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US1176541A - Process of electrolysis. - Google Patents

Process of electrolysis. Download PDF

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Publication number
US1176541A
US1176541A US1913797259A US1176541A US 1176541 A US1176541 A US 1176541A US 1913797259 A US1913797259 A US 1913797259A US 1176541 A US1176541 A US 1176541A
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Prior art keywords
cathode
diaphragm
electrolysis
process
cell
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
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Arthur E Gibbs
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PENNSYLVANIA SALT MANUFACTURING Co
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PENNSYLVANIA SALT Manufacturing CO
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25BELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COMPOUNDS OR NON-METALS; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25B1/00Electrolytic production of inorganic compounds or non-metals
    • C25B1/34Simultaneous production of alkali metal hydroxides and chlorine, its oxyacids or salts
    • C25B1/46Simultaneous production of alkali metal hydroxides and chlorine, its oxyacids or salts in diaphragm cells
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/46Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
    • C02F1/461Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrolysis
    • C02F1/46104Devices therefor; Their operating or servicing

Description

A. E. GIBBS.

moczss 0F ELECTROLYSIS. APPLICATION FILED OCT. 25, I913.

Patented Mar. 21, 1916.

2 SHEETS-SHEET I.

'rlirrul'unul W ITNESSES INVENTOR 1/. L M/J {Magi A. E. GIBBS.

PROCESS OF ELECTROLYSIS.

APPLICATION man OCT-25. I9l3.

Patented Man. 21, 1916.

2 SHEETSSHEEF 2.

INVENTOR Z. @244 OL/QM 7 fla e WITNESSES UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

ARTHUR E. GIBBS, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO PENNSYLVANIA SALT MANUFACTUBIN G COMPANY, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, A CORPO- RATION OF PENNSYLVANIA.

PROCESS OF ELECTROLYSIS.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, ARTHUR E. Gums, a subject of the King of Great Britain, and a resident of Philadelphia, in the county of Philadelphia and State of Pennsylvania, have invented a new and useful Improvement in the Process of Electrolysis, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, forming part of this specification, in which- Figures 1 and 2 are vertical sections of two different forms of electrolytic cell embodying the features of my invention: Fig. 3 is a partial section on the line IIIIII of Fig. 2, but on a larger scale; and Figs. 4, 5,

6 and 7 are detail sectional views herein after more fully described.

My invention relates to an improved process of electrolysis, which has heretofore been carried out by the use of cells of the type shown in my Patent No. 874.064 of Decemher 17th, 1907. In cells of this type, which are arranged for wet electrolysis, such as the electrolysis of alkaline chlorids. there is employed ,a metallic cathode, together with a diaphragm of permeable material, the cathode having projections embedded or partiallly embedded in said diaphragm.

One object of my present invention is to provide an improved process of electrolysis, which will permit the flow of the electrolyte from the interior of the cell into contact with a surface of the cathode, upon which caustic soda is formed in the action of the cell. This flow is independent and additional to that permeating the diaphragm, and provides for washing the surface of the cathode over which it flows to remove the products of electrolysis. The permeable diaphragin of these cells in the course of time tends to become choked or clogged, thereby restricting the permeation therethrough, and

interfering with the proper action of the cell. In such cases this impermea'bility can be in part overcome by the provision of the passages above referred to and which provide for flow of the electrolyte independently of and additional to that through the interstices of the diaphragm.

Referring first to the form of apparatus for carrying out my invention which is shown in Figs. 1, 4 and 5, the numeral 2' Specification of Letters Patent.

Application filed October 25, 1913. Serial No. 797,259.

designates a bottom member of resistant material; 3 designates the cathode member, and 4 the permeable diaphragm within the cathode member. In these figures, I have shown a cathode member and diaphragm,

which are in general similar to that shown in Figs. 1 a'nd2 of my said patent, the cathode member being provided with a plurality of holes or perforations formedby punching. These punched or inset portions of the cathode which surround the holes are embedded in the material of the diaphragm. The cathode member and diaphragm are held at the bottom by an annular clamping band 5 placed around the bottom member 2; and at the upper end by a similar clamping member 6 surrounding a depending flange 7 of a top' ring 8, which seats upon the upper end of the cathode and diaphragm and upon the clamping band 6. The anode preferably consists of a series of carbon rods 9 arranged in annular form and projecting through the dome 10, which may rest upon an annular recess in the top ring 8. The positive wire of the connections leads to this anode, whilethe negative wire leads to the cathode. The dome is shown as provided with a gas outlet 11, and also with a ring or suspending device 12, which may be engaged by a crane or hoisting device to lift out the anode. Through the upper portion of the diaphragm I form a series of holes or passages 13., these being located at about the highest level of the electrolyte at which the cell can be operated. 14 designates an inlet pipe for feeding the solution into a vertically adjustable feeding cup 15. 16 is a pipe for conveyingthe solution from the cup 15 into the anode chamber. 17 designates a suitable pan or vessel within which the lower portion of the cell is placed and which serves to catch the cathode products. This pan is provided with an outlet pipe 18. The feeding cup 15 is provided with an overflow pipe 19, which serves to maintain a substantially constant level in the cup and also in the cell.

In carryingout the process, the solution to be treated is fed into the cup 15 at a faster rate than it 'is-passed through the cell. The overflow feeds out through .the pipe 19, and the solution feeds into the anode compartment of the cell through the pipe 16. By adjusting the height of the cup 15 I can adjust the feed so as to give the best efficiency at different stages of the life of the cell. wardly through the permeable diaphragm, in the treatment of alkaline chlorids, the caustic forms upon the projections or points of the cathode, the bulk of electrolysis taking place at these points or projections. As'

the caustic is formed, the flow of electrolyte carries it outwardly through the holes in the cathode and out of the region of electrolytic action. As above stated, however, in use the diaphragm tends to become clogged or choked, so that the proper quan tity of the electrolyte does not permeate through the same. In such cases the caustic is not carried away as rapidly as it is formed and becomes decomposed, thus lowering the efliciency of .the cell. My present invention overcomes this defect, in that the provision of the perforations 13 in the upper portion of the diaphragm forms a means for conducting electrolyte to the outer surface of the cathode over which it flows, thus constantly washing away any deposit of the caustic.

In the form 'of my invention shown in Figs. 2, 3, 6 and 7, the cathode is composed of the series of segments 20 fitted together to form a complete cylinder and held in place by the top and bottom clamping rings- 21 and 22. The segments 20 may be in the form of castings, thus giving a strong and durable construction. The inner 'faces of the segments are vertically corrugated as indicated at 23, thus forming a multiplicity of vertical channels between the cathode and the diaphragm, these channels being parcan be made in the details of construction and arrangement of the various parts within the scope of the appended claims. Thus, instead of forming perforations through the diaphragm to lead the electrolyte to a surface of the cathode, I may provide any As the solution passes outother suitable passage or passages forthat purpose.

The advantages of my invention result from the provision of a process of electrolysis in which the life and efficiency of the cell are increased by constantly permitting some of the electrolyte to flow from the anode compartment to the cathode compartment, to wash the products of electrolysis from the surface of the cathode.

I claim:

1. 'The process of electrolysis, which comprises maintaining constant freedom of communication betweenthe anode and cathode compartments, and a constant flow of liquid across the electrolytic field within a space between the cathode and the porous diaphragm.

2. The process of electrolysis, which comprises maintaining a constant pressure on the electrolyte in the anode compartment, and a flow of liquid across the electrolytic field within a space between the porous diaphragm and the cathode, with a constant discharge of the cathode liquor.

3. The process of electrolysis, which comprises constantly feeding in electrolyte into the anode compartment, in by-passing a portion of the electrolyte around the porous diaphragm, and in maintaining a flow of the liquid across the electrolytic field from the point of said bypass with a constant discharge of the cathode liquor.

4. The process of electrolysis, which comprises fiowing the liquid across the electrolytic field within a space between the diaphragm and the cathode.

5. The process of electrolysis, which comprises flowing the liquid across the electrolytic field in thin sheets within a space between the diaphragm and the cathode.

6. The process of electrolysis, which comprises fiowing the liquid across the electrolytic field downward within a space between the diaphragm and the cathode.

7. The process of electrolysis, which consists in maintaining a flow of the electrolyte from the anode compartment of the cell to a surface of the cathode, independent of the permeation through the diaphragm, thereby removing the products of electrolysis from such surface.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand.

1 ARTHUR E. GIBBS. Witnesses:

G. E. GoLLor, E. A. WILSON.

US1176541A 1913-10-25 1913-10-25 Process of electrolysis. Expired - Lifetime US1176541A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2636851A (en) * 1949-07-09 1953-04-28 Ionics Ion-exchange materials and method of making and using the same
US3471382A (en) * 1966-12-01 1969-10-07 Hooker Chemical Corp Method for improving the operation of chloro-alkali diaphragm cells and apparatus therefor
US3767558A (en) * 1971-01-25 1973-10-23 Ainsley Park Ind Ltd Silver recovery system

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2636851A (en) * 1949-07-09 1953-04-28 Ionics Ion-exchange materials and method of making and using the same
US3471382A (en) * 1966-12-01 1969-10-07 Hooker Chemical Corp Method for improving the operation of chloro-alkali diaphragm cells and apparatus therefor
US3767558A (en) * 1971-01-25 1973-10-23 Ainsley Park Ind Ltd Silver recovery system

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