US1487071A - Machine for treating materials - Google Patents

Machine for treating materials Download PDF


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US1487071A US50224A US5022415A US1487071A US 1487071 A US1487071 A US 1487071A US 50224 A US50224 A US 50224A US 5022415 A US5022415 A US 5022415A US 1487071 A US1487071 A US 1487071A
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May C Mabee
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May C Mabee
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    • B01D1/00Evaporating
    • B01D1/22Evaporating by bringing a thin layer of the liquid into contact with a heated surface
    • B01D1/222In rotating vessels; vessels with movable parts
    • B01D1/223In rotating vessels; vessels with movable parts containing a rotor
    • B01D1/225In rotating vessels; vessels with movable parts containing a rotor with blades or scrapers


March 18, 1924.
Patented MAY C. MABE, 0F TOLEDO, OHIO. l
Application filed September 11, 1915. Serial No. 50,224.
T0 @ZZ whom 'it' may concern." Y
Be it known that MAY C. Manna, a citizen of the United States, residing at Toledo, in the county of Lucas and State of Ohio, has invented certain new and useful Improvements in Machines for Treating Materials, of which the Vfollowing is a specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawing. l v v This invention relates to an apparatus for treating liquid or substances containingliquid to change the condition or consistency thereof, and while Vsusceptible of a wide range of uses, it is one of the primary objects o f the invention to provide a novel apparatus for the treatment of material with a view to rapidly evaporating therefrom, in whole, or, in part, the liquid contained therein.
One o f the-primary features of the Vinvention involves means for forming and -maintaining under circumferential movement a layer of material on the interior surface of a vertically disposed cylindrical container, while maintaining a Vcentral zone for the evapora-ting gases, and permitting the material to gradually ,flow fromone end of the container to the other.V l
In the artto which the present invention relates, it has largely been'the practice to treat substances, such as milk, by causing the material to move lthrough a closed cylindrical containen'the wall ofV which is sub1- ject'ed to a heating medium. These containers have been arranged both horizontally and vertically, and in that type of apparatus employing the-vertically disposed container. it is customary to feed the material into the container at the lbase thereof and cause the same to move upwardly under centrifugal force to be discharged through an outlet at the top of the container. In an apparatus of this type, it has beenV ascertained that, owing to the unequal pressure, and the force of gravity, the layer of material would gradually taper frm a very' thin film adjacent the top of the container to arelatively Ywide layer at the base thereof', and because of the thin film of material 'adjacent the top of the container, a very high temperature could not be transmitted to the treating surface, in view of the vlikelihood of scorching` or burning the material at this point.
By .the present invention, it is contemplated to provide means whereby a vertically disposed cylindrical container may be utilized andvvvhereby the wall of the container may be subjected to a highv temperature, associated means being provided whereby the layer of material in ,its movementthrough the container willl be substantially uniform. throughout and `subjected to' substantially the same treatment and `temperature effect from 'end to. end 0f the container. v
In the embodiment of in disclosed, provision is made 'of` a substantially cylindrical containerlrfor the material to be treated, said container being arranged substantially vertically and having external `means lfor applying to the .wall
the invention herethereof a temperature different from that of the material to be treated, and means for feedingV the material linto the container at or adjacent the top thereof and discharging the same at 'the fbasethe material vin its' passage assuming a circumferential movable film or'layer `formation on the interior surface of theklcontainer, and an opening be-V ing-provided aty one or both ends of the confv tainer for the escape of vapor and gases.'
Another feature of the Iinvention includes means within avertically disposed container of the character just -described Vfor moving, spreading and more equally 'distributing material upon and circumferentially over the inner surface ,of theV container as moved downwardly along said surface. l
It has been ascertained' that by introducing' the material at Ythe top ofthe container and spreading' the same in thin film or llayer formation over theinner Asurface thereof, it is possiblei'to,l in a very economical manner, 'cause rapid" evaporation lor.. change in' the condition or consistency 'of the material, and to, at' the Sametime, overcome to aV considerable degree the possibility of the coagulation of solids etc.' due to the' application' of eX- f cessive heat fora prolonged period :of-time.
In the treatment of fluid or substances roo containing fluid,'itisnfound that'wherelthe p treating surface is arranged horizontally, or where the material is introduced at the base of the vertically disposed container, centrifugal force must be largely depended upon for forcibly projecting the material onto and over the surface and through the container, whereas in the present embodiment of my invention, the material is caused to gradually flow downwardly over the inner surface of the container, kas a result of the pull or attraction of gravity, the downward movement being sufficiently retarded by the natural force of adhesion to said surface, and by movable means within the container, to enable complete treatment of the material prior to its discharge at the outlet end of the container.
The natural power of adhesion is of high importance in the treatment contemplated herein, as it enables a thin sheet, film or layer of liquid to be moved rapidly over a treating surface without eXpending the force necessary to maintain it against the treating surface, and because of the fact that the liquid adhering tothe treating surface can be moved thereover, while in a very thin film or layer, the treatment will necessarily be quite rapid.
t is also contemplated by the present invention to provide means whereby the material at its entrance to the container will be more evenly distributed circumferentially and with `this in view, l preferably provide at the inlet end of the container a plurality of closely associated openings arranged in series circumferentially of the wall of the container, thereby providing in effect a substantially continuous circumferential inlet for the material.
. 'till another feature of the invention includes means whereby the temperature regulating medium may have imparted thereto a sinuous or helical course of travel, which is useful in connection with certain treatments whereinl it is desirable 'to impart different temperatures to different portions of the treating surface.
Other and further improvements and novel details in the construction and arrangement of parts will be appreciated from the description lto follow, when considered in connection with the accompanying drawv` ings which for a part hereof, and wherein is disclosed for the purpose of illustration convenient and satisfactory embodiments of the invention, though it is to be understood in this connection that various changes may be made within the scope'of'the invention without departing from the principles there Of., Y l
ln the drawings, v
Figure l is a vertical section of the apparatus', j Y I Figure 2 'is a transverse horizontal section,
Figure 3 is a detail view in section of a modified form of conveyor or spreader member.
With more particular reference to the drawings, wherein like reference numerals refer to corresponding parts throughout the the several views, l is a vertically disposed container, the cylindrical wall of which is provided with a surrounding jacket 2 of greater diameter, whereby to provide an intervening space 3 for the reception of a heating medium. The jacket 2 is conveniently offset at its upper and lower edges so as to provide circumferential bands l contacting with the outer surface of the cylindrical wall of the container and secured thereto, as by removable screws or bolts 5. A collar t' is also secured as by bolts a to the outer surface of the cylindrical wail of the container above the j achet 2, said collar having an outwardly flared portion 7, so as to provide with the cylindrical wall of the container at its top, an annular receptacle or trough for the reception of material to be fed into the container for treatment. The cylindrical wall of the container at a point adjacent the lower edge of said trough is provided with a circumferential series of openings 8, preferably disposed inclined, and adapted to provide an inlet for the material. from the trough at various points about the circumference of the treating sur-- face, provided by the cylindrical wall of the container. 0f course, the number of inlet openings may be varied, but it is preferred that these openings be closely associated throughout the entire circumference, and if desired, in some inst nces a contiunous annular or circumferential inlet may be provided in lieu of t series of open' s, since in either case a substantially con in nous circumferential inlet for the material may be provided and the material will be substantially equally distributed entirely around the upper edge of the treaL surface.
rlhe material as delivered into the con tainer through the openings 8 will dow downwardly by force of gravity over surface of the container, owingto the force of adhesion due to the viscosity of the fluid this downward movement will be slightly retarded. lt is desiral le that tac material as it flows through the openings fil be spread in film formation circumferentially over the treating surface of the con tainer, and with this in view means arc positioned within the .container having movable members adjacent said treating surface whereby to wipe or spread the material circumferentially over said surface, and whereby to assist inmaintaining the material circumferential layer formation in its move-- ment both circumferentially and longitudi nally of the container. This means is conveniently constructed as follows: 9 is a vertically disposed shaft arranged substantially centrally of the container and having a loose bearing 1() in the base or bottomV wall 11 of the container. The shaft9 at one end, conveniently the upper end thereof, projects .beyond the adjacent end wall of the container, and has secured thereto a suitable pulley 13, adapted to have movement transmitted thereto through themedium of a belt or the like 14. In this connection, it maybe observed that any suitable driving means for the shaft may be provided, but at the same time this driving means should be of a character so as to impart to the shaft a rotation at a high speed, say from 300 or 400 revolutions or moreper minute. Suitable webs or supports 15 are secured tothe shaft, two being preferably provided adjacent opposite ends thereof at points within the container, which said supports have connected thereto .in any desired manner vertically extending Y angle bars or the like 16 adapted to support iiow of gravity.
wipers of iiexible material 17, the latter being secured as by plates 18 and removable bolts 19 the plates 18 reinforcing the wipers at their points of connection, and, the bolts Vpermitting the wipers to be removed and re- The cylindrical wall of the container terminates at its lower` end in an inwardly and upwardly curved wall .21 formingl an annular receiving chamber 22 for the treated'- material, from which receiving chamber the material finds an outlet through the opening 2 3 into a suitable conduit 24 or the'like, leading to a suitable receptacle or the like. The opening 23 and conduit 24 may be tangentially arranged, if desired. v
The operation being. such that .a movable cylindrical layer of the material is maintained in contact with the treating surface, a central quiet Zone for theescape of gases orl vapors from said layer vis provided centrally thereof, and a free escape therefor is preferably arranged on both ends of the' container. In the embodiment of the invention herein, the outletfor the vapors/and gases is provided in a removable top wall 2 5, the said top wall having an opening 26 in, communication with an outlet conduit 27, lead ing to the outside, or in caseit is desirable to utilize the escaping gases and vapors for other purposes such as in obtaining a multiple effect, said vapors and gases may constitute the heating medium for succeeding effects.
It is obvious of course that becauseof the fact that the material preferably flows downward in thin layer of film formation in contact with the inner surface of the cylindrical Wall, and readily finds escape through ythe outlet opening 24, in the base ofthe container adjacent theperiphery, it is possible to provide for the escape of vapors at the lower end as well as thetop of thecontainer. To this end, one or more openings 21 are provided at the base of the container, it being noted that'said .base is -substantially free of the material, the enlarged annular chamber 22 taking care of any possible temporary accumulation .of material at this point.
A suitable antifriction bearing vfo'rthe shaft 9 may beprovided as follows:
The top or cover 25 for the container is conveniently provided with an annular way A29 for the reception of a series ofzballs 30,
a collar 31 secured to the shaft 9" having a similar annular way to engage the opposite surface of the balls.
The heating medium is introduced r into the passage 3, as through the inlet conduit or pipe 32 preferably -by being blown there# in.V The space 3 is preferably provided with spirally arranged deflectors or walls 33.
.The heatingmedium, such as steam, is introduced into the space 3 through the con- V duit 32 preferably inra tangential direction, 7,
and the spiral walls or partitions guide kthe same in a helical vdirection towards the outlet end of the space, the'outlet being indithat the heating medium slightly varies from the vinlet tothe outlet and the heat will be somewhat reduced at the outlet end of the container.Y It willl also be noted that the helical arrangement of deflectors affords j a runway .for any water ofv condensation,
and the latter will havefa vtendency to rapidly flow along the-runway thus pro-f vided, to the outlet 34-rather than cling to the side wall of the cylindrical container,
which would vretard the heat transmission.
It should also bey noted that the' conveyor or wiper members may take various forms, and in that embodiment.illustrated in Figure .3 these members take the form of angle bars '3,5 projecting longitudinally of the container and adjacent the treating surface.
The container'may be supported in any desired manner as by suitablefstandards 36. The operation may beA briefly reviewed as follows: Assuming that the apparatus isto be utilized for'the purposes of evap foration and, that milk: is the material to `be treated, the same is'fed into the .annular cated at 34. It will thus be appreciated ,195 I receptacle or trough at the top of the container through the conduit 37 or the like 'rom any suitable supply, and continuously fed into the cylinder through the apertures 8, substantially entirely around the wall of the container. As delivered to said surface, the conveyor or spreader members tend to spread the material over the inner surface of the wall of the container, and when the wipers 7 are utilized, the* latter will serve to constantly cleanse and polish the surface, as well as convey the material circumferentially. Because of the peculiar formation of the upper ends of the conveyor members, the movement of the milk is allowed a downward tendency upon its entrance into the container and will continue to flow downwardly by force of gravity, and owing to the rapidly moving conveyor members, this downward flow is iin peded and the material will be caused to assume a continuous circumferentially movable film or layer formation in contact with the inner wall of the treating surface. The inilkas treated will find an outlet at the base of the container, as at 24E, and the vapors and gases which pass into the quiet central zone within the layer` of material will find free exit through the outlet 26 at the end of the container.
lhile the material being treated in the operation of the apparatus khas been re ferred to as milk, it is to be borne in mind that the present apparatus isquite useful in connection with theheating or pasteurization of juices of fruits and various other materials or products, and because of the fact that'the material is fed into the container at the top thereof, a very thin and substantially uniform layer of material from top to bottom is made possible, thus resulting in a very rapid treatment of the material. rhe thinner the body of material subjected to treatment, the more rapid will be the evaporation or change in condi- Y tion or consistency thereof.
It is Vfound that in the treatment of. materials suoli as milk, juices of fruits, and the like in the apparatus herein described, it is possible to utilize as vvthe heating medium, steam at a very high temperature; in fact, a temperature from 212- up to as high as 300 or l0() degrees l?. without any possibility of burning or scorching.
VJhile the operation of the construction as described may be said to have more particular'reference to evaporation, at the saine time, it is to be noted that the structure is clearly applicable and serviceable in connection with the heating, pasteurizationror otherwise treating various materials and substances to change the condition or kconsistency thereof, and whereas certain figures may have been referred to as relating to the preferred speed of the wiper members nacion 31, or the temperature of the heating medium, it is to be noted that these figures are illustrative only as referring more particularly, to evaporation, and the speed of rotation of the wipers as well as the temperature of the heating medium may be varied according to the desired treatment of the particular material operated upon. It has been found possible to so treat the material vas to reduce the same to a powdered consistency, as well as to pasteurize and evaporate.
l claim:
l. In an apparatus for treating liquids or substances containing liquid the combination of a substantially vertically disposed cylindrical container, means for heating tho wall of the container, said container having at one end adjacent the periphery thereof an inlet and an outlet adjacent the opposite end, means co-operating with said surface whereby the material to be treated from its .point of introduction to its discharge is permitted to move circumferentially and longitudinally of the container while maintained in film or layer formation adjacent the inner surface of said'wall of the container, andvsaid container having an opening in opposite ends thereof for the free escape of vapors and gases from the central space within the film or layer.
2. In an apparatus for treating liquids to change the condition thereof, the combination of a vertically disposed cylindrical container having an inlet for the material to be treated adjacent the top thereof, and an outlet adjacent the bottom thereof, means for eXteriorly heating the peripheral wall of 'the container, rotatable yieldable means for engaging the material, applying the same in circular layer formation on the inner surface of the container and moving the same circumferentially while permitting the material to Ymovev longitudinally downward towards the outlet, and said container having openings 'in opposite end walls thereof for the free discharge of the vapors and gases.
3. ln an apparatus for treating` material to change the consistency thereof, the combination of a vertically disposed cylindrical container, means for heating the wall thereof to a high temperature, said container having in its periphery adjacent the top thereof a substantially continuous circumfei'entiai inlet for the material Vto be treated, means whereby the material is allowed to flow downwardly over the inner surface wall of the container while maintained under positive circumferential movement over said wall in layer formation, and means whereby the vapors and gases are allowed to escape from 'the central Zone withinthe layer of rmaterial outwardly through opposite ends of the container. Y A v 4. In an` apparatus for treating liquid substances to change the consistency thereof, the
combination of a vertically disposed cylinover and simultaneous lengthwise movement 10 drical container, means for imparting to the in the same direction from its point of ensurface of the container, a temperature diftrance to itspoint of discharge, Said con` ferent from that of the material to be treated, tainer being open at opposite ends for the 51 means whereby a substantially unbroken confree discharge of vapors and gases.
tinuous circular layer of the material is In testimony whereof l hereunto alix my maintained in operative relation to the treatsignature. ing surface and subjected to continuous un'- Y y l f interrupted circumferential movement there- MAY C. lMABEE.
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3054444A (en) * 1959-03-09 1962-09-18 Frank E Robbins Wiper blade construction for wiped film liquid processors
US3246404A (en) * 1963-03-13 1966-04-19 Ametek Inc Centrifugal dryer
US4279692A (en) * 1978-07-05 1981-07-21 Hitachi, Ltd. Rotary vane type evaporator

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3054444A (en) * 1959-03-09 1962-09-18 Frank E Robbins Wiper blade construction for wiped film liquid processors
US3246404A (en) * 1963-03-13 1966-04-19 Ametek Inc Centrifugal dryer
US4279692A (en) * 1978-07-05 1981-07-21 Hitachi, Ltd. Rotary vane type evaporator

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