TW201334636A - Electron beam plasma source with profiled chamber wall for uniform plasma generation - Google Patents

Electron beam plasma source with profiled chamber wall for uniform plasma generation Download PDF

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Publication number
TW201334636A
TW201334636A TW101138297A TW101138297A TW201334636A TW 201334636 A TW201334636 A TW 201334636A TW 101138297 A TW101138297 A TW 101138297A TW 101138297 A TW101138297 A TW 101138297A TW 201334636 A TW201334636 A TW 201334636A
Authority
TW
Taiwan
Prior art keywords
electron beam
plasma reactor
distribution
chamber
along
Prior art date
Application number
TW101138297A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
Kallol Bera
Kenneth S Collins
Shahid Rauf
Leonid Dorf
Original Assignee
Applied Materials Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US201161549355P priority Critical
Priority to US13/595,351 priority patent/US20130098553A1/en
Application filed by Applied Materials Inc filed Critical Applied Materials Inc
Publication of TW201334636A publication Critical patent/TW201334636A/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32009Arrangements for generation of plasma specially adapted for examination or treatment of objects, e.g. plasma sources
    • H01J37/32321Discharge generated by other radiation
    • H01J37/3233Discharge generated by other radiation using charged particles
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J2237/00Discharge tubes exposing object to beam, e.g. for analysis treatment, etching, imaging
    • H01J2237/06Sources
    • H01J2237/063Electron sources
    • H01J2237/06325Cold-cathode sources
    • H01J2237/06366Gas discharge electron sources

Abstract

A plasma reactor for generating a plasma by an electron beam in a workpiece processing chamber, the plasma reactor having an electron beam source chamber having a direction opposite to an electron beam propagation direction The wall has a profile that compensates for non-uniformities in the electron beam density distribution.

Description

Electron beam plasma source for contoured chamber walls for producing uniform plasma

Embodiments of the invention relate to an electron beam plasma source for a contoured chamber wall for producing a uniform plasma.

A plasma reactor for treating a workpiece can utilize an electron beam as a plasma source. Due to the non-uniform density distribution of the electron beam, this plasma reactor may exhibit a non-uniform distribution of processing results (eg, a distribution of etch rates across the surface of the workpiece). This non-uniformity can be distributed in a direction transverse to the beam propagation direction.

A plasma reactor for processing a workpiece, comprising: a workpiece processing chamber having a processing chamber and an electron beam opening, the processing chamber including a chamber top wall and a chamber sidewall And the electron beam is opened in the sidewall of the chamber, a workpiece supporting pedestal in the processing chamber, the workpiece supporting pedestal has a workpiece supporting surface facing the top wall of the chamber, and the workpiece supporting surface and the cavity A workpiece processing area is defined between the top walls of the chamber, the electron beam opening facing the workpiece processing area. The plasma reactor further includes: an electron beam source chamber, the electron beam source chamber including a source package having an electron beam emission opening toward the electron beam opening of the workpiece processing chamber Window and defined along a longitudinal An electron beam propagation path of the direction extending through the electron beam emission window and through the electron beam opening and extending into the workpiece processing region, the source package further comprising a back wall along the back wall The longitudinal direction is spaced apart from the electron beam emission window by a gap extending substantially in a direction transverse to one of the longitudinal directions. An electron beam extraction grid extends across the electron beam emission window. A draw voltage source is coupled to the electron beam extraction grid, and one of the plasma source power supplies is coupled to the electron beam source chamber. The back wall has a contour that corresponds to one of the gaps along the lateral direction. In one embodiment, the profile is selected to compensate for variations in the transverse direction of the electron beam density. In a related embodiment, the change in the slit corresponds to a change in the lateral direction of the electron beam density distribution. This profile can be actively configurable. For example, the back wall can be comprised of a plurality of slats that are removably inserted into the source enclosure through a particular selection of various slits. Each contour corresponds to a different choice of slit. As another example, the back wall can be an elastic sheet that can be deformed to form different curvatures.

Referring to Figures 1A, 1B and 1C, the plasma reactor has an electron beam plasma source. The reactor includes a processing chamber 100 that is covered by a cylindrical sidewall 102, a bottom wall 104, and a top wall 106. The workpiece support pedestal 108 supports a workpiece 110, such as a semiconductor wafer, which is movable in an axial (eg, vertical) direction. Gas distribution plate 112 The system is integrated with or secured to the top wall 106 and receives process gas from the process gas supply 114. The vacuum pump 116 evacuates the chamber through the bottom wall 104. Processing region 118 is defined between workpiece 110 and gas distribution plate 112. Within the processing region 118, the process gas is ionized to generate a plasma for processing the workpiece 110.

The plasma is generated in the processing region 118 by an electron beam from the electron beam source 120. Electron beam source 120 includes a plasma generation chamber 122 external to processing chamber 100 and having a conductive enclosure 124. The conductive package 124 includes a sidewall 124b, a top wall 124c, a bottom wall 124d, and a back wall 124e. The electrically conductive enclosure 124 has a neck or gas inlet 125. Electron beam source gas supply 127 is coupled to gas inlet 125. The conductive body 124 has an opening 124a that faces the processing region 118 through an opening 102a in the sidewall 102 of the processing chamber 100.

The electron beam source 120 includes a capture grid 126 between the opening 124a and the plasma generation chamber 122, and an acceleration grid 128 between the extraction grid 126 and the processing region 118, which is best seen in An enlarged view of Fig. 1B. For example, the capture grid 126 and the acceleration grid 128 can be formed from separate conductive meshes. The extraction grid 126 and the acceleration grid 128 are respectively secured by insulators 130, 132 to be electrically isolated from one another and form a conductive envelope 124. However, the acceleration grid 128 is in electrical contact with the sidewalls 102 of the chamber 100. In general, openings 124a and 102a, extraction grid 126, and acceleration grid 128 may be identical to one another and define a thin and wide electron flow path such that the electron beam enters chamber region 118. The width of the electron flow path is approximately the diameter of the workpiece 110 (eg, 100-500 mm), The height of the electron flow path is less than two inches.

The electron beam source 120 further includes an electromagnet 134-1 and 134-2 adjacent one of the opposite sides of the chamber 100, and the electromagnet 134-1 surrounds the electron beam source 120. The electromagnets 134-1 and 134-2 generate a magnetic field in a direction parallel to the electron beam along the electron beam path. The electron beam flows across the processing region 118 on the workpiece 110 and is absorbed by the beam collection region 136 on the opposite side of the processing region 118. The bundle 136 is an electrical conductor having a shape suitable for capturing a wide and thin electron beam.

The plasma D.C. discharge voltage supply 140 is coupled to a conductive package 124 that can include a cathode and provides a draw voltage between the conductive package 124 (eg, the cathode) and the extraction grid 126. One terminal of the electron beam acceleration voltage supply 142 is connected to the extraction grid 126, and the other terminal is connected to the acceleration grid 128 through the ground potential of the side wall 102 of the processing chamber 100. Coil current supply 146 is coupled to electromagnets 134-1 and 134-2. The plasma is generated in the chamber 122 of the electron beam source 120 by D.C. gas discharge, which is powered by the voltage supply 140 to generate plasma throughout the chamber 122. This D.C. gas discharge is the plasma source of the electron beam source 120. The plasma from the chamber 122 is drawn through the extraction grid 126, and due to the voltage difference between the acceleration grid and the extraction grid, the electrons are accelerated through the acceleration grid to generate electrons flowing into the processing chamber 100. bundle.

The distribution of electron density across the width of the electron beam (either along the X-axis or transverse to the direction of travel of the electron beam) affects the uniformity of the plasma density distribution in the processing region 118. In the case where the feature of this non-uniformity is not corrected The electron beam can have a non-uniform distribution of measurements, which are described below. This non-uniformity can be measured from the etch depth profile on the workpiece or wafer processing in the reactor chamber described above. The electronic drift of the interaction between the bias electric field and the magnetic field, the electron beam divergence of the electric field, and/or the collision of electrons with neutral gases in the processing chamber can cause non-uniformity in this measurement. This non-uniformity can also be caused by the edge effect of the electric field at the edge of the electron beam. For the above reasons, the electron density distribution across the width of the electron beam (a direction across the X-axis or transverse to the direction of travel of the electron beam) tends to exhibit non-uniformity. For example, this non-uniformity may range from 1% to 20% across the width of the electron beam corresponding to a change in the plasma electron density distribution in the electron beam. This change can be measured because the change can be known from the measurement of the etch depth profile in the test wafer described above.

The back wall 124e of the conductive envelope 124 has a profile along the lateral direction (X-axis). This profile is selected to compensate for the non-uniformity measured in the lateral direction along the electron density distribution of the electron beam. For example, in the embodiment of Figure 1C, the back wall 124e has a contour of an inner convex shape, wherein in the volume of the chamber 122, the back wall 124e is curved inwardly toward the center and toward the side wall 124b Bend outward. The back wall 124e and the opening 214a define a gap G parallel to the electron beam direction or the Y axis, and the gap G has a change along the lateral direction or the X axis according to the contour of the back wall 124e.

In the embodiment of FIG. 1D, the back wall 124e has a contour of an inner concave shape in which the back wall 124e is outwardly curved near the center with respect to the volume of the chamber 122, and is curved inward toward the side wall 124b.

It is believed that these contours change the effective cathode area along the lateral direction, and The distribution of the ion current in the lateral direction to the cathode (i.e., the conductive inclusion 124) is varied. This establishes a corresponding change in the distribution of the electron flow through the lateral direction of the extraction grid 126. For example, volumetric compression reduces plasma electron density. Therefore, in the embodiment of Fig. 1C, the convex shape of the back wall 124e tends to be such that the plasma electron distribution in the lateral direction is low in the center and high in the edge, and thus is suitable for the central plasma when the distribution is not corrected. The electronic distribution is high. In the embodiment of Fig. 1D, the concave shape of the back wall 124e tends to be such that the plasma electron distribution in the lateral direction is high in the center and low in the edge, and thus is suitable for the distribution of the plasma electrons in the center when the distribution is uncorrected. Low condition. The change in gap G is selected to match the change in the plasma electron density distribution along the lateral direction. For example, if the plasma electron distribution has a centrally high non-uniformity, or has a variation of a particular value (eg, 5%), the convex shape of FIG. 1C is utilized, and in this case the back wall 124e The profile is configured such that the gap G has a similar value (eg, 5%) change. Similarly, if the plasma electron distribution has a centrally low non-uniformity, or has a variation of a particular value (eg, 5%), the concave shape of Figure 1D is utilized, and in this case the contour of the back wall 124e is The gap G is configured to have a similar value (eg, 5%) change. For example, the electron density distribution may have a variation ranging from 1% to 20%, and the variation of the gap G may be selected to be within this range.

FIGS. 2A and 2B depict an embodiment in which the contours of the 1C and 1D are respectively used in a stepped manner.

Figure 3 depicts an embodiment that can be switched between different stepped configurations, Includes a stepped configuration of Figures 2A and 2B. In Figure 3A, the elongated slits 200 in the top wall 124c extend in respective directions. Individual slats or flat portions 210 can be inserted into the respective slits 200. The individual portions 210 can slide into and out of the individual slits 200 until the bottom edge of the portions 210 contacts the bottom wall 124d and can thus be individually inserted into or removed from the conductive enclosure 124. Individual portions 210 are inserted into each of the selected slits 200 to form a continuous conductive barrier comprised of the inserted portions 210. For example, the barrier may conform to either the convex or concave stepped profile of FIG. 2A or 2B, or may be any other suitable contour. For each stepped configuration, some of the slits 200 are not inserted at any location and are therefore empty. Each of the empty slits 200 can be sealed as the slit cover 230 depicted in FIG. 3D.

Figures 3A through 3C depict different configurations of the portion 210 of Figure 3. The portion 210 is indicated by intersecting thin lines to separate the portion from the empty slit 200. Figures 3A and 3B depict configurations corresponding to the convex and concave profiles, respectively. Figure 3C depicts a configuration with an almost flat profile. Figure 3D is an enlarged view illustrating certain details in accordance with related embodiments. In particular, Figure 3D illustrates how individual slit covers 230 can be used to close unused slits 200. The number of slit covers 230 is available to carry many possible configurations. In FIG. 3D, shallow grooves 124f are provided on the surface of the bottom wall 124d, and each shallow groove 124f is engaged with the corresponding slit 200 in the top wall 124c, and can guide and hold the bottom edge of each portion 210 into the slit 200 to The right place. In order to provide a sealed enclosure, the top of each portion 210 and each slit cover 230 are provided as depicted in Figure 3D. The lip 225 provides a deformable ring seal below the lip.

Figure 4 depicts an embodiment in which the back wall 124e is an elastic metal sheet that is fastened to the side wall 124b at the side sources 124e-1, 124e-2. The top and bottom edges of the back wall 124e are free to slide relative to the top wall 124c and the bottom wall 124d. Therefore, the back wall 124e can freely flex between the convex curved shape of the 1Cth view and the concave curved shape of the 1Dth drawing. The actuator 250 is coupled to the back wall 124e by the arms 255 and thus flexes the back wall 124e to a convex or concave profile under user control.

Although the primary source of plasma in the electron beam source 120 is a D.C. gas discharge generated by the voltage supply 140, any other suitable source of plasma may be utilized instead of being the primary source of plasma. For example, the primary plasma source of electron beam source 120 can be a ring RF plasma source, a capacitively coupled RF plasma source, or an inductively coupled RF plasma source.

While the above is directed to the embodiments of the present invention, other and further embodiments of the present invention may be devised without departing from the scope of the invention, and the scope of the invention is determined by the scope of the following claims.

100‧‧‧Processing chamber

102‧‧‧ side wall

102a‧‧‧ Opening

104‧‧‧ bottom wall

106‧‧‧ top wall

108‧‧‧ pedestal

110‧‧‧Workpiece

112‧‧‧ gas distribution board

114‧‧‧Processing gas supply

116‧‧‧vacuum pump

118‧‧‧Processing area

120‧‧‧Electronic beam source

122‧‧‧ chamber

124‧‧‧Electrical inclusions

124a‧‧‧ openings

124b‧‧‧ side wall

124c‧‧‧ top wall

124d‧‧‧ bottom wall

124e‧‧‧Back wall

124e-1‧‧‧ side edge

124e-2‧‧‧ side edge

124f‧‧‧ shallow trough

125‧‧‧ gas inlet

126‧‧‧Select grid

127‧‧‧Electron beam source gas supply

128‧‧‧Accelerated Grid

130‧‧‧Insulator

132‧‧‧Insulator

134-1‧‧‧Electromagnet

134-2‧‧‧Electromagnet

136‧‧‧ Bunching area

140‧‧‧Voltage supply

142‧‧‧Electron beam accelerating voltage supply

146‧‧‧ coil current supply

200‧‧‧ slit

210‧‧‧ parts

225‧‧‧Lip

230‧‧‧ slit cover

250‧‧‧Actuator

255‧‧‧arm

The present invention has been described in detail with reference to the embodiments illustrated in the drawings It should be understood that certain known procedures are not discussed herein so as not to obscure the invention.

Figure 1A is a side view of a plasma reactor with electricity as a plasma source A beamlet generator with a bundle of electrical or structural contours.

Fig. 1B is an enlarged view of a portion of Fig. 1A.

Figure 1C is a top view of the plasma reactor of Figure 1A with the plasma source chamber wall having a convex profile.

Figure 1D is a top view of the plasma reactor of Figure 1A with the plasma source chamber wall having a concave profile.

Figures 2A and 2B depict different aspects of the embodiment in which the profile is configured in a stepped configuration.

Figure 3 depicts an embodiment that can be deformed between different profiles using an insertable portion.

Figures 3A, 3B and 3C depict different configurations of the embodiment of Figure 3.

Figure 3D is a detailed view of a portion of the embodiment of Figure 3.

Figure 4 depicts an embodiment that can be deformed between different profiles using an elastic chamber wall.

To help understand, use the same component symbols as much as possible to identify the same components of the common pattern. It is contemplated that elements and features of one embodiment may be beneficially incorporated in other embodiments without further recitation. However, it is to be understood that the exemplary embodiments of the present invention are illustrated by the accompanying drawings, and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.

100‧‧‧Processing chamber

102a‧‧‧ Opening

110‧‧‧Workpiece

120‧‧‧Electronic beam source

122‧‧‧ chamber

124a‧‧‧ openings

124b‧‧‧ side wall

124e‧‧‧Back wall

126‧‧‧Select grid

128‧‧‧Accelerated Grid

134-1‧‧‧Electromagnet

134-2‧‧‧Electromagnet

136‧‧‧ Bunching area

146‧‧‧ coil current supply

Claims (18)

  1. A plasma reactor for processing a workpiece, comprising: a workpiece processing chamber having a processing chamber and an electron beam opening, the processing chamber including a chamber top wall and a chamber a sidewall, and the electron beam is opened in the sidewall of the chamber, a workpiece supporting pedestal in the processing chamber, the workpiece supporting pedestal having a workpiece supporting surface facing the top wall of the chamber, and the workpiece supporting surface and A workpiece processing area is defined between the top walls of the chamber, the electron beam opening faces the workpiece processing area; an electron beam source chamber, the electron beam source chamber includes a source package, the source package having the opposite An electron beam emission window of the electron beam opening of the workpiece processing chamber, and defining an electron beam propagation path along a longitudinal direction extending through the electron beam emission window and through the electron beam opening and extending In the workpiece processing region, the source package further includes a back wall spaced apart from the electron beam emission window by a gap along the longitudinal direction, the electron beam emission window being substantially along the horizontal Extending in one of the longitudinal directions; an electron beam extraction grid spanning the electron beam emission window, coupled to the electron beam extraction grid and a source of voltage drawn from the electron beam source chamber; and the back The wall has a contour that corresponds to one of the gaps along the transverse direction.
  2. The plasma reactor of claim 1, wherein the distribution of the gap corresponds to one of electron beam densities along the transverse direction.
  3. The plasma reactor of claim 1, wherein the distribution of the gap along the lateral direction corresponds to one of the electron beam density distributions along the lateral direction.
  4. The plasma reactor of claim 1 wherein the distribution of the gap along the transverse direction is centrally low, wherein the gap has a central location along the lateral direction at the central portion of the back wall. Minimum value.
  5. The plasma reactor of claim 4, wherein the distribution of the gap along the transverse direction of the electron beam source chamber compensates for one of the plasma densities, the measured distribution along the The lateral direction is center high.
  6. The slurry reactor of claim 1, wherein the distribution of the gap along the lateral direction is centrally high, wherein the gap has a central location along the lateral direction at the central portion of the back wall. Maximum value.
  7. The plasma reactor of claim 6, wherein the distribution of the gap along the transverse direction of the electron beam source chamber compensates for a measurement distribution of the plasma density distribution, the measurement distribution along The lateral direction is centrally low.
  8. The plasma reactor of claim 1 wherein the distribution of the gap along the transverse direction has a minimum of 1% change.
  9. The plasma reactor of claim 1 wherein the distribution of the gap along the transverse direction has a variation of at least 5%.
  10. The plasma reactor of claim 1, wherein the back wall is configurable to change the profile.
  11. The plasma reactor of claim 1, wherein the back wall comprises an elastic member and an actuator, the elastic member being deformable between different curvatures, and the actuator being coupled to the elastic member.
  12. The plasma reactor of claim 11, wherein the different curvatures comprise a curvature corresponding to a concave profile or a curvature corresponding to a convex profile.
  13. The plasma reactor of claim 1, wherein the source package further comprises a top wall, a bottom wall facing the top wall, and a plurality of the bottom wall and the top wall An elongated slit, the slits being spaced apart from each other, and at least some of the slits extending in different directions relative to the lateral direction and the longitudinal direction, and a plurality of slats, the slats being removably Inserting into a selected one of the slits to form respective barriers extending from the bottom wall to the top wall and through the selected slits, The back wall includes the slats inserted through the slits.
  14. The plasma reactor of claim 13 wherein the selected slits comprise a plurality of slits corresponding to one of the plurality of contours.
  15. The plasma reactor of claim 14, wherein the plurality of contours comprise a convex contour or a concave contour.
  16. The plasma reactor of claim 14, wherein the plurality of contours correspond to a measured distribution along the transverse direction in the electron beam density distribution.
  17. The plasma reactor of claim 11, wherein the different curvatures comprise a measured distribution corresponding to the transverse direction in the electron beam density distribution.
  18. The plasma reactor of claim 1, further comprising: an electron beam acceleration grid or slit separated from the electron beam extraction grid by a dielectric, coupled to the electron beam acceleration grid or An accelerating voltage source of the slit, and the extraction grid.
TW101138297A 2011-10-20 2012-10-17 Electron beam plasma source with profiled chamber wall for uniform plasma generation TW201334636A (en)

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US201161549355P true 2011-10-20 2011-10-20
US13/595,351 US20130098553A1 (en) 2011-10-20 2012-08-27 Electron beam plasma source with profiled chamber wall for uniform plasma generation

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US9443700B2 (en) * 2013-03-12 2016-09-13 Applied Materials, Inc. Electron beam plasma source with segmented suppression electrode for uniform plasma generation
US20140356768A1 (en) * 2013-05-29 2014-12-04 Banqiu Wu Charged beam plasma apparatus for photomask manufacture applications

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WO2013059101A1 (en) 2013-04-25

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