US1641714A - Headlight - Google Patents

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Publication number
US1641714A
US1641714A US162825A US16282527A US1641714A US 1641714 A US1641714 A US 1641714A US 162825 A US162825 A US 162825A US 16282527 A US16282527 A US 16282527A US 1641714 A US1641714 A US 1641714A
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United States
Prior art keywords
light
rear
reflector
surfaces
headlight
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Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US162825A
Inventor
Edward J Whalen
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Redirected Light Corp
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Priority to US162825A priority Critical patent/US1641714A/en
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Publication of US1641714A publication Critical patent/US1641714A/en
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Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21SNON-PORTABLE LIGHTING DEVICES; SYSTEMS THEREOF; VEHICLE LIGHTING DEVICES SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR VEHICLE EXTERIORS
    • F21S41/00Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps
    • F21S41/10Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps characterised by the light source
    • F21S41/14Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps characterised by the light source characterised by the type of light source
    • F21S41/162Incandescent light sources, e.g. filament or halogen lamps
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21SNON-PORTABLE LIGHTING DEVICES; SYSTEMS THEREOF; VEHICLE LIGHTING DEVICES SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR VEHICLE EXTERIORS
    • F21S41/00Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps
    • F21S41/30Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps characterised by reflectors
    • F21S41/32Optical layout thereof
    • F21S41/321Optical layout thereof the reflector being a surface of revolution or a planar surface, e.g. truncated
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21SNON-PORTABLE LIGHTING DEVICES; SYSTEMS THEREOF; VEHICLE LIGHTING DEVICES SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR VEHICLE EXTERIORS
    • F21S41/00Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps
    • F21S41/30Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps characterised by reflectors
    • F21S41/32Optical layout thereof
    • F21S41/33Multi-surface reflectors, e.g. reflectors with facets or reflectors with portions of different curvature
    • F21S41/331Multi-surface reflectors, e.g. reflectors with facets or reflectors with portions of different curvature the reflector consisting of complete annular areas
    • F21S41/333Multi-surface reflectors, e.g. reflectors with facets or reflectors with portions of different curvature the reflector consisting of complete annular areas with discontinuity at the junction between adjacent areas
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21SNON-PORTABLE LIGHTING DEVICES; SYSTEMS THEREOF; VEHICLE LIGHTING DEVICES SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR VEHICLE EXTERIORS
    • F21S41/00Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps
    • F21S41/30Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps characterised by reflectors
    • F21S41/32Optical layout thereof
    • F21S41/36Combinations of two or more separate reflectors
    • F21S41/365Combinations of two or more separate reflectors successively reflecting the light

Description

l ,641,714 Sept. 6, 1927. E J. WHALEN HEADLIGHTY Filed Jan. 22, 1927 wbemtoc Edf/Wma@ atroz uur like characters represent Patented Sept. 6, 1927.

UNITED srATEserr Lehm EDWARD J'. WHALEN, OF SYRACUS, NEVVYORK, ASSIGNOR T0 REDIRECTED LIGHT CORPORATION OF AMERICA, OF SYRACUSE,

YORK.

NEW YORK, A CORPORATION OF NEW Hnannrenr.

Application led January 22, 1927. A Serial No. 162,825.

This invention relates to a headlight, and more particularly to a headlight adapted to be' used for motor vehicles or the like.'

This application is a continuation in part of an application filed by me October l2, 1926, Serial No. 141,076.

An object of the present invention is to provide a headlight of such construction that the maximum amount of lightis projected on the road, without producmg objectionable glare.-

A further object is to provide a headligh in which that portion of the reflector in front of the source of light which produces the objectionable glare is hidden from view, so that light reflected therefrom cannot strike the eyes of an observer.

Another` object is to provide a headlight in which the only light rays that can strike the eyes of anobserver are those coming directly from the source of light and those which are reflected from the reflector back of the source of light, sc-as to be directed from the headlight in a beam very closely lzrpproaching the horizontal, and cannot strike the eyes ofwan observer unless posltioned directly in front of the headlight with his -eye at the same level as the source of li ht.

gA still further object is to accomplish the above results without in any mannerdissipating the strength of the beam emitted and without the necessity of using screens, partitions, or like obstructions to block oil' the portions of the reflector or reflected light that cause the objectionable glare and pre vent the direct rays from the source of light from being utilized.

The above and other objects are accomplished by the novel features, combinations,-

and constructions hereinafter set forth and illustrated in ythe accompanyin drawings, showing thepreferred form o the invention. It is to be understood, however, that various substitutions, modifications, or chan s in detail construction may be resorteA to which fall within the scope of the claim hereunto appended.

In describing this invention. reference is had to thefaccompanying drawings, in which corresponding parts in all the views.

Figure l is a vlongitudinal vertical sectional view through a headlight embodying invention.

. ig. 2 is a horizontal sectional View of a modified form of my invention on a-reduced scale with portions thereof broken away.

This headlight comprises, generally, an elongated casing which is elliptical in lengthwise section and is provided at its rear with a reflecting surface, and has an opening at its front end through which light is to be rojected. In the lower half of the elongate casing I provide a series of transversely extending reflecting surfaces, all of which are located in front of the source of light, which is located in the axis of the rear reflector. These reflecting surfaces are rearwardly presented, so that rays of light coming from the source of light strike the rearwardly presented reflectors and are returned to the rear reflector at various points behind the rear focal plane and above the source of light. From the rear reflechir these rays are projected forwardly through the opening at the front of the body and pass slightly above and below the front focal point, which is located approximately centrally of the forward opening.

From the illustrated embodiment of my invention, it will be seen that only that portion of the rear reflector which lies beind the rear focal plane is utilized to project the rays reflected by the transverse refleeting surfaces. and it is believed to be clear that by utilizing only this portion of the rear reflector, the transmitted light will be projected through the front opening of the vheadlight with the upper boundary closely approaching the horizontal, due to' the fact that the light striking the rear reilector upon being returned by the series of transversely extending reflectors, strikes the rear reflector at various points behind the rear focal plane and above the source of light, and it is due to this construction and operation that the rays are projected from the opening at the front end of the headlight to one side or the other of the front focal point F.

l designates an elongated hollow casing which is shown as being elliptical Ain longitudinal sectionA and circular in cross secy' the casing,

tion, the casing having a light-projecting opening 2 at its front end, in which is arranged a pane of glass 3, although it is to be understood that if desired any form of lens may be used.

4 is a reflecting surface at the rear end of which may be made in any suitable manner, either by high polishing' o the casing 1 or by employing a reflector formed to conform with the rear end of the casing 1 so as to have generally an ellipsoidal form. 5 is the source of light or a lamp filament arranged in the axis of the rear reflector 4 or as near thereto as it is possible to lace it.

he lamp 5 is mounted in the lamp socket 7 carried at the rear end of the casing 1 in any suitable manner to have the usual adjustments of an automobile headlight -in order to llocate the filament or sourcevof light in the axis of the reflector or at the desired point along the axis.

half ofthe Arranged within th ,lower casing 1 are a series of transversely'extending reflecting surfaces 8` 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, all of which are located forwardly of the source of light and provide rearwardly presented reflecting surfaces so as to throw the light striking against them ybackwardly against the rear reflector at Various points thereon located above the source of light and behind the rear focal plane. These rearwardly presented reflecting surfaces are 'preferably arranged in the lower half of the casing, but also similar reflecting surfaces may be located in the upper half of the casing. p

The rearwardly presented reflecting surfaces 8 to 16 incluslve are preferably spherically curved with the center of each reflecting surface located at a different point on the reflector 4, so that their axes intersect the horizontal plane containing the axis of the reflector 4. It will be seen, therefore, that by providing these rearwardly presented reflecting surfaces with spherical surfaces, the centers of which are struck' from different points on the reflector 4, that light which is reflected back u on the reflector 4 will strike the same at different points an in this manner cause 'a projection of light through the front opening at points adja-` cent the front focal point F.

In order to determine the points from which the spherical surfaces are to be struck, I determine the position of the shadow line of the series of rearwardly presented reflectors on the rear reflector 4 as well as the point where the light reflected rearwardly will strike the reflector 4, and then strike the spherical surface of the rearwardly resented reflectors from a point interme iate or between the shadow line and the line of desired reflection on the reflector 4. The center from which the reflecting surface 8' is struck is indicated at CB on the rear reflector 4 and the center of the reflecting surface 16'is indicated at C16, while the center from which one of the intermediate surfaces between the Surfaces 8 and 16, such as the .surface 12, is struck, is indicated at C112. It 1s to be understood that the centers of the f other reflecting surfaces lyingr between the surfaces 8 and 16 are struck from different points on the reflector 4, but that all of these centers lie between the points C8 and C16 on the rear reflector 4. All of the centers about which the reflecting surfaces are struck have not been shown, Ain order to prel. vent confusion in the drawing. In this mansil ner the proper curvature of the rearwardly presented reflecting surfaces can be determined, so that rays of light from the source of light str1king they series of rearwardly presented reflectors, will all be thrown rearwardly against the reflector 4 at distinct points.v The reflecting-surfaces 15 and 16, which are -directlyfbelow the source of light, are modified somewhat to permit light which is reflected from the source4 of light to strike the rear reflector 4. To accomplish this purpose, the shadow line of these refleeting surfaces is given more inclination rearwardly, so that rays of light passing to the reflector 4 from the reflecting surfaces 15 and '16 will not contact with those portions of the rearwardly members which are not. intended to be used for reflectingpurposes. To clearly bringI I have shown the shadow out this point, line 18 to indicate in a general manner that the inclined surface connecting the reflectors l5 and 16 is inclined rearwardly of the true shadow line., By inclining this connecting surface, however, the same is placed in such ,f

aV position that light coming from the source of light will strike thereagainst and in order to prevent any objectionable reflections from this connecting portion, I sand-blast or otherwise deaden the reflecting surface of this portion 19, so that no reflections therefrom can take place.

While I have referred specifically tothe surface 19 isbeing inclined rearwardly, it is d tobe understood that to a less degree the sameis true of the majority of the surfaces to the rear of the minor axis of the headlight. The connecting surfaces in front of the minor axis,however` vare not inclined rearwardly, but are true shadow lines, since it is believed to be obvious that the rays of light which are' projected in front of the minor axis cannot possibly contact with these surfaces. l In order to utilize all the rays of light which strike the rearwardly presented refleeting surfaces, I have found that itis desirable not to pass any of thesev reflected rays directly back on the line of incidence, and 4in order to still further utilize al1 of resented reflecting mamie the rearwardly reflected rays, I have so arranged these surfaces in back of the minor axis, that the rays of light impinging thereon are .thrown back to the rear reflector 4 at points behind the rear focal plane and that they all pass to the rear of the source of light, while the reflecting surfaces located in front of the minor axis are arranged so that the rays impinging thereon are reflected back to the rear reflector 4 at points in back of therear focal plane but pass above and in front of the source of light. This is necessary in order to insure that a ray of light which is returned by the reflectors will strike the rear reflector 4 at a different point and consequently eliminate any blur that 'might take place. v y

In Fig. 1 I have illustrated the course l' taken by the light'from the source of light to the rearwardly presented redectinfr Surfaces and backward to the rear portion of the reflector 4 andthen out of the headlight at the 'opening at the front end at points adjacent the front focal' oint F', It is to be noted, however, that t e rays which are returned to the rear portion of the reflector 4 by the reflectors which are located to the rear of the minor axis of the headlight pass tothe rear of the source of light, but very close thereto, and that the yrays of light which are reflected to the rear portion of the reflector 4 from the rearwardly presented reflecting surfaces in front of the minor axis of the headlight are passed to the rear portion of the reflector 4 in front of the-source of lightand also very close therete.V

v It is a well known law of elliptical re flectors that any rays which .pass through the rear focal point F2 will also pass through the front focal point F', and that the closer the reflected rays pass to the rear focal point the more closely will theyy approach the front focal point-` It is the object, there fore, of my invention to so locate the rearwardly presented .reflecting surfaces that they will return the light to the rear reflecting surface 4 along a path which is ve close to the rear focal point F, whether these rays pass to the front of the rear'focal point or to the rear thereof. In other words, I have so positioned the rearwardl presented reflecting surfaces that they wil cause the light reflected therefrom to pass as closely as possible to the rear focal point.

without passing through the same. By using this principle of construction, it is thought to be clear that'the light passing through the front open end of the headlight .that has been reflected rearwardly by the rearwardly .presented reflecting surfaces which are to the rear of the minor axis, will pass outward slightlyvabove the front focal point F', and that those rays which are returned to the rear ortion ofthe reector4 from the rearwar y presented surfaces in will pass out of the same below the front focal point F', as clearly-shown in the drawing. It will thus be seen that the light which is emitted from the headlight is pro. jected in a beami the upper boundary of which very closely approaches the horizontal, and that little or no light is emitted from the lamp above the horizontal.,

Flg. 2 shows a modification of the present invention, in which the rearwardly presented reflecting surfaces on the lower half ofl the casing 1 may be curved, but in all other respects the operation and construction is the same as that shown in the preceding figure. In the embodiment as shown in Fig. 1, the casing 1 is shown as being divided transversely along the line 20 andiis provided with upstanding ears 21 around the marginal edge thereof. In order to secure the lamp casing together, the anges 21 are placed 1n abutting relation and a ring' 22 having a` groove 23 therein to receive the flanges 21 1s passed around the cas'm and at the lower end is provided with own-n wardly extending ears 24 having an opening therethrough to receive a bolt er other securing means. In order to disassemble the lamp, it is only necessa to remove the ring 22, thereby releasing the marginal flanges 21. The forward half of the casing can then be removed and easy access provided for the removal of the reflecting members or the lam It is to le noted that the lamp socket 7 is passed through the casing at an angle from the rear and obstructs a portion of the rear reflecting surface 4 which lies below theV horizontal axis thereof, so that rays emitted by the source of light will not be reflected by this surface and conse uently cannot project rays of light throug the forward end of the lamp above the horizontal. This portion of the reflector lying below the horizontal axis causes much of the reflection that produces objectionable glare, so that by eliminating` much 'of this portion I have minimized the effect of this portion of the reflecting surface 4.

From the foregoing it will be seen that I have produced a headlight in which practically all of the li ht emitted by the source and is so concentrated llaa believed that it will be clear that the rear? wardly presented reflectinl surfaces are not visible from the front of t e lamp, and that the only portions that can be seen are those connecting portions which connect the rearwardly presented reflecting surfaces and they are not li ht reflecting surfaces.

In additiorn have (Froduced a headlight which may be produce at a relatively small cost, which may be easily assembled or ds/ assembled `for ur oses of repair or cleaning,A and which is highly efficient and useful in operation.

What is claimed is.:

A vehicle headlight comprising an ellipticalrelector having its forward end terminating substantially at its 'front focal plane, a light source in the rear focus, a series of rearwardly presented curved trans verse reecting surfaces in the lower half 20 faces adapted to direct thelight received by ythem agalnst the rear portion of the yelliptical reector back of the rear focal plane on either side of and in close proximityto the light source, whereby the-1 ht is directed forwardly in a beam, t e upper boundary of which closely approaches the a horizontal. y y

In testimony whereof I have hereunto signed my name, at Washington, in the District of Columbia, this 21st day of Jan- 35 uary, 1927. y

EDWARD J. WHALEN.

US162825A 1927-01-22 1927-01-22 Headlight Expired - Lifetime US1641714A (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3354304A (en) * 1966-09-27 1967-11-21 Miller L Freeman Light reflectors for producting a conical divergent light beam
US4188657A (en) * 1973-07-13 1980-02-12 Whiteway Manufacturing Co., Inc. Reflector and method of producing different, distinctive and predictable light patterns therefrom
US4799131A (en) * 1987-11-18 1989-01-17 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Automotive lighting element
US6582110B1 (en) * 1999-08-11 2003-06-24 Automotive Lighting Italia Spa Motor-vehicle light
US20150265735A1 (en) * 2012-05-31 2015-09-24 Becton, Dickinson And Company Uv disinfection system for needleless connector

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3354304A (en) * 1966-09-27 1967-11-21 Miller L Freeman Light reflectors for producting a conical divergent light beam
US4188657A (en) * 1973-07-13 1980-02-12 Whiteway Manufacturing Co., Inc. Reflector and method of producing different, distinctive and predictable light patterns therefrom
US4799131A (en) * 1987-11-18 1989-01-17 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Automotive lighting element
EP0317291A2 (en) * 1987-11-18 1989-05-24 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Automotive lighting element
EP0317291A3 (en) * 1987-11-18 1989-11-23 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Automotive lighting element
US6582110B1 (en) * 1999-08-11 2003-06-24 Automotive Lighting Italia Spa Motor-vehicle light
US20150265735A1 (en) * 2012-05-31 2015-09-24 Becton, Dickinson And Company Uv disinfection system for needleless connector
US9408929B2 (en) * 2012-05-31 2016-08-09 Becton, Dickinson And Company UV disinfection system for needleless connector
US10279057B2 (en) 2012-05-31 2019-05-07 Becton, Dickinson And Company UV disinfection system for needleless connector

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