US1451460A - Oil burner - Google Patents

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US1451460A
US1451460A US455930A US45593021A US1451460A US 1451460 A US1451460 A US 1451460A US 455930 A US455930 A US 455930A US 45593021 A US45593021 A US 45593021A US 1451460 A US1451460 A US 1451460A
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burner
tube
mixture
air
orifices
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Walter B Kerrick
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KERRICK STEAM MOTORS Co
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KERRICK STEAM MOTORS Co
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D11/00Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space
    • F23D11/36Details, e.g. burner cooling means, noise reduction means
    • F23D11/44Preheating devices; Vaporising devices
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D11/00Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space
    • F23D11/36Details, e.g. burner cooling means, noise reduction means
    • F23D11/44Preheating devices; Vaporising devices
    • F23D11/441Vaporising devices incorporated with burners
    • F23D11/443Vaporising devices incorporated with burners heated by the main burner flame

Definitions

  • Patented A t. 10, 1923 Patented A t. 10, 1923.
  • This invention relates to hydro-carbon burner and to a method of burning hydroand particularly pertains to a burner of the type in which hydro-carbon fuels arezvaporized in a generator by the heat of the burner and ejected from a nozzle into the mixing chamber of the burner to induce a flow of primary air to enter and mix with thevaporized fuel.
  • An object of this invention isto provide a method and apparatus for eifecting combustion ofhydro-carbon fuel by which such thorough atomization of the fuel and its intermixturewith air may be effected as to permit throttling ldown to produce a low flame with a minimum danger of back-firing or extinguishing of theflame, and which is tion of steam in steam driven auto vehicles j to enable the operatorto control the steam generation by regulation of the fuel feed.
  • Another object is to rovide a means and method for burning hydrocarbon fuels, particularlythose of the heavier variety, whereby the fuel may be vaporized, mixed with alr and delivered to a burner in'two separate volumes of vapors and air of difierent zone.
  • a further object is to provide a hydrocarbon burner for efi'ecting the preceding object which is so constructed as to afford means of adjustment to vary therelative densities of two volumes of vapors and air 1 to meet different conditions.
  • Figure :1 1s a plan view] of a burner.
  • Figure 2 is a view in section as seen on the line 22 of Figure 1.
  • FIG. 3 is'a bottom plan view of a c'onig by which a swirling motion is imparted to the rich mixture.
  • Figure 4 is an enlarged view in section as seen on the line 4-4 of Figure 2.
  • 6 indicates a cylindri cal burner body preferably of cast metal and formed with an outer circularwall 7 I 1 of suitable height, and an inner circular wall -8 disposedec'centric to the outer wall.
  • the inner and outer'walls are joined by .a
  • top wall 9 and a bottom walllO which construction provides an enclosed space 11 within the burnerbody, the area of the space decreasing rearwardly around the burner.
  • the inner circular wall surrounds an opening 12 which allows atmospheric air to flow to the burner.
  • of the top wall 9 is formed with an'inclined face 13 and the wall below this face 1s formed of increased thickness'and is provided' with a plurality -of equally spaced holes 14 communicating-with the space 11 to provide burner'orificesfor the escape of the mixture from the space 11, which mix-
  • the inner margin ture is designed toburn immediately above these orifices to form a plurality of flamejets around the burner.
  • The-holes 14 follow an inclined spiral path throughout their length and are of suflicient length to give a definite direction of flow to the mixture, causing the" entire mixture emanating from the space 11 to take on a swirling-motion and be directed upwardly. and inwardly over theispace 12.
  • the burner is'provided with a'horizon -i tally disposed intake tube 15 communicating with. the space 11, and flaring outwardly,
  • the intake tube provides a mixing chamber 17 for the admixture of vapors and air and'is hereinafter referred-to as the lean mixture chamber.
  • a fuel or vapor ejecting nozzle 18" is provided and ,positioned immediately forward of the mouth of the lean mixture chamber and is disposed directl in alignment withv the center thereof to in uce an equal flow of air into the mou'th of the chem berat all points around the margin thereof in a manner common to Bunsen burners.
  • Mounted in the opening 19 is a tubular conduit 22 which extends into the intake tube centrally thereof and terminates within the tube in spaced relation to its outer end and to the nozzle 18; the outer end of the conduit being flared as indicated at 23 to facilitate entrance into the conduit of a portion of the vapors discharged from the nozzle.
  • the conduit 22 is adjustable longitudinally in the opening 19, so that the outer end of the conduit may be spaced any suitable distance from the nozzle to meet varying conditions.
  • a discharge tube 24 Arranged in the space 12 is a discharge tube 24, one end of which enminates approximately on a plane with the burner openings 14.
  • the conduit 22 and tube 24 constitute'a passage for the heavier mixture of vapors and air whereby this mixture will be discharged centrally of the air space 12 through a single orifice 25 from which a rich mixture flows when the burner is in operation.
  • a conical bafiie 26 of larger diameter than the orifice isdisposed over the orifice.
  • the bafile is provided on its under surface with a plurality of radially disposed curved vanes 27, against which the mixture impinges to be thrown oif with a swirling motion, preferably in a spiral path similar to that of, and in the same direction as, the lean mixture flowing from the burner orifices 14
  • the baflle 26 is mounted on a stem 27 which passes downwardly in the tube 24 and is threaded for vertical adjustment through a boss 28 formed on the tube, which construction permits the baflle being disposed in any desired spaced relation to the end of the discharge tube.
  • a casing 29 Surrounding the burner body is a casing 29 of a diameter greater than that of the burner body to form a passage 30 around the burner body through which warm air may pass downwardly and be delivered from a point adj acent the flames to the lower portion of the opening 12.
  • the upperpor tion of the casing 29 extends adjacent the top of the burner and the lower portion of the casing extends beneath the burner formmg a wall 31 which is provided with air inlet openings 32 adapted to be regulated by a damper 33.
  • the generator is here shown as comprising a single tube 35 which is fitted with an elbow 36 and connected to the nozzle.
  • the operation of the burner is as follows:
  • the heat of the flame generates a vapor from liquid fuel contained in the generator, and the vapor formed which is subj cut to the pressure of the fuel source is ejected thereby at high velocity from the nozzle into the mouthof the lean mixture chamber.
  • the flow of vapor induces a flow of air through the mouth in a manner common to Bunsen burners and the vapor and air commingle within the lean mixture chamber to form a lean combustible mixture which flows through the space 11 and through the burner orifices with a swirling motion to maintain a series of flame jets around the burner.
  • the denser portion of the vapor which tends to become confined to the center of the passages, due to its inertia, does not tend to commingle readily with the air and flows directly into the rich mixture passage. From there the rich mixture flows through the orifice and is delivered with a swirling motion to the area encompassed by the circular series of flame jets, which tend to retain the rich mixture within this area until it is completely consumed.
  • the supply of vapor is reduced practically all the vapor flows into the mouth of the rich mixture passage inducing a quantity of air with it so that the rich mixture passage and its orifice serves as a small. capacity burner and the supply of fuel may be reduced to a low degree without possibility of the flame flashing back or becoming extinguished.
  • the temperature of the flame and the capacity of the burner may be regulated by the shutter valve which varies; the amount of atmospheric secondary air coming to the flame.
  • the adjustable member of the rich mixture passage permits of regulating the relative amount of vapor entering the rich mixture passage.
  • the burner shown and described not only tends to prevent the escape of unburned fuel by causing the rich mixture to flow into an area surrounded by the burning lean mixture, but also serves to provide 'extremeflexibility and permits of reducing the amount of fuel consumed to a degree only sufiicient to maintain steam pressure in a boiler of an automotlve vehicle .when no. steam is being drawn from the boiler.
  • Iclaim I, 1. In a burner, a burner body provided mixture passage communicating with some of sald orifices, a lean mixture passage communicat ng with other of said orifices, and
  • a nozzle adapted to deliver vaporized fuel with an induced flow of air jointly to said passages whereby a rich mixture of the vaporized fuel and air enters the rich mixture passage and a lean mixture'of the vaporized fuel and air enters the lean mixture passage.
  • a burner body provided with a plurality of burner orifices, a tube connecting with some of the orifices, another tube of smaller diameter disposed Within the first tube and communicating with other of the orifices, each of said tubes formed with a mouth-open to the atmosphere and concentric with each other, and a nozzle disposed opposite the concentric mouths to deliver fuel to each.
  • a burner body provided with a plurality of burner orifices, a rich mixture passage communicating with someture passage and a portion of the vaporized.
  • a burner body provided with a plurality of burner orifices, a tube connecting with some of the orifices, another tube of smaller diameter disposed within the first tube and communicating with other of the orifices, each of said tubes formed with a mouth open to the atmosphere and concentric with each other, a nozzle disposed opposite the concentric mouths to deliver fuel to each, .and means on said burner body for imparting a swirling motion to a mixture issuing from all the orifies.
  • a burner body having a plurality of burner orifices and formed with an openingdisposed in the center of said body, a tube communicating with said orifices adapted to conduct a mixture of.va-- porized fuel and air to said orifices and formed with a mouth communicating with p the atmosphere, another tube disposed within said first named tube formed with a mouth communicating with the interior of the first named tube and terminating at its said opening, and' anozzle adapted to eject fuel into the mouth of said first named tube.
  • a burner body having a plurality of burner orifices and formed with an openin disposed in the center of said body, a tu e communicating with said oriin an orifice disposed centrally in said open- I ing, a nozzle adapted to eject vaporized fuel into the mouth of said first named tube, and adjustable means disposed over the last named orifice to impart a swirling motion .to mixture issuing therefrom.
  • a burner body havinga plurality of burner orifices and formed with an opening disposed in the center of said body, a tube communicating with said orifices adapted to conduct a mixture of vaporized fuel and air to said orifices and formed with a mouth communicating with the atmosphere, another tube disposed within said first named tube formed with a mouth communicating with the interior of the first named'tube and-terminating at its other end in an orifice disposed centrally in said opening, a nozzle adapted to eject vaporized fuel into. the mouth of said first named tube, adjustable means disposed over the last named orifice to impart a swirling motion to a mixture issuing therefrom, and
  • a vapor generator disposed over said burner body and communicating with said nozzle.
  • a burner body having a plurality of burner orifices and formed with an opening disposed in the center of said body, a tube communicating with said orifices adapted to conduct a mixture of va porized fuel and air to" said orifices and formed with a mouth communicating with the atmosphere, another tube disposed within said first named tube formed with a mouth communicating with the interior of th'e'first named tube and terminating at its other end in an orifice disposed centrally in said opening, a nozzle adapted to eject fuel into the mouth of said first named tube, and a casing surrounding said burner body and adapted to convey heated air to the lower end of the opening in said burner body.
  • a burner body having a plurality of burner orifices and formed with an opening disposed in the center of said body, a tube communicating with said orifices adapted .to conduct a mixture or vaporized fuel and air to said orifices and formed with a mouth communicating with the atmosphere, another tube disposed within said first named tube formed with a mouth communicating with the interior of the first named tube and terminating at its other end in an orifice disposed centrally in said opening, a nozzle adapted to eject vaporized fuel into the mouth of said first named tube, adjustable means disposed over the last named orifice to impart a swirling motion to mixture issuing therefrom, and a 10 casing surrounding said burner body and adapted to convey heated air to the lower end of the opening in said burner body.

Description

Apr. 10, 1923.
W. B. KERRICK OIL BURNER Filed Mar. 26, 1921 Jtzornez W w w m 10 carbons;
Patented A t. 10, 1923.
UNlT-ED STATES PATENT OFFICE,
- WALTER n. xnnnrcx, or Los ANGELES, chmronnm, ASSIGNOR T0 xnnmox STEAM MOTORS COMPANY, OF LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, 'A CORPORATION OF CALI- N FORM 01:. BURNER.
Application filed March 26, 1921 Serial m. 455,9ao.
To all whom! it may concern." 4
Be it known that I, WALTER BLKERRICK, a citizen of the United States,residing at Los Angeles, in the county of Los Angeles and State of C'alifornia, have invented new and useful Improvements in Oil ,Burners, of which the following is a specification.
. This invention relates to hydro-carbon burner and to a method of burning hydroand particularly pertains to a burner of the type in which hydro-carbon fuels arezvaporized in a generator by the heat of the burner and ejected from a nozzle into the mixing chamber of the burner to induce a flow of primary air to enter and mix with thevaporized fuel.
An object of this invention isto provide a method and apparatus for eifecting combustion ofhydro-carbon fuel by which such thorough atomization of the fuel and its intermixturewith air may be effected as to permit throttling ldown to produce a low flame with a minimum danger of back-firing or extinguishing of theflame, and which is tion of steam in steam driven auto vehicles j to enable the operatorto control the steam generation by regulation of the fuel feed. Another object is to rovide a means and method for burning hydrocarbon fuels, particularlythose of the heavier variety, whereby the fuel may be vaporized, mixed with alr and delivered to a burner in'two separate volumes of vapors and air of difierent zone.
A further object is to provide a hydrocarbon burner for efi'ecting the preceding object which is so constructed as to afford means of adjustment to vary therelative densities of two volumes of vapors and air 1 to meet different conditions.
Other objects will appear hereinafter.
4b The invention is illustrated by the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure :1 1s a plan view] of a burner.
adapted to carry out the, purposes of the invention. 1 u
Figure 2 is a view in section as seen on the line 22 of Figure 1.
- cal baflle especially applicable for use in the genera-' densities v or proportions of mixture, and thoroughly intermixed in the combust on Figure 3 is'a bottom plan view of a c'onig by which a swirling motion is imparted to the rich mixture.
Figure 4: is an enlarged view in section as seen on the line 4-4 of Figure 2.
More specifically, 6 indicates a cylindri cal burner body preferably of cast metal and formed with an outer circularwall 7 I 1 of suitable height, and an inner circular wall -8 disposedec'centric to the outer wall.
The inner and outer'walls are joined by .a
top wall 9 and a bottom walllO, which construction provides an enclosed space 11 within the burnerbody, the area of the space decreasing rearwardly around the burner. The inner circular wall surrounds an opening 12 which allows atmospheric air to flow to the burner. of the top wall 9 is formed with an'inclined face 13 and the wall below this face 1s formed of increased thickness'and is provided' with a plurality -of equally spaced holes 14 communicating-with the space 11 to provide burner'orificesfor the escape of the mixture from the space 11, which mix- The inner margin ture is designed toburn immediately above these orifices to form a plurality of flamejets around the burner. The-holes 14 follow an inclined spiral path throughout their length and are of suflicient length to give a definite direction of flow to the mixture, causing the" entire mixture emanating from the space 11 to take on a swirling-motion and be directed upwardly. and inwardly over theispace 12.
The burner is'provided with a'horizon -i tally disposed intake tube 15 communicating with. the space 11, and flaring outwardly,
from the burner body to terminate at its outerend in a mouth 16. The intake tube provides a mixing chamber 17 for the admixture of vapors and air and'is hereinafter referred-to as the lean mixture chamber. A fuel or vapor ejecting nozzle 18"is provided and ,positioned immediately forward of the mouth of the lean mixture chamber and is disposed directl in alignment withv the center thereof to in uce an equal flow of air into the mou'th of the chem berat all points around the margin thereof in a manner common to Bunsen burners.
The wall 61s formed with-an opening 19 Jfacing theintalre tube 15 on a line with the L gages the flange 21 and the other end portion of which is turned upwardly and tercenter of the latter; annular flanges and 21 being formed on the opposite sides of the wall 6 on the margin of the opening '19. Mounted in the opening 19 is a tubular conduit 22 which extends into the intake tube centrally thereof and terminates within the tube in spaced relation to its outer end and to the nozzle 18; the outer end of the conduit being flared as indicated at 23 to facilitate entrance into the conduit of a portion of the vapors discharged from the nozzle. v
The conduit 22 is adjustable longitudinally in the opening 19, so that the outer end of the conduit may be spaced any suitable distance from the nozzle to meet varying conditions. Arranged in the space 12 is a discharge tube 24, one end of which enminates approximately on a plane with the burner openings 14. The conduit 22 and tube 24 constitute'a passage for the heavier mixture of vapors and air whereby this mixture will be discharged centrally of the air space 12 through a single orifice 25 from which a rich mixture flows when the burner is in operation.
As a means for'imparting a swirling motion to the rich mixture flowing through the orifice a conical bafiie 26 of larger diameter than the orifice isdisposed over the orifice. The bafile is provided on its under surface witha plurality of radially disposed curved vanes 27, against which the mixture impinges to be thrown oif with a swirling motion, preferably in a spiral path similar to that of, and in the same direction as, the lean mixture flowing from the burner orifices 14 The baflle 26 is mounted on a stem 27 which passes downwardly in the tube 24 and is threaded for vertical adjustment through a boss 28 formed on the tube, which construction permits the baflle being disposed in any desired spaced relation to the end of the discharge tube.
Surrounding the burner body is a casing 29 of a diameter greater than that of the burner body to form a passage 30 around the burner body through which warm air may pass downwardly and be delivered from a point adj acent the flames to the lower portion of the opening 12. The upperpor tion of the casing 29 extends adjacent the top of the burner and the lower portion of the casing extends beneath the burner formmg a wall 31 which is provided with air inlet openings 32 adapted to be regulated by a damper 33.
heburner may beemployed for the combustion of gas in a fixed state, but is here shown as articularly adapted for burning liquid by ro-carbons and for this purpose is provided with a generator tube 34= disposed over. the center of the burner and communicating with a source of hydro-carbon, not shown. The generator is here shown as comprising a single tube 35 which is fitted with an elbow 36 and connected to the nozzle.
The operation of the burner is as follows:
The heat of the flame, generates a vapor from liquid fuel contained in the generator, and the vapor formed which is subj cut to the pressure of the fuel source is ejected thereby at high velocity from the nozzle into the mouthof the lean mixture chamber. The flow of vapor induces a flow of air through the mouth in a manner common to Bunsen burners and the vapor and air commingle within the lean mixture chamber to form a lean combustible mixture which flows through the space 11 and through the burner orifices with a swirling motion to maintain a series of flame jets around the burner. In asmuch as the nozzle is positioned in alignment with the mouth of the rich mixture passage, the denser portion of the vapor which tends to become confined to the center of the passages, due to its inertia, does not tend to commingle readily with the air and flows directly into the rich mixture passage. From there the rich mixture flows through the orifice and is delivered with a swirling motion to the area encompassed by the circular series of flame jets, which tend to retain the rich mixture within this area until it is completely consumed. When the supply of vapor is reduced practically all the vapor flows into the mouth of the rich mixture passage inducing a quantity of air with it so that the rich mixture passage and its orifice serves as a small. capacity burner and the supply of fuel may be reduced to a low degree without possibility of the flame flashing back or becoming extinguished.
The temperature of the flame and the capacity of the burner may be regulated by the shutter valve which varies; the amount of atmospheric secondary air coming to the flame. The adjustable member of the rich mixture passage permits of regulating the relative amount of vapor entering the rich mixture passage. y i
It will be observed that the burner shown and described not only tends to prevent the escape of unburned fuel by causing the rich mixture to flow into an area surrounded by the burning lean mixture, but also serves to provide 'extremeflexibility and permits of reducing the amount of fuel consumed to a degree only sufiicient to maintain steam pressure in a boiler of an automotlve vehicle .when no. steam is being drawn from the boiler.
From the foregoing it will seen that "I have provided a means and method where by-a heavy'rich mixture of vapors and air will be delivered to the central portion of the burner and discharged outwardly into a series of jets of a thin mixture of vapors other end in an orifice disposed centrally in v with a plurality of burner orifices, a rich and air and a volume of air fed to the zone of intermixture of these mixtures to insure complete combustion of the hydrocarbon.-
Iclaim: I, 1. In a burner, a burner body provided mixture passage communicating with some of sald orifices, a lean mixture passage communicat ng with other of said orifices, and
a nozzle adapted to deliver vaporized fuel with an induced flow of air jointly to said passages whereby a rich mixture of the vaporized fuel and air enters the rich mixture passage and a lean mixture'of the vaporized fuel and air enters the lean mixture passage. j
2. In a burner, a burner body provided with a plurality of burner orifices, a tube connecting with some of the orifices, another tube of smaller diameter disposed Within the first tube and communicating with other of the orifices, each of said tubes formed with a mouth-open to the atmosphere and concentric with each other, and a nozzle disposed opposite the concentric mouths to deliver fuel to each.
3. In a burner, a burner body provided witha plurality of burner orifices, a rich mixture passage communicating with someture passage and a portion of the vaporized.
fuel enters the lean mixture passage and induces a flow of air therewith, and means for imparting a swirling motion to a mixture issuing from all of said orifices.
4:- In a burner, a burner body provided with a plurality of burner orifices, a tube connecting with some of the orifices, another tube of smaller diameter disposed within the first tube and communicating with other of the orifices, each of said tubes formed with a mouth open to the atmosphere and concentric with each other, a nozzle disposed opposite the concentric mouths to deliver fuel to each, .and means on said burner body for imparting a swirling motion to a mixture issuing from all the orifies.
5. Ina burner, a burner body having a plurality of burner orifices and formed with an openingdisposed in the center of said body, a tube communicating with said orifices adapted to conduct a mixture of.va-- porized fuel and air to said orifices and formed with a mouth communicating with p the atmosphere, another tube disposed within said first named tube formed with a mouth communicating with the interior of the first named tube and terminating at its said opening, and' anozzle adapted to eject fuel into the mouth of said first named tube.
6. In a burner, a burner body having a plurality of burner orifices and formed with an openin disposed in the center of said body, a tu e communicating with said oriin an orifice disposed centrally in said open- I ing, a nozzle adapted to eject vaporized fuel into the mouth of said first named tube, and adjustable means disposed over the last named orifice to impart a swirling motion .to mixture issuing therefrom.
7. In a burner, a burner body havinga plurality of burner orifices and formed with an opening disposed in the center of said body, a tube communicating with said orifices adapted to conduct a mixture of vaporized fuel and air to said orifices and formed with a mouth communicating with the atmosphere, another tube disposed within said first named tube formed with a mouth communicating with the interior of the first named'tube and-terminating at its other end in an orifice disposed centrally in said opening,a nozzle adapted to eject vaporized fuel into. the mouth of said first named tube, adjustable means disposed over the last named orifice to impart a swirling motion to a mixture issuing therefrom, and
a vapor generator disposed over said burner body and communicating with said nozzle.
8. In a burner, a burner body having a plurality of burner orifices and formed with an opening disposed in the center of said body, a tube communicating with said orifices adapted to conduct a mixture of va porized fuel and air to" said orifices and formed with a mouth communicating with the atmosphere, another tube disposed within said first named tube formed with a mouth communicating with the interior of th'e'first named tube and terminating at its other end in an orifice disposed centrally in said opening, a nozzle adapted to eject fuel into the mouth of said first named tube, and a casing surrounding said burner body and adapted to convey heated air to the lower end of the opening in said burner body.
9. In a burner, a burner body having a plurality of burner orifices and formed with an opening disposed in the center of said body, a tube communicating with said orifices adapted .to conduct a mixture or vaporized fuel and air to said orifices and formed with a mouth communicating with the atmosphere, another tube disposed within said first named tube formed with a mouth communicating with the interior of the first named tube and terminating at its other end in an orifice disposed centrally in said opening, a nozzle adapted to eject vaporized fuel into the mouth of said first named tube, adjustable means disposed over the last named orifice to impart a swirling motion to mixture issuing therefrom, and a 10 casing surrounding said burner body and adapted to convey heated air to the lower end of the opening in said burner body.
10. The method of combusting hydrocarbon fuel consisting in ejecting a rich mixture of vaporized fuel and air into a relativel thin mixture of vaporized fuel and air, imparting a swirling motion to the two mixtures in a combustion zone, and igniting the commingled mixtures.
WALTER B. KERRIOK.
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