US1018720A - Silencing device for firearms. - Google Patents

Silencing device for firearms. Download PDF

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Publication number
US1018720A
US1018720A US1908423905A US1018720A US 1018720 A US1018720 A US 1018720A US 1908423905 A US1908423905 A US 1908423905A US 1018720 A US1018720 A US 1018720A
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
valve
barrel
bore
gases
firearm
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Inventor
Hiram Percy Maxim
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
MAXIM SILENT FIREARMS Co
Original Assignee
MAXIM SILENT FIREARMS Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A21/00Barrels; Gun tubes; Muzzle attachments; Barrel mounting means
    • F41A21/30Silencers

Description

H. P. MAXIM.

SILENOING DEVICE FOR FIREARMS.

APPLICATION FILED MAR. 28, 1908. 1,@18,'?20. v PatentedFeb. 27, 1912.

4 SHEETS-SHEET I.

M TNESSE-S H. P. MAXIM.

SILENGING DEVICE FOR FIREARMS.

APPLIGATION FILED MAR. 28, 1908.

Patented Feb. 27, 1912.

4 SHEETS-SHEET 2.

INVENTOR.

WITNESSES.-

ATTORNEYS. v

H. P. MAXIM.

SILBNGING ngymn FOR FIREARMS. I APPLICATION FILED MAR. 28, 1908.

1,018,720. Patented Feb. 27, 1912.

' 7V 4 SHEETS-SHEET s.

WITNESSES INVENTOR.

' wm@ w ,QM- ma;

H. P. MAXIM.

SILENGING DEVICE FOR FIREARMS.

APPLICATION FILED MAR. 28, 1908.

Patented Feb. 27, 1912.

wlmzo,

4 SHEETS-SHEET 4.

"To a'l l whom it may concern:

UNITED srnrns Parana carton.

Emu: rEacY MAXIM, or marronn,

CONNEGTIGIl'T, ASSIGNOR TO MAXIM SILENT stamens count or EW YORK, N. Y., A ooaroaerrron or new JERSEY.-

" Be it known that I, HIRAM PEncY MAXIM,

citizen of the United States, residing in 'structed." Furthermore, of the silencing device the projectile,

the city of Hartford, in the Stateof Gon necticut, haveinvented certain new and useful Improvements in Silencing Devices for I Firearms, fication,

panying drawings,forming a part hereofn of which the following is a speci reference being had to the-accom Thls invention relates to devices for silenc-. mg the report of firearms, such as are shown,

. for example, in-Letters Patent of the United States No. 880,386 dated February 25, 19( )8. In the development of the invention dlsclosed in said patentit'hasbecome apparent that provision must be made to meet various conditions. Thus safety devices should be grovided whereby it shall be impossible to scharge the firearm whenever the bore of the gun is in any degree obstructed b the silencing device, whether such device e of the particular kind shown in said patent or of some other kind. This requirement may be met by providing interconnection between the silencingdevice and some part of the operating mechanism (broadly. speaking), whereby the movement 'of such mechanism, before firing, shall insure the movement of the silencing device-to such a position asto leave the bore of the gun entirely unobas the moving part must be as light as possible so that. it shall move to silencing position immediately after the passage of it is necessary-that the interconnection between the operating, mechanism andthe silencing device shall ,be of such character as topermit the silencing dee vlce to move independently of the connections, and that provision shall be madeto insure the prompt movement of the silencing device. 'Agaiinas the silencing device moves under great pressure and as it requires almost as much resistance to stop the movement of the silencing device as is required to-start it, such devices for checking the movement thereof must be'provided as shall operate e'fiiciently and at thesame time prevent the parts from being battered. to pieces. Still further, device as that shown in said patent, in which a valve'or piston is moved by the gaspressure to obstruct the bore'and is v checked in its movement byan air or gas cushion, and

with such a silencing.

left.' .Fig. 7' is a j srmircrne Damon roe FI ARMS} mama Feb. 2a rare.

space occupied by such air or gas cushion in which a partial vacuum is formed in the when the valve -or piston is returned to its normal position to leave the bore unobstructed,provision must be made whereby the valve or piston shall be prevented from moving from its normal position by such vacuum. Again, the silencing device must be eflectually prevented from movement accidentally or permaturely, as by the air pressure developed in the bore of the firearm ahead of the projectile, or by the moderate gas pressure developed by leakage of the gas past the projectile,

and must be moved with certainty under the action of the high gas pressure which follows the projectile. It is the object of the present invention to meet these requirements and the means whereby this object is to be attained will presently be described with reference to the accompanying: drawings in which the improvements are shown as embodied in a convenient and practical structure. It will be understood,'moreover, that while all of these practical essentials of a satisfactory. firearm are herein shown and described as 'co6perating with a silencing device of the particular character shown 'in said patent, and

while some of such devices are directly dependent upon the peculiarities of constructlon and operation of that silencing device, nevertheless other of such devices maybe used in connection with silencing devices of a other. forms.

In the 'drawingsFigure' 1 is a View in side elevation, partly broken away, of a sportin -rifle ofordinary construction to which t e invention is applied. Fig. 2 is a detail view in transverse section on the plane indicatedby the line 2*2 of Fig. 1, but. on a muchlarger scale. Fig.3 is a view in side elevation, on a larger scale than that of Fig. 1, showing so muchof the rifle as is necessary to illustrate the connections to the operat ng mechanism. Fig. 4 is a dc tall view, partly in vertical central section and partly in elevation, tron of the rifle, vlce. 5' is a 'of t-he' muzzle porincluding the silencing'de detail view in' vertical cenv,tral section showing a modification in the.

construction oft-he ,de tenflhereinafter referred to. Fig. 6 isa detail view in section on the line 6+6 detail view insection on of Fig. 4, looking to the i .the line 7-7- of Fig 6. Fig. 8 is a .view in side elevation of that portion of the, rifle which-is shown in section in Fig. 4. Fig 9 is a detail view in section on the plane indicated by the line 9-9 of Fig. 8. Fig. 10 is a detail view in section on the plane 1ndicated by the line 10-10 of Fig. 8. Fig. 11 is a detail view in section on the plane. indicated by the line 1111 of Fig. 8. Fig. w 12 is a view in'longitudinal section of the rifle barrel, some of the adjacent parts being-shown in section and in elevation. Fig. '13 is a detail view similar to Fig. 12, but'on a larger scale and with some of the parts [5 broken out to save space. Fig. 14 is a view in elevation of a mounted field piece to v-which the invention is applied, the axle of the gun carriage being shown in section. Fig. 15 is a detail view illustrating somewhat more clearly than Fig. 14, and 'on a 'larger scale, the connection between the breech and the silencing dev ice.

The devicesabout to be described are capable, as will be seen, of application to, firearms of' various kinds, such as rifles, shotguns, revolvers, machine guns, field pieces, &c. The firearm represented in Fig. *1 is an ordinary sporting rifle comprising a barrel a, a stock a, and operating mechanism which, in the present instance, is sufficiently represented by the movable trig= ger guard (2 This, in the firearm of the well lmown character illustrated, is swung downwardly into the position represented -by dotted lines in Fig. 1 to effect the removal'of therempty cartridge shell from the chamber of the barrel, is moved back to the full line position for the purpose of effecting the placing of a fresh cartridge in the 40 chamber of the barrel, and must be fully moved to each. of its several positions, before the firearm can be discharged. 'At a point between the muzzle and the breech the barrel 0 is provided with an enlargement 6 within which is a chamber a, transverse to the axis of the barrel, into 1 'which the bore of the barrel opens, both from the rear and from the front. This enlargement is shown as extended vertically above andbelow the barrel, but obviously may be of different form than that shown and may be disposed in any desired position- The chamber 0 thereof receives a freely moving piston valve d, that is, a piston or valve which is unattached by a pivot 'joint or otherwise to any part of the fi ea'rm and is free to move under the influence of the powder gases, as hereinafter described. When in its normal position, the valve leaves the bore of the barrel unobstructed,

preferably being ofsuch length as to bereceived entirely in the lower portion of the chamber 0, below the bore of the barrel, and when moved .by the powder gases it 6 obstructs the bore of the barrel immediately after the passage of'the projectile beyond the chamber a. The valve is preferably hollow for the sake of lightness. The chamber a is extended beyond the bore of the barrel, as at 0', for a distance substantially equal to the travel of the valve d from its position of rest, until its head begins to overlap the bore of the'barrel, such extension 0 of the chamber affording an air or gas cushion which shall check the movement ofthe piston or valve without shock. The piston is fnoved from its position of rest by the pressure of the powder gases and in the. construction shown in the drawings such powder gases are admitted to the chamber 0 so that they may act upon the piston d througha suitable channel or passage provided therefor. .In order that the inertia of the piston or valve may be overcome andthe valve be moved with sufficient'rapidity to obstruct the bore of the barrel immediately after the passage of the projectile beyond the chamber 0 and before the projectile escapes at the muzzle of the barrel, it may be desirable to permit the gases to begin to act upon the piston or valve before the projectile actually reaches the chamber o. For this. purpose a channel or passage e may be formed in the barrel ,a, below the bore, and extencled'rearwardly to a point'near the breech. The rear end of the channel 6 may be closed by a suit-able plug, as e, and at the proper point an opening 6 may be provided between the bore; of the barrel and the channel e, through whichthe powder gases may be admitted into the channel e. At its forward "end the channel 6 is shown as communicating with one or more channels 0 formed in the enlargement Z) and through which the powder gases are conducted to the lower end-of the chamber o and are permitted to act against the lower end of the valve d to drive it from its normal position into a position in which it shall obstruct the bore of the barrel. There may also be formed in the barrel, below its bore and forward of the enlargement b, a chamber f, closed at its forward end. by a plug 1 and communicating with the bore of the barrel through an opening F, for the purpose of receiving such powder gases as may follow the projectile beyond the chamber 0 and thereby prevent such report as might be occasioned by the escape of such gases at the muzzle of the firearm.

It is desirable to provide means which shall prevent accidental movement of the "alve or piston, that is, movement from any cause whatever except the high pressure of the powder gases when the firearm is discharged, lest' otherwise the bore of the barrel be obstructed before the passage of the projectile beyond the. chamber 0. Y Such means might'be purely mechanical, as shown in Fig. 4, or they might be arranged to beactuated, to release the valve, by the high pressure of the powder gases, as shown in Fig. 5. In the construction shown in Fig. 4: there is provided a friction detent g, seated upon a spring g in asuitable chamber 9 provided therefor in the enlargement b of the barrel a. Such detent, having an obt-usely pointed end, engages a notch or depression formed therefor in the valve d. The form of the detent g'and the tension of the spring g are such as to retain the valve thereof and in the lower end of the valve d is formed a channel d which communicates with one of the channels e and permlts the pressure of the powder gases to be exerted v directly against'the end of the detent g to drive it back and so release the valve. A channel d is uncovered by the detent g as it reachesits unlocking position and permits' the gases to pass to the lower end of thevalve, as at (i so as to start the valve from-"its normal position. The valve is by this means held'positively locked against movement from its normalposition except as the high pressure of the powder gases drives the detent-back to release the valve.

- tablished with one or another moving part 03 to itsnormal position, that is, to the posi-- tion in which the bore ofthe barrel is unobstructed, before the firearm can be. dis charged, operative connections are established between the piston or valve and some moving part .of the operating mechanism,

which must be moved to position before the firearm can be discharged. p Obviously the connection may be of any suitable character,

according to the particulartypeor construc- -tion of the firearm to which the silencing device is applied, and connection'may be esof the operating mechanism, also according to the requirements of the particular type of the firearm. In theembodiment'of the inventionrepres'ented'in 'Fi 541,2 and 3' of the drawings, connection is-established,- as

hereinbefore stated, with the'movable trigger guard a of the rifle illustrated, and such trigger guard', for the purpose .of explanation of the nature of the inventionrepresents any movable part of the mechanism involved in the firing of the gun which must be moved, in the operation of the gun, before the gun can be discharged. The connecting mechanism between such trigger guard or movable art of the operating mechanism and the sllencing device, is also representative in its character. As shown it comprises a nut is arranged to move longitudinally upon the frame of the firearm and held from turning and connected by a link is with the movable trigger guard a so as to be moved I longitudinally with the swinging movement of the trigger guard. The nut engages a coarse screw Z carried by a rotatable but longitudinally immovable shaft Z, the said shaft being compelled to rotate first in one direction and then in the other by the reciprocations of the nut is. The shaft 1 is suitably mounted in the frame of the firearm and near its forward end isprovlded with a gear or pinion Z which meshes with a rack m arranged to slide in a suitable guide-way formed therefor in the enlargement b. The

.rack or slide m is provided with an arm 'm' and a key or finger m which projects through a slot 6', in the enlargement 7), into operative relation or engagement with the piston d, the piston being preferably formed with an elongated key-way or slot (2 so as to permit movement of the piston from normal position to its bore obstructing position, when released, without requiring movement of the connections by which the piston is returned to normalposition. 7 I

In Fig. 8, the slide m is represented in the position which it occupies when the trigger guard 11 is in the full line position shown in Fig. 1. In this position of the parts-the firearm is in readiness to be discharged and the valve can be moved from its normal position to its bore obstructing position-without requiring any other parts to be moved with it. Such movement of the valve brings the rear or lower end of the slot d up to the finger or key m so that when the trigger guard is moved to its dotted line position in Fig.- 1, for the purpose of discharging the empty cartridge shell, the movement "of the rack and finger will draw back the valve from its bore obstructing positionto its normal position in which it is again engaged by the detent g or 9 The movement of the trigger guard from its dotted line position to its full line position, in Fig. 1, moves the finger or; key m to theu'pper-end of the slot 0Z thus leaving the valve free to bemoved by the pressure of the powder gases. As the trigger guard must be moved to the" fullextent of its movement in order to; throw'out the empty shell and so prepare the firearm forv being reloaded, it is evident that the valve (2 will with certainty be returned to its normal position, in which it is locked, before the 16, by the enlargement b. The valve may also be returned to normal position by the rotation of the screw Z and shaft Z through the reciprocation of the nut is as before In this case, however, the nut is is shown as connected by a link to an arm is on a shaft In. Another arm 10 on the shaft is carries the breech k as usual in guns of this description. The opening of the breech for reloading therefore restores the valve of the silencing device to its normal position, in which it is locked by the detent provided for the purpose, and the closing of the breech moves the valve returning devices forward so as to leave the valve free to be moved by the pressure of the powder gases.

In describing the operation of the firearm it will be assumed, in the first place, that all parts of the gun are in readiness for the discharge, the trigger guard a being in the full line position, shown in Fig. 1,

the slide m-having been moved to the position shown inFigs. 8 and 10 and the piston cl being in the position shown in Fig. 4, in which it is held by the detent 9. Upon the discharge of the gun the pressure of the powder gases, as soon as the projectile passes the opening e is transmitted throu h the channels 6 ande to the lower end of t e piston d. In the'construction shown in Fig. 4, the impact of the gases upon the lower end of the piston is sufficient to overcome the resistance of the detent g and to start the valve from its position of rest. In the construction shown in Fig. 3, as already described, the pressure of the gases acts directly upon the detent g and so releases the valve and then efiects its movement. The valve is moved with great speed, after its inertia is onceovercome, and by properly selecting, according to the particular firearm, the point at which the opening 6 is formed between the bore of the barrel and the channel or passage e, the movement of the valve may be so timed as to cause the bore of the barrel to be obstructed immediately after the passage of the projectile beyond the chamber 0 and before 1t escapes at the muzzle. The obstruction of the bore by the movement of the valve is not abrupt but is gradual being accomplished by the avoided. The upward movement of the piston is checked and cushioned by the gas or air confined in the end a of the chamber 0, in advance of the piston, wherebythe piston is brought to rest easily and without hammering. The gases which are confined in the bore of the barrel and in the passage 6 by the movement of the valve across the bore, escape gradually through the vents h and h and the loud report, which would be occasioned by the sudden release of the gases at the muzzle, is avoided, the only sound being a slight hiss produced by the gradual passage of the gases through the vents. The return of the valve or piston by the manipulation of the firing mechanism is assisted by the expansion of the air or gases which were compressed in the chamber 0 in advance of the piston and the beginning of such return movement is automatic, taking place under the influence of the air or gas compressed in the chamber 0' as soon as the pressure at the base of the piston is somewhat relieved."

It is obvious that various changes of construction and arrangement of details may be made to meet difierent conditions presented in the application of the invention to different firearms or guns and that'the invention is not limited to the particular construction shown and described herein.

I claim as my invention:

1. A firearm comprising a barrel, operating' mechanism, a valve moved by the 4 direct pressure of the gases to obstruct th bore and operative 'connections between the valve and the operating mechanism whereby the valve is restored to normal position after operation.

2. A firearm comprising a-barrel, -operat-- ing mechanism, a freely moving piston valve actuated by the direct pressure of the gases to obstruct the bore, and operative connections' between said valve and the operating mechanism whereby the valve is restored to normal os1t1on after operat1on.

3. A rearm comprising a barrel, operating mechanism, a'sliding valve moved transversely by the direct pressure of the gases to obstruct the bore, and operative connections between said valve and the operating mechanism whereby the valve is restored to normal position after operation.

4. A firearm comprising a barrel, operating mechanism, a silencing device, a rotatable shaft in operative connection with the silencing device, and means actuated by the movement ofthe operating mechanism to actuate said shaft and restore the silencing device to normal position after operation.

5. A firearm comprising a barrel, operating mechanism, a valve to obstruct the bore, a "rotatable shaft inoperative connection with said valve, and means actuated by the movement of the operating mechanism to actuate'said shaft and restore the valve to normal position after operation.

.6. A firearm comprising a barrel, operating mechanism, a freely moving piston valve to obstruct the bore, a rotatable shaft in operative' connection with said valve, and means actuated by the movement of the operating mechanism to actuate said shaft and restore the valve to normal position after operation.

7. A firearm comprising a barrel, operating mechanism, a sliding valve moved transversely by the pressure of the gases to obstruct the bore, a sliding rack in operative connection-with said valve, a shaft in operative connection with the rack, and means actuated by the movement of the opcrating mechanism to rotate the shaft and restore the rack and valve to normal position.

8. A firearm comprising a barrel, operating mechanism,-a silencing device operated by direct pressure of the gases, and operative connections between the silencing device and the operating mechanism, whereby the silencing device is restored to normal position after operation, said connections permitting the silencing device to be moved by the pressure of the gases without requir-' mg movement of the connections.

9. A firearm comprising a barrel, operating mechanism, a valve moved by the direct pressure of the gases to obstruct the bore, and operative connections between the valve and the operating mechanism, whereby the valve is restored to normal position after operation, said connections permitting the valve to be moved by the pressure of the gases without movement of said connections.

10. A firearm comprising a barrel, operating mechanism, a sliding valve moved transversely to obstruct the bore by the direct pressure of the powder'gases, and operative connections between the sliding valve and the operating mechanism, whereby the sliding valve is restored to normal position after operation, said connections permitting the valve to be moved by the pressure of the gases without movement of the connections.

11. A firearm comprising a barrel, operating mechanism, a sliding valve moved transversely by the pressure of the gases to obstruct the bore, a slide operatively connected with the valve by a lug and elongated slot, whereby the valve may move independently of the slide in one direction, and means actuated by the movement of the operating mechanism to move said slide.

12. A firearm comprising a barrel provided with a chamber between the breech and the muzzle, a valve movable in said chamber by the direct pressure of thegases to obstruct the bore of the barrel, and means to lock the valve in normal position.

13. A firearm comprising a barrel provided with a chamber between the breech and the muzzle, a valve movable in said chamber by the direct pressure of the gases to obstruct the bore of the barrel, and a spring-seated detent to hold the valve in" normal position and actuated. by the pressure of the gases to release the valve.

14. A firearm comprising a barrel provided with a transverse chamber, a freely moving valve located in said chamber and actuated by the direct pressure of the gases to obstruct the bore of the barrel, and means to lock the valve in normal position. A 15. A firearm comprising a barrel provided with a. transverse chamber,a freely moving valve located in said chamber and actuated by the direct pressure of the gases to obstruct the bore of the barrel, and a spring-seated detent to hold the valve in normal position and moved by the pressure of the gases to release the valve.

16. A firearm comprising a barrel provided with a transverse chamber, a sliding valve movable in said chamber by the direct pressure of the gases, means to restore the valve to normal position after operation, and a lock to hold the valve in normal position.

This specification signed and witnessed this 26th day of March, A. D., 1908.

HIRAM PERCY MAXIM.

US1018720A 1908-03-28 1908-03-28 Silencing device for firearms. Expired - Lifetime US1018720A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5033356A (en) * 1990-01-16 1991-07-23 Richardson H Gary Firearm with noise suppressor
US6836991B1 (en) 2003-10-01 2005-01-04 Thomas W. Saur System and method for a cartridge casing catcher
US20050188599A1 (en) * 2003-10-01 2005-09-01 Saur Thomas W. Multi-position spent cartridge casing catcher

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5033356A (en) * 1990-01-16 1991-07-23 Richardson H Gary Firearm with noise suppressor
US6836991B1 (en) 2003-10-01 2005-01-04 Thomas W. Saur System and method for a cartridge casing catcher
US20050188599A1 (en) * 2003-10-01 2005-09-01 Saur Thomas W. Multi-position spent cartridge casing catcher
US7043863B2 (en) 2003-10-01 2006-05-16 Saur Thomas W Multi-position spent cartridge casing catcher

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