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Improvement in metallurgy gas-furnaces

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US139834A US139834DA US139834A US 139834 A US139834 A US 139834A US 139834D A US139834D A US 139834DA US 139834 A US139834 A US 139834A
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    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/02Fixed-bed gasification of lump fuel
    • C10J3/20Apparatus; Plants
    • C10J3/22Arrangements or dispositions of valves or flues
    • C10J3/24Arrangements or dispositions of valves or flues to permit flow of gases or vapours other than upwardly through the fuel bed
    • C10J3/26Arrangements or dispositions of valves or flues to permit flow of gases or vapours other than upwardly through the fuel bed downwardly
    • Y10S266/00Metallurgical apparatus
    • Y10S266/90Metal melting furnaces, e.g. cupola type




Specification forming part of Letters Patent No.

April y To all whomn zt may concern:

Be it known that I, J oHN THOMAS, of Middlesbrough, England, have invented or discovered certain new and useful Improvements in Furnaces for Generating Gas and Melting Metals 5 'and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference being had to the accompanying drawings and to the letters and figures marked thereonthat is to say:

My invention has reference to furnaces for generating gas and melting metals; and it consists in the employment of bricks with altenatingspa'ces in the gas-main chamber for separat-ing fthe dust or other foreign matter from the gas in its passage through it, and in providing said gasmain with doorways and doors for the removal of dust, and in a hopper arranged over the throat of the gasmain for introducing coals into the same.

4 Figure l of the annexed drawings is a longitudinal section of my improved furnace. Fig. 2 is an end elevation, and Fig. 3 is a plan, of the same. s

As shown in the drawing, A, Fig. l, is the body of the furnace, cased with iron e, lined with fire-brick and clay h, and supported on four columns, c. B B are water-boshes with spikes or ribs cast on them to hold up the lining of fire-resistin g material. C are tuyeres for blast. l D is a hopper for charging the furnace with material.` E E are slides for admitting the fuel, metal, land fluxes into the furnacegeneratorA, which, being opened alternately bythe gear F,wi1l prevent the escape of gas. G G are, casings around the slides to prevent the gas escaping. I is the blast-pipe from the blowingmachine, and H the stop-valve. K

t isa chimney over the top of the `generatorfurnace to carry o any gas that might escape while charging( L is a hopper with double `slidesull for introducing coals or other carbonaceous materials into the throat s for improving the quality of the gas and increasing the quantity. M is a flue for taking oif any light gases that may collect on the topof the fuel. O is the gas-mainV chamber or dust-trap illed with bricks g, with passages between' 139,834, dated yJ une 10, 1873; application filed 25, 1873.

i them for the circulation `of the gas, and provided with door-ways N N for removing :the

dling'machines or otherfurnaces with shut-ofi` valve R. S is a throat way or passage for O. T is'the tap-hole for running off the metal and slag, and U Uare the columns which slipport the gas-main.

In constructing my improved furnace I make a sound foundation of brick or stone, a, Fig. l, and on this I place a foundationplate, b. On the plate I layoneor two courses of bricks, and on the bricks I Iii'r one or more the specification of my invention for which Letters Patent of the United States were parts as is most convenient, and through them,

holes, d, for air, and also tapping-holes T to these boshes, or sidenext the re, is spiked or holding the lining. I then iix four columns, c, Figs. 1 and 3, one on each corner ofthe foui1`dation-plate. I next make the upper cas tached, which casih g may be of wrought or cast iron, and I fix the same on the water-boshes and `bolt them fast. I alsofirmly fasten four brackets, f, Fig. 3, to theoutside of the casing, which brackets bear otr and are bolted to the casing, and Venable the boshes to be repaired or replaced with new ones when necessary. I

jecting gas-main O S, to support the same. On. the gas-main and near the throat S, which connects it with the upright generator, I fix a' also fix on the gas-main the service-pipes, and in each service-pipe I iit a valve or sluice, 1t. On the top of the gas-main I apply a safetyvalve, P, for relievingany excess of pressure. At the end of the gasmain, and`near the botdust. P is a safety-valve with chimney and casing. Q, gas-main service-pipes to pudt the gas from the generator A to the dust-trap` water-boshes, B, similar to those described in l granted, dated March 8, 1870," No. 100,566. y

These water-boshes may be made in asmany u in suitable places, l form one or more blast` run out the metal and cinder. "The inside of ribbed, as seen in Fig. 1, for the purpose of ing e with a projecting gasmain branch, s, at-

columns. These columns support `the upper` also iix four other columns, U, under the pro` hopper, L, with two sliding shutters,'l l.` I v tom part, I make one or more door-ways and doors, N N, which doors are secured with a crossbar and screw, as in ordinary gas-retorts. 0n the top of the upright casing e I place a hopper, D, Fig. 1, having two sliding shutters, E E,- with levers or gears F, Fig. 1, to work them, and on the hopper I iix a chimney, K, with a door-way for charging, which chimney is to carry oif any gas that may escape through the hopper. I also form an outlet, M, under the lower sliding shutter, and iix a pipe with a valve on the top, so as to let off, when necessary, the light` gas that will accumulate in the upper part of the generator; risk of explosion is thusprevented. When I have erected the` furnace-casing e, I line the water-boshes inside on the spikes or ribs with clay or other fire-resisting material, which lining should be about two inches thick; and from the top of the water-boshes I build firebrick L up to and through to the hopper on the top of the gas-generator. I valso build re-brick all over the inside of the gas-main, and line inside the service-pipes with brick or clay. On the bottom of the gas-main I lay iron bars, (grder-shaped,) from nine inches to twelve inches high, and separate from each other so as to allow a clear space through the length of the bottom opposite the end doorways. On the iron bars I lay or build up dry bricks g, Fig. l, with spaces between the bricks for the passage of the gas, and I lill the gas-main up to or near the top with these bricks, excepting a clear space under the gas-main hopper L or in the throat S, connecting the gasniain with Vthe upright generator, and also a clear space under the service-pipes to allow the gas to go olf freely. I convey a blast of air to the furnace from any ordinary blowing-machine, and if ga's of very high temperature is` required I heat the air in its passage from the blower to the generator in any suitable stove or furnace. In the air-blast pipe I, and near the orifice or inlet to the generator or furnace I fit a sluice or valve, H, so as to regulate the quantity of the air, or to shut it off entirely. Having lined the generator melting-furnace, A, I dry the same, and I then let into the boshes B, through a pipe, sufficient water to keep them comparatively cool, which water will iiow off through the outlet or wastewater pipe. I then raise the fire in the upright generator A, and when I have charged the same with sufficient fuel, which fuel should be good sound coke, or coke and coal mixed, I charge metal and iiuxes with the fuel until the furnace or generator is full up to the under shutter of the hopper. I then close the hopper D on the top of the generator with the slide-shutters E, and I open the valves in the service-pipes. I then set on the airblast through the tuyeres C, and the gas produced bythe union of the oxygen of the air, uniting with the carbon and hydrogen of the fuel, will pass through the throat, andi through and between the spaces ofthe loose' bricks g in the gas-main O, to the service-- pipes Q, and the gas will be conveyed bytheI servicepipes to the different furnaces requiredl to be heated. I convey to each heating-furd nace, by a proper-sized pipe,a blast of air, and I so arrange the gas-pipe and the air-pipe that the gas and air shall come into contact on their entering the furnace to be heated; and if a high temperature is required I heat the air before it enters the heating-furnace. If it is necessary to enrich the gas with carbon I charge the hopper L on the gas-main with coal or other carbonaceous materials 5. I draw the upper slide l and let the charge fall onto the lower one, and I then close the .upper slide and open the lower one, when the charge will fall on the hot coke in or near the throat S, which connects the gas-generator A with the gas-main O, the heat of which will cause the gas to evolve from the carbonaceous material supplied, which will improve the quality of the gas issuing from the gas-generator and increase the quantity. As the materials sink down in the gas-generator I continue to charge more materials through the hopper D,

'and this I perform by withdrawing the upper slide-shutter and letting the charge of materials fall onto the lower one, and Aby then closing the upper one and opening the lower one so as to allow the charge to fall into the gas-generator. This I perform regularly, so as to keep the generator nearly full. Then there is sufficient metal I tap and run it out into a converting-furnace, which metal may be converted into iron or steel, as may be required. The water-boshes protect the lining on the lower part of the generator from being burnt or melted away, and will keep the inside in proper form for a considerable time. The loose bricks in the gasmaiu, which are-set apart from each other forthe passage of the gas, are so placed that the current of gas may strike against them, and that the dust and ashes blown from the generator, by striking against the bricks, will fall to the bottom of the gas-main between the girder-shaped iron bars, from which they may, from time to time, be cleaned out through the door-ways N N.

The bricks also keep the gas hot. The melting of the metal and fluxes in the gas-generator dissolves the cinder deposit from the fuel; which cinder will combine with the fluxes in a liquid state, and can be run off as may be required, thus keeping the bottom clear from obstructions, (accumulation of solid cinder having hitherto been a hindrance to the successful workin g of this description of furnace,) and also, at the same time, melting the metal for the converting-furnaces, which will save the time and cost of melting in other furnaces.

What I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-..

1. like bricks g, in combination with the gas In witness whereof I, the said JOHN THOMAS, main chamber O, substantially as and for have hereunto set my-hand this twentynnth the par?. se `herein set forth. day of November, one thousand eight hundred Ingncombination with the gas-main O, and seventy-two. provided"with the bricks g g, the door-ways N` ,t and. doors` arranged substantially as and for JOHN THOMAS. the purpo'gei herein set forth. 1

3; The hopper L r` equiyalent, arranged Witnessessover the throat of the gas-main for introducing I. C. MEWZBU'Ii,` goals or other carbonaceous material` thereto, GEO. BACON, tlbtlltillyl as Set forth. 169 I leet street, London.

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20030139834A1 (en) * 2000-02-17 2003-07-24 Align Technology, Inc. Efficient data representation of teeth model

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20030139834A1 (en) * 2000-02-17 2003-07-24 Align Technology, Inc. Efficient data representation of teeth model

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