-- ter and after cooler chambers, and means for passing condensate received from the condenser in two passes through'the tube nests of the inter and after coolers, the nests of the inter-coolers being arranged in parallel in one pass.

16. The combination with a condenser, of means for withdrawing non-oondensable media from the condenser including a housing embodying upper parallel first and second inter-cooler chambers and a lower after cooler chamber, a firststage ejector arranged to withdraw non-condensable media from the condenser and to discharge such media into the lower portion of the first inter-cooler chamber, a second stage ejector for withdrawing media from the upper portion of the first inter-cooler chamber and for dischargingmedia into the lower portion of the second inter-cooler chamber, a third-stage ej ector for withdrawing media from the upper portion of the second inter-cooler chamber and for discharging media into the after cooler chamber, nests of tubes arranged in the inter and after cooler chambers, means for passing condensate received from the condenser in first and second passes through the tube nests of the inter andafter coolers, the tube nests of the inter-coolers being arranged in parallel in one pass,upper tube nests in the upper portions or" the inter-coolers, and means for passing cooling water derived from a separate source through said upper nests.

17 The combination with a condenser, of means for withdrawing non-condensable media from the condenser including a housing embodying upper parallel first and second inter-cooler chambers and a lower atter cooler chamber, a first-stage ejector arranged to withdraw non-condensable media from the condenser and to discharge such media into the lower portion of the first inter-cooler chamber, asecond stage ejector for withdrawing media from the upper portion of the lirst inter-cooler chamber and for discharging media into the lower portion ot'the second inter-cooler chamber, a third-stage ejector for Withdrawing media from the upper portion of the second inter-cooler chamber and for discharging media into the after cooler chamber, nests of tubes arranged in the inter and after cooler chambers, means for passing condensate received from the condenser in first and second passes through the tube nests of the inter and after coolers, the tube nests of the inter-coolers being arranged in parallel in one pass, upper tubes nests in the upper portions or the inter-coolers, means for passing condensate received from the condenser first in parallel through the tube nests of the inter-coolers and then through the tube nest of the after cooler, separate tube nests arranged in the upper portions of the inter-coolers, and means for passing cooling water derived from a separate source through the last-named tube nests.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name this twenty-fourth day of September, 1926.

DAVID W. R. MORGAN.

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3059396A (en) * 1958-01-07 1962-10-23 Leybold Anlagen Holding A G A device for drawing off gaseous components from a gas-vapour mixture

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3059396A (en) * 1958-01-07 1962-10-23 Leybold Anlagen Holding A G A device for drawing off gaseous components from a gas-vapour mixture

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