US10004751B2 - Compositions and methods for treating Dengue virus infection - Google Patents

Compositions and methods for treating Dengue virus infection Download PDF

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US10004751B2
US10004751B2 US15/324,561 US201515324561A US10004751B2 US 10004751 B2 US10004751 B2 US 10004751B2 US 201515324561 A US201515324561 A US 201515324561A US 10004751 B2 US10004751 B2 US 10004751B2
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Melanie Ott
Andrew S. Kondratowicz
Nevan John Krogan
Priya Shirish Shah
Krystal Ann Fontaine
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University of California
Gladstone J David Institute
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Gladstone J David Institute
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    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
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    • A61K31/33Heterocyclic compounds
    • A61K31/395Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins
    • A61K31/55Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having seven-membered rings, e.g. azelastine, pentylenetetrazole
    • A61K31/551Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having seven-membered rings, e.g. azelastine, pentylenetetrazole having two nitrogen atoms, e.g. dilazep
    • A61K31/55131,4-Benzodiazepines, e.g. diazepam or clozapine
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
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    • A61K31/18Sulfonamides
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    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
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    • A61K31/38Heterocyclic compounds having sulfur as a ring hetero atom
    • A61K31/381Heterocyclic compounds having sulfur as a ring hetero atom having five-membered rings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
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    • A61K31/435Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with one nitrogen as the only ring hetero atom
    • A61K31/44Non condensed pyridines; Hydrogenated derivatives thereof
    • A61K31/4427Non condensed pyridines; Hydrogenated derivatives thereof containing further heterocyclic ring systems
    • A61K31/444Non condensed pyridines; Hydrogenated derivatives thereof containing further heterocyclic ring systems containing a six-membered ring with nitrogen as a ring heteroatom, e.g. amrinone
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients
    • A61K31/33Heterocyclic compounds
    • A61K31/395Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins
    • A61K31/495Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with two or more nitrogen atoms as the only ring heteroatoms, e.g. piperazine or tetrazines
    • A61K31/505Pyrimidines; Hydrogenated pyrimidines, e.g. trimethoprim
    • A61K31/506Pyrimidines; Hydrogenated pyrimidines, e.g. trimethoprim not condensed and containing further heterocyclic rings
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    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
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    • A61K31/33Heterocyclic compounds
    • A61K31/395Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins
    • A61K31/495Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with two or more nitrogen atoms as the only ring heteroatoms, e.g. piperazine or tetrazines
    • A61K31/505Pyrimidines; Hydrogenated pyrimidines, e.g. trimethoprim
    • A61K31/519Pyrimidines; Hydrogenated pyrimidines, e.g. trimethoprim ortho- or peri-condensed with heterocyclic rings
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    • A61K31/535Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with at least one nitrogen and one oxygen as the ring hetero atoms, e.g. 1,2-oxazines
    • A61K31/53751,4-Oxazines, e.g. morpholine
    • A61K31/53771,4-Oxazines, e.g. morpholine not condensed and containing further heterocyclic rings, e.g. timolol
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients
    • A61K31/33Heterocyclic compounds
    • A61K31/395Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins
    • A61K31/55Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having seven-membered rings, e.g. azelastine, pentylenetetrazole
    • A61K31/551Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having seven-membered rings, e.g. azelastine, pentylenetetrazole having two nitrogen atoms, e.g. dilazep
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    • A61K9/0012Galenical forms characterised by the site of application
    • A61K9/0019Injectable compositions; Intramuscular, intravenous, arterial, subcutaneous administration; Compositions to be administered through the skin in an invasive manner
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61K9/0053Mouth and digestive tract, i.e. intraoral and peroral administration
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61PSPECIFIC THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS
    • A61P31/00Antiinfectives, i.e. antibiotics, antiseptics, chemotherapeutics
    • A61P31/12Antivirals
    • A61P31/14Antivirals for RNA viruses
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A50/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE in human health protection
    • Y02A50/30Against vector-borne diseases, e.g. mosquito-borne, fly-borne, tick-borne or waterborne diseases whose impact is exacerbated by climate change
    • Y02A50/38Medical treatment of vector-borne diseases characterised by the agent
    • Y02A50/381Medical treatment of vector-borne diseases characterised by the agent the vector-borne disease being caused by a virus
    • Y02A50/384Medical treatment of vector-borne diseases characterised by the agent the vector-borne disease being caused by a virus of the genus Flavivirus
    • Y02A50/385Medical treatment of vector-borne diseases characterised by the agent the vector-borne disease being caused by a virus of the genus Flavivirus the disease being Dengue

Abstract

The present disclosure provides methods of treating a flavivirus infection, and compositions for use in the methods.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCE

This application is a 35 U.S.C. § 371 national stage entry of International Application No. PCT/US15/39424, filed Jul. 7, 2015, which application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/022,891, filed Jul. 10, 2014, which applications are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.

INTRODUCTION

The genus flavivirus comprises about 70 viruses including major pathogens responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality in animals and humans, such as Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Yellow fever virus, virus of St. Louis encephalitis and Murray Valley virus.

Among flavivirus, Dengue virus is one of the major health problems worldwide, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Dengue virus is grouped into four serotypes: DEN1, DEN2, DEN3 and DEN4 and is transmitted to humans by vectors, mainly the Aedes aegypti mosquito. The patient infected with Dengue virus may be asymptomatic or symptomatic, with clinical symptoms such as undifferentiated fever (UF), dengue fever (DF) and two more severe and occasionally fatal forms, called dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS).

There is a need for treatments for flavivirus infection, including Dengue virus infection.

SUMMARY

The present disclosure provides methods of treating a flavivirus infection, and compositions for use in the methods.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 depicts interaction of Dengue virus (DENV) capsid with leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2).

FIG. 2A-2C depict inhibition of DENV lifecycle with an LRRK2 inhibitor.

FIG. 3 depicts the effect of LRRK2 depletion on the DENV lifecycle.

FIG. 4A-4B depict the effect of an LRRK2 inhibitor on DEVN replication in iMPC-Hepatocytes (iMPC-Heps).

FIG. 5A-5B provide an amino acid sequence of an LRRK2 polypeptide (SEQ ID NO: 1).

FIG. 6A-6C depict the effect of an ARFGAP1 inhibitor on DENV replication.

FIG. 7 provides an amino acid sequence of an ARFGAP1 polypeptide (SEQ ID NO:2).

DEFINITIONS Definitions of Selected Chemical Terminology

The nomenclature of certain compounds or substituents are used in their conventional sense, such as described in chemistry literature including but not limited to Loudon, Organic Chemistry, Fourth Edition, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 360-361, 1084-1085; Smith and March, March's Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure, Fifth Edition, Wiley-Interscience, 2001.

As used herein, the term “alkyl” by itself or as part of another substituent refers to a saturated branched or straight-chain monovalent hydrocarbon radical derived by the removal of one hydrogen atom from a single carbon atom of a parent alkane. Typical alkyl groups include, but are not limited to, methyl; ethyl, propyls such as propan-1-yl or propan-2-yl; and butyls such as butan-1-yl, butan-2-yl, 2-methyl-propan-1-yl or 2-methyl-propan-2-yl. In some embodiments, an alkyl group comprises from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. In other embodiments, an alkyl group comprises from 1 to 10 carbon atoms. In still other embodiments, an alkyl group comprises from 1 to 6 carbon atoms, such as from 1 to 4 carbon atoms.

“Alkanyl” by itself or as part of another substituent refers to a saturated branched, straight-chain or cyclic alkyl radical derived by the removal of one hydrogen atom from a single carbon atom of an alkane. Typical alkanyl groups include, but are not limited to, methanyl; ethanyl; propanyls such as propan-1-yl, propan-2-yl (isopropyl), cyclopropan-1-yl, etc.; butanyls such as butan-1-yl, butan-2-yl (sec-butyl), 2-methyl-propan-1-yl (isobutyl), 2-methyl-propan-2-yl (t-butyl), cyclobutan-1-yl, etc.; and the like.

“Alkylene” refers to a branched or unbranched saturated hydrocarbon chain, usually having from 1 to 40 carbon atoms, more usually 1 to 10 carbon atoms and even more usually 1 to 6 carbon atoms. This term is exemplified by groups such as methylene (—CH2—), ethylene (—CH2CH2—), the propylene isomers (e.g., —CH2CH2CH2— and —CH(CH3)CH2—) and the like.

“Alkenyl” by itself or as part of another substituent refers to an unsaturated branched, straight-chain or cyclic alkyl radical having at least one carbon-carbon double bond derived by the removal of one hydrogen atom from a single carbon atom of an alkene. The group may be in either the cis or trans conformation about the double bond(s). Typical alkenyl groups include, but are not limited to, ethenyl; propenyls such as prop-1-en-1-yl, prop-1-en-2-yl, prop-2-en-1-yl (allyl), prop-2-en-2-yl, cycloprop-1-en-1-yl; cycloprop-2-en-1-yl; butenyls such as but-1-en-1-yl, but-1-en-2-yl, 2-methyl-prop-1-en-1-yl, but-2-en-1-yl, but-2-en-1-yl, but-2-en-2-yl, buta-1,3-dien-1-yl, buta-1,3-dien-2-yl, cyclobut-1-en-1-yl, cyclobut-1-en-3-yl, cyclobuta-1,3-dien-1-yl, etc.; and the like.

“Alkynyl” by itself or as part of another substituent refers to an unsaturated branched, straight-chain or cyclic alkyl radical having at least one carbon-carbon triple bond derived by the removal of one hydrogen atom from a single carbon atom of an alkyne. Typical alkynyl groups include, but are not limited to, ethynyl; propynyls such as prop-1-yn-1-yl, prop-2-yn-1-yl, etc.; butynyls such as but-1-yn-1-yl, but-1-yn-3-yl, but-3-yn-1-yl, etc.; and the like.

“Acyl” by itself or as part of another substituent refers to a radical —C(O)R30 where R30 is hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl as defined herein and substituted versions thereof. Representative examples include, but are not limited to formyl, acetyl, cyclohexylcarbonyl, cyclohexylmethylcarbonyl, benzoyl, benzylcarbonyl, piperonyl, succinyl, and malonyl, and the like.

The term “aminoacyl” refers to the group —C(O)NR21R22, wherein R21 and R22 independently are selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, substituted alkenyl, alkynyl, substituted alkynyl, aryl, substituted aryl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, substituted cycloalkenyl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, heterocyclic, and substituted heterocyclic and where R21 and R22 are optionally joined together with the nitrogen bound thereto to form a heterocyclic or substituted heterocyclic group, and wherein alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, substituted alkenyl, alkynyl, substituted alkynyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, substituted cycloalkenyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, heterocyclic, and substituted heterocyclic are as defined herein.

“Alkoxy” by itself or as part of another substituent refers to a radical —OR31 where R31 represents an alkyl or cycloalkyl group as defined herein. Representative examples include, but are not limited to, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, butoxy, cyclohexyloxy and the like.

“Alkoxycarbonyl” by itself or as part of another substituent refers to a radical —C(O)OR31 where R31 represents an alkyl or cycloalkyl group as defined herein. Representative examples include, but are not limited to, methoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonyl, propoxycarbonyl, butoxycarbonyl, cyclohexyloxycarbonyl and the like.

“Aryl” by itself or as part of another substituent refers to a monovalent aromatic hydrocarbon radical derived by the removal of one hydrogen atom from a single carbon atom of an aromatic ring system. Typical aryl groups include, but are not limited to, groups derived from aceanthrylene, acenaphthylene, acephenanthrylene, anthracene, azulene, benzene, chrysene, coronene, fluoranthene, fluorene, hexacene, hexaphene, hexalene, as-indacene, s-indacene, indane, indene, naphthalene, octacene, octaphene, octalene, ovalene, penta-2,4-diene, pentacene, pentalene, pentaphene, perylene, phenalene, phenanthrene, picene, pleiadene, pyrene, pyranthrene, rubicene, triphenylene, trinaphthalene and the like. In certain embodiments, an aryl group comprises from 6 to 20 carbon atoms. In certain embodiments, an aryl group comprises from 6 to 12 carbon atoms. Examples of an aryl group are phenyl and naphthyl.

“Arylalkyl” by itself or as part of another substituent refers to an acyclic alkyl radical in which one of the hydrogen atoms bonded to a carbon atom, typically a terminal or sp3 carbon atom, is replaced with an aryl group. Typical arylalkyl groups include, but are not limited to, benzyl, 2-phenylethan-1-yl, 2-phenylethen-1-yl, naphthylmethyl, 2-naphthylethan-1-yl, 2-naphthylethen-1-yl, naphthobenzyl, 2-naphthophenylethan-1-yl and the like. Where specific alkyl moieties are intended, the nomenclature arylalkanyl, arylalkenyl and/or arylalkynyl is used. In certain embodiments, an arylalkyl group is (C7-C30) arylalkyl, e.g., the alkanyl, alkenyl or alkynyl moiety of the arylalkyl group is (C1-C10) and the aryl moiety is (C6-C20). In certain embodiments, an arylalkyl group is (C7-C20) arylalkyl, e.g., the alkanyl, alkenyl or alkynyl moiety of the arylalkyl group is (C1-C8) and the aryl moiety is (C6-C12).

“Arylaryl” by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to a monovalent hydrocarbon group derived by the removal of one hydrogen atom from a single carbon atom of a ring system in which two or more identical or non-identical aromatic ring systems are joined directly together by a single bond, where the number of such direct ring junctions is one less than the number of aromatic ring systems involved. Typical arylaryl groups include, but are not limited to, biphenyl, triphenyl, phenyl-napthyl, binaphthyl, biphenyl-napthyl, and the like. When the number of carbon atoms in an arylaryl group is specified, the numbers refer to the carbon atoms comprising each aromatic ring. For example, (C5-C14) arylaryl is an arylaryl group in which each aromatic ring comprises from 5 to 14 carbons, e.g., biphenyl, triphenyl, binaphthyl, phenylnapthyl, etc. In certain embodiments, each aromatic ring system of an arylaryl group is independently a (C5-C14) aromatic. In certain embodiments, each aromatic ring system of an arylaryl group is independently a (C5-C10) aromatic. In certain embodiments, each aromatic ring system is identical, e.g., biphenyl, triphenyl, binaphthyl, trinaphthyl, etc.

“Cycloalkyl” by itself or as part of another substituent refers to a saturated or unsaturated cyclic alkyl radical. Where a specific level of saturation is intended, the nomenclature “cycloalkanyl” or “cycloalkenyl” is used. Typical cycloalkyl groups include, but are not limited to, groups derived from cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane and the like. In certain embodiments, the cycloalkyl group is (C3-C10) cycloalkyl. In certain embodiments, the cycloalkyl group is (C3-C7) cycloalkyl.

“Cycloheteroalkyl” or “heterocyclyl” by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to a saturated or unsaturated cyclic alkyl radical in which one or more carbon atoms (and any associated hydrogen atoms) are independently replaced with the same or different heteroatom. Typical heteroatoms to replace the carbon atom(s) include, but are not limited to, N, P, O, S, Si, etc. Where a specific level of saturation is intended, the nomenclature “cycloheteroalkanyl” or “cycloheteroalkenyl” is used. Typical cycloheteroalkyl groups include, but are not limited to, groups derived from epoxides, azirines, thiiranes, imidazolidine, morpholine, piperazine, piperidine, pyrazolidine, pyrrolidine, quinuclidine and the like.

“Heteroalkyl, Heteroalkanyl, Heteroalkenyl and Heteroalkynyl” by themselves or as part of another substituent refer to alkyl, alkanyl, alkenyl and alkynyl groups, respectively, in which one or more of the carbon atoms (and any associated hydrogen atoms) are independently replaced with the same or different heteroatomic groups. Typical heteroatomic groups which can be included in these groups include, but are not limited to, —O—, —S—, —S—S—, —O—S—, —NR37R38—, ═N—N═, —N═N—, —N═N—NR39R40, —PR41, —P(O)2—, —POR42—, —O—P(O)2—, —S—O—, —S—(O)—, —SO2—, —SnR43R44— and the like, where R37, R38, R39, R40, R41, R42, R43 and R44 are independently hydrogen, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, arylalkyl, substituted arylalkyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, substituted cycloheteroalkyl, heteroalkyl, substituted heteroalkyl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl or substituted heteroarylalkyl.

“Heteroaryl” by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to a monovalent heteroaromatic radical derived by the removal of one hydrogen atom from a single atom of a heteroaromatic ring system. Typical heteroaryl groups include, but are not limited to, groups derived from acridine, arsindole, carbazole, β-carboline, chromane, chromene, cinnoline, furan, imidazole, indazole, indole, indoline, indolizine, isobenzofuran, isochromene, isoindole, isoindoline, isoquinoline, isothiazole, isoxazole, naphthyridine, oxadiazole, oxazole, perimidine, phenanthridine, phenanthroline, phenazine, phthalazine, pteridine, purine, pyran, pyrazine, pyrazole, pyridazine, pyridine, pyrimidine, pyrrole, pyrrolizine, quinazoline, quinoline, quinolizine, quinoxaline, tetrazole, thiadiazole, thiazole, thiophene, triazole, xanthene, benzodioxole and the like. In certain embodiments, the heteroaryl group is from 5-20 membered heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, the heteroaryl group is from 5-10 membered heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, heteroaryl groups are those derived from thiophene, pyrrole, benzothiophene, benzofuran, indole, pyridine, quinoline, imidazole, oxazole and pyrazine.

“Heteroarylalkyl” by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to an acyclic alkyl radical in which one of the hydrogen atoms bonded to a carbon atom, typically a terminal or sp3 carbon atom, is replaced with a heteroaryl group. Where specific alkyl moieties are intended, the nomenclature heteroarylalkanyl, heteroarylalkenyl and/or heterorylalkynyl is used. In certain embodiments, the heteroarylalkyl group is a 6-30 membered heteroarylalkyl, e.g., the alkanyl, alkenyl or alkynyl moiety of the heteroarylalkyl is 1-10 membered and the heteroaryl moiety is a 5-20-membered heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, the heteroarylalkyl group is 6-20 membered heteroarylalkyl, e.g., the alkanyl, alkenyl or alkynyl moiety of the heteroarylalkyl is 1-8 membered and the heteroaryl moiety is a 5-12-membered heteroaryl.

“Aromatic Ring System” by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to an unsaturated cyclic or polycyclic ring system having a conjugated π electron system. Specifically included within the definition of “aromatic ring system” are fused ring systems in which one or more of the rings are aromatic and one or more of the rings are saturated or unsaturated, such as, for example, fluorene, indane, indene, phenalene, etc. Typical aromatic ring systems include, but are not limited to, aceanthrylene, acenaphthylene, acephenanthrylene, anthracene, azulene, benzene, chrysene, coronene, fluoranthene, fluorene, hexacene, hexaphene, hexalene, as-indacene, s-indacene, indane, indene, naphthalene, octacene, octaphene, octalene, ovalene, penta-2,4-diene, pentacene, pentalene, pentaphene, perylene, phenalene, phenanthrene, picene, pleiadene, pyrene, pyranthrene, rubicene, triphenylene, trinaphthalene and the like.

“Heteroaromatic Ring System” by itself or as part of another substituent, refers to an aromatic ring system in which one or more carbon atoms (and any associated hydrogen atoms) are independently replaced with the same or different heteroatom. Typical heteroatoms to replace the carbon atoms include, but are not limited to, N, P, O, S, Si, etc. Specifically included within the definition of “heteroaromatic ring systems” are fused ring systems in which one or more of the rings are aromatic and one or more of the rings are saturated or unsaturated, such as, for example, arsindole, benzodioxan, benzofuran, chromane, chromene, indole, indoline, xanthene, etc. Typical heteroaromatic ring systems include, but are not limited to, arsindole, carbazole, β-carboline, chromane, chromene, cinnoline, furan, imidazole, indazole, indole, indoline, indolizine, isobenzofuran, isochromene, isoindole, isoindoline, isoquinoline, isothiazole, isoxazole, naphthyridine, oxadiazole, oxazole, perimidine, phenanthridine, phenanthroline, phenazine, phthalazine, pteridine, purine, pyran, pyrazine, pyrazole, pyridazine, pyridine, pyrimidine, pyrrole, pyrrolizine, quinazoline, quinoline, quinolizine, quinoxaline, tetrazole, thiadiazole, thiazole, thiophene, triazole, xanthene and the like.

“Substituted” refers to a group in which one or more hydrogen atoms are independently replaced with the same or different substituent(s). Typical substituents include, but are not limited to, alkylenedioxy (such as methylenedioxy), -M, —R60, —O, ═O, —OR60, —SR60, —S—, ═S, —NR60R61, ═NR60, —CF3, —CN, —OCN, —SCN, —NO, —NO2, ═N2, —N3, —S(O)2O, —S(O)2OH, —S(O)2R60, —OS(O)2O, —OS(O)2R60, —P(O)(O)2, —P(O)(O, R60)(O), —OP(O)(OR60)(OR61), —C(O)R60, —C(S)R60, —C(O)OR60, —C(O)NR60R61, —C(O)O, —C(S)OR60, —NR62C(O)NR60R61, —NR62C(S)NR60R61, —NR62C(NR63)NR60R61 and —C(NR62)NR60R61 where M is halogen; R60, R61, R62 and R63 are independently hydrogen, alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, substituted cycloheteroalkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl or substituted heteroaryl, or optionally R60 and R61 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a cycloheteroalkyl or substituted cycloheteroalkyl ring; and R64 and R65 are independently hydrogen, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, substituted cycloheteroalkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl or substituted heteroaryl, or optionally R64 and R65 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a cycloheteroalkyl or substituted cycloheteroalkyl ring. In certain embodiments, substituents include -M, —R60, ═O, —OR60, —SR60, —S—, ═S, —NR60R61,

═NR60, —CF3, —CN, —OCN, —SCN, —NO, —NO2, ═N2, —N3, —S(O)2R60, —OS(O)2O, —OS(O)2R60, —P(O)(O)2, —P(O)(OR60)(O), —OP(O)(OR60)(OR61), —C(O)R60, —C(S)R60, —C(O)OR60, —C(O)NR60R61, —C(O)O, —NR62C(O)NR60R61. In certain embodiments, substituents include -M, —R60,
═O, —OR60, —SR60, —NR60R61, —CF3, —CN, —NO2, —S(O)2R60, —P(O)(OR60)(O), —OP(O)(OR60)(OR61), —C(O)R60, —C(O)OR60, —C(O)NR60R61, —C(O)O. In certain embodiments, substituents include -M, —R60, ═O, —OR60, —SR60, —NR60R61, —CF3, —CN, —NO2, —S(O)2R60, —OP(O)(OR60)(OR61), —C(O)R60, —C(O)OR60, —C(O)O, where R60, R61 and R62 are as defined above. For example, a substituted group may bear a methylenedioxy substituent or one, two, or three substituents selected from a halogen atom, a (1-4C)alkyl group and a (1-4C)alkoxy group.

The compounds described herein can contain one or more chiral centers and/or double bonds and therefore, can exist as stereoisomers, such as double-bond isomers (i.e., geometric isomers), enantiomers or diastereomers. Accordingly, all possible enantiomers and stereoisomers of the compounds including the stereoisomerically pure form (e.g., geometrically pure, enantiomerically pure or diastereomerically pure) and enantiomeric and stereoisomeric mixtures are included in the description of the compounds herein. Enantiomeric and stereoisomeric mixtures can be resolved into their component enantiomers or stereoisomers using separation techniques or chiral synthesis techniques well known to the skilled artisan. The compounds can also exist in several tautomeric forms including the enol form, the keto form and mixtures thereof. Accordingly, the chemical structures depicted herein encompass all possible tautomeric forms of the illustrated compounds. The compounds described also include isotopically labeled compounds where one or more atoms have an atomic mass different from the atomic mass conventionally found in nature. Examples of isotopes that can be incorporated into the compounds disclosed herein include, but are not limited to, 2H, 3H, 11C, 13C, 14C, 15N, 18O, 17O, etc. Compounds can exist in unsolvated forms as well as solvated forms, including hydrated forms. In general, compounds can be hydrated or solvated. Certain compounds can exist in multiple crystalline or amorphous forms. In general, all physical forms are equivalent for the uses contemplated herein and are intended to be within the scope of the present disclosure.

Additional Definitions

The term “flavivirus” refers to any of the following viruses: Dengue virus serotype 1 (DEN1), Dengue virus serotype 2 (DEN2), Dengue virus serotype 3 (DEN3), Dengue virus serotype 4 (DEN4), West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis Encephalitis virus, Japanese Encephalitis virus, Yellow Fever virus, Kunjin virus, Kyasanur Forest Disease virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis virus (TBEV), Murray Valley virus, LANGAT virus, Louping disease virus and Powassan virus and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, including in general, all viruses with 70% identity over the entire viral genome with respect to above-mentioned viruses.

“Dengue virus” refers to any serotype of Dengue virus, including Dengue virus serotype 1 (DEN1), Dengue virus serotype 2 (DEN2), Dengue virus serotype 3 (DEN3), Dengue virus serotype 4 (DEN4).

The terms “patient” and “subject” and “individual” are used interchangeably herein and include any mammal. Mammals include, e.g., humans, experimental animals including rats, mice, and guinea pigs, domestic and farm animals, and zoo, sports, or pet animals, such as dogs, horses, cats, cows, and the like. In some cases, the individual is a human.

The terms “treating,” “treatment,” and the like are used herein to refer to obtaining a desired pharmacological and physiological effect. The effect may be prophylactic in terms of preventing or partially preventing a disease, symptom, or condition thereof and/or may be therapeutic in terms of a partial or complete cure of a disease, condition, symptom, or adverse effect attributed to the disease. The term “treatment,” as used herein, covers any treatment of a disease in a mammal, such as a human, and includes: (a) preventing the disease from occurring in a subject which may be predisposed to the disease but has not yet been diagnosed as having it, i.e., causing the clinical symptoms of the disease not to develop in a subject that may be predisposed to the disease but does not yet experience or display symptoms of the disease; (b) inhibiting the disease, i.e., arresting or reducing the development of the disease or its clinical symptoms; and (c) relieving the disease, i.e., causing regression of the disease and/or its symptoms or conditions. Treating a patient's suffering from disease related to flavivirus infection (e.g., Dengue virus infection) is contemplated. By “treatment” is meant at least an amelioration of the symptoms associated with the pathological condition afflicting the host, where amelioration is used in a broad sense to refer to at least a reduction in the magnitude of a parameter, e.g. symptom, associated with the pathological condition being treated, such as a parameter or symptom associated with a flavivirus infection. As such, treatment also includes situations where the pathological condition, or at least symptoms associated therewith, are completely inhibited, e.g. prevented from happening, or stopped, e.g. terminated, such that the host no longer suffers from the pathological condition, or at least the symptoms that characterize the pathological condition.

“LRRK2,” as used herein, refers to a polypeptide having at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 98%, at least 99%, or 100%, amino acid sequence identity to a contiguous stretch of from 1000 amino acids to about 1500 amino acids, from about 1500 amino acids to about 2000 amino acids, from about 2000 amino acids to about 2500 amino acids, or from 2500 amino acids to 2527 amino acids, of the amino acid sequence depicted in FIG. 5A-5B. “LRRK2” includes a polypeptide having 100% amino acid sequence identity to the amino acid sequence depicted in FIG. 5A-5B, and also includes naturally-occurring allelic variants of the amino acid sequence depicted in FIG. 5A-5B.

“ARFGAP1,” as used herein refers to a polypeptide having at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 98%, at least 99%, or 100%, amino acid sequence identity to a contiguous stretch of from 100 amino acids to 200 amino acids, from 200 amino acids to 300 amino acids, from 300 amino acids to 400 amino acids, or from 400 amino acids to 516 amino acids, of the amino acid sequence depicted in FIG. 7. “ARFGAP1” includes a polypeptide having 100% amino acid sequence identity to the amino acid sequence depicted in FIG. 7, and also includes naturally-occurring allelic variants of the amino acid sequence depicted in FIG. 7.

Before the present invention is further described, it is to be understood that this invention is not limited to particular embodiments described, as such may, of course, vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to be limiting, since the scope of the present invention will be limited only by the appended claims.

Where a range of values is provided, it is understood that each intervening value, to the tenth of the unit of the lower limit unless the context clearly dictates otherwise, between the upper and lower limit of that range and any other stated or intervening value in that stated range, is encompassed within the invention. The upper and lower limits of these smaller ranges may independently be included in the smaller ranges, and are also encompassed within the invention, subject to any specifically excluded limit in the stated range. Where the stated range includes one or both of the limits, ranges excluding either or both of those included limits are also included in the invention.

Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. Although any methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can also be used in the practice or testing of the present invention, the preferred methods and materials are now described. All publications mentioned herein are incorporated herein by reference to disclose and describe the methods and/or materials in connection with which the publications are cited.

It must be noted that as used herein and in the appended claims, the singular forms “a,” “an,” and “the” include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to “an LRRK2 inhibitor” includes a plurality of such inhibitors and reference to “the formulation” includes reference to one or more formulations and equivalents thereof known to those skilled in the art, and so forth. It is further noted that the claims may be drafted to exclude any optional element. As such, this statement is intended to serve as antecedent basis for use of such exclusive terminology as “solely,” “only” and the like in connection with the recitation of claim elements, or use of a “negative” limitation.

It is appreciated that certain features of the invention, which are, for clarity, described in the context of separate embodiments, may also be provided in combination in a single embodiment. Conversely, various features of the invention, which are, for brevity, described in the context of a single embodiment, may also be provided separately or in any suitable sub-combination. All combinations of the embodiments pertaining to the invention are specifically embraced by the present invention and are disclosed herein just as if each and every combination was individually and explicitly disclosed. In addition, all sub-combinations of the various embodiments and elements thereof are also specifically embraced by the present invention and are disclosed herein just as if each and every such sub-combination was individually and explicitly disclosed herein.

The publications discussed herein are provided solely for their disclosure prior to the filing date of the present application. Nothing herein is to be construed as an admission that the present invention is not entitled to antedate such publication by virtue of prior invention. Further, the dates of publication provided may be different from the actual publication dates which may need to be independently confirmed.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present disclosure provides methods of treating a flavivirus infection, and compositions for use in the methods.

Treatment Methods

The present disclosure provides methods of treating a flavivirus infection. A subject treatment method comprises administering to an individual in need thereof an effective amount of an LRRK2 inhibitor. In some cases, the LRRK2 inhibitor is an agent that inhibits kinase activity of LRRK2. In some cases, the LRRK2 inhibitor is an agent that inhibits GTPase activity of LRRK2. In some cases, the LRRK2 inhibitor inhibits the activity of ARFGAP1, a protein that activates GTPase activity of LRRK2.

As shown in the Examples, Dengue virus (DENV) interacts with leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). Also as shown in the Examples, an LRRK2 inhibitor inhibits DENV infection and reduces DENV viral genome abundance, in both a lung cancer cell line and in primary human hepatocytes.

In some cases, an “effective amount” of an LRRK2 inhibitor is an amount that, when administered to an individual in need thereof in monotherapy or in combination therapy with at least a second therapeutic agent, is effective to reduce the number of genome copies of a flavivirus in the individual. For example, in some cases, an “effective amount” of an LRRK2 inhibitor is an amount that, when administered to an individual in need thereof in monotherapy or in combination therapy with at least a second therapeutic agent, is effective to reduce the number of genome copies of a flavivirus in the individual by at least about 25%, at least about 50%, at least about 75%, or more than 75%, compared to the number of genome copies of the flavivirus in the absence of treatment with the LRRK2 inhibitor. In some cases, an “effective amount” of an LRRK2 inhibitor is an amount that, when administered to an individual in need thereof in monotherapy or in combination therapy with at least a second therapeutic agent, is effective to reduce the number of genome copies of a dengue virus in the individual by at least about 25%, at least about 50%, at least about 75%, or more than 75%, compared to the number of genome copies of the dengue virus in the absence of treatment with the LRRK2 inhibitor. In some cases, an “effective amount” of an LRRK2 inhibitor is an amount that, when administered to an individual in need thereof in monotherapy or in combination therapy with at least a second therapeutic agent, is effective to reduce the number of genome copies of a flavivirus to less than 100 genome copies/mL serum. In some cases, an “effective amount” of an LRRK2 inhibitor is an amount that, when administered to an individual in need thereof in monotherapy or in combination therapy with at least a second therapeutic agent, is effective to reduce the number of genome copies of a dengue virus to less than 100 genome copies/mL serum.

In some cases, an “effective amount” of an LRRK2 inhibitor is an amount that, when administered to an individual in need thereof in monotherapy or in combination therapy with at least a second therapeutic agent, is effective to achieve a reduction in viral titer of flavivirus in the individual. For example, in some cases, an “effective amount” of an LRRK2 inhibitor is an amount that, when administered to an individual in need thereof in monotherapy or in combination therapy with at least a second therapeutic agent, is effective to achieve a reduction in flavivirus viral titer in the serum of the subject in the range of about 1.5-log to about a 2.5-log reduction, about a 3-log to about a 4-log reduction, or a greater than about 5-log reduction compared to the viral load before administration of the LRRK2 inhibitor (as monotherapy or in combination therapy). In some cases, an “effective amount” of an LRRK2 inhibitor is an amount that, when administered to an individual in need thereof in monotherapy or in combination therapy with at least a second therapeutic agent, is effective to achieve a reduction in Dengue virus viral titer in the serum of the subject in the range of about 1.5-log to about a 2.5-log reduction, about a 3-log to about a 4-log reduction, or a greater than about 5-log reduction compared to the viral load before administration of the LRRK2 inhibitor (as monotherapy or in combination therapy).

In some cases, an “effective amount” of an LRRK2 inhibitor is an amount that, when administered to an individual in need thereof in monotherapy or in combination therapy with at least a second therapeutic agent, is effective to reduce flavivirus viral titers to undetectable levels. In some cases, an “effective amount” of an LRRK2 inhibitor is an amount that, when administered to an individual in need thereof in monotherapy or in combination therapy with at least a second therapeutic agent, is effective to reduce Dengue virus viral titers to undetectable levels.

In some cases, an “effective amount” of an LRRK2 inhibitor is an amount that, when administered to an individual in need thereof in monotherapy or in combination therapy with at least a second therapeutic agent, is effective to achieve at least a 25%, a 30%, a 35%, a 40%, a 50%, a 60%, a 70%, an 80%, a 90%, or a greater than 90%, reduction in the replication of flavivirus in the individual, compared to pre-treatment replication levels in the individual. In some cases, an “effective amount” of an LRRK2 inhibitor is an amount that, when administered to an individual in need thereof in monotherapy or in combination therapy with at least a second therapeutic agent, is effective to achieve at least a 25%, a 30%, a 35%, a 40%, a 50%, a 60%, a 70%, an 80%, a 90%, or a greater than 90%, reduction in the replication of Dengue virus in the individual, compared to pre-treatment replication levels in the individual.

In some cases, an “effective amount” of an LRRK2 inhibitor is an amount that, when administered to an individual in need thereof in monotherapy or in combination therapy with at least a second therapeutic agent, is effective to ameliorate a symptom of a flavivirus infection, e.g., to ameliorate a symptom of a Dengue virus infection.

Whether a subject treatment method is effective in treating a flavivirus (e.g., Dengue virus) infection can be determined using any of a variety of well-known methods. Methods for determining effectiveness of treatment for a Dengue virus infection are known in the art and are described below.

Diagnosis and Detection Methods

DENV can be detected in a blood or blood fraction (e.g., serum) from an individual. For example, a blood sample, a blood fraction sample, or other sample (e.g., CSF) can be obtained within the first 5 days of the appearance of symptoms; and the blood or blood fraction sample can be tested for DENV. A sample can be obtained from an individual after the appearance of symptoms (e.g., one week or more than one week); and the sample can be tested for DENV. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can be used to detect DENV genomes in a sample obtained from an individual. RT-PCR suitable for use includes one-step RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR, and nested PCR. See, e.g., U.S. Patent Publication No. 2013/0130235 for methods of detecting DENV in a sample using PCR.

Antibody to DENV can be detected in a sample (e.g., blood, serum, plasma, etc.) obtained from an individual. IgM or IgG specific for DENV can be detected. For example, seroconversion from negative to positive of IgM specific for DENV can be used to detect DENV infection. An IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) can be used to detect the presence in a sample of IgM specific for DENV; and to make a diagnosis of DENV.

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can be used to detect the presence, and/or measure the level of, IgG specific for DENV in a sample (e.g., blood, serum, plasma, etc.) obtained from an individual.

The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of DENV can be used to detect a DENV infection. Dengue NS1 can be detected in the serum of DENV infected individuals as early as 1 day post onset of symptoms (DPO), and up to 18 days DPO. An ELISA can be used to detect Dengue NS1. See, e.g., U.S. Patent Publication No. 2014/0051067 for methods of detecting Dengue NS1 in a sample obtained from an individual.

A plaque reduction and neutralization test (PRNT) can be used to detect the presence and/or level of antibody to DENV. Serum from an individual is contacted with an uninfected cell (a cell not infected with DENV) in vitro, forming a serum/uninfected cell sample. The serum/uninfected cell sample is contacted with DENV. The ability of the serum to inhibit infection of the uninfected cell by the DENV is an indication of the presence of neutralizing anti-DENV antibodies in the serum. Infection of the cell by DENV is indicated by plaque formation.

LRRK2 Inhibitors

In some cases, a suitable LRRK2 inhibitor is an agent that inhibits LRRK2 kinase activity. For example, in some cases, a suitable LRRK2 inhibitor is an agent that inhibits LRRK2 kinase activity by at least 10%, at least 15%, at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, or more than 90%, compared to the level of kinase activity in the absence of the agent.

LRRK2 inhibitors that are suitable for use in a subject treatment method include, but are not limited to, a compound of the formula (I):

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00001

wherein:
m is from 0 to 3;
X is: —NRa—; —O—; or —S(O)r— wherein r is from 0 to 2 and Ra is hydrogen or C1-6alkyl;
R1 is: C1-6alkyl; C1-6alkenyl; C1-6 alkynyl; halo-C1-6alkyl; C1-6alkoxy-C1-6alkyl; hydroxy-C1-6alkyl; amino-C1-6alkyl; C1-6alkylsulfonyl-C1-6alkyl; C3-6cycloalkyl optionally substituted with C1-6alkyl; C3-6cycloalkyl-C1-6alkyl wherein the C3-6cycloalkyl portion is optionally substituted with C1-6 alkyl; tetrahydrofuranyl; tetrahydrofuranyl-C1-6 alkyl; oxetanyl; or oxetan-C1-6 alkyl;
or R1 and Ra together with the atoms to which they are attached may form a three to six membered ring that may optionally include an additional heteroatom selected from O, N and S, and which is substituted with oxo, halo or C1-6alkyl;
R2 is: halo; C1-6alkoxy; cyano; C1-6alkynyl; C1-6alkenyl; halo-C1-6alkyl; halo-C1-6alkoxy; C3-6cycloalkyl wherein the C3-6cycloalkyl portion is optionally substituted with C1-6alkyl; C3-6cycloalkyl-C1-6alkyl wherein the C3-6cycloalkyl portion is optionally substituted with C1-6alkyl; tetrahydrofuranyl; tetrahydrofuranyl-C1-6alkyl; acetyl; oxetanyl; or oxetan-C1-6 alkyl;
or R1 and R2 together with the atoms to which they are attached may form a three to six membered ring that may optionally include an additional heteroatom selected from O, N and S, and which is substituted with oxo, halo or C1-6alkyl;
R3 and R4 each independently is: halo; C1-6alkyl; C1-6alkoxy; C3-6cycloalkyloxy; halo-C1-6alkyl; or halo-C1-6alkoxy;
or R3 and R4 together with the atoms to which they are attached may form a five- or six-membered ring that optionally includes one or two heteroatoms each independently selected from O, N and S, the ring being optionally substituted one or more times with R6;
R5 is: C1-6alkyl-sulfonyl; C3-6cycloalkylsulfonyl; C3-6cycloalkyl-C1-6 alkylsulfonyl; cyano; cyano-C1-6alkyl; heterocyclyl optionally substituted one or more times with R6; carbonyl-heterocyclyl; heterocyclyl-C1-6alkyl wherein the heterocyclyl moiety is optionally substituted one or more times with R6; halo-C1-6alkyl; heterocyclyl-sulfonyl wherein the heterocyclyl moiety is optionally substituted one or more times with R6; or carboxy; and
R6 is: C1-6 alkyl; halo; halo-C1-6 alkyl; or oxo.

For example, the LRRK2 inhibitor may be a compound of the Formula (I):

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00002

wherein:
m is from 0 to 3;
X is: —NRa; —O—; or —S(O)r— wherein r is from 0 to 2 and Ra is hydrogen or C1-6alkyl;
R1 and Ra together with the atoms to which they are attached may form a three to six membered ring that may optionally include an additional heteroatom selected from O, N and S, and which may be optionally substituted with oxo, halo or C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 and Ra together with the atoms to which they are attached form a five or six membered ring. In certain embodiments, R1 and Ra together with the atoms to which they are attached form a pyrolidinyl, piperidinyl or oxazoladinonyl group.

In certain embodiments, R2 is acetyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, when R1 is cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopropyl-C1-6alkyl or cyclobutyl-C1-6alkyl, then X is —O—.

In certain embodiments of formula I, m is from 0 to 2. In certain embodiments of formula I, m is 0 or 1. In certain embodiments of formula I, m is 0. In certain embodiments of formula I, m is 1. In certain embodiments of formula I, r is 0. In certain embodiments of formula I, r is 2. In certain embodiments of formula I, X is —NRa— or —O—. In certain embodiments of formula I, X is —NRa. In certain embodiments of formula I, X is —O—. In certain embodiments of formula I, X is —S(O)n—. In certain embodiments of formula I, X is —NH— or —O—. In certain embodiments of formula I, Ra is hydrogen. In certain embodiments of formula I, Ra is C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is: C1-6alkyl; halo-C1-6alkyl; C1-6alkoxy-C1-6alkyl; amino-C1-6alkyl; C1-6alkylsulfonyl-C1-6alkyl; C3-6cycloalkyl; or C3-6cycloalkyl-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is: C1-6alkyl; C3-6cycloalkyl optionally substituted with C1-6alkyl; or C3-6cycloalkyl-C1-6alkyl wherein the C3-6cycloalkyl portion is optionally substituted with C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is: C1-6alkyl; halo-C1-6alkyl; C1-6alkoxy-C1-6alkyl; amino-C1-6alkyl; C1-6alkylsulfonyl-C1-6alkyl; tetrahydrofuranyl; tetrahydrofuranyl-C1-6alkyl; oxetanyl; or oxetan-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is: C1-6alkyl; halo-C1-6alkyl; C1-6alkoxy-C1-6alkyl; amino-C1-6alkyl; or C1-6alkylsulfonyl-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is halo-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is C1-6alkoxy-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is amino-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is C1-6alkylsulfonyl-C1-6alkyl optionally substituted with C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is C3-6cycloalkyl optionally substituted with C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is C3-6cycloalkyl-C1-6alkyl wherein the C3-6cycloalkyl portion is optionally substituted with C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is tetrahydrofuranyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is tetrahydrofuranyl-C1-6alkyl; oxetanyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is or oxetan-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is: methyl; ethyl; n-propyl; isopropyl; isobutyl; 3,3-dimethylpropyl; cyclopropyl; cyclobutyl; cyclopentyl; cyclohexyl; cyclopropylmethyl; cyclobutylmethyl; cyclopentylmethyl; cyclopropylethyl; methoxyethyl; oxetanyl; or tetrahydrofuranylmethyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is: methyl; ethyl; n-propyl; isopropyl; isobutyl; 3,3-dimethylpropyl; cyclopentyl; cyclohexyl; cyclopropylmethyl; cyclobutylmethyl; cyclopentylmethyl; cyclopropylethyl; methoxyethyl; oxetanyl; or tetrahydrofuranylmethyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is: methyl; ethyl; n-propyl; isopropyl; isobutyl; 3,3-dimethylpropyl; cyclopentyl; cyclohexyl; cyclopentylmethyl; methoxyethyl; oxetanyl; or tetrahydrofuranylmethyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is: methyl; ethyl; n-propyl; isopropyl; or isobutyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is methyl or ethyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is methyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is ethyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is: cyclopropyl; cyclobutyl; cyclopentyl; cyclohexyl; cyclopropylmethyl; cyclobutylmethyl; cyclopentylmethyl; or cyclopropylethyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R1 is: cyclopentyl; cyclohexyl; or cyclopentylmethyl.

In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is: halo; C1-6alkoxy; halo-C1-6alkyl; halo-C1-6alkoxy; C3-6cycloalkyl wherein the C3-6cycloalkyl portion is optionally substituted with C1-6alkyl; C3-6cycloalkyl-C1-6alkyl wherein the C3-6cycloalkyl portion is optionally substituted with C1-6alkyl; tetrahydrofuranyl; tetrahydrofuranyl-C1-6alkyl; oxetanyl; or oxetan-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is: halo; C1-6alkoxy; halo-C1-6alkyl; cyano; C1-6alkynyl; C1-6alkenyl; C3-6cycloalkyl; or C3-6cycloalkyl-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is: halo; C1-6alkoxy; halo-C1-6alkyl; cyano; C3-6cycloalkyl; or C3-6cycloalkyl-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is: halo; C1-6alkoxy; halo-C1-6alkyl; C3-6cycloalkyl; or C3-6cycloalkyl-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is: halo; halo-C1-6alkyl; or cyano. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is: halo; or halo-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is halo. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is C1-6alkoxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is halo-C1-6alkoxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is halo-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is C3-6cycloalkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is C3-6cycloalkyl-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is tetrahydrofuranyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is tetrahydrofuranyl-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is oxetanyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is oxetan-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is halo, trifluoromethyl or cyano. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is chloro, trifluoromethyl or cyano. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is chloro or trifluoromethyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is fluoro, chloro or bromo. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is chloro. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is fluoro. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is bromo. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is trifluoromethyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is methoxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is cyano. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is C1-6alkynyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R2 is C1-6alkenyl.

In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 is: C1-6alkyl; In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 is halo. In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 is C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 is C1-6alkoxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 is halo or C1-6alkoxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 is C3-6cycloalkyloxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 is halo-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 is halo-C1-6alkoxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 is halo or methoxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 is fluoro, chloro or methoxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 is fluoro or chloro. In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 is methoxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 is methyl In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 is chloro. In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 is fluoro.

In certain embodiments of formula I, R4 is: C1-6alkyl; In certain embodiments of formula I, R4 is halo. In certain embodiments of formula I, R4 is C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R4 is C1-6alkoxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R4 is halo-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R4 is halo-C1-6alkoxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R4 is halo or methoxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R4 is R4 is fluoro, chloro, methyl or methoxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R4 is fluoro, chloro or methoxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R4 is fluoro or chloro. In certain embodiments of formula I, R4 is methoxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R4 is methyl In certain embodiments of formula I, R4 is chloro. In certain embodiments of formula I, R4 is fluoro. In certain embodiments of formula I, R4 is C3-6cycloalkyloxy.

In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 and R4 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a five- or six-membered ring that optionally includes one or two heteroatoms each independently selected from O, N and S, the ring being optionally substituted one or more times with R6. In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 and R4 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a six-membered ring that includes two oxygen atoms separated by an ethylene group (i.e., R3 and R4 together form an ethylene-dioxy group). In certain embodiments of formula I, R3 and R4 together with the atoms to which they are attached form a five-membered ring that includes two oxygen atoms separated by a methylene group (i.e., R3 and R4 together form a methylene-dioxy group).

In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is C1-6alkyl-sulfonyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is C1-6alkyl-sulfonyl or cyano. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is C3-6cycloalkyl-sulfonyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is cyano. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is cyano-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is heterocyclyl optionally substituted with R6. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is heterocyclyl-C1-6alkyl wherein the heterocyclyl moiety is optionally substituted with R6. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is halo-C1-6alkyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is carboxy. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is methanesulfonyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is morpholin-4-yl-methyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is morpholinyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is morpholin-4-yl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is oxetanyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is oxetan-3-yl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is pyrrolidinonyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is pyrrolidin-2-one-1-yl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is motpholinonyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is morpholin-3-one-4-yl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is piperidinonyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is piperidin-2-one-1-yl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is trifluoromethyl In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is heterocycly-sulfonyl wherein the heterocyclyl moiety is optionally substituted one or more times with R6. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is morpholin-4-sulfonyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is morpholin-sulfonyl. In embodiments of the invention wherein R5 is heterocyclyl or contains a heterocyclyl moiety, such heterocyclyl may be azepinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, pyrrolidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, azetidinyl or oxetanyl, each optionally substituted one or more times with R6. In embodiments of the invention wherein R5 is heterocyclyl or contains a heterocyclyl moiety, such heterocyclyl may be piperidinyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, oxetanyl, azetidinyl, azepinyl, oxazepinyl, or pyrrolidinyl, each optionally substituted one or more times with R6. In embodiments of the invention wherein R5 is heterocyclyl or contains a heterocyclyl moiety, such heterocyclyl may be piperidinyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, or pyrrolidinyl, each optionally substituted one or more times with R6. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is: methanesulfonyl; cyano; morpholin-4-yl-methyl; morpholin-4-yl; morpholin-4-yl-sulfonyl; or trifluoromethyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is: methanesulfonyl; cyano; or morpholin-4-yl-methyl. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is: methanesulfonyl; or cyano. In certain embodiments of formula I, R5 is: a carbonyl heterocyclyl where the carbonyl connects the phenyl and heterocycyl is piperidinyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, or pyrrolidinyl.

In certain embodiments, an LRRK2 inhibitor of interest is a compound selected from

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00003
Figure US10004751-20180626-C00004
Figure US10004751-20180626-C00005

LRRK2 inhibitors that are suitable for use in a subject treatment method include, but are not limited to, a compound of the Formula (Ia):

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00006

wherein:
m is from 0 to 3;
X is: —NRa—; —O—; or —S(O)r— wherein r is from 0 to 2 and Ra is hydrogen or C1-6alkyl;
R1 is: C1-6alkyl; C1-6alkenyl; C1-6 alkynyl; halo-C1-6alkyl; C1-6alkoxy-C1-6alkyl; hydroxy-C1-6alkyl; amino-C1-6alkyl; C1-6alkylsulfonyl-C1-6alkyl; C3-6cycloalkyl optionally substituted with C1-6alkyl; C3-6cycloalkyl-C1-6alkyl wherein the C3-6cycloalkyl portion is optionally substituted with C1-6 alkyl; tetrahydrofuranyl; tetrahydrofuranyl-C1-6 alkyl; oxetanyl; or oxetan-C1-6 alkyl;
or R1 and Ra together with the atoms to which they are attached may form a three to six membered ring that may optionally include an additional heteroatom selected from O, N and S, and which is substituted with oxo, halo or C1-6alkyl;
R2 is: halo; C1-6alkoxy; cyano; C1-6alkynyl; C1-6alkenyl; halo-C1-6alkyl; halo-C1-6alkoxy; C3-6cycloalkyl wherein the C3-6cycloalkyl portion is optionally substituted with C1-6alkyl; C3-6cycloalkyl-C1-6alkyl wherein the C3-6cycloalkyl portion is optionally substituted with C1-6alkyl; tetrahydrofuranyl; tetrahydrofuranyl-C1-6alkyl; acetyl; oxetanyl; or oxetan-C1-6 alkyl;
or R1 and R2 together with the atoms to which they are attached may form a three to six membered ring that may optionally include an additional heteroatom selected from O, N and S, and which is substituted with oxo, halo or C1-6alkyl;
Y is a five-membered or six-membered substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, such as substituted or unsubstituted pyrrole, pyrrolidine, pyrazole, pyrazolidine, imidazole, imidazoline, imidazolidine, pyridine, piperidine, pyrazine, piperazine, pyrimidine, indole, purine, benzimidazole, morpholine or quinolone. In some embodiments, Y is a substituted pyrazole.

In certain instances, the LRRK2 inhibitor of Formula Ia is Compound 9.

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00007

In some embodiments, LRRK2 inhibitors of interest include a compound of Formula (II):

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00008

wherein in one embodiment, R1 is H and X is NR2R3 or NR4R5; and Y is NHR6 and Z is selected from H, halogen, C1-C3 alkyl, C2-C4 alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or C3-C8 cycloalkyl, wherein the alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, alkynyl or heteroaryl is optionally substituted with halo, alkyl, or cyano, such that:

R2 and R3, taken together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form: i) a 3-8 membered saturated or partially saturated monocyclic group having no heteroatom other than the nitrogen atom to which R2 and R3 are bonded, wherein said 3-8 membered saturated or partially saturated monocyclic group is independently substituted at one or more carbon atoms with 1-2 R7 and optionally substituted at one or more carbon atoms with 0-4 R8, wherein R7 is hydroxy, heterocycloalkyl, or NR9R9 and R8 is hydroxy(C1-C6)alkyl, aryl, COORS, (CH2)nNR9R9, or (CH2)nNR9R10, wherein each n is independently 1, 2, or 3 and the aryl is optionally substituted with halo; or ii) an 8-10 membered bicyclic aryl group having 0-5 heteroatoms independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, sulfoxide, or sulfone;

each R9 is independently selected from H, C1-C6 alkyl, C3-C6 alkynyl, C2-C6 alkyl cyano, C2-C6 alkyl sulfone, C3-C6 cycloalkyl sulfone, C2-C6 sulfonamide, C3-C6 cycloalkyl, C3-C8 heterocycloalkyl, aryl, aryl(C1-C6)alkyl, or heteroaryl, wherein the alkyl, alkynyl, alkylcyano, alkylsulfone, sulfonamide, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, or heteroaryl is optionally substituted with R25;

R10 is C(O)R9, COOR9, C(O)NR9R9, or S(O)nR9, in which n is 1 or 2;

R4 is selected from H, C1-C6 alkyl, or hydroxy(C1-C6)alkyl; R5 is aryl(C1-C3)alkyl, wherein the aryl group is independently substituted at one or more carbon atoms with 1-3 R11, wherein R11 is independently selected from OR9, NR9R9, NR9COR9, or NR9S(O)nR9, wherein n is 1 or 2; R6 is selected from C1-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C3-C6 alkynyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl, C3-C8 heterocycloalkyl, C4-C6 cycloalkenyl, aryl, aryl(C1-C6)alkyl, or heteroaryl, in which the heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl heteroaryl of R6 is optionally substituted with an aryl selected from the group consisting of: i) a 5-6 membered monocyclic aryl group; ii) an 8-10 membered bicyclic aryl group having 0-5 heteroatoms independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, sulfoxide, or sulfone; iii) an 8-10 membered unsaturated or partially unsaturated bicyclic aryl group having 0-5 heteroatoms independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, sulfoxide, or sulfone; and iv) an 8-10 membered unsaturated or partially unsaturated bicyclic aryl group having a carbonyl, carboxamide, or sulfoxamide; or the heterocycloalkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl of R6 can be also optionally substituted at one or more carbon atoms with R12, wherein each R12 is independently selected from C1-C6 alkyl, CF3, OCF3, S(O)n(C1-C4)alkyl, halo(C1-C4)alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C3-C6 alkynyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl, C3-C8 heterocycloalkyl, C4-C6 cycloalkenyl, aryl, aryl (C1-C6)alkyl, heteroaryl, halo, haloalkyl, SR13, OR13, OC(O)R13, NR13R13, NR13R14, COOR13, NO2, CN, C(O)R13, C(O)C(O)R13, C(O)NR13R13, CONR15R16, S(O)nR13, S(O)nNR13R13, or NR15R16, wherein each n is independently 1 or 2 and the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, aryl, arylalkyl, haloalkyl, or heteroaryl is optionally substituted with R25, wherein the aryl and heteroaryl of R12 is independently selected from: i) a 5-6 membered monocyclic aryl group; ii) an 8-10 membered bicyclic aryl group having 0-5 heteroatoms independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, sulfoxide or sulfone; iii) an 8-10 membered unsaturated or partially unsaturated bicyclic aryl group having 0-5 heteroatoms independently nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, sulfoxide or sulfone; or iv) an 8-10 membered unsaturated or partially unsaturated bicyclic aryl group having a carbonyl, carboxamide, or sulfoxamide; each R13 is independently selected from H, C1-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C3-C6 alkynyl, C2-C6 alkyl cyano, C2-C6 alkyl sulfone, C2-C6 sulfonamide, C3-C6 cycloalkyl, C3-C8 heterocycloalkyl, C4-C6 cycloalkenyl, aryl, aryl(C1-C6)alkyl, haloalkyl or heteroaryl, wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkyl cyano, alkyl sulfone, alkyl sulfonamide, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, aryl, arylalkyl, haloalkyl, or heteroaryl is optionally substituted with R25; R14 is C(O)R13, COOR13, C(O)NR13R13, SO2NR13R13, or S(O)nR13, wherein n is 1 or 2;

R15 and R16, taken together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded, form: i) a 3-8 membered saturated or partially saturated monocyclic group, wherein the 3-8 membered saturated or partially saturated monocyclic group is optionally substituted with R25; ii) an 8-12 membered saturated or partially saturated bicyclic group, wherein the 8-12 membered saturated or partially saturated bicyclic group is optionally substituted with R25; iii) a 3-8 membered saturated or partially saturated monocyclic group having 1-3 heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, sulfone or sulfoxide, wherein the 3-8 membered saturated or partially saturated monocyclic group having 1-2 heteroatoms is optionally substituted with R13 or R14; or iv) a 8-12 membered saturated or partially saturated bicyclic group having 1-3 heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, sulfone, sulfoxide, wherein the 8-12 membered saturated or partially saturated bicyclic group having 1-3 heteroatoms is optionally substituted with R13 or R14; and

each R25 is independently selected from hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-C6)alkyl, C1-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C3-C6 alkynyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl, C3-C8 heterocycloalkyl, C4-C6 cycloalkenyl, aryl(C1-C6)alkyl, aryl, halo, haloalkyl, oxo, oxime, CF3, SR13, OCF3, OR13, OC(O)CH2R13, NR13R13, NR13R14, NHC(O)R13, (CH2)nNR13R13, COOR13, CN, C(O)R13, C(O)CF3, CONR15R16, CONH2, S(O)6R13, S(O)nNR13R13, or NR15R16, wherein each n is independently 1 or 2 and the heterocycloalkyl is optionally substituted with C1-C3 alkyl.

In some embodiments, LRRK2 inhibitors of interest include a compound of Formula (II):

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00009

wherein in one embodiment, R1 is CH3 and X is X is NH2 or NHR6; and Y is NHR6 or R6 and Z is H, halogen, C1-C3 alkyl, C2-C4 alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or C3-C8 cycloalkyl, wherein the alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, alkynyl, or heteroaryl is optionally substituted with halo, alkyl, or cyano.

In some embodiments, R1 is H, X is NR4R5, and Y is NHR6. Z can be H, halogen, C1-C3 alkyl, C2-C4 alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or C3-C8 cycloalkyl, wherein the alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, alkynyl, or heteroaryl is optionally substituted with halo, alkyl, or cyano such that R4 is selected from H, C1-C6 alkyl, or hydroxy(C1-C6)alkyl and R5 is aryl(C1-C3)alkyl. The aryl group of aryl(C1-C3)alkyl of R5 is independently substituted at the one or more carbon atoms with 1-3 R11. R11 is independently selected from OR9, NR9R9, NR9COR9, or NR9S(O)nR9, in which n is 1 or 2. R9 is independently selected from H, C1-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C3-C6 alkynyl, C2-C6 alkyl cyano, C2-C6 alkyl sulfone, C3-C6 alkyl sulfone, C3-C6 cycloalkyl sulfone, C2-C6 sulfonamide, C3-C6 cycloalkyl, C3-C8 heterocycloalkyl, C4-C6 cycloalkenyl, aryl, aryl(C1-C6)alkyl, haloalkyl, or heteroaryl, in which the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkyl cyano, alkyl sulfone, sulfonamide, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, aryl, arylalkyl, haloalkyl, or heteroaryl is optionally substituted with R25.

In some instances, Y is NHR6 and R6 is selected from C1-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C3-C6 alkynyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl, C3-C8 heterocycloalkyl, C4-C6 cycloalkenyl, aryl, aryl(C1-C6)alkyl, or heteroaryl, wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, aryl, arylalkyl, haloalkyl, or heteroaryl is optionally substituted with R25.

In some embodiments, LRRK2 inhibitors of interest include a compound of Formula (III):

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00010

wherein: X is CH or N;

R1 is selected from H, halo, CN, C1-C10 alkyl or halo(C1-C4)alkyl, wherein C1-C10 alkyl, or halo(C1-C4)alkyl is optionally substituted;

R2 is aryl, cycloalkyl, arylalkyl, or heterocyclyl, wherein the aryl, cycloalkyl, arylalkyl, or heterocyclyl is optionally and independently substituted at one or more carbon atoms with 1-4 R5 or R5a groups; and wherein aryl and heterocyclyl having one or more nitrogen atoms is optionally and independently substituted at one or more nitrogen atoms with 1-4 R6 or R6a groups;

R3 is independently halo, CN, or R7; and

R4 is selected from (CH2)nOH, (CH2)nNR11R12, C(O)NHR7, C(O)NR11R12, C(O)R7, C(O)NR7R7, C(O)NR7R8, (CH2)nNR7R7, (CH2)nNR7R8, (CH2)nCN, (CH2)nSR7, (CH2)nS(O)nR7, or (CH2)nS(O)nNR7R7, wherein each n is independently 1 or 2; wherein:

Each R5 is independently selected from halo, CF3, SR7, OR7, OC(O)R7, O(CH2)nNR7R7, O(CH2)nNR11R12, O(CH2)nR7, O(CH2)nC(O)NR11R12, O(CH2)nC(O)NR7R7, NR7R7, NR7R8, NHC(O)NH2, C(O)OR7, NO2, CN, C(O)R7, OSO2CH3, S(O)nR7, S(O)nNR7R7, NR7C(O)NR7R7, NR7C(O)R7, NR7C(O)OR7, NR7S(O)nR7, or NR11R12, wherein each n is independently 1 or 2;

Each R5a is independently selected from amino, halo, hydroxy, C1-C10 alkyl, C2-C10alkenyl, C3-C10 alkynyl, C3-C12cycloalkyl, C5-C10cycloalkenyl, alkoxy, haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocyclyl, wherein the C1-C10 alkyl, C2-C10alkenyl, C3-C10alkynyl, C3-C12cycloalkyl, C5-C10cycloalkenyl, alkoxy, haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocyclyl is optionally and independently substituted with 1 to 3 groups selected from halo, hydroxy, alkyl, R9, or R10; Each R6 is independently R7, C(O)CH2CN, C(O)R7, C(O)OR7, CO2(C1-C6alkyl), C(O)NR7R7, SO2NR7R7, or SO2R7;

Each R6a is independently hydroxy, C1-C10 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C3-C10 alkynyl, C3-C12 cycloalkyl, C5-C10 cycloalkenyl, haloalkyl, wherein each R6a group is optionally and independently substituted with 1-3 groups selected from hydroxy, aryl, alkyl, halo, R9, or R10;

Each R7 is independently H, C1-C10alkyl, C2-C10alkenyl, C3-C10alkynyl, C3-C12 cycloalkyl, C5-C12cycloalkenyl, aryl, aryl(C1-C4)alkyl, haloalkyl, heteroaryl, or heterocyclyl, wherein the C1-C10alkyl, C2-C10alkenyl, C3-C10alkynyl, C3-C12 cycloalkyl, C5-C12cycloalkenyl, aryl, aryl(C1-C4)alkyl, haloalkyl, heteroaryl, or heterocyclyl is optionally and independently substituted with 1-4 groups selected from aryl, cycloalkyl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, alkyl, halo, amino, hydroxy, R9, or R10;

Each R8 is independently C(O)R7, C(O)OR7, C(O)NR7R7, or S(O)nR7, wherein n is 1 or 2; Each R9 is independently CF3, SR7, OR7, NR7R7, NR11R12, C(O)NR7R7, C(O)NR11R12, S(O)nNR7R7, or S(O)nR7, wherein each n is independently 1 or 2;

Each R10 is C(O)O(C1-C6)alkyl, or halo(C1-C4)alkyl; and

R11 and R12, taken together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form: i) a 3-8 membered saturated or partially saturated ring having no heteroatom other than the nitrogen atom to which R11 and R12 are bonded, wherein said 3-8 membered saturated or partially saturated ring is optionally and independently substituted with 1-4 groups selected from R5 or R5a at one or more substitutable carbon atoms; ii) a 5-8 membered saturated or partially saturated ring having 1-3 heteroatoms, in addition to the nitrogen atom to which R11 and R12 are bonded, wherein said 1-3 heteroatoms are independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, sulfone or sulfoxide, and wherein said 5-8 membered saturated or partially saturated ring having 1-3 heteroatoms is optionally and independently substituted with 1-4 groups selected from R5 or R5a at one or more substitutable carbon atoms and at one or more substitutable nitrogen atoms with R6 or R6a; iii) a 9-10 membered saturated or partially saturated bicyclic ring having no heteroatom other than the nitrogen atom to which R11 and R12 are bonded, wherein said 9-10 membered saturated or partially saturated bicyclic ring having no heteroatom is optionally substituted with 1-4 groups independently selected from R5 or R5a at one or more substitutable carbon atoms; iv) a 9-10 membered saturated or partially saturated bicyclic ring having 1-5 heteroatoms, in addition to the nitrogen atom to which R11 and R12 are bonded, wherein said heteroatoms are independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, sulfoxide, sulfone, carboxamide or sulfoxamide; or v) a 6-14 membered saturated or partially saturated bridged ring having 1-3 heteroatoms in addition to the nitrogen atom to which R11 and R12 are bonded, wherein said 1-3 heteroatoms are independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, sulfone, or sulfoxide, and wherein said 6-14 membered saturated or partially saturated bridged ring having 1-3 heteroatoms is optionally and independently substituted with 1-4 groups selected from R5 or R5a at one or more substitutable carbon atoms and at one or more substitutable nitrogen atoms with R6 or R6a; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

In some embodiments, LRRK2 inhibitors of interest include a compound of the Formula (IV):

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00011

wherein:

m is from 0 to 3;

X is: —NRa; —O—; or —S(O)r— wherein r is from 0 to 2 and Ra is hydrogen or C1-6alkyl;

Y is a bond; oxo; —O—; or —S(O)r— wherein r is from 0 to 2.

Z is a bond; oxo; —NRa; —O—; or —S(O)r— wherein r is from 0 to 2 and Ra is hydrogen or C1-6alkyl;

R1, R2 and R3 are each independently hydrogen, C1-6alkyl; C1-6alkenyl; C1-6 alkynyl; halo-C1-6alkyl; C1-6alkoxy-C1-6alkyl; hydroxy-C1-6alkyl; amino-C1-6alkyl; C1-6alkylsulfonyl-C1-6alkyl; C3-6cycloalkyl optionally substituted with C1-6alkyl; C3-6cycloalkyl-C1-6alkyl wherein the C3-6cycloalkyl portion is optionally substituted with C1-6 alkyl; tetrahydrofuranyl; tetrahydrofuranyl-C1-6 alkyl; oxetanyl; or oxetan-C1-6 alkyl;

In certain instances, the LRRK2 inhibitor of Formula IV is Compound 10.

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00012

In some embodiments, LRRK2 inhibitors of interest include a compound of Formula (IVa):

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00013

wherein A represents pyridin-2-yl, pyridin-3-yl, pyridazin-3-yl, pyridazin-4-yl, pyrimidin-5-yl, 1,3-oxazol-2-yl, 1H-pyrazol-4-yl or isoxazol-4-yl or a group of formula (a) wherein * represents the point of attachment:

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00014

wherein when A represents pyridin-3-yl, the pyridinyl ring may optionally be substituted at the 2 position by fluoro, methoxy or CH2OH, at the 4 position by methyl or CH2OH, or at the 5 position by fluoro; when A represents 1H-pyrazol-4-yl, the pyrazolyl ring may optionally be substituted at the 1 position by methyl, and where A represents isoxazol-4-yl, the isoxazolyl ring may optionally be substituted at the 3 position by methyl or at the 5 position by methyl:

R1 and R2 independently represent halo, C1-3 haloalkyl, —(CH2)nR8, —(CO)R8, nitrogen containing heteroaryl ring optionally substituted with one two or three groups selected from methyl and trifluoromethyl;

n represents 1, 2 or 3;

R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7 independently represent hydrogen, halo, CN, C1-3alkyl or C1-3alkoxy;

R8 represents hydrogen or —NR9R10, R9 and R10 are either independently selected from hydrogen and C1-3 alkyl, wherein said C1-3 alkyl group is optionally substituted with one two or three halo, hydroxy, cyano or C1-2alkoxy groups, or together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, join together to form a nitrogen containing monoheterocyclic ring which ring is optionally substituted with one, two or three groups selected from halo, methyl and trifluoromethyl; and

R11 represents hydrogen, halo, CN, —CH1-2alkyl, C1-2alkoxy, —CH2CO2H or —CONHCH3.

In some embodiments, LRRK2 inhibitors of interest include a compound of Formula (V):

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00015

where A is —CH2— and —R1 is —C1-10-alkyl; or A is: —S—; —SO—; —SO2—; —O—; or —NRa, wherein —Ra is —H, —C1-20-alkyl, or —Ra is taken together with —R1 to form a cyclo-amino moiety of the formula:

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00016

wherein q is an integer of 1 to 4, W is —CH2— or —(N—C1-20-alkyl)-, —R3 is one or more moieties which are independently: —OH; —C1-6-alkyl; —C1-6-alkoxy, and wherein, when A is not (—CH2—), —R1 is:

(a) —C1-8-alkyl, optionally substituted independently for each occurrence with: (i) —(N═N+═N); (ii) -halogen; (iii) —C1-8-alkoxy, optionally substituted; (iv) —OH; (v) morpholinyl-; (vi) pyridyl-; (vii) moieties of the formula (—N(Rb)2), where —Rb is independently —H or —C1-10-alkyl; (viii) furanyl-; (ix) -aryl, optionally substituted, independently for each occurrence, with: (1) —NRc—(C═O)—CH3, where —Rc is —H or —C1-6-alkyl; (2) -alkoxy; (3) halogen-; (x) -aryloxy; (xi) a moiety of formula:

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00017

or formula:

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00018

or a moiety of formula

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00019

wherein, “q” is an integer of 1 to 4, and wherein independently, for each occurrence, a ring carbon is optionally substituted with —Rd1, wherein —Rd1 is —C1-6-alkyl; (xiii) a moiety of the formula —CH═CHRd2, wherein —Rd2 is —H or —C1-6-alkyl; (xiv) —Si(Re)3, wherein —Re is a —C1-4-alkyl which is optionally substituted with -fluorine;

(b) thiopenyl-;

(c) heteroaryl-;

(d) pyridyl-;

(e) furanyl-;

(f) -aryl, optionally substituted, independently for each occurrence with: (i) —N(Rf)—(C═O)—CH3, wherein —Rf is —H or —C1-6-alkyl; (ii) —C1-20-alkoxy; or (iii) halogen-; (g) a moiety of the formula:

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00020

wherein —Rg is —C1-6-alkyl or —S—C1-6-alkyl; —R2a and a R2b are independently —C1-6-alkyl or —H; —R4 is a substituent of the formula:

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00021

wherein: —R6 is: (a) —H; (b) —C1-6-alkyl; (c) —SO2—C1-6-alkyl; (d) —(C═O)—NH—Rh, wherein —Rh is: (I) —(CH2)0-4—C6-10-aryl, the -aryl moiety optionally comprising up to three substituents which are independently for each occurrence: (i) -halogen; (ii) —O—C1-6-alkyl; (iii) —S—C1-6-alkyl or (iv) —CN; (II) pyridinyl-, optionally substituted, independently for each occurrence, with -halogen; (III) piperidinyl-, which is bonded to the substrate through a carbon atom of the ring, and is optionally N-substituted with an acyl-moiety; or (IV) —C1-8-alkyl; (e) —(C═O)—CH2—Ri, wherein —Ri is: (i) —H; (ii) p-chlorobenzyl-; (iii) —C1-6-alkyl; or (iv) —C1-20-alkoxy; or (f) —(C═O)—Rk, wherein —Rk is: (i) —C1-6-alkyl; (ii) phenyl-, optionally substituted with up to 3 substituents which are independently for each occurrence: cyano-; halogen-; or —C1-6-alkoxy (—O—C1-6-alkyl); or (iii) —(NH)—C1-6-linear-alkyl-aryl; and —R5 is: (a) —H; (h) —C1-6-alkyl; or (c)-(CH2)0-4—C6-10-aryl, wherein the -aryl moiety is optionally substituted by up to three substituents which are independently for each occurrence: (i) -halogen; (ii) —O—C1-6-alkyl; (iii) —S—C1-6-alkyl or (iv) —CN.

In some embodiments, LRRK2 inhibitors of interest include a compound of Formula (VI):

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00022

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof wherein:

R1 and R2 are each independently hydrogen, C1-C6alkyl, C3-C7cycloalkyl, a four to seven membered heterocycloalkyl which contains one to three heteroatoms selected from N, O and S; or a five to six membered heteroaryl which contains one to four heteroatoms selected from N, O and S, wherein the C1-C6alkyl, C3-C7cycloalkyl, four to seven membered heterocycloalkyl, or five to six membered heteroaryl are optionally substituted with one to three R6; or

R1 and R2 taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached are a four to seven membered heterocycloalkyl which optionally contains one to two additional heteroatoms selected from N, O and S, and optionally contains one double bond; a six to eleven membered heterobicycloalkyl which optionally contains one to two additional heteroatoms selected from N, O and S; or a six to twelve membered heterospirocycloalkyl which optionally contains one to two additional heteroatoms selected from N, O and S; and wherein the four to seven membered heterocycloalkyl, six to eleven membered heterobicycloalkyl or six to twelve membered heterospirocycloalkyl is optionally substituted with one to three R7;

R3 is phenyl or a five to ten membered heteroaryl which contains one to four heteroatoms selected from N, O and S; wherein the phenyl and five to ten membered heteroaryl are optionally substituted with one to three R9 and wherein the phenyl is optionally fused with a C5-C6cycloalkyl or a five to six membered heterocycloalkyl which contains one to three heteroatoms selected from N, O and S and which is optionally substituted with oxo;

R4 and R5 are each independently hydrogen or C1-C3alkyl;

R6 at each occurrence is independently selected from C1-C3alkyl, C1-C3alkoxy, hydroxy, halo, —NRaRb, —C(O)NRaRb, or a four to seven membered heterocycloalkyl which contains one to three heteroatoms selected from N, O and S;

R7 at each occurrence is independently selected from halo, hydroxy, cyano, NRaRb, —C(O)NRaRb, C1-C6alkyl, C1-C6alkoxy, phenyl, a five to six membered heteroaryl containing one to four heteroatoms selected from N, O and S, or two R7 when attached to the same carbon and taken together can be oxo; wherein the C1-C6alkyl, phenyl and five to six membered heteroaryl are optionally substituted with one to three R8;

R8 at each occurrence is independently hydroxy, halo, cyano, C1-C3alkoxy, NRaRb, C1-C3alkyl optionally substituted with one to three halo, C3-C7cycloalkyl, phenoxy optionally substituted with cyano, or a five to six membered heteroaryloxy containing one to four heteroatoms selected from N, O and S and which is optionally substituted with one or two halo or C1-C3alkyl;

R9 at each occurrence is independently cyano, halo, hydroxy, C1-C3alkyl-S—, —CO2H, —C(O)NH2, —S(O)2NH2, C1-C3alkyl optionally substituted with one to three halo or hydroxy, or C1-C3alkoxy optionally substituted with one to three halo or hydroxy; and

Ra and Rb at each occurrence are each independently hydrogen, C1-C6alkyl, C3-C7cycloalkyl or —C(O)C1-C6alkyl.

In certain embodiments, LRKK2 inhibitors of interest include a 2,4-diaminopyrimidine compound as described in Chen et al. (“Discovery of Selective LRRK2 Inhibitors Guided by Computational Analysis and Molecular Modeling”; J. Med. Chem. 55:5536), aminopyrimidines as described in Kramer et al. (“Small Molecule Kinase Inhibitors for LRRK2 and Their Application to Parkinson's Disease Models”; ACS Chem. Neurosci. 3:151); LRRK2 inhibitors described in Lee et al. (“Inhibitors of leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 protect against models of Parkinson's disease” Nat. Med. 16:998); aminopyrimidines as described in Deng et al. (“Characterization of a selective inhibitor of the Parkinson's disease kinase LRRK2” Nat. Chem. Biol. 7:203), the disclosures of which are herein incorporated by reference.

Also included are pharmaceutically acceptable salts, tautomers, geometric isomers, enantiomers, diasterioisomers, and racemates of a compound of one of Formulas I-VI.

In still other embodiments, suitable LRRK2 inhibitors include LRRK2 inhibitors as described in International Patent Applications WO2014/060113, WO2014/0601112, WO2012/143144, WO2013/079494, WO2013/079505, WO2013/046029, WO2012/058193, WO2012/178015, as well as LRRK2 inhibitors as described in United States Patent Publication Nos. US20140005183; US20130338106; US20130225584; US2013158032; US20130157999; US20130296317; US20120329785; US20120329780, and U.S. Pat. Nos. 8,629,132 and 8,404,677, the disclosures of which are herein incorporated by reference.

In some cases, a suitable LRRK2 inhibitor has a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of from about 1 nM to about 1 mM, e.g., from about 1 nM to about 10 nM, from about 10 nM to about 15 nM, from about 15 nM to about 25 nM, from about 25 nM to about 50 nM, from about 50 nM to about 75 nM, from about 75 nM to about 100 nM, from about 100 nM to about 150 nM, from about 150 nM to about 200 nM, from about 200 nM to about 250 nM, from about 250 nM to about 300 nM, from about 300 nM to about 350 nM, from about 350 nM to about 400 nM, from about 400 nM to about 450 nM, from about 450 nM to about 500 nM, from about 500 nM to about 750 nM, from about 750 nM to about 1 μM, from about 1 μM to about 10 μM, from about 10 μM to about 25 μM, from about 25 μM to about 50 μM, from about 50 μM to about 75 μM, from about 75 μM to about 100 μM, from about 100 μM to about 250 μM, from about 250 μM to about 500 μM, or from about 500 μM to about 1 mM.

Whether a given compound inhibits LRRK2 enzymatic activity can be determined using any known method, including, e.g., a method as described in U.S. Patent Publication No. 2013/0158032, or in Taymans et al. (2011) PLoSOne 6:e23207; or in Vancraenenbroeck et al. (2014) Front. Mol. Neurosci. 7:51.

The following is an example of a suitable assay. LRRK2 is contacted in a reaction mixture with: γ-32P-ATP, LRRK2 peptide substrate (RLGRDKYKTLRQIRQ; SEQ ID NO://), 10 μM ATP, and kinase buffer; and: 1) a test compound (e.g., a putative LRRK2 inhibitor); 2) a negative control; or 3) a positive control. Kinase buffer can be 25 mM Tris, pH 7.5; 10 mM MgCl2; 2 mM dithiothreitol; 0.2% Triton (non-ionic detergent); 5 mM β-glycerophosphate; and 0.1 mM Na3VO4. The reaction mixture is kept at 30° C. for 30 minutes. The reaction is stopped by addition of 500 mM EDTA. LRRK peptide substrate phosphorylation levels are measured via autoradiography after spotting the stopped reaction mixtures on phosphocellulose paper.

In some cases, a suitable LRRK2 inhibitor is a selective LRRK2 inhibitor. For example, in some cases, a suitable LRRK2 inhibitor inhibits enzymatic (kinase) activity of LRRK2 but does not substantially inhibit an enzyme (e.g., a kinase) other than LRRK2. For example, in some cases, a suitable LRRK2 inhibitor inhibits enzymatic (kinase) activity of LRRK2 by at least about 50%, at least about 60%, at least about 70%, at least about 80%, at least about 90%, or more than 90%, at a given concentration (e.g., 1 μM or 10 μM), but does not substantially inhibit an enzyme other than LRRK2; for example, the LRRK2 inhibitor inhibits an enzyme other than LRRK2 by less than 25%, less than 15%, less than 10%, or less than 5%, or does not detectably inhibit an enzyme other than LRRK2, at the same concentration of LRRK2.

In some cases, a suitable LRRK2 inhibitor is an agent that inhibits LRRK2 GTPase activity. For example, in some cases, a suitable LRRK2 inhibitor is an agent that inhibits LRRK2 GTPase activity by at least 10%, at least 15%, at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, or more than 90%, compared to the level of GTPase activity in the absence of the agent.

In some cases, an agent that inhibits LRRK2 GTPase is a compound of the following structure:

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00023

In some cases, an agent that inhibits LRRK2 GTPase is a compound of the following structure:

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00024

In some cases, a suitable LRRK2 inhibitor is an agent that reduces ARFGAP1 activation of LRRK2 GTPase activity. For example, in some cases, a suitable LRRK2 inhibitor is an agent that reduces ARFGAP1 activation of LRRK2 GTPase activity by at least 10%, at least 15%, at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, or more than 90%, compared to the level of ARFGAP1 activation of LRRK2 GTPase activity in the absence of the agent. In some cases, an agent that ARFGAP1 activity is QS 11. See, e.g., Zhang et al. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:7444. The structure of QS 11 is as follows:

Figure US10004751-20180626-C00025

Dosages, Formulations, and Routes of Administration

In the subject methods, an active agent (e.g., an LRRK2 inhibitor) and optionally one or more additional antiviral agents) may be administered to the host using any convenient means capable of resulting in the desired therapeutic effect. Thus, the agent can be incorporated into a variety of formulations for therapeutic administration. More particularly, the agents of the embodiments can be formulated into pharmaceutical compositions by combination with appropriate, pharmaceutically acceptable carriers or diluents, and may be formulated into preparations in solid, semi-solid, liquid or gaseous forms, such as tablets, capsules, powders, granules, ointments, solutions, suppositories, injections, inhalants and aerosols. An LRRK2 inhibitor is generally referred to below as an “agent” or an “active agent.”

Formulations

The above-discussed active agent(s) can be formulated using well-known reagents and methods. Compositions are provided in formulation with a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient(s). A wide variety of pharmaceutically acceptable excipients is known in the art and need not be discussed in detail herein. Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients have been amply described in a variety of publications, including, for example, A. Gennaro (2000) “Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy,” 20th edition, Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins; Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems (1999) H. C. Ansel et al., eds., 7th ed., Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins; and Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients (2000) A. H. Kibbe et al., eds., 3rd ed. Amer. Pharmaceutical Assoc.

The pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, such as vehicles, adjuvants, carriers or diluents, are readily available to the public. Moreover, pharmaceutically acceptable auxiliary substances, such as pH adjusting and buffering agents, tonicity adjusting agents, stabilizers, wetting agents and the like, are readily available to the public.

In some embodiments, an agent is formulated in an aqueous buffer. Suitable aqueous buffers include, but are not limited to, acetate, succinate, citrate, and phosphate buffers varying in strengths from about 5 mM to about 100 mM. In some embodiments, the aqueous buffer includes reagents that provide for an isotonic solution. Such reagents include, but are not limited to, sodium chloride; and sugars e.g., mannitol, dextrose, sucrose, and the like. In some embodiments, the aqueous buffer further includes a non-ionic surfactant such as polysorbate 20 or 80. Optionally the formulations may further include a preservative. Suitable preservatives include, but are not limited to, a benzyl alcohol, phenol, chlorobutanol, benzalkonium chloride, and the like. In many cases, the formulation is stored at about 4° C. Formulations may also be lyophilized, in which case they generally include cryoprotectants such as sucrose, trehalose, lactose, maltose, mannitol, and the like. Lyophilized formulations can be stored over extended periods of time, even at ambient temperatures.

As such, administration of the agents can be achieved in various ways, including oral, buccal, rectal, parenteral, intraperitoneal, intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, transdermal, intratracheal, etc., administration. In many embodiments, administration is by bolus injection, e.g., subcutaneous bolus injection, intramuscular bolus injection, and the like.

The pharmaceutical compositions of the embodiments can be administered orally, parenterally or via an implanted reservoir. In some cases, an LRRK2 inhibitor is administered via oral administration. In some cases, an LRRK2 inhibitor is administered by injection, e.g., by intramuscular injection, by subcutaneous injection, or by intravenous injection.

Subcutaneous administration of a pharmaceutical composition of the embodiments is accomplished using standard methods and devices, e.g., needle and syringe, a subcutaneous injection port delivery system, and the like. See, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,547,119; 4,755,173; 4,531,937; 4,311,137; and 6,017,328. A combination of a subcutaneous injection port and a device for administration of a pharmaceutical composition of the embodiments to a patient through the port is referred to herein as “a subcutaneous injection port delivery system.” In many embodiments, subcutaneous administration is achieved by bolus delivery by needle and syringe.

In pharmaceutical dosage forms, the agents may be administered in the form of their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, or they may also be used alone or in appropriate association, as well as in combination, with other pharmaceutically active compounds. The following methods and excipients are merely exemplary and are in no way limiting.

For oral preparations, the agents can be used alone or in combination with appropriate additives to make tablets, powders, granules or capsules, for example, with conventional additives, such as lactose, mannitol, corn starch or potato starch; with binders, such as crystalline cellulose, cellulose derivatives, acacia, corn starch or gelatins; with disintegrators, such as corn starch, potato starch or sodium carboxymethylcellulose; with lubricants, such as talc or magnesium stearate; and if desired, with diluents, buffering agents, moistening agents, preservatives and flavoring agents.

The agents can be formulated into preparations for injection by dissolving, suspending or emulsifying them in an aqueous or nonaqueous solvent, such as vegetable or other similar oils, synthetic aliphatic acid glycerides, esters of higher aliphatic acids or propylene glycol; and if desired, with conventional additives such as solubilizers, isotonic agents, suspending agents, emulsifying agents, stabilizers and preservatives.

Furthermore, the agents can be made into suppositories by mixing with a variety of bases such as emulsifying bases or water-soluble bases. The compounds of the embodiments can be administered rectally via a suppository. The suppository can include vehicles such as cocoa butter, carbowaxes and polyethylene glycols, which melt at body temperature, yet are solidified at room temperature.

Unit dosage forms for oral or rectal administration such as syrups, elixirs, and suspensions may be provided wherein each dosage unit, for example, teaspoonful, tablespoonful, tablet or suppository, contains a predetermined amount of the composition containing one or more inhibitors. Similarly, unit dosage forms for injection or intravenous administration may comprise the inhibitor(s) in a composition as a solution in sterile water, normal saline or another pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

The term “unit dosage form,” as used herein, refers to physically discrete units suitable as unitary dosages for human and animal subjects, each unit containing a predetermined quantity of compounds of the embodiments calculated in an amount sufficient to produce the desired effect in association with a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent, carrier or vehicle. The specifications for the unit dosage forms depend on the particular compound employed and the effect to be achieved, and the pharmacodynamics associated with each compound in the host.

The pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, such as vehicles, adjuvants, carriers or diluents, are readily available to the public. Moreover, pharmaceutically acceptable auxiliary substances, such as pH adjusting and buffering agents, tonicity adjusting agents, stabilizers, wetting agents and the like, are readily available to the public.

Dosages

The daily dosage of an LRRK2 inhibitor will vary with the compound employed, the mode of administration, the treatment desired and the disease indicated, as well as other factors such as a subject's age, body weight, general health, condition, prior medical history and sex, and like factors known in the medical arts. For example, in some cases, an LRRK2 inhibitor is administered at a daily dosage in the range from about 0.5 mg/kg body weight to about 15 mg/kg body weight, e.g. in the range from about 1 mg/kg body weight to about 10 mg/kg body weight. As another example, in some cases, an LRRK2 inhibitor is administered at a daily dosage from about 0.001 g to about 1.5 g, e.g., not exceeding about 1 gram, e.g. from about 0.1 g to about 0.5 g for a 70 kg human, given up to 4 times daily.

An LRRK2 inhibitor is administered for a period of about 1 day to about 7 days, or about 1 week to about 2 weeks, or about 2 weeks to about 3 weeks, or about 3 weeks to about 4 weeks, or about 1 month to about 2 months, or about 3 months to about 4 months, or about 4 months to about 6 months, or about 6 months to about 8 months, or about 8 months to about 12 months, or at least one year, and may be administered over longer periods of time.

In many embodiments, multiple doses of an LRRK2 inhibitor are administered. For example, an LRRK2 inhibitor is administered once per month, twice per month, three times per month, every other week (qow), once per week (qw), twice per week (biw), three times per week (tiw), four times per week, five times per week, six times per week, every other day (qod), daily (qd), twice a day (bid), or three times a day (tid). In some cases, an LRRK2 inhibitor is administered substantially continuously, or continuously, over a period of time ranging from about one day to about one week, from about two weeks to about four weeks, from about one month to about two months, from about two months to about four months, from about four months to about six months, or more.

Routes of Administration

An active agent (e.g., an LRRK2 inhibitor) can be administered via a variety of routes of administration, including oral, buccal, rectal, parenteral, intraperitoneal, intravenous, intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, transdermal, intratracheal, etc., administration. In some embodiments, administration is by bolus injection, e.g., subcutaneous bolus injection, intramuscular bolus injection, and the like. In some cases, an LRRK2 inhibitor is administered via oral administration. In some cases, an LRRK2 inhibitor is administered via subcutaneous administration. In some cases, an LRRK2 inhibitor is administered via intravenous administration. In some cases, an LRRK2 inhibitor is administered via intramuscular. In some cases, an LRRK2 inhibitor is administered via inhalation.

Individuals Suitable for Treatment

Individuals who are suitable for treatment with a method of the present disclosure include individuals who have been diagnosed as having a flavivirus (e.g., Dengue virus) infection. Individuals who are suitable for treatment with a method of the present disclosure include individuals who have been diagnosed as having a flavivirus (e.g., Dengue virus) infection; and who exhibit dengue hemorrhagic fever. Individuals who are suitable for treatment with a method of the present disclosure include individuals who have been diagnosed as having a flavivirus (e.g., Dengue virus) infection; and who exhibit dengue shock syndrome (DSS).

Individuals who are suitable for treatment with a method of the present disclosure include individuals who have an acute dengue infection (e.g., have been diagnosed as having an acute dengue infection).

In some cases, individuals having Parkinson's disease are specifically excluded.

EXAMPLES

The following examples are put forth so as to provide those of ordinary skill in the art with a complete disclosure and description of how to make and use the present invention, and are not intended to limit the scope of what the inventors regard as their invention nor are they intended to represent that the experiments below are all or the only experiments performed. Efforts have been made to ensure accuracy with respect to numbers used (e.g. amounts, temperature, etc.) but some experimental errors and deviations should be accounted for. Unless indicated otherwise, parts are parts by weight, molecular weight is weight average molecular weight, temperature is in degrees Celsius, and pressure is at or near atmospheric. Standard abbreviations may be used, e.g., bp, base pair(s); kb, kilobase(s); pl, picoliter(s); s or sec, second(s); min, minute(s); h or hr, hour(s); aa, amino acid(s); kb, kilobase(s); bp, base pair(s); nt, nucleotide(s); i.m., intramuscular(ly); i.p., intraperitoneal(ly); s.c., subcutaneous(ly); and the like.

Example 1: Inhibition of Dengue Virus with LRRK2 Inhibitors

Dengue Virus (DENV) Capsid Interacts with LRRK2

293T cells were transfected with the indicated expression construct (5 μg) and incubated for 48 hours. Cells were then lysed in RIPA buffer for 30 minutes and insoluble debris was removed by centrifugation. Equal amounts of protein lysate (1 mg) were incubated with anti-Strep beads (Invitrogen) overnight at 4 degrees Celsius. Bound proteins were denatured and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Proteins were immunoblotted with anti-strep mAb (DENVc; 1:500, Sigma Aldrich) and LRRK2 was detected with a pAb (1:1000, Cell Signalling Technology). The results are shown in FIG. 1.

As shown in FIG. 1 the DENV capsid interacts with LRRK2 when both proteins are expressed exogenously in 293T cells.

LRRK2 Kinase Inhibitor IN-1 Inhibits DENV Lifecycle.

A549 cells were preincubated with 1 μM of the LRRK2 kinase inhibitor IN-1 (cat. no. 4273, Tocris Bioscience (also referred to herein as Compound 1)), 1 μM LRRK2 inhibitor III (cat. no. 438195, EMD Millipore (also referred to herein as Compound 5)), or DMSO control. Cells were then infected with serial dilutions of DENV-2 (16681) for 2 hours in the continued presence of the indicated inhibitor. Infection media was removed and replaced with DMEM+0.8% methylcellulose containing the indicated inhibitor. Cells were fixed with 2% paraformaldehyde 48 hours post-infection, permeabilized, and stained for DENV E protein (4G2, Biomatik LLC, AlexaFluor 488 secondary). Viral plaque formation was quantified by IF microscopy. Data are represented as % infection in the experimental wells compared to the DMSO control. ***, p>0.001. The data are shown in FIG. 2A.

As shown in FIG. 2A, LRRK2 inhibitor IN-1 significantly inhibits viral infection.

A549 cells were pretreated with 1 μM of either IN-1, LRRK2 inhibitor III, or DMSO as a control for 2 hours before infection with DENV-2 (multiplicity of infection (MOI) ˜1). Infection media was replaced with regular media containing the indicated inhibitors and incubated for an additional 48 hours. Cellular RNA was then extracted, purified, and relative DENV RNA was determined in each condition by RT-PCR. Data presented as DENV RNA copies normalized to a reference gene (18s) and subsequently compared to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control. The data are shown in FIG. 2B.

As shown in FIG. 2B, LRRK2 inhibitor IN-1 reduced viral genome abundance.

A549 cells were plated and incubated in the presence of IN-1 or DMSO control for 48 hours. An MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was then performed as per the manufacturers protocol (ATCC). The data are shown in FIG. 2C.

As shown in FIG. 2C, IN-1 is not cytotoxic to cells.

LRRK2 Depletion Inhibits the DENV Lifecycle.

A549 cells were individually transduced with four populations of LRRK2 targeting shRNAs and selected with puromycin for 24 hours. After selection, cellular RNA was extracted, purified, and LRRK2 expression level was determined by RT-PCR (left). Selected cells were also infected with DENV (16681) at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1. DENV RNA was extracted, purified, and relative genome abundance was determined by RT-PCR (right). Data are presented as DENV genome abundance in the experimental wells compared to genome abundance in the scramble control well. The data are shown in FIG. 3.

As shown in FIG. 3, depletion of endogenous LRRK2 from A549 cells significantly inhibited DENV genome accumulation.

DENV Replication in iMPC-Heps is Ablated by IN-1.

Human hepatocytes were derived from fibroblasts as described in Zhu et al. ((2014) Nature 508:93). Induced multipotent progenitor cells (iMPC) were generated from human fibroblasts; and the iMPCs were used to generate hepatocytes. The hepatocytes thus generated are referred to as iMPC-HEPs. These hepatocytes were infected with DENV-2 (16681) and incubated for 48 hours. Cells were then fixed (2% paraformaldehyde) and stained for DENV capsid (4G2, Biomatik LLC, AlexaFluor 488 secondary) or human albumin (A80-129A, Bethyl, AlexaFluor 594 secondary). The data are shown in FIG. 4A.

As shown in FIG. 4A, DENV established a robust infection in iMPC-HEPs.

iMPC-Heps were treated with the indicated concentration of the LRRK2 kinase inhibitor IN-1 (cat. no. 4273, Tocris Bioscience) for 2 hours and subsequently infected with DENV-2 (16681). Virus was removed 2 hours post-infection and cells were incubated for 48 hours with the indicated concentration of IN-1. Viral RNA was extracted, purified, and viral RNA abundance was determined by RT-PCR. The data are shown in FIG. 4B.

As shown in FIG. 4B, incubation of human hepatocytes with the LRRK2 kinase inhibitor IN-1 significantly reduced RNA replication in a dose-dependent manner. This indicates that LRRK2 inhibition is a potential therapeutic target for DENV infection by demonstrating efficacy in a model system using physiologically relevant primary cells.

Example 2: Inhibiting DENV with an Inhibitor of ARFGAP1

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a large protein containing multiple domains, including a kinase domain and a GTPase domain. ADP ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 1 (ARFGAP1) is a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for LRRK2. ARFGAP1 binds to LRRK2 and increases its GTPase activity. Furthermore, LRRK2 phosphorylates ARFGAP1 and inhibits its GAP activity, thus revealing the reciprocal regulation between these two proteins. It was hypothesized that both LRRK2 and ARFGAP1 play critical roles in the DENV life cycle.

A competitive inhibitor of ARFGAP1, QS 11, was used to show that ARFGAP1 is required for efficient DENV replication. Human hepatoma Huh7 cells were infected with DENV (MOI of 0.5) and treated with increasing concentrations of QS 11. Viral RNA synthesis, DENV capsid protein levels, and infectious virion production were measured at 24 hours post-infection. As shown in FIG. 6A-6C, QS 11 reduced viral RNA synthesis (FIG. 6A), DENV capsid protein levels (FIG. 6B), and infectious virion production (FIG. 6C).

While the present invention has been described with reference to the specific embodiments thereof, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted without departing from the true spirit and scope of the invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation, material, composition of matter, process, process step or steps, to the objective, spirit and scope of the present invention. All such modifications are intended to be within the scope of the claims appended hereto.

Claims (13)

What is claimed is:
1. A method of treating a Dengue virus infection in an individual, the method comprising administering to the individual an effective amount of a leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) inhibitor, wherein the LRRK2 inhibitor is Compound 1:
Figure US10004751-20180626-C00026
Compound 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the individual has been diagnosed as having a Dengue virus infection.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the LRRK2 inhibitor is administered at a dose of from about 1 mg to about 100 mg per day.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the LRRK2 inhibitor is administered at a dose of from about 10 mg to about 50 mg per day.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the LRRK2 inhibitor is administered in an amount of from about 0.001 mg/kg/day to about 500 mg/kg/day.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein the LRRK2 inhibitor is administered orally.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the LRRK2 inhibitor is administered intravenously.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein the LRRK2 inhibitor is administered subcutaneously.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein the LRRK2 inhibitor is administered intramuscularly.
10. The method of claim 1, wherein the individual is a human.
11. The method of claim 10, wherein said individual exhibits dengue hemorrhagic fever.
12. The method of claim 10, wherein said individual exhibits dengue shock syndrome.
13. The method of claim 1, wherein the LRRK2 inhibitor is Compound 1:
Figure US10004751-20180626-C00027
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