US10213652B2 - Dimple patterns for golf balls - Google Patents

Dimple patterns for golf balls Download PDF

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US10213652B2
US10213652B2 US15/848,070 US201715848070A US10213652B2 US 10213652 B2 US10213652 B2 US 10213652B2 US 201715848070 A US201715848070 A US 201715848070A US 10213652 B2 US10213652 B2 US 10213652B2
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domain
dimples
golf ball
dimple
domains
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US20180133557A1 (en
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Michael R. Madson
Nicholas M. Nardacci
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Acushnet Co
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Acushnet Co
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Priority to US12/262,464 priority Critical patent/US8029388B2/en
Priority to US12/894,827 priority patent/US20110021292A1/en
Priority to US13/973,237 priority patent/US9468810B2/en
Priority to US15/242,117 priority patent/US9901781B2/en
Priority to US15/242,172 priority patent/US9833664B2/en
Priority to US15/379,559 priority patent/US9855465B2/en
Priority to US15/848,070 priority patent/US10213652B2/en
Assigned to ACUSHNET COMPANY reassignment ACUSHNET COMPANY ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: MADSON, MICHAEL R., NARDACCI, NICHOLAS M.
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Publication of US20180133557A1 publication Critical patent/US20180133557A1/en
Priority claimed from US16/132,951 external-priority patent/US20190015707A1/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B37/00Solid balls; Rigid hollow balls; Marbles
    • A63B37/0003Golf balls
    • A63B37/0004Surface depressions or protrusions
    • A63B37/0006Arrangement or layout of dimples
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B37/00Solid balls; Rigid hollow balls; Marbles
    • A63B37/0003Golf balls
    • A63B37/0004Surface depressions or protrusions
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B37/00Solid balls; Rigid hollow balls; Marbles
    • A63B37/0003Golf balls
    • A63B37/0004Surface depressions or protrusions
    • A63B37/0007Non-circular dimples
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B37/00Solid balls; Rigid hollow balls; Marbles
    • A63B37/0003Golf balls
    • A63B37/0004Surface depressions or protrusions
    • A63B37/0012Dimple profile, i.e. cross-sectional view
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B37/00Solid balls; Rigid hollow balls; Marbles
    • A63B37/0003Golf balls
    • A63B37/0004Surface depressions or protrusions
    • A63B37/0018Specified number of dimples
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B37/00Solid balls; Rigid hollow balls; Marbles
    • A63B37/0003Golf balls
    • A63B37/0004Surface depressions or protrusions
    • A63B37/002Specified dimple diameter

Abstract

The present invention provides a method for arranging dimples on a golf ball surface in which the dimples are arranged in a pattern derived from at least one irregular domain generated from a regular or non-regular polyhedron. The method includes choosing control points of a polyhedron, generating an irregular domain based on those control points, packing the irregular domain with dimples, and tessellating the irregular domain to cover the surface of the golf ball. The control points include the center of a polyhedral face, a vertex of the polyhedron, a midpoint or other point on an edge of the polyhedron and others. The method ensures that the symmetry of the underlying polyhedron is preserved while minimizing or eliminating great circles due to parting lines.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/379,559, filed Dec. 15, 2016, the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference.

The parent application, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/379,559, is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/242,117, filed Aug. 19, 2016, and also a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/242,172, filed Aug. 19, 2016. Each of the parent application Ser. Nos. 15/242,117 and 15/242,172 is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/973,237, filed Aug. 22, 2013, now U.S. Pat. No. 9,468,810, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/894,827, filed Sep. 30, 2010, now abandoned, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/262,464, filed Oct. 31, 2008, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,029,388. The entire disclosure of each of these applications is hereby incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to golf balls, particularly to golf balls possessing uniquely packed dimple patterns. More particularly, the invention relates to methods of arranging dimples on a golf ball by generating irregular domains based on polyhedrons, packing the irregular domains with dimples, and tessellating the domains onto the surface of the golf ball.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Historically, dimple patterns for golf balls have had a variety of geometric shapes, patterns, and configurations. Primarily, patterns are laid out in order to provide desired performance characteristics based on the particular ball construction, material attributes, and player characteristics influencing the ball's initial launch angle and spin conditions. Therefore, pattern development is a secondary design step that is used to achieve the appropriate aerodynamic behavior, thereby tailoring ball flight characteristics and performance.

Aerodynamic forces generated by a ball in flight are a result of its velocity and spin. These forces can be represented by a lift force and a drag force. Lift force is perpendicular to the direction of flight and is a result of air velocity differences above and below the rotating ball. This phenomenon is attributed to Magnus, who described it in 1853 after studying the aerodynamic forces on spinning spheres and cylinders, and is described by Bernoulli's Equation, a simplification of the first law of thermodynamics. Bernoulli's equation relates pressure and velocity where pressure is inversely proportional to the square of velocity. The velocity differential, due to faster moving air on top and slower moving air on the bottom, results in lower air pressure on top and an upward directed force on the ball.

Drag is opposite in sense to the direction of flight and orthogonal to lift. The drag force on a ball is attributed to parasitic drag forces, which consist of pressure drag and viscous or skin friction drag. A sphere is a bluff body, which is an inefficient aerodynamic shape. As a result, the accelerating flow field around the ball causes a large pressure differential with high-pressure forward and low-pressure behind the ball. The low pressure area behind the ball is also known as the wake. In order to minimize pressure drag, dimples provide a means to energize the flow field and delay the separation of flow, or reduce the wake region behind the ball. Skin friction is a viscous effect residing close to the surface of the ball within the boundary layer.

The industry has seen many efforts to maximize the aerodynamic efficiency of golf balls, through dimple disturbance and other methods, though they are closely controlled by golf's national governing body, the United States Golf Association (U.S.G.A.). One U.S.G.A. requirement is that golf balls have aerodynamic symmetry. Aerodynamic symmetry allows the ball to fly with a very small amount of variation no matter how the golf ball is placed on the tee or ground. Preferably, dimples cover the maximum surface area of the golf ball without detrimentally affecting the aerodynamic symmetry of the golf ball.

In attempts to improve aerodynamic symmetry, many dimple patterns are based on geometric shapes. These may include circles, hexagons, triangles, and the like. Other dimple patterns are based in general on the five Platonic Solids including icosahedron, dodecahedron, octahedron, cube, or tetrahedron. Yet other dimple patterns are based on the thirteen Archimedian Solids, such as the small icosidodecahedron, rhomicosidodecahedron, small rhombicuboctahedron, snub cube, snub dodecahedron, or truncated icosahedron. Furthermore, other dimple patterns are based on hexagonal dipyramids. Because the number of symmetric solid plane systems is limited, it is difficult to devise new symmetric patterns. Moreover, dimple patterns based some of these geometric shapes result in less than optimal surface coverage and other disadvantageous dimple arrangements. Therefore, dimple properties such as number, shape, size, volume, and arrangement are often manipulated in an attempt to generate a golf ball that has improved aerodynamic properties.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,562,552 to Thurman discloses a golf ball with an icosahedral dimple pattern, wherein each triangular face of the icosahedron is split by a three straight lines which each bisect a corner of the face to form 3 triangular faces for each icosahedral face, wherein the dimples are arranged consistently on the icosahedral faces.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,046,742 to Mackey discloses a golf ball with dimples packed into a 32-sided polyhedron composed of hexagons and pentagons, wherein the dimple packing is the same in each hexagon and in each pentagon.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,998,733 to Lee discloses a golf ball formed of ten “spherical” hexagons each split into six equilateral triangles, wherein each triangle is split by a bisecting line extending between a vertex of the triangle and the midpoint of the side opposite the vertex, and the bisecting lines are oriented to achieve improved symmetry.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,682,442 to Winfield discloses the use of polygons as packing elements for dimples to introduce predictable variance into the dimple pattern. The polygons extend from the poles of the ball to a parting line. Any space not filled with dimples from the polygons is filled with other dimples.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In one embodiment, the present invention is directed to a golf ball having an outer surface comprising a parting line and a plurality of dimples. The dimples are arranged in multiple copies of one or more irregular domain(s) covering the outer surface in a uniform pattern. The irregular domain(s) are defined by non-straight segments, and one of the non-straight segments of each of the multiple copies of the irregular domain(s) forms a portion of the parting line.

In another embodiment, the present invention is directed to a method for arranging a plurality of dimples on a golf ball surface. The method comprises generating a first and a second irregular domain based on a tetrahedron using a midpoint to midpoint method, mapping the first and second irregular domains onto a sphere, packing the first and second irregular domains with dimples, and tessellating the first and second domains to cover the sphere in a uniform pattern. The midpoint to midpoint method comprises providing a single face of the tetrahedron, the face comprising a first edge connected to a second edge at a vertex; connecting the midpoint of the first edge with the midpoint of the second edge with a non-straight segment; rotating copies of the segment about the center of the face such that the segment and the copies fully surround the center and form the first irregular domain bounded by the segment and the copies; and rotating subsequent copies of the segment about the vertex such that the segment and the subsequent copies fully surround the vertex and form the second irregular domain bounded by the segment and the subsequent copies.

In another embodiment, the present invention is directed to a golf ball having an outer surface comprising a plurality of dimples, wherein the dimples are arranged by a method comprising generating a first and a second irregular domain based on a tetrahedron using a midpoint to midpoint method, mapping the first and second irregular domains onto a sphere, packing the first and second irregular domains with dimples, and tessellating the first and second domains to cover the sphere in a uniform pattern.

In another embodiment, the present invention is directed to a golf ball having an outer surface comprising a plurality of dimples disposed thereon, wherein the dimples are arranged in multiple copies of a first domain and a second domain, the first domain and the second domain being tessellated to cover the outer surface of the golf ball in a uniform pattern having no great circles and consisting of an equal number of first domains and second domains. The first domain has three-way rotational symmetry about the central point of the first domain. The second domain has three-way rotational symmetry about the central point of the second domain. The dimple pattern within the first domain is different from the dimple pattern within the second domain. Greater than 50% of the dimples are spherical dimples having a circular plan shape and a cross-sectional profile defined by a spherical function. Each spherical dimple has an edge angle of from 11° to 15°.

In another embodiment, the present invention is directed to a golf ball having an outer surface comprising a plurality of dimples disposed thereon, wherein the dimples are arranged in multiple copies of a first domain and a second domain, the first domain and the second domain being tessellated to cover the outer surface of the golf ball in a uniform pattern having no great circles and consisting of an equal number of first domains and second domains. The first domain has three-way rotational symmetry about the central point of the first domain. The second domain has three-way rotational symmetry about the central point of the second domain. The dimple pattern within the first domain is different from the dimple pattern within the second domain. Greater than 50% of the dimples each have a dimple surface volume, DV, such that 0.0300A2+0.0016A−3.00×10−6<DV<−0.0464A2+0.0135A−2.00×10−5, where A is the dimple plan shape area, and wherein 0.0025≤A (in2)≤0.045.

In another embodiment, the present invention is directed to a golf ball having an outer surface comprising a plurality of dimples disposed thereon, wherein the dimples are arranged in multiple copies of a first domain and a second domain, the first domain and the second domain being tessellated to cover the outer surface of the golf ball in a uniform pattern having no great circles and consisting of an equal number of first domains and second domains. The first domain has three-way rotational symmetry about the central point of the first domain. The second domain has three-way rotational symmetry about the central point of the second domain. The dimple pattern within the first domain is different from the dimple pattern within the second domain. Greater than 50% of the dimples are spherical dimples having a circular plan shape and a cross-sectional profile defined by a spherical function. Each spherical dimple has an edge angle of from 13° to 19°. The dimples cover greater than 70% of the outer surface of the golf ball. The number of dimples on the outer surface of the golf ball is greater than 140 and less than 260.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

In the accompanying drawings, which form a part of the specification and are to be read in conjunction therewith, and in which like reference numerals are used to indicate like parts in the various views:

FIG. 1A illustrates a golf ball having dimples arranged by a method of the present invention; FIG. 1B illustrates a polyhedron face; FIG. 1C illustrates an element of the present invention in the polyhedron face of FIG. 1B; FIG. 1D illustrates a domain formed by a methods of the present invention packed with dimples and formed from two elements of FIG. 1C;

FIG. 2 illustrates a single face of a polyhedron having control points thereon;

FIG. 3A illustrates a polyhedron face; FIG. 3B illustrates an element of the present invention packed with dimples; FIG. 3C illustrates a domain of the present invention packed with dimples formed from elements of FIG. 3B; FIG. 3D illustrates a golf ball formed by a method of the present invention formed of the domain of FIG. 3C;

FIG. 4A illustrates two polyhedron faces; FIG. 4B illustrates a first domain of the present invention in the two polyhedron faces of FIG. 4A; FIG. 4C illustrates a first domain and a second domain of the present invention in three polyhedron faces; FIG. 4D illustrates a golf ball formed by a method of the present invention formed of the domains of FIG. 4C;

FIG. 5A illustrates a polyhedron face; FIG. 5B illustrates a first domain of the present invention in a polyhedron face; FIG. 5C illustrates a first domain and a second domain of the present invention in three polyhedron faces; FIG. 5D illustrates a golf ball formed using a method of the present invention formed of the domains of FIG. 5C;

FIG. 6A illustrates a polyhedron face; FIG. 6B illustrates a portion of a domain of the present invention in the polyhedron face of FIG. 6A; FIG. 6C illustrates a domain formed by the methods of the present invention; FIG. 6D illustrates a golf ball formed using the methods of the present invention formed of domains of FIG. 6C;

FIG. 7A illustrates a polyhedron face; FIG. 7B illustrates a domain of the present invention in the polyhedron face of FIG. 7A; FIG. 7C illustrates a golf ball formed by a method of the present invention;

FIG. 8A illustrates a first element of the present invention in a polyhedron face; FIG. 8B illustrates a first and a second element of the present invention in the polyhedron face of FIG. 8A; FIG. 8C illustrates two domains of the present invention composed of first and second elements of FIG. 8B; FIG. 8D illustrates a single domain of the present invention based on the two domains of FIG. 8C; FIG. 8E illustrates a golf ball formed using a method of the present invention formed of the domains of FIG. 8D;

FIG. 9A illustrates a polyhedron face; FIG. 9B illustrates an element of the present invention in the polyhedron face of FIG. 9A; FIG. 9C illustrates two elements of FIG. 9B combining to form a domain of the present invention; FIG. 9D illustrates a domain formed by the methods of the present invention based on the elements of FIG. 9C; FIG. 9E illustrates a golf ball formed using a method of the present invention formed of domains of FIG. 9D;

FIG. 10A illustrates a face of a rhombic dodecahedron; FIG. 10B illustrates a segment of the present invention in the face of FIG. 10A; FIG. 10C illustrates the segment of FIG. 10B and copies thereof forming a domain of the present invention; FIG. 10D illustrates a domain formed by a method of the present invention based on the segments of FIG. 10C; and FIG. 10E illustrates a golf ball formed by a method of the present invention formed of domains of FIG. 10D.

FIG. 11A illustrates a tetrahedron face projected on a sphere; FIG. 11B illustrates a first domain of the present invention in the tetrahedron face of FIG. 11A; FIG. 11C illustrates a first domain and a second domain of the present invention projected on a sphere; FIG. 11D illustrates the domains of FIG. 11C tessellated to cover the surface of a sphere; FIG. 11E illustrates a portion of a golf ball formed using a method of the present invention; FIG. 11F illustrates another portion of a golf ball formed using a method of the present invention; and FIG. 11G illustrates a golf ball formed using a method of the present invention.

FIG. 11H illustrates a portion of a golf ball formed using a method of the present invention; FIG. 11I illustrates another portion of a golf ball formed using a method of the present invention; and FIG. 11J illustrates a golf ball formed using a method of the present invention.

FIG. 11K illustrates a portion of a golf ball formed using a method of the present invention; FIG. 11L illustrates another portion of a golf ball formed using a method of the present invention; and FIG. 11M illustrates a golf ball formed using a method of the present invention.

FIGS. 12A and 12B illustrate a method for determining nearest neighbor dimples.

FIG. 13 is a schematic diagram illustrating a method for measuring the diameter of a dimple.

FIG. 14 shows preferred plan shape area and dimple surface volume ranges according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 15A illustrates a portion of a golf ball formed using a method of the present invention; FIG. 15B illustrates another portion of a golf ball formed using a method of the present invention; and FIG. 15C illustrates a golf ball formed using a method of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present invention provides a method for arranging dimples on a golf ball surface in a pattern derived from at least one irregular domain generated from a regular or non-regular polyhedron. The method includes choosing control points of a polyhedron, connecting the control points with a non-straight sketch line, patterning the sketch line in a first manner to generate an irregular domain, optionally patterning the sketch line in a second manner to create an additional irregular domain, packing the irregular domain(s) with dimples, and tessellating the irregular domain(s) to cover the surface of the golf ball in a uniform pattern. The control points include the center of a polyhedral face, a vertex of the polyhedron, a midpoint or other point on an edge of the polyhedron, and others. The method ensures that the symmetry of the underlying polyhedron is preserved while minimizing or eliminating great circles due to parting lines from the molding process.

In a particular embodiment, illustrated in FIG. 1A, the present invention comprises a golf ball 10 comprising dimples 12. Dimples 12 are arranged by packing irregular domains 14 with dimples, as seen best in FIG. 1D. Irregular domains 14 are created in such a way that, when tessellated on the surface of golf ball 10, they impart greater orders of symmetry to the surface than prior art balls. The irregular shape of domains 14 additionally minimize the appearance and effect of the golf ball parting line from the molding process, and allows greater flexibility in arranging dimples than would be available with regularly shaped domains.

For purposes of the present invention, the term “irregular domains” refers to domains wherein at least one, and preferably all, of the segments defining the borders of the domain is not a straight line.

The irregular domains can be defined through the use of any one of the exemplary methods described herein. Each method produces one or more unique domains based on circumscribing a sphere with the vertices of a regular polyhedron. The vertices of the circumscribed sphere based on the vertices of the corresponding polyhedron with origin (0,0,0) are defined below in Table 1.

TABLE 1
Vertices of Circumscribed Sphere based
on Corresponding Polyhedron Vertices
Type of
Polyhedron Vertices
Tetrahedron (+1, +1, +1); (−1, −1, +1); (−1, +1, −1); (+1, −1, −1)
Cube (±1, ±1, ±1)
Octahedron (±1, 0, 0); (0, ±1, 0); (0, 0, ±1)
Dodecahedron (±1, ±1, ±1); (0, ±1/φ, ±φ); (±1/φ, ±φ, 0); (±φ, 0, ±1/φ)*
Icosahedron (0, ±1, ±φ); (±1, ±φ, 0); (±φ, 0, ±1)*
*φ = (1 + √5)/2

Each method has a unique set of rules which are followed for the domain to be symmetrically patterned on the surface of the golf ball. Each method is defined by the combination of at least two control points. These control points, which are taken from one or more faces of a regular or non-regular polyhedron, consist of at least three different types: the center C of a polyhedron face; a vertex V of a face of a regular polyhedron; and the midpoint M of an edge of a face of the polyhedron. FIG. 2 shows an exemplary face 16 of a polyhedron (a regular dodecahedron in this case) and one of each a center C, a midpoint M, a vertex V, and an edge E on face 16. The two control points C, M, or V may be of the same or different types. Accordingly, six types of methods for use with regular polyhedrons are defined as follows:

    • 1. Center to midpoint (C→M);
    • 2. Center to center (C→C);
    • 3. Center to vertex (C→V);
    • 4. Midpoint to midpoint (M→M);
    • 5. Midpoint to Vertex (M→V); and
    • 6. Vertex to Vertex (V→V).

While each method differs in its particulars, they all follow the same basic scheme. First, a non-linear sketch line is drawn connecting the two control points. This sketch line may have any shape, including, but not limited, to an arc, a spline, two or more straight or arcuate lines or curves, or a combination thereof. Second, the sketch line is patterned in a method specific manner to create a domain, as discussed below. Third, when necessary, the sketch line is patterned in a second fashion to create a second domain.

While the basic scheme is consistent for each of the six methods, each method preferably follows different steps in order to generate the domains from a sketch line between the two control points, as described below with reference to each of the methods individually.

The Center to Vertex Method

Referring again to FIGS. 1A-1D, the center to vertex method yields one domain that tessellates to cover the surface of golf ball 10. The domain is defined as follows:

    • 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (FIGS. 1A-1D use an icosahedron);
    • 2. A single face 16 of the regular polyhedron is chosen, as shown in FIG. 1B;
    • 3. Center C of face 16, and a first vertex V1 of face 16 are connected with any non-linear sketch line, hereinafter referred to as a segment 18;
    • 4. A copy 20 of segment 18 is rotated about center C, such that copy 20 connects center C with vertex V2 adjacent to vertex V1. The two segments 18 and 20 and the edge E connecting vertices V1 and V2 define an element 22, as shown best in FIG. 1C; and
    • 5. Element 22 is rotated about midpoint M of edge E to create a domain 14, as shown best in FIG. 1D.

When domain 14 is tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in FIG. 1A, a different number of total domains 14 will result depending on the regular polyhedron chosen as the basis for control points C and V1. The number of domains 14 used to cover the surface of golf ball 10 is equal to the number of faces PF of the polyhedron chosen times the number of edges PE per face of the polyhedron divided by 2, as shown below in Table 2.

TABLE 2
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific Polyhedra
When Using the Center to Vertex Method
Number Number of
Type of Polyhedron Number of Faces, PF of Edges, PE Domains 14
Tetrahedron 4 3 6
Cube 6 4 12
Octahedron 8 3 12
Dodecahedron 12 5 30
Icosahedron 20 3 30

The Center to Midpoint Method

Referring to FIGS. 3A-3D, the center to midpoint method yields a single irregular domain that can be tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10. The domain is defined as follows:

    • 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (FIGS. 3A-3D use a dodecahedron);
    • 2. A single face 16 of the regular polyhedron is chosen, as shown in FIG. 3A;
    • 3. Center C of face 16, and midpoint M1 of a first edge E1 of face 16 are connected with a segment 18;
    • 4. A copy 20 of segment 18 is rotated about center C, such that copy 20 connects center C with a midpoint M2 of a second edge E2 adjacent to first edge E1. The two segments 16 and 18 and the portions of edge E1 and edge E2 between midpoints M1 and M2 define an element 22; and
    • 5. Element 22 is patterned about vertex V of face 16 which is contained in element 22 and connects edges E1 and E2 to create a domain 14.

When domain 14 is tessellated around a golf ball 10 to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in FIG. 3D, a different number of total domains 14 will result depending on the regular polyhedron chosen as the basis for control points C and M1. The number of domains 14 used to cover the surface of golf ball 10 is equal to the number of vertices PV of the chosen polyhedron, as shown below in Table 3.

TABLE 3
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific Polyhedra
When Using the Center to Midpoint Method
Type of Polyhedron Number of Vertices, PV Number of Domains 14
Tetrahedron 4 4
Cube 8 8
Octahedron 6 6
Dodecahedron 20 20
Icosahedron 12 12

The Center to Center Method

Referring to FIGS. 4A-4D, the center to center method yields two domains that can be tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10. The domains are defined as follows:

    • 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (FIGS. 4A-4D use a dodecahedron);
    • 2. Two adjacent faces 16 a and 16 b of the regular polyhedron are chosen, as shown in FIG. 4A;
    • 3. Center C1 of face 16 a, and center C2 of face 16 b are connected with a segment 18;
    • 4. A copy 20 of segment 18 is rotated 180 degrees about the midpoint M between centers C1 and C2, such that copy 20 also connects center C1 with center C2, as shown in FIG. 4B. The two segments 16 and 18 define a first domain 14 a; and
    • 5. Segment 18 is rotated equally about vertex V to define a second domain 14 b, as shown in FIG. 4C.

When first domain 14 a and second domain 14 b are tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in FIG. 4D, a different number of total domains 14 a and 14 b will result depending on the regular polyhedron chosen as the basis for control points C1 and C2. The number of first and second domains 14 a and 14 b used to cover the surface of golf ball 10 is PF*PE/2 for first domain 14 a and PV for second domain 14 b, as shown below in Table 4.

TABLE 4
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific
Polyhedra When Using the Center to Center Method
Number of
Type of Number of Number of First Number of Number of Second
Polyhedron Vertices, PV Domains 14a Faces, PF Edges, PE Domains 14b
Tetrahedron 4 6 4 3 4
Cube 8 12 6 4 8
Octahedron 6 9 8 3 6
Dodecahedron 20 30 12 5 20
Icosahedron 12 18 20 3 12

The Midpoint to Midpoint Method

Referring to FIGS. 5A-5D and 11A-11M, the midpoint to midpoint method yields two domains that tessellate to cover the surface of golf ball 10. The domains are defined as follows:

    • 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (FIGS. 5A-5D use a dodecahedron, FIGS. 11A-11M and 15A-15C use a tetrahedron);
    • 2. A single face 16 of the regular polyhedron is projected onto a sphere, as shown in FIGS. 5A and 11A;
    • 3. The midpoint M1 of a first edge E1 of face 16, and the midpoint M2 of a second edge E2 adjacent to first edge E1 are connected with a segment 18, as shown in FIGS. 5A and 11A;
    • 4. Segment 18 is patterned around center C of face 16, at an angle of rotation equal to 360/PE, to form a first domain 14 a, as shown in FIGS. 5B and 11B;
    • 5. Segment 18, along with the portions of first edge E1 and second edge E2 between midpoints M1 and M2, define an element 22, as shown in FIGS. 5B and 11B; and
    • 6. Element 22 is patterned about the vertex V which connects edges E1 and E2 to create a second domain 14 b, as shown in FIGS. 5C and 11C. The number of segments in the pattern that forms the second domain is equal to PF*PE/PV.

When first domain 14 a and second domain 14 b are tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in FIGS. 5D and 11D, a different number of total domains 14 a and 14 b will result depending on the regular polyhedron chosen as the basis for control points M1 and M2. The number of first and second domains 14 a and 14 b used to cover the surface of golf ball 10 is PF for first domain 14 a and PV for second domain 14 b, as shown below in Table 5.

In a particular aspect of the embodiment shown in FIGS. 11A-11M and 15A-15C, segment 18 forms a portion of a parting line of golf ball 10. Thus, segment 18, along with each copy thereof that is produced by steps 4 and 6 above, produce the real and two false parting lines of the ball when the domains are tessellated to cover the ball's surface.

TABLE 5
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific Polyhedra
When Using the Midpoint to Midpoint Method
Number Number
Type of Number of of First Number of of Second
Polyhedron Faces, PF Domains 14a Vertices, PV Domains 14b
Tetrahedron 4 4 4 4
Cube 6 6 8 8
Octahedron 8 8 6 6
Dodecahedron 12 12 20 20
Icosahedron 20 20 12 12

The Midpoint to Vertex Method

Referring to FIGS. 6A-6D, the midpoint to vertex method yields one domain that tessellates to cover the surface of golf ball 10. The domain is defined as follows:

    • 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (FIGS. 6A-6D use a dodecahedron);
    • 2. A single face 16 of the regular polyhedron is chosen, as shown in FIG. 6A;
    • 3. A midpoint M1 of edge E1 of face 16 and a vertex V1 on edge E1 are connected with a segment 18;
    • 4. Copies 20 of segment 18 is patterned about center C of face 16, one for each midpoint M2 and vertex V2 of face 16, to define a portion of domain 14, as shown in FIG. 6B; and
    • 5. Segment 18 and copies 20 are then each rotated 180 degrees about their respective midpoints to complete domain 14, as shown in FIG. 6C.

When domain 14 is tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in FIG. 6D, a different number of total domains 14 will result depending on the regular polyhedron chosen as the basis for control points M1 and V1. The number of domains 14 used to cover the surface of golf ball 10 is PF, as shown in Table 6.

TABLE 6
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific Polyhedra
When Using the Midpoint to Vertex Method
Type of Polyhedron Number of Faces, PF Number of Domains 14
Tetrahedron 4 4
Cube 6 6
Octahedron 8 8
Dodecahedron 12 12
Icosahedron 20 20

The Vertex to Vertex Method

Referring to FIGS. 7A-7C, the vertex to vertex method yields two domains that tessellate to cover the surface of golf ball 10. The domains are defined as follows:

    • 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (FIGS. 7A-7C use an icosahedron);
    • 2. A single face 16 of the regular polyhedron is chosen, as shown in FIG. 7A;
    • 3. A first vertex V1 face 16, and a second vertex V2 adjacent to first vertex V1 are connected with a segment 18;
    • 4. Segment 18 is patterned around center C of face 16 to form a first domain 14 a, as shown in FIG. 7B;
    • 5. Segment 18, along with edge E1 between vertices V1 and V2, defines an element 22; and
    • 6. Element 22 is rotated around midpoint M1 of edge E1 to create a second domain 14 b.

When first domain 14 a and second domain 14 b are tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in FIG. 7C, a different number of total domains 14 a and 14 b will result depending on the regular polyhedron chosen as the basis for control points V1 and V2. The number of first and second domains 14 a and 14 b used to cover the surface of golf ball 10 is PF for first domain 14 a and PF*PE/2 for second domain 14 b, as shown below in Table 7.

TABLE 7
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific Polyhedra
When Using the Vertex to Vertex Method
Number Number Number of
Type of Number of of First of Edges Second
Polyhedron Faces, PF Domains 14a per Face, PE Domains 14b
Tetrahedron 4 4 3 6
Cube 6 6 4 12
Octahedron 8 8 3 12
Dodecahedron 12 12 5 30
Icosahedron 20 20 3 30

While the six methods previously described each make use of two control points, it is possible to create irregular domains based on more than two control points. For example, three, or even more, control points may be used. The use of additional control points allows for potentially different shapes for irregular domains. An exemplary method using a midpoint M, a center C and a vertex V as three control points for creating one irregular domain is described below.

The Midpoint to Center to Vertex Method

Referring to FIGS. 8A-8E, the midpoint to center to vertex method yields one domain that tessellates to cover the surface of golf ball 10. The domain is defined as follows:

    • 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (FIGS. 8A-8E use an icosahedron);
    • 2. A single face 16 of the regular polyhedron is chosen, as shown in FIG. 8A;
    • 3. A midpoint M1 on edge E1 of face 16, Center C of face 16 and a vertex V1 on edge E1 are connected with a segment 18, and segment 18 and the portion of edge E1 between midpoint M1 and vertex V1 define a first element 22 a, as shown in FIG. 8A;
    • 4. A copy 20 of segment 18 is rotated about center C, such that copy 20 connects center C with a midpoint M2 on edge E2 adjacent to edge E1, and connects center C with a vertex V2 at the intersection of edges E1 and E2, and the portion of segment 18 between midpoint M1 and center C, the portion of copy 20 between vertex V2 and center C, and the portion of edge E1 between midpoint M1 and vertex V2 define a second element 22 b, as shown in FIG. 8B;
    • 5. First element 22 a and second element 22 b are rotated about midpoint M1 of edge E1, as seen in FIG. 8C, to define two domains 14, wherein a single domain 14 is bounded solely by portions of segment 18 and copy 20 and the rotation 18′ of segment 18, as seen in FIG. 8D.

When domain 14 is tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in FIG. 8E, a different number of total domains 14 will result depending on the regular polyhedron chosen as the basis for control points M, C, and V. The number of domains 14 used to cover the surface of golf ball 10 is equal to the number of faces PF of the polyhedron chosen times the number of edges PE per face of the polyhedron, as shown below in Table 8.

TABLE 8
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific Polyhedra
When Using the Midpoint to Center to Vertex Method
Number Number of
Type of Polyhedron Number of Faces, PF of Edges, PE Domains 14
Tetrahedron 4 3 12
Cube 6 4 24
Octahedron 8 3 24
Dodecahedron 12 5 60
Icosahedron 20 3 60

While the methods described previously provide a framework for the use of center C, vertex V, and midpoint M as the only control points, other control points are useable. For example, a control point may be any point P on an edge E of the chosen polyhedron face. When this type of control point is used, additional types of domains may be generated, though the mechanism for creating the irregular domain(s) may be different. An exemplary method, using a center C and a point P on an edge, for creating one such irregular domain is described below.

The Center to Edge Method

Referring to FIGS. 9A-9E, the center to edge method yields one domain that tessellates to cover the surface of golf ball 10. The domain is defined as follows:

    • 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (FIGS. 9A-9E use an icosahedron);
    • 2. A single face 16 of the regular polyhedron is chosen, as shown in FIG. 9A;
    • 3. Center C of face 16, and a point P1 on edge E1 are connected with a segment 18;
    • 4. A copy 20 of segment 18 is rotated about center C, such that copy 20 connects center C with a point P2 on edge E2 adjacent to edge E1, where point P2 is positioned identically relative to edge E2 as point P1 is positioned relative to edge E1, such that the two segments 18 and 20 and the portions of edges E1 and E2 between points P1 and P2, respectively, and a vertex V, which connects edges E1 and E2, define an element 22, as shown best in FIG. 9B; and
    • 5. Element 22 is rotated about midpoint M1 of edge E1 or midpoint M2 of edge E2, whichever is located within element 22, as seen in FIGS. 9B-9C, to create a domain 14, as seen in FIG. 9D.

When domain 14 is tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in FIG. 9E, a different number of total domains 14 will result depending on the regular polyhedron chosen as the basis for control points C and P1. The number of domains 14 used to cover the surface of golf ball 10 is equal to the number of faces PF of the polyhedron chosen times the number of edges PE per face of the polyhedron divided by 2, as shown below in Table 9.

TABLE 9
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific Polyhedra When Using the
Center to Edge Method
Number Number of
Type of Polyhedron Number of Faces, PF of Edges, PE Domains 14
Tetrahedron 4 3 6
Cube 6 4 12
Octahedron 8 3 12
Dodecahedron 12 5 30
Icosahedron 20 3 30

Though each of the above described methods has been explained with reference to regular polyhedrons, they may also be used with certain non-regular polyhedrons, such as Archimedean Solids, Catalan Solids, or others. The methods used to derive the irregular domains will generally require some modification in order to account for the non-regular face shapes of the non-regular solids. An exemplary method for use with a Catalan Solid, specifically a rhombic dodecahedron, is described below.

A Vertex to Vertex Method for a Rhombic Dodecahedron

Referring to FIGS. 10A-10E, a vertex to vertex method based on a rhombic dodecahedron yields one domain that tessellates to cover the surface of golf ball 10. The domain is defined as follows:

    • 1. A single face 16 of the rhombic dodecahedron is chosen, as shown in FIG. 10A;
    • 2. A first vertex V1 face 16, and a second vertex V2 adjacent to first vertex V1 are connected with a segment 18, as shown in FIG. 10B;
    • 3. A first copy 20 of segment 18 is rotated about vertex V2, such that it connects vertex V2 to vertex V3 of face 16, a second copy 24 of segment 18 is rotated about center C, such that it connects vertex V3 and vertex V4 of face 16, and a third copy 26 of segment 18 is rotated about vertex V1 such that it connects vertex V1 to vertex V4, all as shown in FIG. 10C, to form a domain 14, as shown in FIG. 10D;

When domain 14 is tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in FIG. 10E, twelve domains will be used to cover the surface of golf ball 10, one for each face of the rhombic dodecahedron.

After the irregular domain(s) are created using any of the above methods, the domain(s) may be packed with dimples in order to be usable in creating golf ball 10.

In FIGS. 11E-11M, a first domain and a second domain are created using the midpoint to midpoint method based on a tetrahedron. FIG. 11E shows a first domain 14 a and a portion of a second domain 14 b packed with dimples, with the dimples of the first domain 14 a designated by the letter a. FIG. 11F shows a second domain 14 b and a portion of a first domain 14 a packed with dimples, with the dimples of the second domain 14 b designated by the letter b. FIG. 11G shows a first domain 14 a and a second domain 14 b packed with dimples and tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10.

FIG. 11H shows a first domain 14 a packed with dimples and a portion of a second domain 14 b packed with dimples, but the dimples are packed within the domains in different patterns than those shown in FIG. 11E. In FIG. 11H, the first domain 14 a is designated by shading. FIG. 11I shows the second domain 14 b and a portion of the first domain 14 a with the dimples packed within the domains in the same pattern as that shown in FIG. 11H. In FIG. 11I, the second domain 14 b is designated by shading. FIG. 11J shows the first and second domains packed with dimples according to the embodiment shown in FIGS. 11H and 11I tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10.

FIG. 11K shows a first domain 14 a packed with dimples and a portion of a second domain 14 b. FIG. 11L shows the second domain 14 b packed with dimples and a portion of the first domain 14 a. FIG. 11M shows the first and second domains packed with dimples according to the embodiments shown in FIGS. 11K and 11L.

FIG. 15A shows a first domain 14 a packed with dimples and a portion of the second domain 14 b packed with dimples, but the dimples are packed within the domains in different patterns than those shown in FIGS. 11E, 11H and 11K. In FIG. 15A, the first domain 14 a is designated by shading. FIG. 15B shows the second domain 14 b and a portion of the first domain 14 a with the dimples packed within the domains in the same pattern as that shown in FIG. 15A. In FIG. 15B, the second domain 14 b is designated by shading. FIG. 15C shows the first and second domains packed with dimples according to the embodiment shown in FIGS. 15A and 15B tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10.

In a particular embodiment, as illustrated in FIGS. 11E-11M and 15A-15C, the dimple pattern of the first domain has three-way rotational symmetry about the central point of the first domain, and the dimple pattern of the second domain has three-way rotational symmetry about the central point of the second domain.

In one embodiment, there are no limitations on how the dimples are packed. In another embodiment, the dimples are packed such that no dimple intersects a line segment. In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 11E-11M and 15A-15C, the dimples are packed within the first domain in a different pattern from that of the second domain.

In a particular embodiment, the dimples are packed such that all nearest neighbor dimples are separated by substantially the same distance, δ, wherein the average of all δ values is from 0.002 inches to 0.020 inches, and wherein any individual δ value can vary from the mean by ±0.005 inches. For purposes of the present invention, nearest neighbor dimples are determined according to the following method. Two tangency lines are drawn from the center of a first dimple to a potential nearest neighbor dimple. A line segment is then drawn connecting the center of the first dimple to the center of the potential nearest neighbor dimple. If the two tangency lines and the line segment do not intersect any other dimple edges, then those dimples are considered to be nearest neighbors. For example, as shown in FIG. 12A, two tangency lines 3A and 3B are drawn from the center of a first dimple 1 to a potential nearest neighbor dimple 2. Line segment 4 is then drawn connecting the center of first dimple 1 to the center of potential nearest neighbor dimple 2. Tangency lines 3A and 3B and line segment 4 do not intersect any other dimple edges, so dimple 1 and dimple 2 are considered nearest neighbors. In FIG. 12B, two tangency lines 3A and 3B are drawn from the center of a first dimple 1 to a potential nearest neighbor dimple 2. Line segment 4 is then drawn connecting the center of first dimple 1 to the center of potential nearest neighbor dimple 2. Tangency lines 3A and 3B intersect an alternative dimple, so dimple 1 and dimple 2 are not considered nearest neighbors. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the line segments do not actually have to be drawn on the golf ball. Rather, a computer modeling program capable of performing this operation automatically is preferably used.

Each dimple typically has a diameter of 0.050 or 0.100 or 0.150 or 0.180 or 0.205 or 0.250 or 0.300 or 0.350 inches, or a diameter within a range having a lower limit and an upper limit selected from these values. The diameter of a dimple having a non-circular plan shape is defined by its equivalent diameter, de, which calculated as:

d e = 2 A π
where A is the plan shape area of the dimple. Diameter measurements are determined on finished golf balls according to FIG. 13. Generally, it may be difficult to measure a dimple's diameter due to the indistinct nature of the boundary dividing the dimple from the ball's undisturbed land surface. Due to the effect of paint and/or the dimple design itself, the junction between the land surface and dimple may not be a sharp corner and is therefore indistinct. This can make the measurement of a dimple's diameter somewhat ambiguous. To resolve this problem, dimple diameter on a finished golf ball is measured according to the method shown in FIG. 13. FIG. 13 shows a dimple half-profile 34, extending from the dimple centerline 31 to the land surface outside of the dimple 33. A ball phantom surface 32 is constructed above the dimple as a continuation of the land surface 33. A first tangent line T1 is then constructed at a point on the dimple sidewall that is spaced 0.003 inches radially inward from the phantom surface 32. T1 intersects phantom surface 32 at a point P1, which defines a nominal dimple edge position. A second tangent line T2 is then constructed, tangent to the phantom surface 32, at P1. The edge angle is the angle between T1 and T2. The dimple diameter is the distance between P1 and its equivalent point diametrically opposite along the dimple perimeter. Alternatively, it is twice the distance between P1 and the dimple centerline 31, measured in a direction perpendicular to centerline 31. The dimple depth is the distance measured along a ball radius from the phantom surface of the ball to the deepest point on the dimple. The dimple surface volume is the space enclosed between the phantom surface 32 and the dimple surface 34 (extended along T1 until it intersects the phantom surface). The dimple plan shape area is based on a planar view of the dimple plan shape, such that the viewing plane is normal to an axis connecting the center of the ball to the point of the calculated surface depth. FIG. 14 shows preferred ranges of dimple surface volume and plan shape area of spherical dimples according to one embodiment of the present invention. More particularly, spherical dimples of the present invention have a dimple plan shape area, A, of from 0.0025 in2 to 0.045 in2, and a dimple surface volume, DV, such that 0.0300A2+0.0016A−3.00×10−6<DV<−0.0464A2+0.0135A−2.00×10−5.

In a particular embodiment, all of the dimples on the outer surface of the ball have the same diameter. It should be understood that “same diameter” dimples includes dimples on a finished ball having respective diameters that differ by less than 0.005 inches due to manufacturing variances.

In a particular aspect of the embodiments disclosed herein wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the number of different dimple diameters, D, on the outer surface is related to the total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface, such that if:

    • N<312, then D≤5;
    • N=312, then D≤4;
    • 312<N<328, then D≤5;
    • N=328, then D≤6;
    • 328<N<352, then D≤5;
    • N=352, then D≤4;
    • 352<N<376, then D≤5;
    • N=376, then D≤7; and
    • N>376, then D≤5.

For example, in the embodiment shown in FIG. 11J, the total number of dimples on the outer surface of the ball is 300, and the number of different dimple diameters is 4. In FIGS. 11H and 11I, the label numbers within the dimples designate same diameter dimples. For example, all dimples labelled 1 have the same diameter, all dimples labelled 2 have the same diameter, and so on. In a particular aspect of the embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 11H and 11I, the dimples labelled 1 have a diameter of about 0.170 inches, the dimples labelled 2 have a diameter of about 0.180 inches, the dimples labelled 3 have a diameter of about 0.150 inches, and the dimples labelled 4 have a diameter of about 0.190 inches.

In another particular aspect of the embodiments disclosed herein wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the number of different dimple diameters, D, on the outer surface is related to the total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface, such that if:

    • N<320, then D≤4;
    • 320≤N<350, then D≤6;
    • 350≤N<360, then D≤4; and
    • N≥360, then D≤7.

In another particular aspect of the embodiments disclosed herein wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the number of different dimple diameters, D, on the outer surface is related to the total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface, such that if:

    • N<328, then D>5;
    • N=328, then D>7;
    • 328<N<376, then D>5;
    • N=376, then D>8; and
    • N>376, then D>5.

In another particular aspect of the embodiments disclosed herein wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, wherein the number of different dimple diameters, D, on the outer surface is related to the total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface, such that if:

    • N<320, then D≥6;
    • 320≤N<350, then D≥7;
    • 350≤N<360, then D≥6; and
    • N≥360, then D≥9.

In another particular aspect of the embodiments disclosed herein wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the number of different dimple diameters, D, on the outer surface is related to the total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface, such that if 260<N<312, then D≥6. In a further particular aspect of this embodiment, the dimples are arranged in multiple copies of a first domain and a second domain formed according to the midpoint to midpoint method based on a tetrahedron wherein the first domain and the second domain are tessellated to cover the outer surface of the golf ball in a uniform pattern having no great circles. The overall dimple pattern consists of four first domains and four second domains. The first domain has three-way rotational symmetry about the central point of the first domain. The second domain has three-way rotational symmetry about the central point of the second domain. The dimple pattern within the first domain is different from the dimple pattern within the second domain. The dimples optionally have one or more of the following additional characteristics:

    • a) a majority of the dimples on the outer surface of the ball, i.e., greater than 50% for purposes of the present disclosure, are spherical dimples having a circular plan shape and a cross-sectional profile defined by a spherical function;
    • b) each spherical dimple has an edge angle of 11° or 12° or 13.5° or 14.5° or 15° or an edge angle within a range having an upper limit and a lower limit selected from these values;
    • c) all of the dimples within the first domain have the same edge angle, i.e., their respective edge angles differ by no more than 0.2°;
    • d) all of the dimples within the second domain have the same edge angle, i.e., their respective edge angles differ by no more than 0.2°;
    • e) all of the dimples on the surface of the ball have the same edge angle, i.e., their respective edge angles differ by no more than 0.2°;
    • f) the first domain consists of dimples having a total number of different dimple diameters, DD1, the second domain consists of dimples having a total number of different dimple diameters, DD2, and DD1=DD2, optionally the different dimple diameters of the first domain include at least one diameter that is not present in the second domain;
    • g) the first domain consists of a total number of dimples located therein, ND1, the second domain consists of a total number of dimples located therein, ND2, and ND1≠ND2, optionally the difference in ND1 and ND2 is 1 or 2 or 3 or 4;
    • h) one or more dimples on the outer surface has a non-circular plan shape;
    • i) each of the dimples has a dimple diameter of from about 0.050 inches to about 0.250 inches;
    • j) all nearest neighbor dimples are separated by substantially the same distance, δ, the average of all δ values is from 0.002 inches to 0.020 inches, and any individual δ value does not vary from the mean by more than 0.005 inches;
    • k) the central point of the first domain is not the center of a dimple;
    • l) the central point of the second domain is not the center of a dimple;
    • m) the total number of dimples on the outer surface of the ball is 300;
    • n) a majority of the dimples each have a dimple surface volume within the region illustrated in FIG. 14; and
    • o) a majority of the dimples each have a dimple surface volume, DV, such that 0.0300A2+0.0016A−3.00×10−6<DV<−0.0464A2+0.0135A−2.00×10−5, where A is the dimple plan shape area, and wherein 0.0025≤A (in2)≤0.045.

For example, in the embodiment shown in FIG. 11M, the total number of dimples on the outer surface of the ball is 300, and the number of different dimple diameters is 7. In FIGS. 11K and 11L, the label numbers within the dimples designate same diameter dimples. For example, all dimples labelled 1 have the same diameter; all dimples labelled 2 have the same diameter; and so on. Table 10 below gives illustrative values for dimple diameter, dimple plan shape area, edge angle, and dimple surface volume for three non-limiting particular examples of the embodiment shown in FIGS. 11K-11M.

TABLE 10
Non-limiting Examples of Dimple Properties for the Dimples of FIGS. 11K-11M Dimple
Pattern Generated Using the Midpoint to Midpoint Method Based on a Tetrahedron
Examples 1-3 Examples 1-3 Example 1 Example 2 Example 3
Examples 1-3 Dimple Plan Shape Edge Surface Edge Surface Edge Surface
Dimple Diameter Area Angle Volume Angle Volume Angle Volume
Label (in) (in2) (°) (in3) (°) (in3) (°) (in3)
1 0.130 0.0133 11.0 4.15 × 10−5 13.5 5.10 × 10−5 15.0 5.67 × 10−5
2 0.150 0.0177 11.0 6.37 × 10−5 13.5 7.83 × 10−5 15.0 8.71 × 10−5
3 0.160 0.0201 11.0 7.73 × 10−5 13.5 9.50 × 10−5 15.0 1.06 × 10−4
4 0.170 0.0227 11.0 9.27 × 10−5 13.5 1.14 × 10−4 15.0 1.27 × 10−4
5 0.180 0.0254 11.0 1.10 × 10−4 13.5 1.35 × 10−4 15.0 1.50 × 10−4
6 0.190 0.0284 11.0 1.29 × 10−4 13.5 1.59 × 10−4 15.0 1.77 × 10−4
7 0.200 0.0314 11.0 1.51 × 10−4 13.5 1.85 × 10−4 15.0 2.06 × 10−4

In another particular aspect of the embodiments disclosed herein wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the number of different dimple diameters, D, on the outer surface is related to the total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface, such that if 140<N<260, then D≥3 or D≥5. In a further particular aspect of this embodiment, the dimples are arranged in multiple copies of a first domain and a second domain formed according to the midpoint to midpoint method based on a tetrahedron wherein the first domain and the second domain are tessellated to cover the outer surface of the golf ball in a uniform pattern having no great circles. The overall dimple pattern consists of four first domains and four second domains. The first domain has three-way rotational symmetry about the central point of the first domain. The second domain has three-way rotational symmetry about the central point of the second domain. The dimple pattern within the first domain is different from the dimple pattern within the second domain. The dimples optionally have one or more of the following additional characteristics:

    • a) a majority of the dimples on the outer surface of the ball, i.e., greater than 50% for purposes of the present disclosure, are spherical dimples having a circular plan shape and a cross-sectional profile defined by a spherical function;
    • b) each spherical dimple has an edge angle of 13° or 14° or 15° or 15.5° or 16.5° or 17° or 18° or 19° or an edge angle within a range having an upper limit and a lower limit selected from these values;
    • c) the first domain consists of a total number of dimples located therein, ND1, the second domain consists of a total number of dimples located therein, ND2, and ND1≠ND2;
    • d) optionally the difference in ND1 and ND2 is 1 or 2 or 3 or 4, or the difference is within a range having a lower limit and an upper limit selected from these values;
    • e) ND1<30, or ND1<20;
    • f) ND2<30, or ND2<20;
    • g) one or more dimples on the outer surface has a non-circular plan shape;
    • h) each of the dimples has a dimple diameter of from about 0.150 inches to about 0.350 inches;
    • i) at least one dimple has a dimple diameter of 0.300 inches or greater;
    • j) each of the dimples has a dimple diameter of 0.180 inches or greater;
    • k) at least one dimple has a dimple depth of greater than 0.020 inches;
    • l) the central point of the first domain is not the center of a dimple;
    • m) the central point of the second domain is the center of a dimple; and
    • n) the dimples cover greater than 70%, or greater than 75%, of the outer surface of the golf ball.

For example, in the embodiment shown in FIG. 15C, the total number of dimples on the outer surface of the ball is 148, and the number of different dimple diameters is 5. The dimples cover 79.1% of the outer surface of the golf ball. In FIGS. 15A and 15B, the label numbers within the dimples designate same diameter dimples. For example, all dimples labelled 1 have the same diameter; all dimples labelled 2 have the same diameter; and so on. Table 11 below gives illustrative values for dimple diameter, edge angle, and dimple depth for a non-limiting particular example of the embodiment shown in FIGS. 15A-15C.

TABLE 11
Non-limiting Example of Dimple Properties for the Dimples
of FIGS. 15A-15C Dimple Pattern Generated Using the
Midpoint to Midpoint Method Based on a Tetrahedron
DOMAIN 1 (designated by shading in FIG. 15A)
Dimple Dimple Edge Angle Dimple Number of Dimples
Label Diameter (in) (°) Depth (in) located in Domain 1
1 0.180 16.0 0.0126 3
2 0.200 16.0 0.0140 6
4 0.280 16.0 0.0196 3
5 0.300 16.0 0.0210 6
DOMAIN 2 (designated by shading in FIG. 15B)
Dimple Dimple Edge Angle Dimple Number of Dimples
Label Diameter (in) (°) Depth (in) located in Domain 2
2 0.200 16.0 0.0140 7
3 0.250 16.0 0.0175 6
4 0.280 16.0 0.0196 6

In a further particular aspect of the above embodiments wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the total number of dimples on the outer surface is less than 320, the number of different dimple diameters is less than or equal to 4, and the sample standard deviation is less than 0.0175. In another further particular aspect of the above embodiments wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the total number of dimples on the outer surface is greater than or equal to 320 but less than 350, the number of different dimple diameters is less than or equal to 6, and the sample standard deviation is less than 0.0200. In another further particular aspect of the above embodiments wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the total number of dimples on the outer surface is greater than or equal to 350 but less than 360, the number of different dimple diameters is less than or equal to 4, and the sample standard deviation is less than 0.0155. In another further particular aspect of the above embodiments wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the total number of dimples on the outer surface is greater than or equal to 360, the number of different dimple diameters is less than or equal to 7, and the sample standard deviation is less than 0.0200. Sample standard deviation, s, is defined by the equation:

s = i = 1 N ( x i - x _ ) 2 N - 1

where xi is the diameter of any given dimple on the outer surface of the ball, x is the average dimple diameter, and N is the total number of dimples on the outer surface of the ball.

It should be understood that manufacturing variances are to be taken into account when determining the number of different dimple diameters. The placement of the dimple in the overall pattern should also be taken into account. Specifically, dimples located in the same location within the multiple copies of the domain(s) that are tessellated to form the dimple pattern are assumed to be same diameter dimples, unless they have a difference in diameter of 0.005 inches or greater.

There are no limitations to the dimple shapes or profiles selected to pack the domains. Though the present invention includes substantially circular dimples in one embodiment, dimples or protrusions (brambles) having any desired characteristics and/or properties may be used. For example, in one embodiment the dimples may have a variety of shapes and sizes including different depths and perimeters. In particular, the dimples may be concave hemispheres, or they may be triangular, square, hexagonal, catenary, polygonal or any other shape known to those skilled in the art. They may also have straight, curved, or sloped edges or sides. To summarize, any type of dimple or protrusion (bramble) known to those skilled in the art may be used with the present invention. The dimples may all fit within each domain, as seen in FIGS. 1A, 1D, and 11E-11M, or dimples may be shared between one or more domains, as seen in FIGS. 3C-3D, so long as the dimple arrangement on each independent domain remains consistent across all copies of that domain on the surface of a particular golf ball. Alternatively, the tessellation can create a pattern that covers more than about 60%, preferably more than about 70% and preferably more than about 80% of the golf ball surface without using dimples.

In other embodiments, the domains may not be packed with dimples, and the borders of the irregular domains may instead comprise ridges or channels. In golf balls having this type of irregular domain, the one or more domains or sets of domains preferably overlap to increase surface coverage of the channels. Alternatively, the borders of the irregular domains may comprise ridges or channels and the domains are packed with dimples.

When the domain(s) is patterned onto the surface of a golf ball, the arrangement of the domains dictated by their shape and the underlying polyhedron ensures that the resulting golf ball has a high order of symmetry, equaling or exceeding 12. The order of symmetry of a golf ball produced using the method of the current invention will depend on the regular or non-regular polygon on which the irregular domain is based. The order and type of symmetry for golf balls produced based on the five regular polyhedra are listed below in Table 12.

TABLE 12
Symmetry of Golf Ball of the
Present Invention as a Function of Polyhedron
Type of Polyhedron Type of Symmetry Symmetrical Order
Tetrahedron Chiral Tetrahedral Symmetry 12
Cube Chiral Octahedral Symmetry 24
Octahedron Chiral Octahedral Symmetry 24
Dodecahedron Chiral Icosahedral Symmetry 60
Icosahedron Chiral Icosahedral Symmetry 60

These high orders of symmetry have several benefits, including more even dimple distribution, the potential for higher packing efficiency, and improved means to mask the ball parting line. Further, dimple patterns generated in this manner may have improved flight stability and symmetry as a result of the higher degrees of symmetry.

In other embodiments, the irregular domains do not completely cover the surface of the ball, and there are open spaces between domains that may or may not be filled with dimples. This allows dissymmetry to be incorporated into the ball.

Dimple patterns of the present invention are particularly suitable for packing dimples on seamless golf balls. Seamless golf balls and methods of producing such are further disclosed, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,849,007 and 7,422,529, the entire disclosures of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference.

In a particular aspect of the embodiments disclosed herein, golf balls of the present invention have a total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface thereof, wherein N is an integer that is divisible by 4 and within a range of from 260 to 424. In a further particular aspect, golf balls of the present invention have a total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface thereof, of 260 or 280 or 300 or 304 or 308 or 312 or 328 or 348 or 352 or 376 or 388. Alternatively, the present invention provides for a low dimple count embodiment wherein golf balls of the present invention have a total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface thereof, wherein N is an integer that is divisible by 4 and less than 160.

Aerodynamic characteristics of golf balls of the present invention can be described by aerodynamic coefficient magnitude and aerodynamic force angle. Based on a dimple pattern generated according to the present invention, in one embodiment, the golf ball achieves an aerodynamic coefficient magnitude of from 0.25 to 0.32 and an aerodynamic force angle of from 30° to 38° at a Reynolds Number of 230000 and a spin ratio of 0.085. Based on a dimple pattern generated according to the present invention, in another embodiment, the golf ball achieves an aerodynamic coefficient magnitude of from 0.26 to 0.33 and an aerodynamic force angle of from 32° to 40° at a Reynolds Number of 180000 and a spin ratio of 0.101. Based on a dimple pattern generated according to the present invention, in another embodiment, the golf ball achieves an aerodynamic coefficient magnitude of from 0.27 to 0.37 and an aerodynamic force angle of from 35° to 44° at a Reynolds Number of 133000 and a spin ratio of 0.133. Based on a dimple pattern generated according to the present invention, in another embodiment, the golf ball achieves an aerodynamic coefficient magnitude of from 0.32 to 0.45 and an aerodynamic force angle of from 39° to 45° at a Reynolds Number of 89000 and a spin ratio of 0.183. For purposes of the present disclosure, aerodynamic coefficient magnitude (Cmag) is defined by Cmag=(CL 2+CD 2)1/2 and aerodynamic force angle (Cangle) is defined by Cangle=tan−1(CL/CD), where CL is a lift coefficient and CD is a drag coefficient. Aerodynamic characteristics of a golf ball, including aerodynamic coefficient magnitude and aerodynamic force angle, are disclosed, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 6,729,976 to Bissonnette et al., the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference. Aerodynamic coefficient magnitude and aerodynamic force angle values are calculated using the average lift and drag values obtained when 30 balls are tested in a random orientation. Reynolds number is an average value for the test and can vary by plus or minus 3%. Spin ratio is an average value for the test and can vary by plus or minus 5%.

When numerical lower limits and numerical upper limits are set forth herein, it is contemplated that any combination of these values may be used.

All patents, publications, test procedures, and other references cited herein, including priority documents, are fully incorporated by reference to the extent such disclosure is not inconsistent with this invention and for all jurisdictions in which such incorporation is permitted.

While the illustrative embodiments of the invention have been described with particularity, it will be understood that various other modifications will be apparent to and can be readily made by those of ordinary skill in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, it is not intended that the scope of the claims appended hereto be limited to the examples and descriptions set forth herein, but rather that the claims be construed as encompassing all of the features of patentable novelty which reside in the present invention, including all features which would be treated as equivalents thereof by those of ordinary skill in the art to which the invention pertains.

Claims (12)

What is claimed is:
1. A golf ball having an outer surface comprising a plurality of dimples disposed thereon, wherein the dimples are arranged in multiple copies of a first domain and a second domain, the first domain and the second domain being tessellated to cover the outer surface of the golf ball in a uniform pattern having no great circles and consisting of an equal number of first domains and second domains, and wherein:
the first domain has three-way rotational symmetry about the central point of the first domain;
the second domain has three-way rotational symmetry about the central point of the second domain;
the dimple pattern within the first domain is different from the dimple pattern within the second domain;
a majority of the dimples are spherical dimples having a circular plan shape and a cross-sectional profile defined by a spherical function;
each spherical dimple has an edge angle of from 13° to 19°;
the dimples cover greater than 70% of the outer surface of the golf ball; and
the number of dimples on the outer surface of the golf ball is greater than 140 and less than 260.
2. The golf ball of claim 1, wherein the number of different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the golf ball is 3 or greater.
3. The golf ball of claim 1, wherein the number of different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the golf ball is 5 or greater.
4. The golf ball of claim 1, wherein the dimples cover greater than 75% of the outer surface of the golf ball.
5. The golf ball of claim 1, wherein at least one of the dimples on the outer surface of the golf ball has a dimple diameter of 0.300 inches or greater.
6. The golf ball of claim 1, wherein each of the dimples on the outer surface of the golf ball has a dimple diameter of 0.180 inches or greater.
7. The golf ball of claim 1, wherein at least one of the dimples on the outer surface of the golf ball has a dimple depth of greater than 0.020 inches.
8. The golf ball of claim 1, wherein the first domain consists of a total number of dimples located therein, ND1, the second domain consists of dimples having a total number of dimples located therein, ND2, and wherein ND1≠ND2.
9. The golf ball of claim 8, wherein the difference in ND1 and ND2 is from 1 to 4.
10. The golf ball of claim 8, wherein the difference in ND1 and ND2 is 3.
11. The golf ball of claim 8, wherein ND1<30 and ND2<30.
12. The golf ball of claim 8, wherein ND1<20 and ND2<20.
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US12/262,464 US8029388B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2008-10-31 Dimple patterns for golf balls
US12/894,827 US20110021292A1 (en) 2008-10-31 2010-09-30 Dimple patterns for golf balls
US13/973,237 US9468810B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2013-08-22 Dimple patterns for golf balls
US15/242,172 US9833664B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2016-08-19 Dimple patterns for golf balls
US15/242,117 US9901781B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2016-08-19 Dimple patterns for golf balls
US15/379,559 US9855465B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2016-12-15 Dimple patterns for golf balls
US15/848,070 US10213652B2 (en) 2008-10-31 2017-12-20 Dimple patterns for golf balls

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