US1512242A - Fuel supply for motors - Google Patents

Fuel supply for motors Download PDF

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US1512242A
US1512242A US422492A US42249220A US1512242A US 1512242 A US1512242 A US 1512242A US 422492 A US422492 A US 422492A US 42249220 A US42249220 A US 42249220A US 1512242 A US1512242 A US 1512242A
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water
chamber
exhaust
steam
pipe
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Schmitt Henry
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M1/00Carburettors with means for facilitating engine's starting or its idling below operational temperatures
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M2700/00Supplying, feeding or preparing air, fuel, fuel air mixtures or auxiliary fluids for a combustion engine; Use of exhaust gas; Compressors for piston engines
    • F02M2700/43Arrangements for supplying air, fuel or auxiliary fluids to a combustion space of mixture compressing engines working with liquid fuel
    • F02M2700/4302Arrangements for supplying air, fuel or auxiliary fluids to a combustion space of mixture compressing engines working with liquid fuel whereby air and fuel are sucked into the mixture conduit
    • F02M2700/4321Arrangements for supplying air, fuel or auxiliary fluids to a combustion space of mixture compressing engines working with liquid fuel whereby air and fuel are sucked into the mixture conduit working with fuel and admission of auxiliary fluids such as water, anti-knock agents, hydrogen, ozone or the like
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/12Improving ICE efficiencies

Definitions

  • Kerosene, crude and other vso-.called low grade fuel oils are not'suflicient'ly volatile to thoroughly carburize air in the usual manner and form efficient combustible charges suitable for internal combustion engines of low compression type, and further such admixtures of air and low grade fuel are not completely consumed in the engine cylinder and leave a carbon deposit which hinders efficient operation.
  • This invention relates to means, in connection with internal combustion engines, for supplying combustiblecharges thereto, and more particularly to means for supplying charges including a fuel oil or the li e which is not ordinarily, suitable as a fuel in internal combustion engines of the lowcompression type.
  • the object of this invention is to provide a supply of super-heated steam for forming, together with a fuel oil of low specific gravity, an explosive mixture which will ignite I 111311 engine cylinder under comparatively low compression and will be consumed without forming an excessive carbon deposit,'the heat for maintaining such supply ofsupen heated steam being provided 'by the operation of the engine.
  • a further object is to utilize the water employed in cooling the engine cylinder to produce steam and to utilize the heat of the exhaust gases for super-heating this steam, it also being an object toprovide simple and ellicient means for the purpose combined with means forintroducing afuel oilinto the steam for producing an .eflicient combustible mixture of dry steam andQfuel.
  • a further object is to maintain a circulation of the water from the water jacket of the-engine to and around the exhaust passage of the engine, and a return travel through such passage, whereby all waste heat of the engine is utilized in heating water to produce a supply of .supereheate'd steam.
  • Fig. 3 is a similar view substantially upon the line YY of Fig. 1.
  • FIG. 1 indicates an engine cylinder of the usual construction having a water jacket 2 surrounding the same.
  • This water jacket is supplied with water from a supply tank 3 or other suitable source,the
  • This eXhaustchamber-ll is preferably formed with a water jacket 12 surrounding the same and the water jacket of the exhaust chamber is in communication with the water jacket 2 of the engine through an opening 13 or other suitable connection.
  • an exhaust pipe 14 Leading from the exhaust chamber 11 is an exhaust pipe 14 which is preferably formed with a water acket 15 opening into or forming a continuation of the Water jacket 12.
  • the exhaust pipe 14 is a coiled pipe 16 having one end connected to the lower end of the water jacket 15 and its upper end extending into the exhaust chamber 11.
  • a check valve 17 may be provided at the point of connection of the pipe 16 with the water jacket 15 to cause the water of the water jacket to flow into the pipe 16 as it becomes heated and to prevent the flow in thereverse direction.
  • the upper end of the pipe 16 within the exhaust chamber is connected to a hollow grid 18 of any suitable form, and a series of these grids may be pro vided within the exhaust chamber extending vertically therein and transversely across the chamber from side to side thereof, here a plurality of these hollow grids is employed, as illustrated in the drawing, they are preferably positioned in staggered relation and are connected one to the other by suitable connections 19.
  • the last grid of the series has an outlet 20 within which may be provided a check valve 21 and to this outlet is connected the lower end of a coil of pipe 22 which coil is preferably of the flat type in contradistinction to the usual spiral coil, and this coil of the pipe extends upwardly past the exhaust passage 10 opening directly from the combustion chamber of the engine, so that the extremely hot gases in issuing from the cylinder will impinge directly upon this coil of the pipe and superheat the steam contained therein orquickly convert any water in the pipe into steam.
  • the exhaust chamber 11 has an upward extension 23 into which the upper end of a coil 22 projects with one or more turns or runs of the coil lying in this chamber above the level at which the water in the water jackets 2 and 12 is maintained by the float 5.
  • the hot exhaust gases entering from the combustion chamber of the engine ascend into this extension 23 of the exhaust chamber and as the upper coils of the pipe 22 lie above the water level, these coils will never contain water and the steam contained in these coils will be heated to a very high degree of heat by the extremely hot exhaust gases which impinge directly thereon as they issue from the exhaust chamber of the engine.
  • the heat of the engine cylinder which is taken up by the water jacket 2 in order that the cylinder may be cooled sufficiently to prevent the scoring of its walls by the piston, is thus utilized to heat water which is further heated by being circulated around the exhaust chamber 11 and exhaust pipe l t and then further heated to turn it into steam by conducting it through the exhaust pipe and exhaust chamber in a manner to absorb all the heat possible from the hot exhaust gases which extremely high heat will quickly vaporize the water and as this vapor passes into the coils of the pipe 22, which lie above the water level, it will be super-heated forming a dry gas and be in a condition for admixture therewith of a low grade fuel oil to form an efficient combustible fluid for supplying the engine cylinder.
  • a mixing chamber 24 into which a discharge end or nozzle 25 of the pipe 22 extends.
  • a fuel oil chamber 26 Adjacent the mixing chamber 24 is a fuel oil chamber 26 within which a level of oil may be maintained in any suitable manner, said chamber being supplied with oil through a suitable supply pipe 27.
  • This fuel oil is introduced into the mixing chamber 24- in any suitable man ner as through a suitable spray nozzle 28 which is controlled by suitable means, such as a needle valve 29 having a stem 30 extending to the exterior of the tank so that it may be turned to regulate the flow of oil through the spray nozzle.
  • a branch pipe 31 may be extended from the upper coils of the pipe 22 into the fuel tank 26 and thence upwardly therein to" near the top thereof above the oil level so that steam be admitted to the fuel. tank through this pipe and maintain a pressure upon the oil to force it out through the spray nozzle.
  • the discharge end of this pipe 31 may be provided with a suitable valve 32 for controlling the outlet of steam into the fuel tank and in a like manner the discharge end or nozzle 25 of the pipe 22 which extends into the mixing chamber 24 may be provided with a suitable valve 33 for controlling the flow of steam into the mixing chamber.
  • a safety valve 34 which is spring controlled so that if the steam pressure within the mixing chamber 24 becomes too great, this valve will open and relieve the pressure.
  • the upper end of the cylinder 1 is formed with a fuel inlet chamber 35 the outlet from which into the combustion chamber 9 is 1 controlled in any suitable manner, as by a puppet valve 36 of any suitable construc the purpose of admitting atmospheric air 'to'the mixingfchamber 24;, an inlet opening 38 is provided in o'neside of the mixing chamber, which opening is controlled by an inwardly opening spring controlled valve 39 and leading to this fuel and air inlet is"a pipe 40 to the lower end of which may other light highly volatile fuel, said carbureter also having the usual air inlet43 for the admission of atm'osphericair which is ca'rbureted as it passes through the carbureter.
  • the engine will be supplied with a fuel for starting which will readily ignite and after the engine has started and sufficient heat has been produced to heat the water in the water jacket and produce steam in the coils contained in the exhaust chamber, this steam will be discharged into the mixing chamber together with a heavy fuel oil and provide a combustible mixture for supplying the engine to take the place of the lighter or more combustible fuel supplied by the carbureter, the carbureter supply being automatically cut off by the valve 39 which will be held to its seat by its spring which is of sufficient strength to hold the valve closed under ordinary, running conditions.
  • atmospheric air may be admitted to the mixing chamber during normal running of the engine, by reducing the tension of the spring which regulates the opening of the valve 39 so that said valve will open under certain normal running conditions and by providing an opening 44: in the intake pipe leading to the v valve 39 which opening is controlled by a shutter or valve 45 arranged, when fully open, to close the pipe 40 leading to the carbureter and thus shut off the supply of carbureted air.
  • Atmospheric air may thus be admitted to the mixing chamber for admixture with the heavy fuel and dry superheated steam during the normal running of the engine, and the supply of explosive charges from the carbureter ll may be completely cut off by the valve 45 which admits the atmospheric air.
  • the superheated steam generated in the coils in the exhaust chamber may be introduced into the mixing chamber in any suitable manner and the fuel oil sprayed into this chamber for admixture with the super-heated steam or be introduced along with the steam in any suitable manner.
  • the engine will therefore be supplied with a combustible fiuid comprising super-heated steam and a low grade fuel oil, together with atmospheric air, if desired, and by providing suitable means for igniting these charges the exhaust chamber and communicating within the cylinder, explosions of high power and efliciency will be secured and diflicu-lty from accumulation of carbon deposit will be eliminated by the superheated steam.
  • the water By maintaining the water.
  • a constant supply of water is provided for feeding the coils in the combustion chamber and producing suflicient steam for admixture with fuel for supplying the engine.
  • Super heating of the steam is accon'iplished by directing the hot gases of the explosion directly upon the coils containing itheste'ain and the water which is vaporized and gradually raised in temperature by being conducted around the exhaust chamber and backthrough this chamber, travelling a circuitous route through the exhaust in opposition to the direction of flow thereof, thereby absorbing the heat of the exhaust.
  • tubular Water conducting means connected to the Water jacket of the exhaust chamber at a point distant from the exhaust passage, said tubular Water conducting means being arranged to conduct the Water through the exhaust chamber in a direction opposite to the flow of the exhaust gases through the chamber, and means to receive steam from said tubular Water conducting means and form explosive charges for supplying the engine cylinder.

Description

Oct. 21 1924.
H SCHMITT FUEL SUPPLY FOR MOTORS Filed NQv. 8, 1920 BKa-nm Qameaasiaaea PATENT HENRY SCHMITT, .QF DETROIT, MICHIGAN.
FUEL SUPPLY .FOR .MOTORS.
Application filed. November 8, 1920. Serial No. 422,492.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known .that I, HENRY SoHMrrn'a citizenof the United States of America, residing at Detroit, in the county of Wayne and "State of Michigan, have invented certain new and-useful Improvements in Fuel Supplies for Motors, of which the following is a specification,reference being had therein to the accompanying drawings.
Kerosene, crude and other vso-.called low grade fuel oils are not'suflicient'ly volatile to thoroughly carburize air in the usual manner and form efficient combustible charges suitable for internal combustion engines of low compression type, and further such admixtures of air and low grade fuel are not completely consumed in the engine cylinder and leave a carbon deposit which hinders efficient operation.
This invention relates to means, in connection with internal combustion engines, for supplying combustiblecharges thereto, and more particularly to means for supplying charges including a fuel oil or the li e which is not ordinarily, suitable as a fuel in internal combustion engines of the lowcompression type.
The object of this invention is to provide a supply of super-heated steam for forming, together with a fuel oil of low specific gravity, an explosive mixture which will ignite I 111311 engine cylinder under comparatively low compression and will be consumed without forming an excessive carbon deposit,'the heat for maintaining such supply ofsupen heated steam being provided 'by the operation of the engine.
A further object is to utilize the water employed in cooling the engine cylinder to produce steam and to utilize the heat of the exhaust gases for super-heating this steam, it also being an object toprovide simple and ellicient means for the purpose combined with means forintroducing afuel oilinto the steam for producing an .eflicient combustible mixture of dry steam andQfuel.
A further object is to maintain a circulation of the water from the water jacket of the-engine to and around the exhaust passage of the engine, and a return travel through such passage, whereby all waste heat of the engine is utilized in heating water to produce a supply of .supereheate'd steam.
'A further object "is to provide .certain vertical section Fig. 2 is a sectional detail substantially upon the line XX of Fig.1, and
Fig. 3 is a similar view substantially upon the line YY of Fig. 1.
While in the drawing an embodiment of the invention is illustrated, it will be understood that the same is'merely illustrative of the formof device whichmay be employed and that'the same maybe modified as to the details ofconstruction, arrangement and combination of parts and-in size or proportion, without departing'from the spirit of the invention and within-the scope of the appended claims. I
In the drawing-1 indicates an engine cylinder of the usual construction having a water jacket 2 surrounding the same. This water jacket is supplied with water from a supply tank 3 or other suitable source,the
water being conducted from this tank to the Water jacket through a float chamber 4 having a float 5 therein arranged to control a check valve 6for admitting the Water from the tank 3 into the chamber 4. The water is admitted to the water jacket 2 through a suitable connection 7 of the float chamber to said jacket and. by the operation of the .float controlling the valve .6, the water .is
.maintainedata certainlevel within the. float .11 which .is .formedzintegral with or ..otherwisesecnred to :one sideoftheengine cylin- Qderanditswater jacket to project laterally therefrom. This eXhaustchamber-ll ispreferably formed with a water jacket 12 surrounding the same and the water jacket of the exhaust chamber is in communication with the water jacket 2 of the engine through an opening 13 or other suitable connection.
Leading from the exhaust chamber 11 is an exhaust pipe 14 which is preferably formed with a water acket 15 opening into or forming a continuation of the Water jacket 12.
lVithin the exhaust pipe 14: is a coiled pipe 16 having one end connected to the lower end of the water jacket 15 and its upper end extending into the exhaust chamber 11. A check valve 17 may be provided at the point of connection of the pipe 16 with the water jacket 15 to cause the water of the water jacket to flow into the pipe 16 as it becomes heated and to prevent the flow in thereverse direction. The upper end of the pipe 16 within the exhaust chamber is connected to a hollow grid 18 of any suitable form, and a series of these grids may be pro vided within the exhaust chamber extending vertically therein and transversely across the chamber from side to side thereof, here a plurality of these hollow grids is employed, as illustrated in the drawing, they are preferably positioned in staggered relation and are connected one to the other by suitable connections 19. The last grid of the series has an outlet 20 within which may be provided a check valve 21 and to this outlet is connected the lower end of a coil of pipe 22 which coil is preferably of the flat type in contradistinction to the usual spiral coil, and this coil of the pipe extends upwardly past the exhaust passage 10 opening directly from the combustion chamber of the engine, so that the extremely hot gases in issuing from the cylinder will impinge directly upon this coil of the pipe and superheat the steam contained therein orquickly convert any water in the pipe into steam.
The exhaust chamber 11 has an upward extension 23 into which the upper end of a coil 22 projects with one or more turns or runs of the coil lying in this chamber above the level at which the water in the water jackets 2 and 12 is maintained by the float 5. The hot exhaust gases entering from the combustion chamber of the engine ascend into this extension 23 of the exhaust chamber and as the upper coils of the pipe 22 lie above the water level, these coils will never contain water and the steam contained in these coils will be heated to a very high degree of heat by the extremely hot exhaust gases which impinge directly thereon as they issue from the exhaust chamber of the engine.
The heat of the engine cylinder which is taken up by the water jacket 2 in order that the cylinder may be cooled sufficiently to prevent the scoring of its walls by the piston, is thus utilized to heat water which is further heated by being circulated around the exhaust chamber 11 and exhaust pipe l t and then further heated to turn it into steam by conducting it through the exhaust pipe and exhaust chamber in a manner to absorb all the heat possible from the hot exhaust gases which extremely high heat will quickly vaporize the water and as this vapor passes into the coils of the pipe 22, which lie above the water level, it will be super-heated forming a dry gas and be in a condition for admixture therewith of a low grade fuel oil to form an efficient combustible fluid for supplying the engine cylinder.
Directly above the extension 23 of the exhaust chamber 11 is a mixing chamber 24 into which a discharge end or nozzle 25 of the pipe 22 extends. Adjacent the mixing chamber 24 is a fuel oil chamber 26 within which a level of oil may be maintained in any suitable manner, said chamber being supplied with oil through a suitable supply pipe 27. This fuel oil is introduced into the mixing chamber 24- in any suitable man ner as through a suitable spray nozzle 28 which is controlled by suitable means, such as a needle valve 29 having a stem 30 extending to the exterior of the tank so that it may be turned to regulate the flow of oil through the spray nozzle.
If found desirable a branch pipe 31 may be extended from the upper coils of the pipe 22 into the fuel tank 26 and thence upwardly therein to" near the top thereof above the oil level so that steam be admitted to the fuel. tank through this pipe and maintain a pressure upon the oil to force it out through the spray nozzle. The discharge end of this pipe 31 may be provided with a suitable valve 32 for controlling the outlet of steam into the fuel tank and in a like manner the discharge end or nozzle 25 of the pipe 22 which extends into the mixing chamber 24 may be provided with a suitable valve 33 for controlling the flow of steam into the mixing chamber. In the top of the mixing chamber 24: is a safety valve 34 which is spring controlled so that if the steam pressure within the mixing chamber 24 becomes too great, this valve will open and relieve the pressure.
The upper end of the cylinder 1 is formed with a fuel inlet chamber 35 the outlet from which into the combustion chamber 9 is 1 controlled in any suitable manner, as by a puppet valve 36 of any suitable construc the purpose of admitting atmospheric air 'to'the mixingfchamber 24;, an inlet opening 38 is provided in o'neside of the mixing chamber, which opening is controlled by an inwardly opening spring controlled valve 39 and leading to this fuel and air inlet is"a pipe 40 to the lower end of which may other light highly volatile fuel, said carbureter also having the usual air inlet43 for the admission of atm'osphericair which is ca'rbureted as it passes through the carbureter. By thus providing highly explosive charges to the mixing chamber 2a, the engine will be supplied with a fuel for starting which will readily ignite and after the engine has started and sufficient heat has been produced to heat the water in the water jacket and produce steam in the coils contained in the exhaust chamber, this steam will be discharged into the mixing chamber together with a heavy fuel oil and provide a combustible mixture for supplying the engine to take the place of the lighter or more combustible fuel supplied by the carbureter, the carbureter supply being automatically cut off by the valve 39 which will be held to its seat by its spring which is of sufficient strength to hold the valve closed under ordinary, running conditions. If found desirable, atmospheric air may be admitted to the mixing chamber during normal running of the engine, by reducing the tension of the spring which regulates the opening of the valve 39 so that said valve will open under certain normal running conditions and by providing an opening 44: in the intake pipe leading to the v valve 39 which opening is controlled by a shutter or valve 45 arranged, when fully open, to close the pipe 40 leading to the carbureter and thus shut off the supply of carbureted air. Atmospheric air may thus be admitted to the mixing chamber for admixture with the heavy fuel and dry superheated steam during the normal running of the engine, and the supply of explosive charges from the carbureter ll may be completely cut off by the valve 45 which admits the atmospheric air.
Obviously the superheated steam generated in the coils in the exhaust chamber may be introduced into the mixing chamber in any suitable manner and the fuel oil sprayed into this chamber for admixture with the super-heated steam or be introduced along with the steam in any suitable manner. Under ordinary running conditions the engine will therefore be supplied with a combustible fiuid comprising super-heated steam and a low grade fuel oil, together with atmospheric air, if desired, and by providing suitable means for igniting these charges the exhaust chamber and communicating within the cylinder, explosions of high power and efliciency will be secured and diflicu-lty from accumulation of carbon deposit will be eliminated by the superheated steam. By maintaining the water. in the cylinder water jacket at a predetermined "level, a constant supply of water is provided for feeding the coils in the combustion chamber and producing suflicient steam for admixture with fuel for supplying the engine. Super heating of the steam is accon'iplished by directing the hot gases of the explosion directly upon the coils containing itheste'ain and the water which is vaporized and gradually raised in temperature by being conducted around the exhaust chamber and backthrough this chamber, travelling a circuitous route through the exhaust in opposition to the direction of flow thereof, thereby absorbing the heat of the exhaust. As'certain of the coils of the pipe 22 arealways above the level of the water maintained in the water jacket, these coils Will be heated to a very high heat by the exhaust gases and thus super-heat the steam contained therein and as these coils are located above the water level they will never be filled with water even when the engine is not running, and therefore as soon as any steam is produced in the pipe 22 it will be immediately heated to a high heat, producing dry steam which passes into the mixing chamber 24:.
The construction shown in the accompanying drawing is merely illustrative of the invention and may obviously be changed or modified Within the scope of the appended claims without departing from the spirit of the invention.
Having thus fully described my invention, what I claim is 2- 1. The combination with an engine cylinder having a water jacket and inlet and exhaust passages, of an exhaust chamber into which the exhaust passage opens, a water jacket for the exhaust chamber in open communication with the water jacket of the cylinder, means for maintaining a water level in the water acket, means within the exhaust chamber connected with the water jacket at a point distant from the engine cylinder for conducting the water from the water jacket through the exhaust chamber toward the exhaust passage in a direction pp that Of the flow of the ex 7 haust gases through the exhaust chamber, a fuel supply, and means for conducting fuel from the supply and steam from the conducting means, to the engine cylinder.
2. In combination with an engine cylin- With the cylinder Water acket, tubular Water conducting means connected to the Water jacket of the exhaust chamber at a point distant from the exhaust passage, said tubular Water conducting means being arranged to conduct the Water through the exhaust chamber in a direction opposite to the flow of the exhaust gases through the chamber, and means to receive steam from said tubular Water conducting means and form explosive charges for supplying the engine cylinder.
3. The combination With an engine cylinder having an inlet and an exhaust passage, and a Water jacket surrounding the cylinder, of means for maintaining a Water level in the Water acket, an exhaust chamber into which the exhaust passage opens, a Water jacket surrounding the exhaust chamber and communicating With the cylinder Water jacket, tubular Water conducting means Within the exhaust chamber having one end thereof connected tothe Water" jacket of the exhaust cahmber at a point distant from the exhaust inlet of the chamber and its opposite end positioned adjacent to the exhaust inlet of the chamber, a mixing chamber con nected With that portion of the tubular Water conducting means which is above the Water level, a fuel supply for said mixing chamber, and means for conducting explosive charges from the mixing chamber to the inlet passage of the engine cylinder,
In testimony whereof I aflix my signature in presence of two Witnesses.
HENRY SlCHlVHTT. WVitnesses LEWIS E. FLANDERS, ANNA M. Donn.
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3980055A (en) * 1974-05-29 1976-09-14 Charles Leonard Webb Fuel saver and pollution control device
US4005683A (en) * 1974-10-07 1977-02-01 Raymond Douglas Whitt Energy conversion device
US4098231A (en) * 1977-05-13 1978-07-04 Oliver Thurston Davis Apparatus for improving the efficiency and reducing the hydrocarbon emissions of carbureted engines

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3980055A (en) * 1974-05-29 1976-09-14 Charles Leonard Webb Fuel saver and pollution control device
US4005683A (en) * 1974-10-07 1977-02-01 Raymond Douglas Whitt Energy conversion device
US4098231A (en) * 1977-05-13 1978-07-04 Oliver Thurston Davis Apparatus for improving the efficiency and reducing the hydrocarbon emissions of carbureted engines

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