US1061484A - Airship. - Google Patents

Airship. Download PDF


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US1061484A US55387010A US1910553870A US1061484A US 1061484 A US1061484 A US 1061484A US 55387010 A US55387010 A US 55387010A US 1910553870 A US1910553870 A US 1910553870A US 1061484 A US1061484 A US 1061484A
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Thaddeus S C Lowe
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Thaddeus S C Lowe
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    • B64B1/00Lighter-than-air aircraft


Patented May 13, 1913.
T. S. C. LOWE.
1,061,484. Patented May13,1913.
UNITED sTArns rrrrnnr OFFICE.
To all whom t may concern Be it known that I, THADDEUS S. C. Lows, a citizen of the United States, residing'at Los Angeles, in the county of Los Angeles and State of California, have invented a new and useful Airship, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to the class of air ships that is dependent uponthe use of a medium lighterl than air 4contained in a suitable envelop for suspension of the ship in the atmosphere.
The main object of the present invention is to provide an air ship of this character having maximum lifting effect for a given weight and dimensions. For lightness, the envelop for the gas or medium lighter than air is made of light fabric, such as silk, contained in a suitable netting carrying the weight to be suspended, said envelop being distended by the pressure of the gas contained therein. The greatest contained volume for a given weight of such material and also the greatest strength and stability of form is presented by a globular or spherical envelop and my invention is directed partly to the utilization of such an envelop in such manner as not to interfere with the speed and stability of the vessel when used as a dirigible balloon oras a self-propelled air ship. In order to decrease the resistance of the air to self-propelled air ships, the same have generally been made of elongated form, butrsuch construction introduces difiiculty in maintaining the shape of the envelop, necessitating special bracing and also an unsafe and wasteful compression of the gasl in order to produce the requisite distension of the envelop.
Another object of the invention is to provide an air ship construction of the lighter-than-air type which will be stable or capable of maintaining its shape under the conditions of wind pressure actually occurring 1n practice.
A further object of the invention is to provide for maintaining operative condition of the envelop or gas envelop of the machine under varying conditions of atmospheric pressure, for example, under considerable variations in height, such as will occur in practice. Owing to variations in height of the ship or balloon and also varia- Specifcation of Letters Patent.4
Application led April 6, 1910. Serial No. 553,870.
Patented May t3, 1913.
tions in temperature of the gas therein due to effect of the suns rays, etc., there is liable to be great variation in the volume occupied by a given amount of gas, for example, in order to go three and seventenths miles above sea level in a balloon without the loss of gas, the gas envelo or holder' must not be inflated beyond one-half olf its capacity at sea level, the atmospheric pressure at the height aforesaid being onehalf of that at sea level. Consequently it is necessary that the gas envelop should not be completely filled, and as a consequence the lower portion ofthe gas envelo not being distend'ed', is loose and in a co lapsed form and` liable to he pushed above by the air currents in a manner that is detrimental to steady and rapid progression of the ship through the air, irregularity of form of this lower portion of the gas en- A velop and the irregular movements thereof increasing the frictional resistance. In this connection my invention is directed to providing a smooth exterior to the lower portion of thegas envelop irrespective of the amount of distention of the gas envelop itself. lor this purpose I provide an outer casing in the form of an inverted cone attached to the gas envelopr at its upper end and to a concentrating ring at its lower end.
A further object of the invention is to dispense with the necessity of discharging' either ballast or gas in providing for the usual raising or lowering of the air ship in the atmosphere.
Another object of the invention is to provide in connection with such an air ship, means for facilitating its use by the occupants :for prolonged periods by providing the requisite facilities for cooking, heating, etc.
A `further object of the invention is to provide improved means for carrying the fuel for propulsion of the air ship and for utilizing such carrying means, for holding ballast after the fuel is exhausted therefrom.
A further object of the invention is to provide means for utilization of electricity l collected from the atmosphere in the movement of the vessel.
Another object of the invention is to provide for the carrying away ofsueh elecless' telegraph apparatus in connection with y' the air ship.
Another object of the invention is to pro-` vide an air ship with a car or passenger vessel adapted to travel on the water in case the ship should descend into a body of water,
A which lnot only isimportant as a safeguard in case of accident but also extends the range of usefulness of 'such' a ship in enabling it to travel either upon the water or in the air, as desired.
Another tobj ect of the invention is to provide means whereby the air ship can be used to advantage in fishing operations.
A further object of the invention is to provide improved means for anchoring the airship while overbodies of water. y
' @ther objects of the invention ,will appear hereinafter.
The accompanying drawings illustrate the invention, and referring thereto: Figure 1 isa side elevationv of the air ship.' Fig. 2 is a detail section of. one of the combined fuel and ballast tanks. Fig. 3 is a longitudinal,
vertical section through` the lower portion of the air ship showing the internal'construction Aof the passenger carrier or vessel. Fig. 4 is a perspectiveshowing the use of the air ship and the apparatus carried thereby for the production of rain. Fig. t3 is a side elevation showing thel application of theinvention in connection with fishing operations. 4Fig. -6 isja diagrammatic view showing the system of electrical conductors for collectingatmospheric electricity. lig. 7 is a vertical section of the heating and cooking means. Fig. 8 is a vertical section j of the valve for release of gas from the gas envelop.
'l designates the gas'envelop or body of the balloon or envelop which may have a tapering or funnel-shaped lower portion 1 and is provided with an inclosing netting 2 from which the passenger vessel 3 is suspended by fiexible suspension means {inconnected to or passing through a concentrating ri g 5 drawing them relatively close together and extending downwardly there# from for connection to the top of the vessel 3. The valve shown in Fig. 9 is provided at the top of the gas envelop consistingV of a cup-shaped member 8 lof wood or aluminum normally held against the Seat 9 by springs 9', said valvemember being slidably mount-4 ed by arod 15 working in a fixed guidegon said seat,` and said seat having ports 9 covered by a protecting dome 16, a cord 8 v as a whole. y formed with a hull portion 7 adapted to ride 1on or float in water and means are provided the water.
being connected to said valve member 8 and extending down to the vessel 3 for con venient operation of said valve when it is desired to allow escape of gasr from the envelop.
All the above described parts of the valve are preferably made of wood or aluminum for the sake of lightness.
A protecting casing' 6 of sail cloth or light canvas in the form of an inverted cone is at'- ytached at its upper end to the netting 2 somewhat below the greatest diameter of the balloon and extends downwardly around or in contact with the flexible suspension means 4 nearlyto the contracting ring 5 soas to present a substantially smooth and regular surface on the outside and leaving the neck or funnel portion 1 of the gas envelop free to collapse, as indicated in Fig. 3, while preserving the regular contour of the envelop The vessel 3 is preferably whereby said vessel may be propelled either by action on the atmosphere or by action on The atmospheric propelling means may consist of a propeller or fan 10 mounted on a shaftll extending longitudinally of the vessel and journaled in bearings thereon, said shaft being,for example, connected to be driven` directly by an engine 12 which may be anI-internal combustion engine.
Anotherv propellerv 13 may be provided mounted on a shaft 14C having universal joint connection with shaft 11 aforesaid and adapted to either swing into horizontal 'or vertical position, whereby said propeller or fan 13 may be used either for forward propulsion or for raising or lowering 'the vessel'. ln order to propel the vessel` in water,
a' supplementary propeller 17 may be provided mounted on a shaft 18 driven by a supplementary engine y19 or if desired by a belt connection 20 with the shaft 11 aforesaid. 'lhe vessel 3 is shown as comprising 'several stories or decks 21, 22, 23, the upper deck being, for example, an observation deck, the next deck 22 being used as a living room,l the lower deck 23,'being used as a smoking room, stairways, indicated v at' 26, j
being provided between the several decks. rlFhe main deck 21 may be extended beyond thehdusing 25 inclosing the cabin. A rudder 27 in the fo-rm` of a sail is provided at the rear end of the vessel 3 above the upper deck 23, said rudder being pivotally supported on a mast 27 and connected to the tiller or pilot wheel-28, this upper deck being preferably used as an instrument room and pilot room, and being partially covered by the conical casing 4 provided with port holes or openings 4 Means areprovided for maintaining sub-- stantially Aconstant the bulk of gas containedI in the gas envelop liirrespective of the variations in external or in internal temperagas engine extends into said casing and an outlet 38 is provided therefrom so that the said exhaust may be caused to traverse said casing to heat the coil 33 in such manner as to warm the gases taken from and returned to the gas envelop 1 to compensate for cooling of thesaid gas by reason of exposure to external cold or to compensate for decreased volume thereof by increase of external pres-` sure as in descending to a comparatively low level. It is also desirable to provide for cooling the gas within the gas envelop, for
I example, in case the same is subjected to undue heating by the solar rays or other cause. For this purpose a blower or exhaust `indicated at 40 is ,provided driven by suitable driving connections 41, and adapted to force or draw air 'through thecasing 34 to cool the contents of the coil 33 therein so as to maintain a substantially constant temperature in the contents of the gas envelop irrespective of the exposure of said envelop to such heating influences. A valve 42 may be provided for turning oil' the exhaust coI i nectfion to the casing 34 when said casing n to'be used for cooling the gas as stated. 1 An exhaust connection 43 may also be `made to a casing 44 (see Fig. 7 having an asbestos vlining 45 and'provide with an outer con nection 46 and with a movable cover 47, said casing being adapted to be used as a cooking land heating stove.
f cooling the gas in the envelop directly, the
same eHect may beproduced by heating or cooling the air in the space between the lower i extension 1 of the gas envelop and the outer casing 6, communicating means for this purpose being indicated at 30 in dotted lines in Fig. l3.
The invention further provides an improvedfuel storage means consisting of one or more vessels or tanks indicated at 48 in Fig. 2 adapted to contain liquid fuel, said ,tank being provided with an outer pipe or -f connection 50 extending to the lower portion thereof and' connected-by a flexible pipe 51 with the fuel supply means for the 'engines 12 and 19, another flexible pipe 53 bei lconnected toen-inlet 54 at the top of' saisd tank whereby compressed air may be forced into saidtank to force the liquidi' fuel, for example, gasolene, out 'from the tank 48 and to the fuel supply means for the engine.
rSaid tanks 48 aresuspended by `means wof Instead of heating or.
flexible suspensions orcables 55 whereby the same may be lowered into a body of water, in caseA the vessel is passing over such a body, to relieve the vessel of the weight of the fuel. The tank 43` is also preferably provided with an inlet valve 56 inits bot tom held to closed position `by a spring 57,
a screw cap 58 being provided to tightly I close this inlet connection when the tank is used for fuel. 'When the tank 48 has been exhausted of fuel, said screw cap may be removed therefronuand by then lowering the tank into a body of water, a valve 56 is caused to open allowin the tank to be filled with water which may e used as ballast for the vessel and for any other purpose desired.
Means are provided for collecting atmospheric electricity generated by the movement of the vessel through the air or by the`r` i contact of the vesselwitha highly charged portion of the atmosphere, for example, the clouds, such means comprising conductors in the form of tine Wires 60 (see Fig. 5) extending from the concentratingring 5 upwardly along the cone portion 6, said con' ductors being connected by a wire 61 to the storage battery 62, the other side of which is connected by a Wire 63 depending from the vessel to make contact with the earth 'or with a lower stratum of the 'atfnos here, said wire 63 being preferably provide with a brush or antennae 64 at its lower end, whereby the electric energy absorbed by the conductors GO from the atmosphere is stored in the battery 62 and may be utilized for lighting or other purposes. The. electricit so generated or collected may also 4 be utilized for the production of rain, as 'indicated at Fig. 4, where 66 indicates a con-x` ductor suspended from the vessel and connected to a spark gap means 67. The other electrode is connected byfa connector 6 8 ,to a grounding brush -or means 69 whereby sparks or electrical discharges of high tension may be produced in a'cloud or stratum of considerable humidity for producing precipitation.
The invention further comprises a wireless telegraph equipment, the antennae of which are indicated at 70, one end thereof being connected to the vessel 3 and the other end to the cone portion 6, thereby utilizing the structure of the cone in place of a mast, said antennae bein connected to the usual sendin and receiving apparatus, not shown.
As s own in Fig. 6, the air ship'may be used in fishing o erations bythe provision of a `fishing netindicated at 73 suspended from the vessel 3 by means of a cable 74 extending to vthe forward end-of thenet and al cable 75 extending to the rear end thereof, said net being funnelshaped or forwardly flaringso that as it is drawn through the water the fish will be caught therein.` In this lconnection Ythe use of an airship passllO ing at a considerable heightover the water has the advantage over a vessel immersed in the water for the reason that by reason of said height and ofthe lack of disturbance of the surface of the water, it is possible for persons in the air ship tol detect the presence of iishat a considerablev distance belowI the water so as to utilizeithe net inthe most advantageous manner.
lIn place of the net shown at 73 in Fig. 6,
a bag of' canvas orother suitable material?h may be used of similar form to the net'and' serving to receive tlie water lwhen it is im- 1 mersed therein? thereby anchoring the shipV imposition bythe resistance of a bag to lloe drawn through thefwater. When it is ide? sired to weigh' anchor, the rearfend of said bag will be raised by drawing onthesrearcajble,v the' forward cable 74 beingfslafcked at the same time, so thatrthe'bagi is emptied of water and rises readily from' the surface. fr'
A dynamoindicated at 76 mayr be zprovided or chargingthe storage battery' A62 aforesaid and for furnishing electricity for'v light and power where required. The anterinee for the electrical receiving and discharging conductors may consist of ametalv cable having, its endsv expanded by" being frayed ,out,' as shown.
Several of the ue'l'tankslled with water.
:tor ballast may be suspended from the air ship at dierent elevations, so as to bev picked up successively; from a body of water, and
' thereby maintaining the shipy ata definite" 'sai'dspherical portion and'eirtending down* wardly therefrom in the form bf an inverted cone. I 2;'An air ship comprisinoa a gas envelop having its' upper portion sphericaly in form and a tapering downward extension thereiigoergiree trating ring, at the lower end of said cone and a vessel suspended tromv saidcim'centrating ring. y
' 3.' An air'ship Vcomprising a gasl envelop tand a tapering downward extension therespherical portion and-extending downwardly cordage. an engine, f0.1; .prrellns Said vessel.l and'` Jrr'leansll for conducting lthe heated exhaust 'gases from Lsaid. engine into the space tion of the gas. envelop.
4'. Anali' ship compr1sing afga/s'envelop cured 'to' s aid gas envelop at" the i lower "part dbwnwardly therefrom in the orm of anin# "terted v5cone; said dexible casing being pro` vided withV exible suspending means; a vesselv'suspended from the' said suspending 'Ineans'9 a gas engineffor propelling said ves:n sel, aC heater provided with a connection'tol atmospheric' supply -connection whereby a from the gas engine exhaust, and mear 1 s for :forcing such heatedy atmosphere vinto' 'the rlrl. Y
`v 30th day of Marchilllo.
Iflu-'presence ottl ARTHR PXK'IGHT,
'from' and al protecting Hexible casing' Secured! to saidgas envelop orf nettingcovering' the same atthe lower part of said spherical girv tion andextending` downwardly there om in the form of an inverted cone', aeonceih betweensaid'casihg andthe' dependingl porhaving its upperportion spherical in form,y and a'fta'peringdownwardextension there lf rorrn 'and a protecting flexible 'ca.sing f se offfsaid 'spherical 'portion a d'1 extendinglthe exhaust' of saidgasengine and with an4 space loetween'said casing and the V"gasl 'en- 'manner-Is sf crown having its upper portion spherical in orm y from'and la protecting flexible casing-secured to'said gas envelop atthe lower 'part of sald therefrom in the form of'an inverted"` cone, A a vesselsuspended fromf said coneeshaped quantity of atmosphere sfhe'ated' by thheat 'in-testimonywhsrar i have my hand at LosAng'eles, California;` this-
US55387010A 1910-04-06 1910-04-06 Airship. Expired - Lifetime US1061484A (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3120932A (en) * 1960-11-14 1964-02-11 Stahmer Bernhardt Jet-balloon aircraft
US3174705A (en) * 1959-05-18 1965-03-23 Raytheon Co Space station and system for operating same
US3834655A (en) * 1973-03-26 1974-09-10 Us Air Force Tethered balloon refueling system
US4022404A (en) * 1975-10-22 1977-05-10 The Boeing Company Upper deck main galley in a three deck, wide-bodied passenger airplane
US5645248A (en) * 1994-08-15 1997-07-08 Campbell; J. Scott Lighter than air sphere or spheroid having an aperture and pathway
US6019311A (en) * 1998-02-17 2000-02-01 Thyen; Christopher D. Airship with sails
US20120126052A1 (en) * 2010-11-22 2012-05-24 Hideyo Murakami Flight device

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3174705A (en) * 1959-05-18 1965-03-23 Raytheon Co Space station and system for operating same
US3120932A (en) * 1960-11-14 1964-02-11 Stahmer Bernhardt Jet-balloon aircraft
US3834655A (en) * 1973-03-26 1974-09-10 Us Air Force Tethered balloon refueling system
US4022404A (en) * 1975-10-22 1977-05-10 The Boeing Company Upper deck main galley in a three deck, wide-bodied passenger airplane
US5645248A (en) * 1994-08-15 1997-07-08 Campbell; J. Scott Lighter than air sphere or spheroid having an aperture and pathway
US6019311A (en) * 1998-02-17 2000-02-01 Thyen; Christopher D. Airship with sails
US20120126052A1 (en) * 2010-11-22 2012-05-24 Hideyo Murakami Flight device

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