US10213652B2  Dimple patterns for golf balls  Google Patents
Dimple patterns for golf balls Download PDFInfo
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 US10213652B2 US10213652B2 US15/848,070 US201715848070A US10213652B2 US 10213652 B2 US10213652 B2 US 10213652B2 US 201715848070 A US201715848070 A US 201715848070A US 10213652 B2 US10213652 B2 US 10213652B2
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 A—HUMAN NECESSITIES
 A63—SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
 A63B—APPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
 A63B37/00—Solid balls; Rigid hollow balls; Marbles
 A63B37/0003—Golf balls
 A63B37/0004—Surface depressions or protrusions
 A63B37/0006—Arrangement or layout of dimples

 A—HUMAN NECESSITIES
 A63—SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
 A63B—APPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
 A63B37/00—Solid balls; Rigid hollow balls; Marbles
 A63B37/0003—Golf balls
 A63B37/0004—Surface depressions or protrusions

 A—HUMAN NECESSITIES
 A63—SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
 A63B—APPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
 A63B37/00—Solid balls; Rigid hollow balls; Marbles
 A63B37/0003—Golf balls
 A63B37/0004—Surface depressions or protrusions
 A63B37/0007—Noncircular dimples

 A—HUMAN NECESSITIES
 A63—SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
 A63B—APPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
 A63B37/00—Solid balls; Rigid hollow balls; Marbles
 A63B37/0003—Golf balls
 A63B37/0004—Surface depressions or protrusions
 A63B37/0012—Dimple profile, i.e. crosssectional view

 A—HUMAN NECESSITIES
 A63—SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
 A63B—APPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
 A63B37/00—Solid balls; Rigid hollow balls; Marbles
 A63B37/0003—Golf balls
 A63B37/0004—Surface depressions or protrusions
 A63B37/0018—Specified number of dimples

 A—HUMAN NECESSITIES
 A63—SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
 A63B—APPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
 A63B37/00—Solid balls; Rigid hollow balls; Marbles
 A63B37/0003—Golf balls
 A63B37/0004—Surface depressions or protrusions
 A63B37/002—Specified dimple diameter
Abstract
Description
This application is a continuationinpart of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/379,559, filed Dec. 15, 2016, the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference.
The parent application, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/379,559, is a continuationinpart of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/242,117, filed Aug. 19, 2016, and also a continuationinpart of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/242,172, filed Aug. 19, 2016. Each of the parent application Ser. Nos. 15/242,117 and 15/242,172 is a continuationinpart of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/973,237, filed Aug. 22, 2013, now U.S. Pat. No. 9,468,810, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/894,827, filed Sep. 30, 2010, now abandoned, which is a continuationinpart of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/262,464, filed Oct. 31, 2008, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,029,388. The entire disclosure of each of these applications is hereby incorporated herein by reference.
This invention relates to golf balls, particularly to golf balls possessing uniquely packed dimple patterns. More particularly, the invention relates to methods of arranging dimples on a golf ball by generating irregular domains based on polyhedrons, packing the irregular domains with dimples, and tessellating the domains onto the surface of the golf ball.
Historically, dimple patterns for golf balls have had a variety of geometric shapes, patterns, and configurations. Primarily, patterns are laid out in order to provide desired performance characteristics based on the particular ball construction, material attributes, and player characteristics influencing the ball's initial launch angle and spin conditions. Therefore, pattern development is a secondary design step that is used to achieve the appropriate aerodynamic behavior, thereby tailoring ball flight characteristics and performance.
Aerodynamic forces generated by a ball in flight are a result of its velocity and spin. These forces can be represented by a lift force and a drag force. Lift force is perpendicular to the direction of flight and is a result of air velocity differences above and below the rotating ball. This phenomenon is attributed to Magnus, who described it in 1853 after studying the aerodynamic forces on spinning spheres and cylinders, and is described by Bernoulli's Equation, a simplification of the first law of thermodynamics. Bernoulli's equation relates pressure and velocity where pressure is inversely proportional to the square of velocity. The velocity differential, due to faster moving air on top and slower moving air on the bottom, results in lower air pressure on top and an upward directed force on the ball.
Drag is opposite in sense to the direction of flight and orthogonal to lift. The drag force on a ball is attributed to parasitic drag forces, which consist of pressure drag and viscous or skin friction drag. A sphere is a bluff body, which is an inefficient aerodynamic shape. As a result, the accelerating flow field around the ball causes a large pressure differential with highpressure forward and lowpressure behind the ball. The low pressure area behind the ball is also known as the wake. In order to minimize pressure drag, dimples provide a means to energize the flow field and delay the separation of flow, or reduce the wake region behind the ball. Skin friction is a viscous effect residing close to the surface of the ball within the boundary layer.
The industry has seen many efforts to maximize the aerodynamic efficiency of golf balls, through dimple disturbance and other methods, though they are closely controlled by golf's national governing body, the United States Golf Association (U.S.G.A.). One U.S.G.A. requirement is that golf balls have aerodynamic symmetry. Aerodynamic symmetry allows the ball to fly with a very small amount of variation no matter how the golf ball is placed on the tee or ground. Preferably, dimples cover the maximum surface area of the golf ball without detrimentally affecting the aerodynamic symmetry of the golf ball.
In attempts to improve aerodynamic symmetry, many dimple patterns are based on geometric shapes. These may include circles, hexagons, triangles, and the like. Other dimple patterns are based in general on the five Platonic Solids including icosahedron, dodecahedron, octahedron, cube, or tetrahedron. Yet other dimple patterns are based on the thirteen Archimedian Solids, such as the small icosidodecahedron, rhomicosidodecahedron, small rhombicuboctahedron, snub cube, snub dodecahedron, or truncated icosahedron. Furthermore, other dimple patterns are based on hexagonal dipyramids. Because the number of symmetric solid plane systems is limited, it is difficult to devise new symmetric patterns. Moreover, dimple patterns based some of these geometric shapes result in less than optimal surface coverage and other disadvantageous dimple arrangements. Therefore, dimple properties such as number, shape, size, volume, and arrangement are often manipulated in an attempt to generate a golf ball that has improved aerodynamic properties.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,562,552 to Thurman discloses a golf ball with an icosahedral dimple pattern, wherein each triangular face of the icosahedron is split by a three straight lines which each bisect a corner of the face to form 3 triangular faces for each icosahedral face, wherein the dimples are arranged consistently on the icosahedral faces.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,046,742 to Mackey discloses a golf ball with dimples packed into a 32sided polyhedron composed of hexagons and pentagons, wherein the dimple packing is the same in each hexagon and in each pentagon.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,998,733 to Lee discloses a golf ball formed of ten “spherical” hexagons each split into six equilateral triangles, wherein each triangle is split by a bisecting line extending between a vertex of the triangle and the midpoint of the side opposite the vertex, and the bisecting lines are oriented to achieve improved symmetry.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,682,442 to Winfield discloses the use of polygons as packing elements for dimples to introduce predictable variance into the dimple pattern. The polygons extend from the poles of the ball to a parting line. Any space not filled with dimples from the polygons is filled with other dimples.
In one embodiment, the present invention is directed to a golf ball having an outer surface comprising a parting line and a plurality of dimples. The dimples are arranged in multiple copies of one or more irregular domain(s) covering the outer surface in a uniform pattern. The irregular domain(s) are defined by nonstraight segments, and one of the nonstraight segments of each of the multiple copies of the irregular domain(s) forms a portion of the parting line.
In another embodiment, the present invention is directed to a method for arranging a plurality of dimples on a golf ball surface. The method comprises generating a first and a second irregular domain based on a tetrahedron using a midpoint to midpoint method, mapping the first and second irregular domains onto a sphere, packing the first and second irregular domains with dimples, and tessellating the first and second domains to cover the sphere in a uniform pattern. The midpoint to midpoint method comprises providing a single face of the tetrahedron, the face comprising a first edge connected to a second edge at a vertex; connecting the midpoint of the first edge with the midpoint of the second edge with a nonstraight segment; rotating copies of the segment about the center of the face such that the segment and the copies fully surround the center and form the first irregular domain bounded by the segment and the copies; and rotating subsequent copies of the segment about the vertex such that the segment and the subsequent copies fully surround the vertex and form the second irregular domain bounded by the segment and the subsequent copies.
In another embodiment, the present invention is directed to a golf ball having an outer surface comprising a plurality of dimples, wherein the dimples are arranged by a method comprising generating a first and a second irregular domain based on a tetrahedron using a midpoint to midpoint method, mapping the first and second irregular domains onto a sphere, packing the first and second irregular domains with dimples, and tessellating the first and second domains to cover the sphere in a uniform pattern.
In another embodiment, the present invention is directed to a golf ball having an outer surface comprising a plurality of dimples disposed thereon, wherein the dimples are arranged in multiple copies of a first domain and a second domain, the first domain and the second domain being tessellated to cover the outer surface of the golf ball in a uniform pattern having no great circles and consisting of an equal number of first domains and second domains. The first domain has threeway rotational symmetry about the central point of the first domain. The second domain has threeway rotational symmetry about the central point of the second domain. The dimple pattern within the first domain is different from the dimple pattern within the second domain. Greater than 50% of the dimples are spherical dimples having a circular plan shape and a crosssectional profile defined by a spherical function. Each spherical dimple has an edge angle of from 11° to 15°.
In another embodiment, the present invention is directed to a golf ball having an outer surface comprising a plurality of dimples disposed thereon, wherein the dimples are arranged in multiple copies of a first domain and a second domain, the first domain and the second domain being tessellated to cover the outer surface of the golf ball in a uniform pattern having no great circles and consisting of an equal number of first domains and second domains. The first domain has threeway rotational symmetry about the central point of the first domain. The second domain has threeway rotational symmetry about the central point of the second domain. The dimple pattern within the first domain is different from the dimple pattern within the second domain. Greater than 50% of the dimples each have a dimple surface volume, DV, such that 0.0300A^{2}+0.0016A−3.00×10^{−6}<DV<−0.0464A^{2}+0.0135A−2.00×10^{−5}, where A is the dimple plan shape area, and wherein 0.0025≤A (in^{2})≤0.045.
In another embodiment, the present invention is directed to a golf ball having an outer surface comprising a plurality of dimples disposed thereon, wherein the dimples are arranged in multiple copies of a first domain and a second domain, the first domain and the second domain being tessellated to cover the outer surface of the golf ball in a uniform pattern having no great circles and consisting of an equal number of first domains and second domains. The first domain has threeway rotational symmetry about the central point of the first domain. The second domain has threeway rotational symmetry about the central point of the second domain. The dimple pattern within the first domain is different from the dimple pattern within the second domain. Greater than 50% of the dimples are spherical dimples having a circular plan shape and a crosssectional profile defined by a spherical function. Each spherical dimple has an edge angle of from 13° to 19°. The dimples cover greater than 70% of the outer surface of the golf ball. The number of dimples on the outer surface of the golf ball is greater than 140 and less than 260.
In the accompanying drawings, which form a part of the specification and are to be read in conjunction therewith, and in which like reference numerals are used to indicate like parts in the various views:
The present invention provides a method for arranging dimples on a golf ball surface in a pattern derived from at least one irregular domain generated from a regular or nonregular polyhedron. The method includes choosing control points of a polyhedron, connecting the control points with a nonstraight sketch line, patterning the sketch line in a first manner to generate an irregular domain, optionally patterning the sketch line in a second manner to create an additional irregular domain, packing the irregular domain(s) with dimples, and tessellating the irregular domain(s) to cover the surface of the golf ball in a uniform pattern. The control points include the center of a polyhedral face, a vertex of the polyhedron, a midpoint or other point on an edge of the polyhedron, and others. The method ensures that the symmetry of the underlying polyhedron is preserved while minimizing or eliminating great circles due to parting lines from the molding process.
In a particular embodiment, illustrated in
For purposes of the present invention, the term “irregular domains” refers to domains wherein at least one, and preferably all, of the segments defining the borders of the domain is not a straight line.
The irregular domains can be defined through the use of any one of the exemplary methods described herein. Each method produces one or more unique domains based on circumscribing a sphere with the vertices of a regular polyhedron. The vertices of the circumscribed sphere based on the vertices of the corresponding polyhedron with origin (0,0,0) are defined below in Table 1.
TABLE 1  
Vertices of Circumscribed Sphere based  
on Corresponding Polyhedron Vertices  
Type of  
Polyhedron  Vertices 
Tetrahedron  (+1, +1, +1); (−1, −1, +1); (−1, +1, −1); (+1, −1, −1) 
Cube  (±1, ±1, ±1) 
Octahedron  (±1, 0, 0); (0, ±1, 0); (0, 0, ±1) 
Dodecahedron  (±1, ±1, ±1); (0, ±1/φ, ±φ); (±1/φ, ±φ, 0); (±φ, 0, ±1/φ)* 
Icosahedron  (0, ±1, ±φ); (±1, ±φ, 0); (±φ, 0, ±1)* 
*φ = (1 + √5)/2 
Each method has a unique set of rules which are followed for the domain to be symmetrically patterned on the surface of the golf ball. Each method is defined by the combination of at least two control points. These control points, which are taken from one or more faces of a regular or nonregular polyhedron, consist of at least three different types: the center C of a polyhedron face; a vertex V of a face of a regular polyhedron; and the midpoint M of an edge of a face of the polyhedron.

 1. Center to midpoint (C→M);
 2. Center to center (C→C);
 3. Center to vertex (C→V);
 4. Midpoint to midpoint (M→M);
 5. Midpoint to Vertex (M→V); and
 6. Vertex to Vertex (V→V).
While each method differs in its particulars, they all follow the same basic scheme. First, a nonlinear sketch line is drawn connecting the two control points. This sketch line may have any shape, including, but not limited, to an arc, a spline, two or more straight or arcuate lines or curves, or a combination thereof. Second, the sketch line is patterned in a method specific manner to create a domain, as discussed below. Third, when necessary, the sketch line is patterned in a second fashion to create a second domain.
While the basic scheme is consistent for each of the six methods, each method preferably follows different steps in order to generate the domains from a sketch line between the two control points, as described below with reference to each of the methods individually.
The Center to Vertex Method
Referring again to

 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
FIGS. 1A1D use an icosahedron);  2. A single face 16 of the regular polyhedron is chosen, as shown in
FIG. 1B ;  3. Center C of face 16, and a first vertex V_{1 }of face 16 are connected with any nonlinear sketch line, hereinafter referred to as a segment 18;
 4. A copy 20 of segment 18 is rotated about center C, such that copy 20 connects center C with vertex V_{2 }adjacent to vertex V_{1}. The two segments 18 and 20 and the edge E connecting vertices V_{1 }and V_{2 }define an element 22, as shown best in
FIG. 1C ; and  5. Element 22 is rotated about midpoint M of edge E to create a domain 14, as shown best in
FIG. 1D .
 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
When domain 14 is tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in
TABLE 2  
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific Polyhedra  
When Using the Center to Vertex Method  
Number  Number of  
Type of Polyhedron  Number of Faces, P_{F}  of Edges, P_{E}  Domains 14 
Tetrahedron  4  3  6 
Cube  6  4  12 
Octahedron  8  3  12 
Dodecahedron  12  5  30 
Icosahedron  20  3  30 
The Center to Midpoint Method
Referring to

 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
FIGS. 3A3D use a dodecahedron);  2. A single face 16 of the regular polyhedron is chosen, as shown in
FIG. 3A ;  3. Center C of face 16, and midpoint M_{1 }of a first edge E_{1 }of face 16 are connected with a segment 18;
 4. A copy 20 of segment 18 is rotated about center C, such that copy 20 connects center C with a midpoint M_{2 }of a second edge E_{2 }adjacent to first edge E_{1}. The two segments 16 and 18 and the portions of edge E_{1 }and edge E_{2 }between midpoints M_{1 }and M_{2 }define an element 22; and
 5. Element 22 is patterned about vertex V of face 16 which is contained in element 22 and connects edges E_{1 }and E_{2 }to create a domain 14.
 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
When domain 14 is tessellated around a golf ball 10 to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in
TABLE 3  
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific Polyhedra  
When Using the Center to Midpoint Method  
Type of Polyhedron  Number of Vertices, P_{V}  Number of Domains 14 
Tetrahedron  4  4 
Cube  8  8 
Octahedron  6  6 
Dodecahedron  20  20 
Icosahedron  12  12 
The Center to Center Method
Referring to

 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
FIGS. 4A4D use a dodecahedron);  2. Two adjacent faces 16 a and 16 b of the regular polyhedron are chosen, as shown in
FIG. 4A ;  3. Center C_{1 }of face 16 a, and center C_{2 }of face 16 b are connected with a segment 18;
 4. A copy 20 of segment 18 is rotated 180 degrees about the midpoint M between centers C_{1 }and C_{2}, such that copy 20 also connects center C_{1 }with center C_{2}, as shown in
FIG. 4B . The two segments 16 and 18 define a first domain 14 a; and  5. Segment 18 is rotated equally about vertex V to define a second domain 14 b, as shown in
FIG. 4C .
 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
When first domain 14 a and second domain 14 b are tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in
TABLE 4  
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific  
Polyhedra When Using the Center to Center Method  
Number of  
Type of  Number of  Number of First  Number of  Number of  Second 
Polyhedron  Vertices, P_{V}  Domains 14a  Faces, P_{F}  Edges, P_{E}  Domains 14b 
Tetrahedron  4  6  4  3  4 
Cube  8  12  6  4  8 
Octahedron  6  9  8  3  6 
Dodecahedron  20  30  12  5  20 
Icosahedron  12  18  20  3  12 
The Midpoint to Midpoint Method
Referring to

 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
FIGS. 5A5D use a dodecahedron,FIGS. 11A11M and 15A15C use a tetrahedron);  2. A single face 16 of the regular polyhedron is projected onto a sphere, as shown in
FIGS. 5A and 11A ;  3. The midpoint M_{1 }of a first edge E_{1 }of face 16, and the midpoint M_{2 }of a second edge E_{2 }adjacent to first edge E_{1 }are connected with a segment 18, as shown in
FIGS. 5A and 11A ;  4. Segment 18 is patterned around center C of face 16, at an angle of rotation equal to 360/P_{E}, to form a first domain 14 a, as shown in
FIGS. 5B and 11B ;  5. Segment 18, along with the portions of first edge E_{1 }and second edge E_{2 }between midpoints M_{1 }and M_{2}, define an element 22, as shown in
FIGS. 5B and 11B ; and  6. Element 22 is patterned about the vertex V which connects edges E_{1 }and E_{2 }to create a second domain 14 b, as shown in
FIGS. 5C and 11C . The number of segments in the pattern that forms the second domain is equal to P_{F}*P_{E}/P_{V}.
 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
When first domain 14 a and second domain 14 b are tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in
In a particular aspect of the embodiment shown in
TABLE 5  
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific Polyhedra  
When Using the Midpoint to Midpoint Method  
Number  Number  
Type of  Number of  of First  Number of  of Second 
Polyhedron  Faces, P_{F}  Domains 14a  Vertices, P_{V}  Domains 14b 
Tetrahedron  4  4  4  4 
Cube  6  6  8  8 
Octahedron  8  8  6  6 
Dodecahedron  12  12  20  20 
Icosahedron  20  20  12  12 
The Midpoint to Vertex Method
Referring to

 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
FIGS. 6A6D use a dodecahedron);  2. A single face 16 of the regular polyhedron is chosen, as shown in
FIG. 6A ;  3. A midpoint M_{1 }of edge E_{1 }of face 16 and a vertex V_{1 }on edge E_{1 }are connected with a segment 18;
 4. Copies 20 of segment 18 is patterned about center C of face 16, one for each midpoint M_{2 }and vertex V_{2 }of face 16, to define a portion of domain 14, as shown in
FIG. 6B ; and  5. Segment 18 and copies 20 are then each rotated 180 degrees about their respective midpoints to complete domain 14, as shown in
FIG. 6C .
 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
When domain 14 is tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in
TABLE 6  
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific Polyhedra  
When Using the Midpoint to Vertex Method  
Type of Polyhedron  Number of Faces, P_{F}  Number of Domains 14 
Tetrahedron  4  4 
Cube  6  6 
Octahedron  8  8 
Dodecahedron  12  12 
Icosahedron  20  20 
The Vertex to Vertex Method
Referring to

 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
FIGS. 7A7C use an icosahedron);  2. A single face 16 of the regular polyhedron is chosen, as shown in
FIG. 7A ;  3. A first vertex V_{1 }face 16, and a second vertex V_{2 }adjacent to first vertex V_{1 }are connected with a segment 18;
 4. Segment 18 is patterned around center C of face 16 to form a first domain 14 a, as shown in
FIG. 7B ;  5. Segment 18, along with edge E_{1 }between vertices V_{1 }and V_{2}, defines an element 22; and
 6. Element 22 is rotated around midpoint M_{1 }of edge E_{1 }to create a second domain 14 b.
 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
When first domain 14 a and second domain 14 b are tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in
TABLE 7  
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific Polyhedra  
When Using the Vertex to Vertex Method  
Number  Number  Number of  
Type of  Number of  of First  of Edges  Second 
Polyhedron  Faces, P_{F}  Domains 14a  per Face, P_{E}  Domains 14b 
Tetrahedron  4  4  3  6 
Cube  6  6  4  12 
Octahedron  8  8  3  12 
Dodecahedron  12  12  5  30 
Icosahedron  20  20  3  30 
While the six methods previously described each make use of two control points, it is possible to create irregular domains based on more than two control points. For example, three, or even more, control points may be used. The use of additional control points allows for potentially different shapes for irregular domains. An exemplary method using a midpoint M, a center C and a vertex V as three control points for creating one irregular domain is described below.
The Midpoint to Center to Vertex Method
Referring to

 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
FIGS. 8A8E use an icosahedron);  2. A single face 16 of the regular polyhedron is chosen, as shown in
FIG. 8A ;  3. A midpoint M_{1 }on edge E_{1 }of face 16, Center C of face 16 and a vertex V_{1 }on edge E_{1 }are connected with a segment 18, and segment 18 and the portion of edge E_{1 }between midpoint M_{1 }and vertex V_{1 }define a first element 22 a, as shown in
FIG. 8A ;  4. A copy 20 of segment 18 is rotated about center C, such that copy 20 connects center C with a midpoint M_{2 }on edge E_{2 }adjacent to edge E_{1}, and connects center C with a vertex V_{2 }at the intersection of edges E_{1 }and E_{2}, and the portion of segment 18 between midpoint M_{1 }and center C, the portion of copy 20 between vertex V_{2 }and center C, and the portion of edge E_{1 }between midpoint M_{1 }and vertex V_{2 }define a second element 22 b, as shown in
FIG. 8B ;  5. First element 22 a and second element 22 b are rotated about midpoint M_{1 }of edge E_{1}, as seen in
FIG. 8C , to define two domains 14, wherein a single domain 14 is bounded solely by portions of segment 18 and copy 20 and the rotation 18′ of segment 18, as seen inFIG. 8D .
 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
When domain 14 is tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in
TABLE 8  
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific Polyhedra  
When Using the Midpoint to Center to Vertex Method  
Number  Number of  
Type of Polyhedron  Number of Faces, P_{F}  of Edges, P_{E}  Domains 14 
Tetrahedron  4  3  12 
Cube  6  4  24 
Octahedron  8  3  24 
Dodecahedron  12  5  60 
Icosahedron  20  3  60 
While the methods described previously provide a framework for the use of center C, vertex V, and midpoint M as the only control points, other control points are useable. For example, a control point may be any point P on an edge E of the chosen polyhedron face. When this type of control point is used, additional types of domains may be generated, though the mechanism for creating the irregular domain(s) may be different. An exemplary method, using a center C and a point P on an edge, for creating one such irregular domain is described below.
The Center to Edge Method
Referring to

 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
FIGS. 9A9E use an icosahedron);  2. A single face 16 of the regular polyhedron is chosen, as shown in
FIG. 9A ;  3. Center C of face 16, and a point P_{1 }on edge E_{1 }are connected with a segment 18;
 4. A copy 20 of segment 18 is rotated about center C, such that copy 20 connects center C with a point P_{2 }on edge E_{2 }adjacent to edge E_{1}, where point P_{2 }is positioned identically relative to edge E_{2 }as point P_{1 }is positioned relative to edge E_{1}, such that the two segments 18 and 20 and the portions of edges E_{1 }and E_{2 }between points P_{1 }and P_{2}, respectively, and a vertex V, which connects edges E_{1 }and E_{2}, define an element 22, as shown best in
FIG. 9B ; and  5. Element 22 is rotated about midpoint M_{1 }of edge E_{1 }or midpoint M_{2 }of edge E_{2}, whichever is located within element 22, as seen in
FIGS. 9B9C , to create a domain 14, as seen inFIG. 9D .
 1. A regular polyhedron is chosen (
When domain 14 is tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in
TABLE 9  
Domains Resulting From Use of Specific Polyhedra When Using the  
Center to Edge Method  
Number  Number of  
Type of Polyhedron  Number of Faces, P_{F}  of Edges, P_{E}  Domains 14 
Tetrahedron  4  3  6 
Cube  6  4  12 
Octahedron  8  3  12 
Dodecahedron  12  5  30 
Icosahedron  20  3  30 
Though each of the above described methods has been explained with reference to regular polyhedrons, they may also be used with certain nonregular polyhedrons, such as Archimedean Solids, Catalan Solids, or others. The methods used to derive the irregular domains will generally require some modification in order to account for the nonregular face shapes of the nonregular solids. An exemplary method for use with a Catalan Solid, specifically a rhombic dodecahedron, is described below.
A Vertex to Vertex Method for a Rhombic Dodecahedron
Referring to

 1. A single face 16 of the rhombic dodecahedron is chosen, as shown in
FIG. 10A ;  2. A first vertex V_{1 }face 16, and a second vertex V_{2 }adjacent to first vertex V_{1 }are connected with a segment 18, as shown in
FIG. 10B ;  3. A first copy 20 of segment 18 is rotated about vertex V_{2}, such that it connects vertex V_{2 }to vertex V3 of face 16, a second copy 24 of segment 18 is rotated about center C, such that it connects vertex V_{3 }and vertex V_{4 }of face 16, and a third copy 26 of segment 18 is rotated about vertex V_{1 }such that it connects vertex V_{1 }to vertex V_{4}, all as shown in
FIG. 10C , to form a domain 14, as shown inFIG. 10D ;
 1. A single face 16 of the rhombic dodecahedron is chosen, as shown in
When domain 14 is tessellated to cover the surface of golf ball 10, as shown in
After the irregular domain(s) are created using any of the above methods, the domain(s) may be packed with dimples in order to be usable in creating golf ball 10.
In
In a particular embodiment, as illustrated in
In one embodiment, there are no limitations on how the dimples are packed. In another embodiment, the dimples are packed such that no dimple intersects a line segment. In the embodiment shown in
In a particular embodiment, the dimples are packed such that all nearest neighbor dimples are separated by substantially the same distance, δ, wherein the average of all δ values is from 0.002 inches to 0.020 inches, and wherein any individual δ value can vary from the mean by ±0.005 inches. For purposes of the present invention, nearest neighbor dimples are determined according to the following method. Two tangency lines are drawn from the center of a first dimple to a potential nearest neighbor dimple. A line segment is then drawn connecting the center of the first dimple to the center of the potential nearest neighbor dimple. If the two tangency lines and the line segment do not intersect any other dimple edges, then those dimples are considered to be nearest neighbors. For example, as shown in
Each dimple typically has a diameter of 0.050 or 0.100 or 0.150 or 0.180 or 0.205 or 0.250 or 0.300 or 0.350 inches, or a diameter within a range having a lower limit and an upper limit selected from these values. The diameter of a dimple having a noncircular plan shape is defined by its equivalent diameter, d_{e}, which calculated as:
where A is the plan shape area of the dimple. Diameter measurements are determined on finished golf balls according to
In a particular embodiment, all of the dimples on the outer surface of the ball have the same diameter. It should be understood that “same diameter” dimples includes dimples on a finished ball having respective diameters that differ by less than 0.005 inches due to manufacturing variances.
In a particular aspect of the embodiments disclosed herein wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the number of different dimple diameters, D, on the outer surface is related to the total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface, such that if:

 N<312, then D≤5;
 N=312, then D≤4;
 312<N<328, then D≤5;
 N=328, then D≤6;
 328<N<352, then D≤5;
 N=352, then D≤4;
 352<N<376, then D≤5;
 N=376, then D≤7; and
 N>376, then D≤5.
For example, in the embodiment shown in
In another particular aspect of the embodiments disclosed herein wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the number of different dimple diameters, D, on the outer surface is related to the total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface, such that if:

 N<320, then D≤4;
 320≤N<350, then D≤6;
 350≤N<360, then D≤4; and
 N≥360, then D≤7.
In another particular aspect of the embodiments disclosed herein wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the number of different dimple diameters, D, on the outer surface is related to the total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface, such that if:

 N<328, then D>5;
 N=328, then D>7;
 328<N<376, then D>5;
 N=376, then D>8; and
 N>376, then D>5.
In another particular aspect of the embodiments disclosed herein wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, wherein the number of different dimple diameters, D, on the outer surface is related to the total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface, such that if:

 N<320, then D≥6;
 320≤N<350, then D≥7;
 350≤N<360, then D≥6; and
 N≥360, then D≥9.
In another particular aspect of the embodiments disclosed herein wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the number of different dimple diameters, D, on the outer surface is related to the total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface, such that if 260<N<312, then D≥6. In a further particular aspect of this embodiment, the dimples are arranged in multiple copies of a first domain and a second domain formed according to the midpoint to midpoint method based on a tetrahedron wherein the first domain and the second domain are tessellated to cover the outer surface of the golf ball in a uniform pattern having no great circles. The overall dimple pattern consists of four first domains and four second domains. The first domain has threeway rotational symmetry about the central point of the first domain. The second domain has threeway rotational symmetry about the central point of the second domain. The dimple pattern within the first domain is different from the dimple pattern within the second domain. The dimples optionally have one or more of the following additional characteristics:

 a) a majority of the dimples on the outer surface of the ball, i.e., greater than 50% for purposes of the present disclosure, are spherical dimples having a circular plan shape and a crosssectional profile defined by a spherical function;
 b) each spherical dimple has an edge angle of 11° or 12° or 13.5° or 14.5° or 15° or an edge angle within a range having an upper limit and a lower limit selected from these values;
 c) all of the dimples within the first domain have the same edge angle, i.e., their respective edge angles differ by no more than 0.2°;
 d) all of the dimples within the second domain have the same edge angle, i.e., their respective edge angles differ by no more than 0.2°;
 e) all of the dimples on the surface of the ball have the same edge angle, i.e., their respective edge angles differ by no more than 0.2°;
 f) the first domain consists of dimples having a total number of different dimple diameters, D_{D1}, the second domain consists of dimples having a total number of different dimple diameters, D_{D2}, and D_{D1}=D_{D2}, optionally the different dimple diameters of the first domain include at least one diameter that is not present in the second domain;
 g) the first domain consists of a total number of dimples located therein, N_{D1}, the second domain consists of a total number of dimples located therein, N_{D2}, and N_{D1}≠N_{D2}, optionally the difference in N_{D1 }and N_{D2 }is 1 or 2 or 3 or 4;
 h) one or more dimples on the outer surface has a noncircular plan shape;
 i) each of the dimples has a dimple diameter of from about 0.050 inches to about 0.250 inches;
 j) all nearest neighbor dimples are separated by substantially the same distance, δ, the average of all δ values is from 0.002 inches to 0.020 inches, and any individual δ value does not vary from the mean by more than 0.005 inches;
 k) the central point of the first domain is not the center of a dimple;
 l) the central point of the second domain is not the center of a dimple;
 m) the total number of dimples on the outer surface of the ball is 300;
 n) a majority of the dimples each have a dimple surface volume within the region illustrated in
FIG. 14 ; and  o) a majority of the dimples each have a dimple surface volume, DV, such that 0.0300A^{2}+0.0016A−3.00×10^{−6}<DV<−0.0464A^{2}+0.0135A−2.00×10^{−5}, where A is the dimple plan shape area, and wherein 0.0025≤A (in^{2})≤0.045.
For example, in the embodiment shown in
TABLE 10  
Nonlimiting Examples of Dimple Properties for the Dimples of FIGS. 11K11M Dimple  
Pattern Generated Using the Midpoint to Midpoint Method Based on a Tetrahedron  
Examples 13  Examples 13  Example 1  Example 2  Example 3  
Examples 13  Dimple  Plan Shape  Edge  Surface  Edge  Surface  Edge  Surface 
Dimple  Diameter  Area  Angle  Volume  Angle  Volume  Angle  Volume 
Label  (in)  (in^{2})  (°)  (in^{3})  (°)  (in^{3})  (°)  (in^{3}) 
1  0.130  0.0133  11.0  4.15 × 10^{−5}  13.5  5.10 × 10^{−5}  15.0  5.67 × 10^{−5} 
2  0.150  0.0177  11.0  6.37 × 10^{−5}  13.5  7.83 × 10^{−5}  15.0  8.71 × 10^{−5} 
3  0.160  0.0201  11.0  7.73 × 10^{−5}  13.5  9.50 × 10^{−5}  15.0  1.06 × 10^{−4} 
4  0.170  0.0227  11.0  9.27 × 10^{−5}  13.5  1.14 × 10^{−4}  15.0  1.27 × 10^{−4} 
5  0.180  0.0254  11.0  1.10 × 10^{−4}  13.5  1.35 × 10^{−4}  15.0  1.50 × 10^{−4} 
6  0.190  0.0284  11.0  1.29 × 10^{−4}  13.5  1.59 × 10^{−4}  15.0  1.77 × 10^{−4} 
7  0.200  0.0314  11.0  1.51 × 10^{−4}  13.5  1.85 × 10^{−4}  15.0  2.06 × 10^{−4} 
In another particular aspect of the embodiments disclosed herein wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the number of different dimple diameters, D, on the outer surface is related to the total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface, such that if 140<N<260, then D≥3 or D≥5. In a further particular aspect of this embodiment, the dimples are arranged in multiple copies of a first domain and a second domain formed according to the midpoint to midpoint method based on a tetrahedron wherein the first domain and the second domain are tessellated to cover the outer surface of the golf ball in a uniform pattern having no great circles. The overall dimple pattern consists of four first domains and four second domains. The first domain has threeway rotational symmetry about the central point of the first domain. The second domain has threeway rotational symmetry about the central point of the second domain. The dimple pattern within the first domain is different from the dimple pattern within the second domain. The dimples optionally have one or more of the following additional characteristics:

 a) a majority of the dimples on the outer surface of the ball, i.e., greater than 50% for purposes of the present disclosure, are spherical dimples having a circular plan shape and a crosssectional profile defined by a spherical function;
 b) each spherical dimple has an edge angle of 13° or 14° or 15° or 15.5° or 16.5° or 17° or 18° or 19° or an edge angle within a range having an upper limit and a lower limit selected from these values;
 c) the first domain consists of a total number of dimples located therein, N_{D1}, the second domain consists of a total number of dimples located therein, N_{D2}, and N_{D1}≠N_{D2};
 d) optionally the difference in N_{D1 }and N_{D2 }is 1 or 2 or 3 or 4, or the difference is within a range having a lower limit and an upper limit selected from these values;
 e) N_{D1}<30, or N_{D1}<20;
 f) N_{D2}<30, or N_{D2}<20;
 g) one or more dimples on the outer surface has a noncircular plan shape;
 h) each of the dimples has a dimple diameter of from about 0.150 inches to about 0.350 inches;
 i) at least one dimple has a dimple diameter of 0.300 inches or greater;
 j) each of the dimples has a dimple diameter of 0.180 inches or greater;
 k) at least one dimple has a dimple depth of greater than 0.020 inches;
 l) the central point of the first domain is not the center of a dimple;
 m) the central point of the second domain is the center of a dimple; and
 n) the dimples cover greater than 70%, or greater than 75%, of the outer surface of the golf ball.
For example, in the embodiment shown in
TABLE 11  
Nonlimiting Example of Dimple Properties for the Dimples  
of FIGS. 15A15C Dimple Pattern Generated Using the  
Midpoint to Midpoint Method Based on a Tetrahedron  
DOMAIN 1 (designated by shading in FIG. 15A)  
Dimple  Dimple  Edge Angle  Dimple  Number of Dimples 
Label  Diameter (in)  (°)  Depth (in)  located in Domain 1 
1  0.180  16.0  0.0126  3 
2  0.200  16.0  0.0140  6 
4  0.280  16.0  0.0196  3 
5  0.300  16.0  0.0210  6 
DOMAIN 2 (designated by shading in FIG. 15B)  
Dimple  Dimple  Edge Angle  Dimple  Number of Dimples 
Label  Diameter (in)  (°)  Depth (in)  located in Domain 2 
2  0.200  16.0  0.0140  7 
3  0.250  16.0  0.0175  6 
4  0.280  16.0  0.0196  6 
In a further particular aspect of the above embodiments wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the total number of dimples on the outer surface is less than 320, the number of different dimple diameters is less than or equal to 4, and the sample standard deviation is less than 0.0175. In another further particular aspect of the above embodiments wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the total number of dimples on the outer surface is greater than or equal to 320 but less than 350, the number of different dimple diameters is less than or equal to 6, and the sample standard deviation is less than 0.0200. In another further particular aspect of the above embodiments wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the total number of dimples on the outer surface is greater than or equal to 350 but less than 360, the number of different dimple diameters is less than or equal to 4, and the sample standard deviation is less than 0.0155. In another further particular aspect of the above embodiments wherein there are two or more different dimple diameters on the outer surface of the ball, the total number of dimples on the outer surface is greater than or equal to 360, the number of different dimple diameters is less than or equal to 7, and the sample standard deviation is less than 0.0200. Sample standard deviation, s, is defined by the equation:
where x_{i }is the diameter of any given dimple on the outer surface of the ball,
It should be understood that manufacturing variances are to be taken into account when determining the number of different dimple diameters. The placement of the dimple in the overall pattern should also be taken into account. Specifically, dimples located in the same location within the multiple copies of the domain(s) that are tessellated to form the dimple pattern are assumed to be same diameter dimples, unless they have a difference in diameter of 0.005 inches or greater.
There are no limitations to the dimple shapes or profiles selected to pack the domains. Though the present invention includes substantially circular dimples in one embodiment, dimples or protrusions (brambles) having any desired characteristics and/or properties may be used. For example, in one embodiment the dimples may have a variety of shapes and sizes including different depths and perimeters. In particular, the dimples may be concave hemispheres, or they may be triangular, square, hexagonal, catenary, polygonal or any other shape known to those skilled in the art. They may also have straight, curved, or sloped edges or sides. To summarize, any type of dimple or protrusion (bramble) known to those skilled in the art may be used with the present invention. The dimples may all fit within each domain, as seen in
In other embodiments, the domains may not be packed with dimples, and the borders of the irregular domains may instead comprise ridges or channels. In golf balls having this type of irregular domain, the one or more domains or sets of domains preferably overlap to increase surface coverage of the channels. Alternatively, the borders of the irregular domains may comprise ridges or channels and the domains are packed with dimples.
When the domain(s) is patterned onto the surface of a golf ball, the arrangement of the domains dictated by their shape and the underlying polyhedron ensures that the resulting golf ball has a high order of symmetry, equaling or exceeding 12. The order of symmetry of a golf ball produced using the method of the current invention will depend on the regular or nonregular polygon on which the irregular domain is based. The order and type of symmetry for golf balls produced based on the five regular polyhedra are listed below in Table 12.
TABLE 12  
Symmetry of Golf Ball of the  
Present Invention as a Function of Polyhedron  
Type of Polyhedron  Type of Symmetry  Symmetrical Order 
Tetrahedron  Chiral Tetrahedral Symmetry  12 
Cube  Chiral Octahedral Symmetry  24 
Octahedron  Chiral Octahedral Symmetry  24 
Dodecahedron  Chiral Icosahedral Symmetry  60 
Icosahedron  Chiral Icosahedral Symmetry  60 
These high orders of symmetry have several benefits, including more even dimple distribution, the potential for higher packing efficiency, and improved means to mask the ball parting line. Further, dimple patterns generated in this manner may have improved flight stability and symmetry as a result of the higher degrees of symmetry.
In other embodiments, the irregular domains do not completely cover the surface of the ball, and there are open spaces between domains that may or may not be filled with dimples. This allows dissymmetry to be incorporated into the ball.
Dimple patterns of the present invention are particularly suitable for packing dimples on seamless golf balls. Seamless golf balls and methods of producing such are further disclosed, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,849,007 and 7,422,529, the entire disclosures of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference.
In a particular aspect of the embodiments disclosed herein, golf balls of the present invention have a total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface thereof, wherein N is an integer that is divisible by 4 and within a range of from 260 to 424. In a further particular aspect, golf balls of the present invention have a total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface thereof, of 260 or 280 or 300 or 304 or 308 or 312 or 328 or 348 or 352 or 376 or 388. Alternatively, the present invention provides for a low dimple count embodiment wherein golf balls of the present invention have a total number of dimples, N, on the outer surface thereof, wherein N is an integer that is divisible by 4 and less than 160.
Aerodynamic characteristics of golf balls of the present invention can be described by aerodynamic coefficient magnitude and aerodynamic force angle. Based on a dimple pattern generated according to the present invention, in one embodiment, the golf ball achieves an aerodynamic coefficient magnitude of from 0.25 to 0.32 and an aerodynamic force angle of from 30° to 38° at a Reynolds Number of 230000 and a spin ratio of 0.085. Based on a dimple pattern generated according to the present invention, in another embodiment, the golf ball achieves an aerodynamic coefficient magnitude of from 0.26 to 0.33 and an aerodynamic force angle of from 32° to 40° at a Reynolds Number of 180000 and a spin ratio of 0.101. Based on a dimple pattern generated according to the present invention, in another embodiment, the golf ball achieves an aerodynamic coefficient magnitude of from 0.27 to 0.37 and an aerodynamic force angle of from 35° to 44° at a Reynolds Number of 133000 and a spin ratio of 0.133. Based on a dimple pattern generated according to the present invention, in another embodiment, the golf ball achieves an aerodynamic coefficient magnitude of from 0.32 to 0.45 and an aerodynamic force angle of from 39° to 45° at a Reynolds Number of 89000 and a spin ratio of 0.183. For purposes of the present disclosure, aerodynamic coefficient magnitude (C_{mag}) is defined by C_{mag}=(C_{L} ^{2}+C_{D} ^{2})^{1/2 }and aerodynamic force angle (C_{angle}) is defined by C_{angle}=tan^{−1}(C_{L}/C_{D}), where C_{L }is a lift coefficient and C_{D }is a drag coefficient. Aerodynamic characteristics of a golf ball, including aerodynamic coefficient magnitude and aerodynamic force angle, are disclosed, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 6,729,976 to Bissonnette et al., the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference. Aerodynamic coefficient magnitude and aerodynamic force angle values are calculated using the average lift and drag values obtained when 30 balls are tested in a random orientation. Reynolds number is an average value for the test and can vary by plus or minus 3%. Spin ratio is an average value for the test and can vary by plus or minus 5%.
When numerical lower limits and numerical upper limits are set forth herein, it is contemplated that any combination of these values may be used.
All patents, publications, test procedures, and other references cited herein, including priority documents, are fully incorporated by reference to the extent such disclosure is not inconsistent with this invention and for all jurisdictions in which such incorporation is permitted.
While the illustrative embodiments of the invention have been described with particularity, it will be understood that various other modifications will be apparent to and can be readily made by those of ordinary skill in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, it is not intended that the scope of the claims appended hereto be limited to the examples and descriptions set forth herein, but rather that the claims be construed as encompassing all of the features of patentable novelty which reside in the present invention, including all features which would be treated as equivalents thereof by those of ordinary skill in the art to which the invention pertains.
Claims (12)
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US12/262,464 US8029388B2 (en)  20081031  20081031  Dimple patterns for golf balls 
US12/894,827 US20110021292A1 (en)  20081031  20100930  Dimple patterns for golf balls 
US13/973,237 US9468810B2 (en)  20081031  20130822  Dimple patterns for golf balls 
US15/242,172 US9833664B2 (en)  20081031  20160819  Dimple patterns for golf balls 
US15/242,117 US9901781B2 (en)  20081031  20160819  Dimple patterns for golf balls 
US15/379,559 US9855465B2 (en)  20081031  20161215  Dimple patterns for golf balls 
US15/848,070 US10213652B2 (en)  20081031  20171220  Dimple patterns for golf balls 
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