US1639333A - Explosive engine - Google Patents

Explosive engine Download PDF

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US1639333A
US1639333A US400638A US40063820A US1639333A US 1639333 A US1639333 A US 1639333A US 400638 A US400638 A US 400638A US 40063820 A US40063820 A US 40063820A US 1639333 A US1639333 A US 1639333A
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cylinders
crank shaft
cylinder
series
crank
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US400638A
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Ford Henry
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M35/00Combustion-air cleaners, air intakes, intake silencers, or induction systems specially adapted for, or arranged on, internal-combustion engines
    • F02M35/10Air intakes; Induction systems
    • F02M35/1015Air intakes; Induction systems characterised by the engine type
    • F02M35/10203Rotary, e.g. "Wankel", engines; Engines with cylinders in star arrangement; Radial piston engines; W-engines
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/16Engines characterised by number of cylinders, e.g. single-cylinder engines
    • F02B75/18Multi-cylinder engines
    • F02B75/22Multi-cylinder engines with cylinders in V, fan, or star arrangement
    • F02B75/222Multi-cylinder engines with cylinders in V, fan, or star arrangement with cylinders in star arrangement
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M35/00Combustion-air cleaners, air intakes, intake silencers, or induction systems specially adapted for, or arranged on, internal-combustion engines
    • F02M35/10Air intakes; Induction systems
    • F02M35/10006Air intakes; Induction systems characterised by the position of elements of the air intake system in direction of the air intake flow, i.e. between ambient air inlet and supply to the combustion chamber
    • F02M35/10026Plenum chambers
    • F02M35/10052Plenum chambers special shapes or arrangements of plenum chambers; Constructional details
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M2700/00Supplying, feeding or preparing air, fuel, fuel air mixtures or auxiliary fluids for a combustion engine; Use of exhaust gas; Compressors for piston engines
    • F02M2700/05Miscellaneous constructional elements; Leakage detection
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/12Improving ICE efficiencies

Definitions

  • This invention relates to improvements ⁇ in internal combustion motors.
  • a primary object of the present invent1on is the production of a motor 'of this typo which is balanced mechanically andexplosively to produce a structure which 1s easy running and in which the torque application closely approaches uniformity.
  • Another object is to provide a motor of compact formation, readily assembled and of durable construction.
  • Another object is the production of a motor of this type in which the weight factor when based on horse power production, 1s
  • Another object is the provision of a compact motor of this type operating under aircooled principles, while maintaining the motor structure within comparatively small dimensions.
  • Figure l is a vertical sectional view taken.
  • Fig. 6 is a4 Y detail sectional view taken through one of the manifold structures, and illustrating the manner in whlch the inlet and exhaust is controlled with respect toa plurality fof cylinders
  • Fig. 7 is a sectional view taken on the line ⁇ 7-7 of Fig. 6; H
  • Fig. 8 is a view of the structure of Fig. 7 the view being in vend elevation and looking toward the right in Fig. 7
  • Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic View illustrating the relative arrangement of cylinders and cranks to illustrate the operative relation between the various cylinders.
  • This invention pertains to motors of the four-cycle type, employing the general arrangement of the Otto cycle wherein the operating cycle of a cylinder is completed Iduring two 'revolutions of the crank shaft, the cycle being made up of the four strokes of the piston operating within the cylinder.
  • cylinders are employed arranged in two circular series of four each, the cylinders ⁇ having an angular spacing of ninety degrees, the cylinders of the two series being alined in the direction of length of the crank shaft.
  • the cylinders of a series are symmetrically disposed rela-y tive to and around the axis of the crank shaft, the second series being located along- Vside ofthe first series, so that a plane .which vertical or the horizontal, thus locating two.
  • crankshaft is formed with Itwo cranks extending at one hundred and eighty degrees from each other, one ⁇ crank operating with one series of c linders, the other operating with the secon serles.
  • the arrangement is such that an explosion takes place at each ninety degrees of travel of the crank shaft, the power stroke of the pist on of the cylinder being tired, however, continuing through a distance of trave-l of one hundred and eighty degrees of the crank shaft, -the result being that'there is a uniform overlapping of power strokes of successively fired Cylinders, thus producing a more uniform torque effect and making possible the reduction in size of cylinders and pistons in the production of a motor of given horse power.
  • the meter is of the air cooled type
  • crank shaft carrying one or more rotatable fan structures which are adapted to create a circulation of air about the heat dissipating formations.
  • the inlet supply' and the exhaust gas discharge problem is met by employing manifolds at opposite sides of the motor with cach manifold arranged to cooperate with the four cylinders which are located on a side', each manifold preferably having a formation such as to provide for fuel inlet into a chamber which has its walls located within the flow path of the exhaust gases, the arrangement providing for a common inlet and a common exhaust for each side of themotor located at one side of a vertical plane which extends longitudinally of and through the axis of the crank shaft.
  • the manifold is located intermediate the upper and lower pairs of cylinderswhich it serves, thus making ⁇ it possible to provide for substantially uniform length of connections leading from each cylinder to the manifold, and, since the number of cylinders in the direction of length of the manifold is but two, it will be readily understood that there is produced a more or less uniform action within the manifold due to the particular arrangement and to the fact that the order of igniting the charges of the respective cylinders is such that there is almost continuous intake and exhaust activity within the manifold throughout the cycles represented by tvvo revolutions of the crank shaft. This latter will be readily understood by referring to Fig.
  • the firing order of the cylinders is alsov indicated, the positions of the pistons as shown in this view however, being such as to start this firing order with cylinder 5,
  • crank shaft begins its power or ignition stroke, cylinder 1 which is' located alongside of it, beginning the exhaust stroke of the piston; cylinder 7 is beginning the compression stroke, While cylinder 3, alongside of cylinder 7 is beginning the intake stroke, the crank .shaft in this particular position, having its two cranks at points where the connecting rod for the pistons of these cylinders have just passed the dead center.
  • cylinder 6 which is positioned alongside of cylinder 2, is at the intermediate osition of the exhaust stroke;
  • cylinder 4 w ich is the succeeding cylinder to have its charge ig- Anited is ⁇ at the intermediate position of the compression stroke, and tlie similarly positioned cylinder 8 is at the-intermediate position of the intake stroke.
  • cylinder 6 has completed the exhaust stroke and is beginning the intake
  • cylinder 3 has reached the intermediate point of its intake stroke
  • cylinder 8 has reached the end of its intake stroke.
  • crank shaft reverses the positions of the cranksshown in and begins the intake, the remaining cylin-k ders being at intermediate points.
  • This third position-# which represents a travel of one hundred and eighty degrees of the crank shaft-has completed one stroke in each of the odd numbered' cylinders, but during its travel, cylinder 4 has added its power stroke at the ninety degree point in the travel of the crank shaft, so that during the period which represents a complete stroke of the piston of a cylinder in which the piston is undergoing the power stroke, another piston also begins its power stroke when the crank shaft has advanced the ninety degrees angular distance.
  • a-result there is an overlapping of power stroke eftwo revolutions of the crank shaft, during which period the pistons of each of the' cylinders has had a single power stroke of Athe usual Otto type. Obviously, there is the same overlapping in'connect-ion with each of the other strokes of the Otto cycle.
  • 20 designates a easing, shown'asformed of an upper sece tion 20al and a lower section 20", the division line being approximately on a horizontal plane extending through the axis of the ,crankV shaft.
  • the sections thereof representV congurations such as will provide for proper mounting of the elements presently described and to produce what may be termed a crank shaft chamber within which various structural elements-enter and perform their functions.
  • the sections are complementally formed to provide for a pair of crank shaft ball bearing structures 21 at opposite ends of the casing, these bearing structures being ada d to support end portions of the cranlgshaft.
  • crank shaft indicated generally at 22 is preferably of co'mposite'form, being made' up of two members 23 and a cheek member 24. ,As shown more-'particularly in Fig'ifi2," each member 23 is provided with a crank'arm'23L from which extends4 a crank v pin 23", 'the inner end of the pin-being of a I 1 radially shaft axis,
  • the cheek member 24 has its axis alined with the axis of the crank shaft, the two crank pin structures being secured at opposite ends of the cheek member in suitable manner, the members 23 and cheek member 24, when ,thus assembled, producing 'a two crank crank shaft capable of being disassembled when required by removal of the securing means for retaining the cheek member in position.
  • the cheek member is located at the inner ends of each of the crank pins, the latter having a length suiiicient to not only engage the cheek member but to provide for an intermediate portion to which the connecting rods of the cylinders are operatively connected as presently described.
  • Members 23 also preferably carry a suitable balancing weight 23, this being shown as alined with the-crank arm 23a of a crank shaft member.
  • the outer ends of members 23 are adapted to carry the hubs 25a of fly wheels 25, the particular formation of such wheels shown being such as to provide blades 25b to producea construction operating on the general principles of a rotatable fan.
  • the fly wheel construction need not include such blades, but Since the motor is designed more particularly as an air-cooled motor, the presence of air circulating means of thistype and at such locations is of special advan tage.
  • the hubs 25a may and do preferably carry fors mations capable of connecting the motor to a suitable shaft which is adapted to be driven thereby, Fig. 2 showing, at the right, a portion of a socket formation, which will permit of the mounting of a shaft or a shaft section, such for instance, as may be employed in connection with motor vehicle servlce.
  • 26 designates a cylinder shown as secured within the casing with its axis extending to the vcrank shaft axisf-
  • eight of these cylinders are employed, these cylinders having their axes extending at 'angles of substantially forty-five degrees from vertical and horizontal planes extending through the crank shaft axis, the cylinders being arranged in two series of -four cylinders each, each series having the axes of kits cylinders extending ona single vertical plane whichintersects the crank at substantially right angles; the s eries are arranged side by side, as
  • the vertical plane on which the cylinder axes of a series extends passthe crank pin at a point intermediate the crank arm and the cheek member.
  • cylinders 26 are shown as made independent of the casing, the latter having properly positioned openings with inwardly extending annular portions 20 through which the cylinders extend, a suitable seat formation being provided on which an annular ange 26a is supported, the cylinder being held in place by a suitable threaded element 27 which overlies flanges 2Ga and is threaded to the casing.
  • each cylinder is provided with external ribs or ns 26b designed lfor heat dissipating purposes, and these fins are shown as also located at the outer ends of the cylinders, such outer ends having a more or less special configuration designed to aid in enhancing the operation of the motor.
  • This configuration of the head portion of the cylinder is shown as of integral structure with the body of the cylinder, the
  • '- head portion being lndicated at 28, said portion having a lateral extension 28a to provide an enlarged portion or chamber into which the connections from the manifold are designed to deliver a charge, and fromwhich these connections deliver the exhaust from lthe cylinder,.the control to the connections being provided by inlet valves 29 and ex.
  • haust valves 80 As shown, the interior of head 2 8 extends in a curved line leading toward the chamber and designed to provide a gradual increasing width of space beyond the outer extreme of piston movement, this gradual increase'being in a'directionleading toward the chamber.
  • Lateral extension 28* includes a portion having substantially the cross sectional configuration shown in Fig. 1, the latter indicating a'fsection1-taken axially through the extensions of one series of cylinders.
  • the extension y carries a channel 28b for the intake and a channel 28 exhaust, these channels extending generally in a vertical direction with the inner ends curved to carry them to the plane of the outer ends of the cylinder body, such inner seats with which valves 29 and 30 cooperate.
  • channels 28 and 28" By extending channels 28 and 28" in a general vertical direction with the outer ends of for the l ends of the channel being provided with these channels facing each other from an Y upper and a lower cylinder respectively, it is possible to mount a manifold structure intermediate such channel ends, making -possible the use of a single manifold structure for the four cylinders located at one side of a vertical plane extending through the crank shaft axis.
  • Valves 29 and 3U have their axes substantially extending parallel to the cylinder axes, these valves being formed approximately as shown in Figs. 1 and 4, each valve stem extending through a sleeve 31 having a flange 31u which is adapted to abut against a face of extension 28, sleeve 31 extending through an opening in said extension, and,- if desired, into the channel 28b or 28c dependent upon which channel is to be controlled by the valve.
  • the valve stem carries a suitable abutment 32 between which and flange 31a is mounted a spring 33, said spring being designed to substantially retain the inner end of the stem in contact with a tappet member 34 which extends through an opening formed in the casing and which member has its inner end preferably enlarged as at 34a to cooperate with a c'am 352l of a cam shaft 35 which extends in a direction parallel to the direction of length of the crank shaft.
  • valves for the upper pair of cylinders are located on the underside while those of the lower pair of cylinders are located on the upper side and the direction of length of the valves is such that the general axes of the valves for both pairs practically extendv through the axis of cam shaft 35, said shaft being designed to control the operation of the valves 29 and 30 of the two pairs .ofcylinders on one side of the vertical plane extending through the crank shaft axis.
  • Depressed portion 37a of the piston preferably carries a plurality of openings 37C, and the piston itself also preferably carries a plurality of openings 37d adjacent the piston rings, these various openings aording communication between the inside of the piston and the pistonv face Which operates in con ⁇ tact with the cylinder.
  • Connecting rods 39 are shown as tubular, with the inner ends in the form of a shoe 39h-shown as integral, but which may ob- Viously be a secured structure-the shoe beingv extended laterally so as to project between a bushing 40, lmounted on pin 23b and a pair of annular collars 41 located en opposite sides of the rod, the shoe having a length in the direction of crank shaft travel greater than the diameter of the connecting rod, but -less than the distance corresponding to an angular distance of ninety degrees of the bushing.
  • the approximate length of shoe is shown more particularly in Fig.
  • the spark plug for ignition may be located at any suitable point, but it is preferred to locate it at the end of lateral extension 28a, -as indicated, for instance at 42.
  • the several spark plugs pertaining to the pairs of cylinders located at one side of the vertical plane extending through the crank shaft axis are controlled from a suitn able timer, located at an end of the casing,
  • timing structures being preferably employed and located to have a movable element thereof carried by cam shaft 35 said cam shaft being driven from the crank shaft by suitable gears 44 meshing with a gear 45 mounted on the crank shaft.
  • FIGs. 6, 7, and 8 One embodiment of a manifold adapted to be used in the presentembodiment of the invention is shown in Figs. 6, 7, and 8 in which a casting 46 (shown in Fig. 7) is provided with an exhaust chamber 47 and an intake chamber 48, the latter having a suitable passageway 48a leading thereto and which is connected up with the carbureter structure or structures, the exhaust chamber having an outlet 47 a leading to a suitable point, such for instance as a muflier, not shown.
  • a suitable point such for instance as a muflier
  • Figure 6 shows the manner in which the manifold can be connected up to the lateral extensions 28, it being seen that intake channels 28b are theJ intermediate channels, leading into chamber 48 by their connections 49, the exhaust channels 282L being the outer channels and leading into chamber 47, similar connections 49 being provided.
  • Lubrication of the motor may be had in any desired manner, a preferred arrangement, however, being that disclosed in the drawing, wherein 50 indicates a tank for the lubricant, this tank being secured at the bottom of casing 20 between the two pairs of cylinders carried by section 20", the tank being of suitable configuration, that'shown in the drawings being especially suitable for the purpose, this tank having a length sufficient to overlie -a pair of openings 2()c located at the bottom of section 20" practically in alinement with the axes of the different vertical series of cylinders, openings 20c being designed to receive depending oil straining elements 51, these being shown as in the form of a mesh structure of suitable type and which extend into juxtaposition to the bottom of the tank, being designed to permit of the passage of oil ⁇ from the bottom of the lower section of casing 2() -into the tank, the straining element being closed at the bottom.
  • a rotary pump carried at the lower end of a stand pipe structure 53, the latter extending at an inclination to the vertical from a point adjacent the bottom of tank 5() to a point adjacent one of the cam shafts 35, the pump being driven from the cam shaft 35 by a shaft 54 extending axially through the stand pipe 53, such shaft 35 and shaft 54 having a gear connection whereby therotating element of the pump is driven in a direction to take up oil from'the tank and deliver it to the ⁇ stand pipe external of shaft 54, the stand pipe having a diameter sufficient to provide for the upward travel of oil delivered by the pump into a channel 55A carried by section 20h, said channel leading to a pipe connection 56 which is carried upwardly and then inwardly from a side of the interior of the casing to a point above the crank shaft axis, the pipe having branches 56b which lead laterally of the direction of length of the pipe to points located above the path of travel of the connecting rod shoes, as shown more particularly in Fig. 2, la shield 57 being 4provided between pipe 56 and
  • the opposite sides of the motor are practically balanced relative to each other so far as structure -is concerned, so that the motor is substantially balanced mechanically and therefore adapted Vto operate with a min imum amount of vibration.
  • the general arrangement and order of firing is such as to produce substantially a balanced condition explosively, the result being the production of a motor of compact form and capable of withstanding the severe conditions of use.
  • the arrangement is such as to permit of the use of cylinders of comparatively small diameter.
  • the cylinders of one form of the motor have an internal diameter of two and one-half inches with the length of thepiston stroke two and threequarters inches. -With these dimensions it is possible to produce a power value-of from twenty-five to thirty horse power, with the weight of the motor approximately three pounds per horse power.
  • a crank shaft a plurality of cylinders symmetrically disposed with respect to said shaft, and pistons for the cylinders operatively connected with the crank shaft, said cylinders being arranged in more than a single circular lseries in the direction of length of the shaft with each series having" the pistons of its cylinders operatively connected to the same crank of the crank shaft with the connections of the pistons and crank shaft similar with each of the pistons of the series, each cylinder being inclined relative to planes extending horizontally and vertically through the crank shaft axis, the cylinders of each series 'p having substantially the same inclination relative to such planes, the cylindersy on onev side ofthe vertical plane having the -intake and exhaust service instrumentalitiesv in common and independent of thesimilar instrumentalities of the cylinders on the other side of such plane, each intake and exhaust service instrumentality including a combined intake and exhaust manifold formation positioned between the cylinders served thereby.
  • each andcrank shaft similar with each of the pistons of the series, each cylinder being to planes extending horizontally and vertically through the crank shaft axis, each series consisting of fourcylinders, the cylinders on one side of the vertical plane having the intake and exhaust service instrumentalities in common and ina crank shaft, a plu-rality dependent ofthe similar instrumentalities l of the cylinders on the other side of such plane, each intake and exhaust service 1nstrumentality including a combined intake and exhaust manifold formation positioned between the cylinders served thereby.
  • crank shaft a plurahty of cylinders symmetrically disposed with respect to said shaft, and pistons for the cylinders operatively connected withv the crank shaft, said cylinders being arranged in more than a single circular series' in the direction of length of the shaft with each .series having the pistons of its cylinders operatively connected to the same crank of the shaft with the connections of the pistons and crank shaft similar with each of the pistons of the series, each cylinder being inclined relative to planes extending horizontally and vertically through the crank shaft axis, Aeach series consisting of four cylinders with a pair of cylinders located on each side of such horizontal plane, the cylinders on one side of the vertical plane having the intake and exhaust service instrumentalities in comm'on and independent of the similar instrumentalitles of the cylinders on the other side of such plane, each intake and exhaust service in-v strumentality including a combined intake and exhaust manifold formation positioned between the
  • a crank shaft a plurality of cylinders symmetrically disposed with respect to said shaft, and pistons for the cylinders operatively connected with the crank shaft, said cylinders being arranged in more than a single circular series in the direction of length of the shaft with each series having the pistons of its cylinders operatively connected to the same crank yof the shaft with the connections of the' pistons and crank shaft similar with each of the pistons of the series, each cylinder being inclined relative to planes extending horizontally and vertically through the crank shaft axis, each series consisting of four cylinders, with a pair of cylinders located 0n each side of such vertical plane, the cylinders on one side of the vertical plane having the intake and exhaust service instrumentalities in common and independent of the similar instrumen'- talities of the cylinders on the other side of such plane, each intake and exhaust service instrumentality including a combined intake and exhaust manifold formation positioned between the cylinders served thereby.
  • a crank shaft a plurality of cylinders symmetrically disposed with respect to said shaft, and pistons for the cylinders operatively connected with the crank shaft, said cylinders being arranged in more than a single circular series in the direct-ion of length of the shaft with each series having the pistons of its cylinders operatively connected to the same crank of the shaft with the connections of the pistons and crank shaft similar lwith each of the pistons of the series, each cylinder being inclined relative to planes extending horizontally and vertically through the crank shaft axis, the cylinders of each series having substantially the same inclination relative to such planes, the cranks for the cylinders of adjacent series being spaced approximately one hundred and eighty degrees apart, the cylinders on one side ofthe vertical plane having the intake and exhaust service instrumentalities in common and independent of the lsimilar instrumentalities of the cylinders on the other side ot' such plane, each intake and'exhaust service instrumentality including a combined intake and
  • a casing In an internal combustion motor of the Otto cycle type, a casing, a crank shaftcarried thereby, a plurality of cylinders earried by the casing with the cylinders arranged in longitudinal rows with the rows symmetrically disposed in inclined relation 'to each other and to horizontal and vertical planes extending through the crank shaft axis, the cylinders with pistons operatively connected to the same crank of the crank shaft forming a circular series with the cylinder axes extending on the same vertical plane, pistons for the respective cylinders and operatively connected to the crank shaft, inlet and exhaust valves for each cylinder with the valve axis positioned oifsetyyvith relation to and extending substantially lue Ilo
  • cylinders project laterally of the cylinder to provide a chamber offset with relation to the cylinder andforming a passageway for fuel and combustion products, the valves be-y ing operative to control communication to and from said chamber, the head extensions of the cylinders on each side of the lvertical plane being on the inner side of the cylinder.
  • a motor of the type of claim 8 characterized in'that the heads of the several cylinders project laterally of the cylinder to provide a chamber offset with relation to the cylinder and forming a vpassageway for fu'l and combustion products, the valves being operative to control communication to and from said chamber, the head extensions of the cylinders on each side of the vertical plane being on the inner sides of the c linders and extending in the direction o the horizontal plane through the crank shaft, the axes of the valve seats of such cylinders intersecting a plane parallel to such vertical plane.
  • a motor of thetype of claim 8 characterized in that the heads of the several cylinders project laterally of the cylinder to provide a chamber offset with relation to the cylinder and forming a passageway for fuel and combustion products, the valves being operative to control communication to and from said chamber, the head extensions of the cylinders on each side of the vertical lane being on the inner sides of the cylin- (Piers, the valve seat axes intersecting a plane parallel to such vertical plane, the passageways leading from the manifold structure to said chambers extending in such parallel lane. ,f" p 12.
  • a motor of the type l.of claim 8 characterized in-that the hea'ds of the several cylinders project late-rally of the cylinder to provide a chamber offsetwith relation to the cylinder and forming passageways for fuel and combustion products, the valves being operative ⁇ to control communication to and from said chamber, the head extensions of the cylinders on each side of the vertical plane being on the inner sides of the cylin.
  • said extensions having openings to receive ignting structures, the axisV of such openin s extending transverse to the valve axes o the extension.
  • a crank shaft In an internal combustion motor, a crank shaft, a plurality of cylinders arranged. in a succession of circular series symmetrical to the crank shaft axis, pistons for the cylinders with the pistons of a series operatively connected to thesame crank of the crank shaft, each series having a pair of cylinders symmetrically disposed on each side of a vertical plane extending through the crank shaft axis with the cylinders of a pair located on opposite sides of a horizontal plane extending throughl said axis, each cylinder of a pair having inlet and exhaust ports with the axis of each port intersecting a plane parallel tosuch vertical plane, a manifold having passageways extending on such parallel plane, and connections between the cylinder ports and the manifold passageways, said connections also extending on such plane.
  • a motor as in ⁇ claim 13 characterized in that the manifold structure is positioned alpproxiinately midway between the ports of t e pairs of cylinders.
  • a crank shaft al plurality of cylinders arranged in a succession of circular series symmetrical to the crank shaft axis, pistons for the cylinders-with the pistons of a series operatively connected to the same crank of the crank shaft, each series having a pair of cylinders symmetrically disposed on each side of a vertical plane extending through the crank shaft axis with the cylinders of a pair located on opposite sides of a horizontal plane extending through said axis, each cylinder of a pair having inlet and exhaust port-s with the axis of each port intersecting a plane parallel to such vertical plane, a manifold having passagewaysextending on such parallel plane, and connections between the cylinder ports and the manifold passageways, said connections also extending on such plane, said connections being of substantiallyA equal length.
  • a motor as in claim 13 characterized sitioned the pairs of'cylinders, and located on Such horizontal plane. l, V j
  • crank shaft,v a plurality of cylinders arranged in a succession o'f circular series symmetrical to the crank shaft axis, pistons for the cylinders with the pistons of a series operatively connected to the same crank of the crank shaft, eachrseries having a pair of cylinders symmetrically disposed on each side of a vertical plane extending through the, crank shaft axis with the cylinders of a pair located on op osite sides of a horizontal lane exten ing through said axis, each cylinder of a pair having l.inlet and exhaust ports with the axis of each ort inter#A secting a plane parallel to suc vertical the cylinders with the pistons of a series operatively'connected to the same crank of the crank shaft, each series having a pair of cylinders symmetrically disposed on each side of a vertical plane e'xtending through the crank shaft axis, with the cylinders of a pair located on
  • Va manifold having passageways extending on such parallel plane, and connections between the cylinder ports andthe manifold passageways, said connections also extending on such plane, said manifold having a formation to accommodate both intake and exhaust gases the connections of intake and exhaust between the manifoldv and (the several cylinders being of substantially equal length.
  • a casing having a bottom, a crank shaft supported by said casing, a plurality of-cylinders arranged in a succession of circular series symmetrically disposed to the crank shaft axis with the cylinders of the several series extendin in alinement longitudinally of the crank s aft axis, the cylinders of a series being inclined to a vertical plane extending through the crank shaft axis, the pistons of a circular series being operativel connected to the same crank of the crank shaft,an oil reservoir carried by andk depending from said casing below said bottom and being symmetrically disposed relative to such plane, saidy reservoir having a cross-sectional configuration to produce a greater width at its bottom than at its top, and oil-distributing mechanism extending into the reservoir, said mechanism including a pump active within the reservoir, the cross-sectional configuration of the reservoir permitting the portion of the mechanism within the reservoir to extend obliquely therein in continuation of the distributing mechanism within the casing.
  • a casing havin a bottom, a crank shaft supported by said casing, a plurality of cylinders arranged in a succession of circular series symmetrically disposed to the crank shaft axis with the cylinders of the several' reservoir, said structure having an axis extending in a direction inclined to the ver- .tical and horizontal, and a conduit system leading from said pump and having o1l discharge ports positioned to permit oiling of the crank mountings of the piston connecting rods.
  • -said structure including a barrel formation having a length to-project into said reservoir and to a point within the casing a"d jacent a horizontal plane extending through t-he crank-shaft axis, said barrel carrying a rotatable pumping element within the reservoir and an operating stem extending longitudinally of the barrel, said stem having a driven relation with a drive element within the casing, said barrel having a configuration to produce a channel therein external of the 'stem with the channel communicating with the 'pump at one end and with an oil-delivering conduit system at its opposite end.
  • a motor'of the type of claim 20 characterized in that the conduit system includes a pipe connection extending 1n a lane extending transversely of the crank s aft 'axis intermediate successive series of pistons, said connection having branches positioned to deliver oil to mountings adjacent such plane.
  • a motor of the'type of claim 20 characterized in that the conduit system includes a pipe connect-ion extending in a plane extending transversely of the crank shaft axis intermediate successive series of pistons. saidconnection having branches positioned to deliver oil to mountings adjacent such plane, the casing carrying a shield located in such plane intermediate such delivery points.y
  • crank shaft carried by the casing and having its axis extending in a horizonltal plane, a plurality of cylinders arranged in a succession of clrcular series symmetrically disposed to the crank shaft axis with the cylinders of successive series extending in alinement longitudinally of such axis, pistons for said cylinders with the pistons of a ser-les operatively connected with the same crank of the crank shaft, said casing being formed sectional with a mating line of the sections extending in approxlmate correspondence with the horizontal lane extending through the crank shaft axis, said motor having -a pair of camshafts for the cylinders with the shafts located on the op osite sides of a vertical plane extending init e di rection of length of the crank shaft axis,
  • a crank shaft In internal combustion motors, a crank shaft, a plurality of cylinders symmetrically disposed Wlth respect to said shaft, pistons for the cylinders and operativel .connected to the crank shaft, said cylin ers being in circular series and inclined relative to a vertical and a horizontal plane through the crank shaft axis with the cylinders equal innumber on the opposite sides of such vertical plane ⁇ to produce a group relation of c,the ycylinders on a side with each group having a cylinder on each side of the horlzontal plane, an individual cam shaft for the valves of each group, and a timer unit individual to each group operative-in synchronism with the camshaft of its group, the several timer units .being located at opposite sides of the crank shaft axis and each symmetrically disposed relative to a horizontal plane extending through such axis and through said units.'

Description

Aug. 16, 1927.v
H. FORD EXPLOSIVE ENGINE Filed Auz. 2
1920 7 Sheets-Sheet 1 EXPLOSIVE ENGINE Filed Aug. 2, 1920 '7 Sheets-Sheet 2 Aug. 16, H. EXPLO SIVE ENGINE Filed Auz. 2 1920 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 un m EXPLOSIVE ENGINE FuedvAugz. 1920 7 sheets-sheet 4 s Houmt l Aug. 16, 1927. H. FQRD nxPLosIvE ENGINE Filed Aug. 2. 1920 7 sheets-sheet 5 1,639,333 Aug. 16, 1927. H. FORD EXPLOSIVE ENGINE 'Filed Aug. 2. 1920 7 sheets-sheet 7 Patented Aug. 16, 1927.
1,639,333 PATENT OFFICE.
HENRY FORD, OF DEABBORN, MICHIGAN.
ExPLosIvn ENGINE.
Application led August 2, 1920. Serial No. 400,638.
This invention relates to improvements` in internal combustion motors.
A primary object of the present invent1on is the production of a motor 'of this typo which is balanced mechanically andexplosively to produce a structure which 1s easy running and in which the torque application closely approaches uniformity.
Another object is to provide a motor of compact formation, readily assembled and of durable construction.
Another object is the production of a motor of this type in which the weight factor when based on horse power production, 1s
Another object is the provision of a compact motor of this type operating under aircooled principles, while maintaining the motor structure within comparatively small dimensions.
Further objects are the provision ofv special forms andvconstructionsof various parts employed, the provision -of novel arrangements for novel lubrication, novel arrangement ofv valve formations, manifolds, cylinders etc.
To these and other ends, therefore, the nature'of which Will be readily understood as the invention is hereinafter disclosed, said invention consists iny the improved vconstructions and combinations of parts, hereinafter more fully described and illustrated in the' accompanying drawingsand more articu larly pointed out in the appended c alms:
In the accompanying drawings, in which similar reference characters indicate simi lar parts in v'each of the vieWs,-
Figure l is a vertical sectional view taken.
end ofthe motor, parts beingbroken away to permit showing of the structure on alarger scale; 1.
Fig. 6 is a4 Y detail sectional view taken through one of the manifold structures, and illustrating the manner in whlch the inlet and exhaust is controlled with respect toa plurality fof cylinders Fig. 7 is a sectional view taken on the line` 7-7 of Fig. 6; H
Fig. 8 is a view of the structure of Fig. 7 the view being in vend elevation and looking toward the right in Fig. 7 Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic View illustrating the relative arrangement of cylinders and cranks to illustrate the operative relation between the various cylinders. Y
,This invention pertains to motors of the four-cycle type, employing the general arrangement of the Otto cycle wherein the operating cycle of a cylinder is completed Iduring two 'revolutions of the crank shaft, the cycle being made up of the four strokes of the piston operating within the cylinder.
In the embodiment of the invention shown, eight cylinders are employed arranged in two circular series of four each, the cylinders `having an angular spacing of ninety degrees, the cylinders of the two series being alined in the direction of length of the crank shaft. vIn other words, the cylinders of a series are symmetrically disposed rela-y tive to and around the axis of the crank shaft, the second series being located along- Vside ofthe first series, so that a plane .which vertical or the horizontal, thus locating two. I
cylinders of a series above and two below a horizontal plane extending through the crank shaft axis,.or two cylinders on each side of a vertical plane extending through such axis, the two series producing the combined effect of having four cylinders above and four below a horizontal lane extending through the axis of ythe cranii shaft, or four cylinders on each side of a vertical plane ex tending' through such axis.
' The crankshaft is formed with Itwo cranks extending at one hundred and eighty degrees from each other, one `crank operating with one series of c linders, the other operating with the secon serles.
The arrangement is such that an explosion takes place at each ninety degrees of travel of the crank shaft, the power stroke of the pist on of the cylinder being tired, however, continuing through a distance of trave-l of one hundred and eighty degrees of the crank shaft, -the result being that'there is a uniform overlapping of power strokes of successively fired Cylinders, thus producing a more uniform torque effect and making possible the reduction in size of cylinders and pistons in the production of a motor of given horse power.
The meter is of the air cooled type, the
i cylinder' formations carrying heat dissipating structures, and the crank shaft carrying one or more rotatable fan structures which are adapted to create a circulation of air about the heat dissipating formations.
The inlet supply' and the exhaust gas discharge problem is met by employing manifolds at opposite sides of the motor with cach manifold arranged to cooperate with the four cylinders which are located on a side', each manifold preferably having a formation such as to provide for fuel inlet into a chamber which has its walls located within the flow path of the exhaust gases, the arrangement providing for a common inlet and a common exhaust for each side of themotor located at one side of a vertical plane which extends longitudinally of and through the axis of the crank shaft. The manifold is located intermediate the upper and lower pairs of cylinderswhich it serves, thus making` it possible to provide for substantially uniform length of connections leading from each cylinder to the manifold, and, since the number of cylinders in the direction of length of the manifold is but two, it will be readily understood that there is produced a more or less uniform action within the manifold due to the particular arrangement and to the fact that the order of igniting the charges of the respective cylinders is such that there is almost continuous intake and exhaust activity within the manifold throughout the cycles represented by tvvo revolutions of the crank shaft. This latter will be readily understood by referring to Fig. 9 of the drawings in which is shown a diagrammatic view of the -two series of cylinders with their respective piston and crank shaft connections and the general relation of cylinders heretofore pointed out. Forinstance, the upper portion of the figure represents one series, the lower portion representing the other series, the vertical plane Vwhich extends through the crank shaft being indicated byl the dotted line wzit being understood that cylinders 1 and 5 are arranged side by side, while the similarly positioned remaining cylinders of the two parts of the figure are also arranged side by side.
The firing order of the cylinders is alsov indicated, the positions of the pistons as shown in this view however, being such as to start this firing order with cylinder 5,
cylinders 1 and 2 completing the cycle by 'following cylinder 6.
As will be understood from the showing of this figure, travel of the crank shaft in the direction shown by the arrows in each portion, will produce the actions indicated in the drawings. For instance, cylinder 5 begins its power or ignition stroke, cylinder 1 which is' located alongside of it, beginning the exhaust stroke of the piston; cylinder 7 is beginning the compression stroke, While cylinder 3, alongside of cylinder 7 is beginning the intake stroke, the crank .shaft in this particular position, having its two cranks at points where the connecting rod for the pistons of these cylinders have just passed the dead center. As will be understood, these four strokes constitute a complete cycle, and each stroke is only completed when each` of the cranks has reached a position one hundred and eighty degrees in advance of the position shown, movement of a crank from one position to the other in the direction indicated by the arrows, lcausing the pistons of these cylinders to be moved through the positions indicated with respect to the remainirg cylinders, these latter having their pistons at approximately a mid-way position in the length of the particular stroke indicated l The remaining cylinders, inthe particular position shown are at the intermediate stroke positions. is at the intermediate position of theppower or ignition stroke, this cylinder being the preceding one in the order of firing; cylinder 6,- which is positioned alongside of cylinder 2, is at the intermediate osition of the exhaust stroke; cylinder 4, w ich is the succeeding cylinder to have its charge ig- Anited is`at the intermediate position of the compression stroke, and tlie similarly positioned cylinder 8 is at the-intermediate position of the intake stroke.
When the crank shafthas advanced a distance of ninety degrees, the piston positions will have shifted so as to have the connecting rods of cylinders 2, 4, 6 and 8 in positions passing the dead center, the connecting rods of the remaining cylinders being canted. Y As a result, cylinder 4 is in position to begin its power stroke, cylinder 5 having reached the intermediate point of the power stroke, cylinder 7 having reached the inter'- mediate position of the compression stroke, the completion of this stroke by the succeeding travel of the crank shaft placing this cylinder in condition for ignition; cylinder 2 has reached the end of its power stroke and begins its exhaust'stroke, cylinder 1 is at the intermediate position of the exhaust For instance, cylinder 2 y fect throughout the period represented by.
stroke, cylinder 6 has completed the exhaust stroke and is beginning the intake, cylinder 3 has reached the intermediate point of its intake stroke and cylinder 8 has reached the end of its intake stroke.
A further travel of the crank shaft reverses the positions of the cranksshown in and begins the intake, the remaining cylin-k ders being at intermediate points.
This third position-#which represents a travel of one hundred and eighty degrees of the crank shaft-has completed one stroke in each of the odd numbered' cylinders, but during its travel, cylinder 4 has added its power stroke at the ninety degree point in the travel of the crank shaft, so that during the period which represents a complete stroke of the piston of a cylinder in which the piston is undergoing the power stroke, another piston also begins its power stroke when the crank shaft has advanced the ninety degrees angular distance. As a-result, there is an overlapping of power stroke eftwo revolutions of the crank shaft, during which period the pistons of each of the' cylinders has had a single power stroke of Athe usual Otto type. Obviously, there is the same overlapping in'connect-ion with each of the other strokes of the Otto cycle.
'By continuing the crank shaft travel through the successive angular distances'of' ninety degrees which represent the periods of when power stroke is begun, certain characteristics will be found which will not only provide forwhat may be termed an explosive balance, but will also indicate the general activity ofeach of the manifolds, it being found, that while there are but four ypower strokes. given by the cylinders connected' to a single manifold, these power strokes extend through time intervals' of sufficient length to include a second power stroke, and` since the remaining strokes of the Otto cycle type are of similar characteristic, there is presented a substantially constant intake and exhaust activity within the manifold when the .firing order disclosed is employed, one period (correspolidingr to the time-length required in crank shaft travel of ninety4 degrees) inthe complete cycle'of two crank shaft revolutions being free from v direct exhaust action from the cylinders connected to a manifold, and a similar period free from intake action. This is due to the fact that in the vring order cylinders 5 and 4 (havinga common manifold connection) are in direct succession in their order,
as are cylinders y3 and 6 connected to the other manifold.
Another feature in connection with the arrangement shown, is that the distribution of explosions in the several cylinders, practically provides for two series, one above and the other below a horizontal plane extending through the axis of the crank shaft. This will be understood -by noting that in the succession shown by the firing order, cylinders 4, 7,8 and 3,-all below such planefollow each other in this order, while cylin ders 6, l, 2 and 5--all above such planealso follow each other in this order, the explosion of a'series, however, shifting backward and forward from one side to the other of a vertical plane through the crank shaft axis, so that alternate explosions take` place' on the same side of the vertical plane.
As a result, there is an alternation of series above and below the -horizontal plane, while there is an alternation of cylinders relative to a vertical plane in each series, the ,variation being provided when the change is made from one series to the other. at which time the shift is from the last cylinder of a I series to the first cylinder of the othervseries,
with both of" said cylinders at the same side of the vertical plane; for instance, the shift fromvcylinder 5 to cylinder 4 is from the upper to the lower side of the horizontal plane, while the shift of cylinder 3'to cylin-v der 6 is from the lower side to the upper side of such lplane. This general arrangement and distribution of thefexplosion tends to set up a balancing effect with respect to the explosions, providing what may be termed an explosive balance to the motor.
Referring more particularly to the structure disclosed in the drawings, 20 designates a easing, shown'asformed of an upper sece tion 20al and a lower section 20", the division line being approximately on a horizontal plane extending through the axis of the ,crankV shaft. `The sections thereof representV congurations such as will provide for proper mounting of the elements presently described and to produce what may be termed a crank shaft chamber within which various structural elements-enter and perform their functions. The sections are complementally formed to provide for a pair of crank shaft ball bearing structures 21 at opposite ends of the casing, these bearing structures being ada d to support end portions of the cranlgshaft. l
The crank shaft, indicated generally at 22 is preferably of co'mposite'form, being made' up of two members 23 and a cheek member 24. ,As shown more-'particularly in Fig'ifi2," each member 23 is provided with a crank'arm'23L from which extends4 a crank v pin 23", 'the inner end of the pin-being of a I 1 radially shaft axis,
' ing through ried by the cheek member 24, the latter having its axis alined with the axis of the crank shaft, the two crank pin structures being secured at opposite ends of the cheek member in suitable manner, the members 23 and cheek member 24, when ,thus assembled, producing 'a two crank crank shaft capable of being disassembled when required by removal of the securing means for retaining the cheek member in position. As will be seen,'the cheek member is located at the inner ends of each of the crank pins, the latter having a length suiiicient to not only engage the cheek member but to provide for an intermediate portion to which the connecting rods of the cylinders are operatively connected as presently described.
Members 23 also preferably carry a suitable balancing weight 23, this being shown as alined with the-crank arm 23a of a crank shaft member.
The outer ends of members 23 are adapted to carry the hubs 25a of fly wheels 25, the particular formation of such wheels shown being such as to provide blades 25b to producea construction operating on the general principles of a rotatable fan. VIt will be understood, of course, that the fly wheel construction need not include such blades, but Since the motor is designed more particularly as an air-cooled motor, the presence of air circulating means of thistype and at such locations is of special advan tage. And it will be understood that the hubs 25a may and do preferably carry fors mations capable of connecting the motor to a suitable shaft which is adapted to be driven thereby, Fig. 2 showing, at the right, a portion of a socket formation, which will permit of the mounting of a shaft or a shaft section, such for instance, as may be employed in connection with motor vehicle servlce. f
26 designates a cylinder shown as secured within the casing with its axis extending to the vcrank shaft axisf- In the particular embodiment of the invention shown, eight of these cylinders are employed, these cylinders having their axes extending at 'angles of substantially forty-five degrees from vertical and horizontal planes extending through the crank shaft axis, the cylinders being arranged in two series of -four cylinders each, each series having the axes of kits cylinders extending ona single vertical plane whichintersects the crank at substantially right angles; the s eries are arranged side by side, as
shown in Fig. .2, the vertical plane on which the cylinder axes of a series extends passthe crank pin at a point intermediate the crank arm and the cheek member.
In the particular embodient shown, the
cylinders 26 are shown as made independent of the casing, the latter having properly positioned openings with inwardly extending annular portions 20 through which the cylinders extend, a suitable seat formation being provided on which an annular ange 26a is supported, the cylinder being held in place by a suitable threaded element 27 which overlies flanges 2Ga and is threaded to the casing. f
By this general arrangement, itis possible to producev the casing of a comparatively light metal such for instance as aluminum, while the cylinders are formed of a suitable grade of iron or steel. The invention, however, isvnot limited vto this specific arrangement, since it is contemplated to divide the casing into either half or quadrant sections, and thus make possible the production of the cylinders of a half section or quadrant and the casing as a unitary structure.
As shown each cylinder is provided with external ribs or ns 26b designed lfor heat dissipating purposes, and these fins are shown as also located at the outer ends of the cylinders, such outer ends having a more or less special configuration designed to aid in enhancing the operation of the motor.
This configuration of the head portion of the cylinder is shown as of integral structure with the body of the cylinder, the
'- head portion being lndicated at 28, said portion having a lateral extension 28a to provide an enlarged portion or chamber into which the connections from the manifold are designed to deliver a charge, and fromwhich these connections deliver the exhaust from lthe cylinder,.the control to the connections being provided by inlet valves 29 and ex.
haust valves 80. As shown, the interior of head 2 8 extends in a curved line leading toward the chamber and designed to provide a gradual increasing width of space beyond the outer extreme of piston movement, this gradual increase'being in a'directionleading toward the chamber.
Lateral extension 28* includes a portion having substantially the cross sectional configuration shown in Fig. 1, the latter indicating a'fsection1-taken axially through the extensions of one series of cylinders. As will be seen, the extension ycarries a channel 28b for the intake and a channel 28 exhaust, these channels extending generally in a vertical direction with the inner ends curved to carry them to the plane of the outer ends of the cylinder body, such inner seats with which valves 29 and 30 cooperate. By extending channels 28 and 28" in a general vertical direction with the outer ends of for the l ends of the channel being provided with these channels facing each other from an Y upper and a lower cylinder respectively, it is possible to mount a manifold structure intermediate such channel ends, making -possible the use of a single manifold structure for the four cylinders located at one side of a vertical plane extending through the crank shaft axis. y
Valves 29 and 3U have their axes substantially extending parallel to the cylinder axes, these valves being formed approximately as shown in Figs. 1 and 4, each valve stem extending through a sleeve 31 having a flange 31u which is adapted to abut against a face of extension 28, sleeve 31 extending through an opening in said extension, and,- if desired, into the channel 28b or 28c dependent upon which channel is to be controlled by the valve. The valve stem carries a suitable abutment 32 between which and flange 31a is mounted a spring 33, said spring being designed to substantially retain the inner end of the stem in contact with a tappet member 34 which extends through an opening formed in the casing and which member has its inner end preferably enlarged as at 34a to cooperate with a c'am 352l of a cam shaft 35 which extends in a direction parallel to the direction of length of the crank shaft.
The valves for the upper pair of cylinders are located on the underside while those of the lower pair of cylinders are located on the upper side and the direction of length of the valves is such that the general axes of the valves for both pairs practically extendv through the axis of cam shaft 35, said shaft being designed to control the operation of the valves 29 and 30 of the two pairs .ofcylinders on one side of the vertical plane extending through the crank shaft axis.
As shown in Fig. 4, extensions 28aL of the upper pair of cylinders are offset with respect to the cylinder extensions of the lower pair of cylinders, the result being that while each cam shaft 35 carries all of the cams re- Aquired for the valve operation, each valve is operated by its individual cam, the off-set relation providing a staggered formation as indicated L,in Fig. 4. As Will be understood the cylinders on the opposite side of the vertical plane extending through the crank shaft axis are similarly mounted and have 'their valves operated` by an independent "i hollow with the outer end closed and which is provided with an external configuration including a depressed portion 37a in the `zone of the usual pin formation which, in
projecting portions 37b, the inner ends of which are spaced apart sufficient to receive the outer tubular portion 39a of a connecting rod 39, the drawings showing this portion as formed integral With the rod, butwhich, could obviously, be formed as a separate element secured to the connecting rod. Depressed portion 37a of the piston preferably carries a plurality of openings 37C, and the piston itself also preferably carries a plurality of openings 37d adjacent the piston rings, these various openings aording communication between the inside of the piston and the pistonv face Which operates in con` tact with the cylinder.
Connecting rods 39 are shown as tubular, with the inner ends in the form of a shoe 39h-shown as integral, but which may ob- Viously be a secured structure-the shoe beingv extended laterally so as to project between a bushing 40, lmounted on pin 23b and a pair of annular collars 41 located en opposite sides of the rod, the shoe having a length in the direction of crank shaft travel greater than the diameter of the connecting rod, but -less than the distance corresponding to an angular distance of ninety degrees of the bushing. The approximate length of shoe is shown more particularly in Fig. 1, the arrangement being such as to permit the inner ends of the four connecting rods, the shoes of which are those mounted on a crank pin, to move relatively to each other as the pin travels in its orbit, .the arrangement permitting proper compensation for the change in angularity of the connecting rod as the various piston strokes are produced.
By the general arrangement shown, it will. be readily understood that repairs and replacementsof the parts can be readily had by reason of the ability to disconnect the cheek member 24 from a crank pin. This can be done by first removing theupper section20a of the casing with the upper cylinders, thus exposing the crank shaft formation and the pistons attached thereto by the formation which secured the inner end of the vrods to bushing 40. The crank shaft is raised a distance sufficient to per l mit lateral shifting of one of the members 23, after whichv that cap screw or other .securing means for the cheek member mounted in the particular member 23 which carries the connecting rod structure which isbeing replaced or repaired, is removed, thus permitting the member 23 to be withdrawn from the bushing, leaving the connecting rod shoes still positioned on the bushing. One of the collars 41 may then be removed,
permitting the connecting rod to be shifted l out of position without affecting the remainy ing rods, after which the substituted rod is placed in position, the collar replaced, thus restoring the general vconnection between per section restored. This is made the series of connecting rods and the bushing after which member 23 is replaced, the securing means restored, the crank shaft returned to its proper position and the up- A ossible not only by reason of the fabricated orm of connecting rod, but also by reason of the use of bushing 40 which retains the assembly of connecting rod shafts in their general arrangement even though member 23 be removed, so that in assembling or taking down the connecting rod structure there is no disturbance of the general arrangement, it being possible to assemble the four piston structures on the bushing in advance of the introduction of the crank pin into the bushing; and this same assembly remains, of
. course, when the crank pin is withdrawn to permit access to the collars 41.
The spark plug for ignition may be located at any suitable point, but it is preferred to locate it at the end of lateral extension 28a, -as indicated, for instance at 42. The several spark plugs pertaining to the pairs of cylinders located at one side of the vertical plane extending through the crank shaft axis are controlled from a suitn able timer, located at an end of the casing,
the casing of said timer being indicated at 43 in Fig. 5, two such timing structures being preferably employed and located to have a movable element thereof carried by cam shaft 35 said cam shaft being driven from the crank shaft by suitable gears 44 meshing with a gear 45 mounted on the crank shaft.
One embodiment of a manifold adapted to be used in the presentembodiment of the invention is shown in Figs. 6, 7, and 8 in which a casting 46 (shown in Fig. 7) is provided with an exhaust chamber 47 and an intake chamber 48, the latter having a suitable passageway 48a leading thereto and which is connected up with the carbureter structure or structures, the exhaust chamber having an outlet 47 a leading to a suitable point, such for instance as a muflier, not shown. As seen in Figs. 6, 7 and 8 the major portion of the walls of chamber 48 are exposed within chamber 47,.so that the walls of the intake chamber are practically bathed with the exhaust gases, thus primarily heating the intake prior to the de-` livery of the charge to the cylinder.
Figure 6 shows the manner in which the manifold can be connected up to the lateral extensions 28, it being seen that intake channels 28b are theJ intermediate channels, leading into chamber 48 by their connections 49, the exhaust channels 282L being the outer channels and leading into chamber 47, similar connections 49 being provided.
As will be seen all of the intakes for the four cylinders are of substantially the same length as are the exhaust connections, so
that there is a practical uniformity in action within the manifold, as hereinbefore more fully described.
Lubrication of the motor may be had in any desired manner, a preferred arrangement, however, being that disclosed in the drawing, wherein 50 indicates a tank for the lubricant, this tank being secured at the bottom of casing 20 between the two pairs of cylinders carried by section 20", the tank being of suitable configuration, that'shown in the drawings being especially suitable for the purpose, this tank having a length sufficient to overlie -a pair of openings 2()c located at the bottom of section 20" practically in alinement with the axes of the different vertical series of cylinders, openings 20c being designed to receive depending oil straining elements 51, these being shown as in the form of a mesh structure of suitable type and which extend into juxtaposition to the bottom of the tank, being designed to permit of the passage of oil `from the bottom of the lower section of casing 2() -into the tank, the straining element being closed at the bottom.
52 indicates a rotary pump carried at the lower end of a stand pipe structure 53, the latter extending at an inclination to the vertical from a point adjacent the bottom of tank 5() to a point adjacent one of the cam shafts 35, the pump being driven from the cam shaft 35 by a shaft 54 extending axially through the stand pipe 53, such shaft 35 and shaft 54 having a gear connection whereby therotating element of the pump is driven in a direction to take up oil from'the tank and deliver it to the` stand pipe external of shaft 54, the stand pipe having a diameter sufficient to provide for the upward travel of oil delivered by the pump into a channel 55A carried by section 20h, said channel leading to a pipe connection 56 which is carried upwardly and then inwardly from a side of the interior of the casing to a point above the crank shaft axis, the pipe having branches 56b which lead laterally of the direction of length of the pipe to points located above the path of travel of the connecting rod shoes, as shown more particularly in Fig. 2, la shield 57 being 4provided between pipe 56 andthe path o f travel of the cheek member.-
By this arrangement oilis delivered from the tank through branches 56b and permitted to drip upon the connecting rod structure mounting at the inner ends of the-conneet-ing rods, thus lubricating4 thej -shoe mountings to 'permit of proper lubrication, and since the'crank shaft is operating ,aft a comparatively high speed, there will beiia tendency for oil to be thrown outwardly by centrifugal action set up by motion `of the crank shaft, this tending to carry'lubricant into the connection at the outer ends of the connecting rods and on to the cylinder walls, openings 37c of the piston permitting passage of any oil which might spatter, these general arrangements tending to maintain the cylinders properly lubricated.
As will be readily understood, the opposite sides of the motor are practically balanced relative to each other so far as structure -is concerned, so that the motor is substantially balanced mechanically and therefore adapted Vto operate with a min imum amount of vibration. And as heretofore pointed out, the general arrangement and order of firing is such as to produce substantially a balanced condition explosively, the result being the production of a motor of compact form and capable of withstanding the severe conditions of use.
The arrangement is such as to permit of the use of cylinders of comparatively small diameter. For'instance, the cylinders of one form of the motor have an internal diameter of two and one-half inches with the length of thepiston stroke two and threequarters inches. -With these dimensions it is possible to produce a power value-of from twenty-five to thirty horse power, with the weight of the motor approximately three pounds per horse power.
I have shown the preferred embodiment as employing two series of cylinders with each series having four individual cylinders, the'pistons of which have their connecting rods connected to a single crank.
i' This provides for the mechanical and explosive balancing of the motor. It will be obvious, however, that the number of cylinders ina series may be increased, or the number of series may be increased by increasing the-length ofthe crankl shaft and employing additional cranks through continuing the. fabricated form of crank shaft.
IVhile I have herein shown and described a preferred arrangement, it will be readily understood that changes and modifications therein may be found desirable or essential in meeting the various exigencies of use, and I desire to be understood as reserving the 'right to make any and all such changes or modifications as may be found desirable or within the spirit and scope of the invention as expressed in` the accompanying claims when broadly construed.
Having thus describedmy invention, what I claim is 1. In an internal combustion motor of the Otto cycle type, a crank shaft, a plurality of cylinders symmetrically disposed with respect to said shaft, and pistonsI for the cylinders operatively connected with thecrank shaft, said cylinders being arranged in' more than a single circular series in the direction of length of the shaft with each series having the pistons inclined relative of its cylinders operatively connected to the same crank of the shaft with.' the connections of the pistous and crank shaft similar with each of the pistons of the series, each cylinder being inclined `relative to planes extending horizontally and .vertically through the crank shaft axis', the cylinders on one side of the ,vertical plane having the intake and exhaust service instrumental'ities in common and independent of the similar instru- .mentalities ofthe .cylinders on the other side of such plane, each intake and exhaust service instrumentality including a -com bined intake and exhaust manifold formation positioned between the cylinders served thereby.
2. In an internal combustion motor of the Utto cycle type, a crank shaft, a plurality of cylinders symmetrically disposed with respect to said shaft, and pistons for the cylinders operatively connected with the crank shaft, said cylinders being arranged in more than a single circular lseries in the direction of length of the shaft with each series having" the pistons of its cylinders operatively connected to the same crank of the crank shaft with the connections of the pistons and crank shaft similar with each of the pistons of the series, each cylinder being inclined relative to planes extending horizontally and vertically through the crank shaft axis, the cylinders of each series 'p having substantially the same inclination relative to such planes, the cylindersy on onev side ofthe vertical plane having the -intake and exhaust service instrumentalitiesv in common and independent of thesimilar instrumentalities of the cylinders on the other side of such plane, each intake and exhaust service instrumentality including a combined intake and exhaust manifold formation positioned between the cylinders served thereby.
3. In an internal combustion motor of the Otto cycle type,
of cylinders symmetrically disposed with respect to said shaft, andtpistons for the` cylinders operatively'. connected with the crank shaft, said cylinders beingl arranged in more than a-single circular series vin the essential, in' so far 'as the same may fall' direction of length of the shaft with each andcrank shaft similar with each of the pistons of the series, each cylinder being to planes extending horizontally and vertically through the crank shaft axis, each series consisting of fourcylinders, the cylinders on one side of the vertical plane having the intake and exhaust service instrumentalities in common and ina crank shaft, a plu-rality dependent ofthe similar instrumentalities l of the cylinders on the other side of such plane, each intake and exhaust service 1nstrumentality including a combined intake and exhaust manifold formation positioned between the cylinders served thereby.
4. In an internal combustion motor of the Otto cycle type,a crank shaft, a plurahty of cylinders symmetrically disposed with respect to said shaft, and pistons for the cylinders operatively connected withv the crank shaft, said cylinders being arranged in more than a single circular series' in the direction of length of the shaft with each .series having the pistons of its cylinders operatively connected to the same crank of the shaft with the connections of the pistons and crank shaft similar with each of the pistons of the series, each cylinder being inclined relative to planes extending horizontally and vertically through the crank shaft axis, Aeach series consisting of four cylinders with a pair of cylinders located on each side of such horizontal plane, the cylinders on one side of the vertical plane having the intake and exhaust service instrumentalities in comm'on and independent of the similar instrumentalitles of the cylinders on the other side of such plane, each intake and exhaust service in-v strumentality including a combined intake and exhaust manifold formation positioned between the cylinders served thereby.
5. In an internal combustion motor of the Otto cycle type, a crank shaft, a plurality of cylinders symmetrically disposed with respect to said shaft, and pistons for the cylinders operatively connected with the crank shaft, said cylinders being arranged in more than a single circular series in the direction of length of the shaft with each series having the pistons of its cylinders operatively connected to the same crank yof the shaft with the connections of the' pistons and crank shaft similar with each of the pistons of the series, each cylinder being inclined relative to planes extending horizontally and vertically through the crank shaft axis, each series consisting of four cylinders, with a pair of cylinders located 0n each side of such vertical plane, the cylinders on one side of the vertical plane having the intake and exhaust service instrumentalities in common and independent of the similar instrumen'- talities of the cylinders on the other side of such plane, each intake and exhaust service instrumentality including a combined intake and exhaust manifold formation positioned between the cylinders served thereby.
6. .In an internal combustion motor of the Otto cycle type, a crank shaft, a plurality of cylinders symmetrically disposed with respect to said shaft, and pistons for the cylf inders operatively connected .with the crank shaft, said cylinders being arranged in more than a single circular series in the direction of length of the shaft with each series having 'the pistons of -its cylindersoperatively connected to the same crank of the shaft with the.V connections of the pistons and crank shaft similar with each of the pistons of the series, each cylinder being inclined relative to planes extending horizontally and vertically through the crank shaft axis;- each series consisting of four cylinders, with each cylinder extending at an angle of approximately forty-five degrees` to such horizontal and vertical planes, the cylinders on one side of the vertical .plane having the intake and exhaust service instrumcntalities in common and independent of the similar instrumentalitics of the cylinders on the other side of such plane, each intake and exhaust service instrumentality includinga combined intake and exhaust manifold formation positioned between the cylinders served thereby.
7. In an internal combustion motor of the Otto cycle type, a crank shaft, a plurality of cylinders symmetrically disposed with respect to said shaft, and pistons for the cylinders operatively connected with the crank shaft, said cylinders being arranged in more than a single circular series in the direct-ion of length of the shaft with each series having the pistons of its cylinders operatively connected to the same crank of the shaft with the connections of the pistons and crank shaft similar lwith each of the pistons of the series, each cylinder being inclined relative to planes extending horizontally and vertically through the crank shaft axis, the cylinders of each series having substantially the same inclination relative to such planes, the cranks for the cylinders of adjacent series being spaced approximately one hundred and eighty degrees apart, the cylinders on one side ofthe vertical plane having the intake and exhaust service instrumentalities in common and independent of the lsimilar instrumentalities of the cylinders on the other side ot' such plane, each intake and'exhaust service instrumentality including a combined intake and exhaust manifold formation positioned between the cylinders served thereby.
8. In an internal combustion motor of the Otto cycle type, a casing, a crank shaftcarried thereby, a plurality of cylinders earried by the casing with the cylinders arranged in longitudinal rows with the rows symmetrically disposed in inclined relation 'to each other and to horizontal and vertical planes extending through the crank shaft axis, the cylinders with pistons operatively connected to the same crank of the crank shaft forming a circular series with the cylinder axes extending on the same vertical plane, pistons for the respective cylinders and operatively connected to the crank shaft, inlet and exhaust valves for each cylinder with the valve axis positioned oifsetyyvith relation to and extending substantially lue Ilo
lli
acterized in that the` heads of the several.
cylinders project laterally of the cylinder to provide a chamber offset with relation to the cylinder andforming a passageway for fuel and combustion products, the valves be-y ing operative to control communication to and from said chamber, the head extensions of the cylinders on each side of the lvertical plane being on the inner side of the cylinder. 10. A motor of the type of claim 8 characterized in'that the heads of the several cylinders project laterally of the cylinder to provide a chamber offset with relation to the cylinder and forming a vpassageway for fu'l and combustion products, the valves being operative to control communication to and from said chamber, the head extensions of the cylinders on each side of the vertical plane being on the inner sides of the c linders and extending in the direction o the horizontal plane through the crank shaft, the axes of the valve seats of such cylinders intersecting a plane parallel to such vertical plane. A
11. A motor of thetype of claim 8 characterized in that the heads of the several cylinders project laterally of the cylinder to provide a chamber offset with relation to the cylinder and forming a passageway for fuel and combustion products, the valves being operative to control communication to and from said chamber, the head extensions of the cylinders on each side of the vertical lane being on the inner sides of the cylin- (Piers, the valve seat axes intersecting a plane parallel to such vertical plane, the passageways leading from the manifold structure to said chambers extending in such parallel lane. ,f" p 12. A motor of the type l.of claim 8 characterized in-that the hea'ds of the several cylinders project late-rally of the cylinder to provide a chamber offsetwith relation to the cylinder and forming passageways for fuel and combustion products, the valves being operative `to control communication to and from said chamber, the head extensions of the cylinders on each side of the vertical plane being on the inner sides of the cylin.
ders, said extensions having openings to receive ignting structures, the axisV of such openin s extending transverse to the valve axes o the extension. v
in that the manifold structure is approximately midway between t e port ofl 13. In an internal combustion motor, a crank shaft, a plurality of cylinders arranged. in a succession of circular series symmetrical to the crank shaft axis, pistons for the cylinders with the pistons of a series operatively connected to thesame crank of the crank shaft, each series having a pair of cylinders symmetrically disposed on each side of a vertical plane extending through the crank shaft axis with the cylinders of a pair located on opposite sides of a horizontal plane extending throughl said axis, each cylinder of a pair having inlet and exhaust ports with the axis of each port intersecting a plane parallel tosuch vertical plane, a manifold having passageways extending on such parallel plane, and connections between the cylinder ports and the manifold passageways, said connections also extending on such plane.
. 14. A motor as in `claim 13. characterized in that the manifold structure is positioned alpproxiinately midway between the ports of t e pairs of cylinders.
15. In an internal combustion motor, a crank shaft, al plurality of cylinders arranged in a succession of circular series symmetrical to the crank shaft axis, pistons for the cylinders-with the pistons of a series operatively connected to the same crank of the crank shaft, each series having a pair of cylinders symmetrically disposed on each side of a vertical plane extending through the crank shaft axis with the cylinders of a pair located on opposite sides of a horizontal plane extending through said axis, each cylinder of a pair having inlet and exhaust port-s with the axis of each port intersecting a plane parallel to such vertical plane, a manifold having passagewaysextending on such parallel plane, and connections between the cylinder ports and the manifold passageways, said connections also extending on such plane, said connections being of substantiallyA equal length.
16.' A motor as in claim 13 characterized sitioned the pairs of'cylinders, and located on Such horizontal plane. l, V j
v17. In an internal combustion motor, a crank shaft,v a plurality of cylinders arranged in a succession o'f circular series symmetrical to the crank shaft axis, pistons for the cylinders with the pistons of a series operatively connected to the same crank of the crank shaft, eachrseries having a pair of cylinders symmetrically disposed on each side of a vertical plane extending through the, crank shaft axis with the cylinders of a pair located on op osite sides of a horizontal lane exten ing through said axis, each cylinder of a pair having l.inlet and exhaust ports with the axis of each ort inter#A secting a plane parallel to suc vertical the cylinders with the pistons of a series operatively'connected to the same crank of the crank shaft, each series having a pair of cylinders symmetrically disposed on each side of a vertical plane e'xtending through the crank shaft axis, with the cylinders of a pair located on opposite sides of a. horizon-4 tal plane extending through said axis, each cylinder of a pair having inlet and exhaust ports with the axis of each port intersecting a plane parallel to such vertical plane,
Va manifold having passageways extending on such parallel plane, and connections between the cylinder ports andthe manifold passageways, said connections also extending on such plane, said manifold having a formation to accommodate both intake and exhaust gases the connections of intake and exhaust between the manifoldv and (the several cylinders being of substantially equal length.
19. In an internal combustion motor, a casing having a bottom, a crank shaft supported by said casing, a plurality of-cylinders arranged in a succession of circular series symmetrically disposed to the crank shaft axis with the cylinders of the several series extendin in alinement longitudinally of the crank s aft axis, the cylinders of a series being inclined to a vertical plane extending through the crank shaft axis, the pistons of a circular series being operativel connected to the same crank of the crank shaft,an oil reservoir carried by andk depending from said casing below said bottom and being symmetrically disposed relative to such plane, saidy reservoir having a cross-sectional configuration to produce a greater width at its bottom than at its top, and oil-distributing mechanism extending into the reservoir, said mechanism including a pump active within the reservoir, the cross-sectional configuration of the reservoir permitting the portion of the mechanism within the reservoir to extend obliquely therein in continuation of the distributing mechanism within the casing.
20. In an internal combustion motor, a casing havin a bottom, a crank shaft supported by said casing, a plurality of cylinders arranged in a succession of circular series symmetrically disposed to the crank shaft axis with the cylinders of the several' reservoir, said structure having an axis extending in a direction inclined to the ver- .tical and horizontal, and a conduit system leading from said pump and having o1l discharge ports positioned to permit oiling of the crank mountings of the piston connecting rods.'
21. In an internal combustion motor, a casing, a crank shaft supported by said casing, a plurality of cylinders arranged in a succession of circular series symmetrically disposed to the crank shaftaxis with the cylinders of the several series extending in alinement, longitudinally of the crank shaft axis, the c linders of a series being inclined to a vertlcal plane extending through the crank shaft axis, the pistons of a circular series being operatively connected to the same crank of the crank shaft, and an oiling system for the motor, said system including an oil reservoir depending from the casing in symmetrical relation to such lane, and a pump structure operative to eliver oilvfrom the reservoir for delivering oil ,to the crank mountings of the piston .connecting rods,
-said structure including a barrel formation having a length to-project into said reservoir and to a point within the casing a"d jacent a horizontal plane extending through t-he crank-shaft axis, said barrel carrying a rotatable pumping element within the reservoir and an operating stem extending longitudinally of the barrel, said stem having a driven relation with a drive element within the casing, said barrel having a configuration to produce a channel therein external of the 'stem with the channel communicating with the 'pump at one end and with an oil-delivering conduit system at its opposite end.
22. In an internal combustion motor, a casing, a crank shaft supported by said casing, a plurality of cylinders arranged in a succession of circular series symmetrically osed to the crank shaft axis with `the cyllilnders of the several series extending in a ement, lon 'tudinally of the crank shaft Y axis, the cylin ers of a series being inclined to a vertical plane extending through the crank shaft axis, the pistons of a circular series being operatively connected to thesame` crank of the crank shaft, and an l a barrel formation having a length to project into said reservoir and to a point within the casin adjacent a horizontal plane extending t rough the crank-shaft axis, said barrel carrying a rotatable pumping element v within the reservoir and an operatm stem extending longitudinally of the barre said v stem having a driven relation with a drive Y element Within the casing,`said barrel having a configuration to produce a channel` therein external of the stem with the channel communicating with the pum at one *end and with an oil delivering con uit -system at its opposite end, the axis of the barrel being inclined to and intersecting a such vertical plane.
23. A motor'of the type of claim 20 characterized in that the conduit system includes a pipe connection extending 1n a lane extending transversely of the crank s aft 'axis intermediate successive series of pistons, said connection having branches positioned to deliver oil to mountings adjacent such plane.
24. A motor of the'type of claim 20 characterized in that the conduit system includes a pipe connect-ion extending in a plane extending transversely of the crank shaft axis intermediate successive series of pistons. saidconnection having branches positioned to deliver oil to mountings adjacent such plane, the casing carrying a shield located in such plane intermediate such delivery points.y
25. In an internal combustion motor, a'
casing, a crank shaft carried by the casing and having its axis extending in a horizonltal plane, a plurality of cylinders arranged in a succession of clrcular series symmetrically disposed to the crank shaft axis with the cylinders of successive series extending in alinement longitudinally of such axis, pistons for said cylinders with the pistons of a ser-les operatively connected with the same crank of the crank shaft, said casing being formed sectional with a mating line of the sections extending in approxlmate correspondence with the horizontal lane extending through the crank shaft axis, said motor having -a pair of camshafts for the cylinders with the shafts located on the op osite sides of a vertical plane extending init e di rection of length of the crank shaft axis,
said cam shafts lying in the lane of the mating 'line and a spaced equi istant from the crank shaft axis. ,i
26. In internal combustion motors, a crank shaft, a plurality of cylinders symmetrically disposed Wlth respect to said shaft, pistons for the cylinders and operativel .connected to the crank shaft, said cylin ers being in circular series and inclined relative to a vertical and a horizontal plane through the crank shaft axis with the cylinders equal innumber on the opposite sides of such vertical plane` to produce a group relation of c,the ycylinders on a side with each group having a cylinder on each side of the horlzontal plane, an individual cam shaft for the valves of each group, and a timer unit individual to each group operative-in synchronism with the camshaft of its group, the several timer units .being located at opposite sides of the crank shaft axis and each symmetrically disposed relative to a horizontal plane extending through such axis and through said units.'
In testimony whereof l aiiix my signature.
HENRY FORD.
US400638A 1920-08-02 1920-08-02 Explosive engine Expired - Lifetime US1639333A (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2572711A (en) * 1945-03-27 1951-10-23 Ruth M Fischer Air compressor
US2596350A (en) * 1947-09-03 1952-05-13 Daisy T Wallace Hydraulic valve operating system for internal-combustion engines
US2628604A (en) * 1946-02-18 1953-02-17 Laurence C Maher Multicylinder motor
WO1991015658A1 (en) * 1990-04-06 1991-10-17 Gewald, Harold, W. Radial internal combustion engine
US20170328277A1 (en) * 2016-05-16 2017-11-16 Frank J. Ardezzone Modular Internal Combustion Engine with Adaptable Piston Stroke

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2572711A (en) * 1945-03-27 1951-10-23 Ruth M Fischer Air compressor
US2628604A (en) * 1946-02-18 1953-02-17 Laurence C Maher Multicylinder motor
US2596350A (en) * 1947-09-03 1952-05-13 Daisy T Wallace Hydraulic valve operating system for internal-combustion engines
WO1991015658A1 (en) * 1990-04-06 1991-10-17 Gewald, Harold, W. Radial internal combustion engine
US5150670A (en) * 1990-04-06 1992-09-29 Harold W. Gewald Radial internal combustion engine
US20170328277A1 (en) * 2016-05-16 2017-11-16 Frank J. Ardezzone Modular Internal Combustion Engine with Adaptable Piston Stroke
US11028771B2 (en) * 2016-05-16 2021-06-08 Frank J. Ardezzone Modular internal combustion engine with adaptable piston stroke
US11725576B2 (en) 2016-05-16 2023-08-15 Frank J. Ardezzone Internal combustion engine with adaptable piston stroke

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