RU2726941C1 - Method for self-discharge compensation of lead starter storage battery - Google Patents

Method for self-discharge compensation of lead starter storage battery Download PDF

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RU2726941C1
RU2726941C1 RU2019145585A RU2019145585A RU2726941C1 RU 2726941 C1 RU2726941 C1 RU 2726941C1 RU 2019145585 A RU2019145585 A RU 2019145585A RU 2019145585 A RU2019145585 A RU 2019145585A RU 2726941 C1 RU2726941 C1 RU 2726941C1
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Prior art keywords
self
discharge
battery
current
charge
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RU2019145585A
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Russian (ru)
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Степан Степанович Волков
Александр Вячеславович Набатчиков
Николай Леонидович Пузевич
Владимир Дмитриевич Рогачёв
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Федеральное государственное казенное военное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Рязанское гвардейское высшее воздушно-десантное ордена Суворова дважды Краснознаменное командное училище имени генерала армии В.Ф. Маргелова" Министерства обороны Российской Федерации
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries

Abstract

FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of electrical equipment, namely to the method of self-discharge compensation of lead starter accumulator batteries. In the proposed method, the discharge value and self-discharge rate of the accumulator battery are evaluated, the maximum charging current is determined Icharg.max = P/(2.6 n), where P is the limited power of the power source, n is the number of accumulators in the battery, the minimum current transmission time Icharg.max is determined, wherein to compensate for the lost charge tmin = ΔQlost/Icharg, where ΔQlost is value of lost battery charge at self-discharge, current is passed from power source with power P during time not less than 2 tmin., then periodically through time t = ΔQlost/(dQ/dt), where dQ/dt is the rate of self-discharge, passing reverse current or charging current through the storage battery from the source with limited power for at least t = 5.2 n ΔQlost/P. Compensation of self-discharge in accordance with the proposed method is possible using autonomous mobile energy sources in time intervals of daily periodicity of action from allowable values of self-discharge to maintain a level close to complete availability. Application of standard solar batteries as photocells with dimensions of 20×30×1 cm3 enables to obtain voltage of 12 V and provides power of more than 10 W.
EFFECT: higher reliability of lead storage batteries operation is technical result of invention.
1 cl, 1 dwg

Description

The proposed invention relates to the automotive industry and can be used in the operation of storage batteries, in particular, to maintain their performance in the presence of energy sources of limited power and periodic action.
It is known that for all secondary chemical energy sources (batteries), the amount of electric charge given off over time during storage decreases, which is characterized as self-discharge of the battery.
There is a known method of compensation for self-discharge of lead starter batteries, which consists in passing an electric current through the battery in the opposite direction in comparison with the operating current, measuring the voltage at the open terminals of the battery, comparing the measured voltage with the criterion of charging voltage and disconnecting the current [Guide to lead battery batteries. Approved by the Deputy Chief of the Main Armored Directorate and the Deputy Chief of the Central Automobile and Tractor Directorate. - Moscow: Military Publishing, 1983. - 183 p.].
In a known method, as a method for charging lead starter batteries in a constant voltage mode, in which the voltage value of the power source for charging is set within
Figure 00000001
where n is the number of batteries in the battery.
The disadvantage of this method is the battery chargeability in the range of up to (75-85)% of the charge capacity.
The closest to the proposed invention is a method of compensating for the self-discharge of lead starter batteries with energy sources of limited power and intermittent action, which consists in passing an electric current through the battery in the opposite direction in comparison with the operating current, measuring the voltage at the open terminals of the battery, in comparison with the measured voltage with the criterion of charging voltage and current cut-off. [Guide to Lead Acid Batteries. Approved by the Deputy Chief of the Main Armored Directorate and the Deputy Chief of the Central Automobile and Tractor Directorate. - M .: Military Publishing, 1983. - 183 p.]
This method is known as DC charging method. The method is carried out by passing a direct current of I charge. = 0.1 С 10 , equal to the value of the current taken at a 10-hour mode of full battery discharge, where С 10 is the value of the charge capacity of the storage battery at a 10-hour mode of discharge or battery charge.
Note: With a lower current take-off, the value of the charge capacity is higher, and with a higher current draw, it is less. So, the 6ST-190 storage battery at a 10-hour mode (current draw-off 19 Amperes) has a capacity of 190 Ampere-hours, and when taking a current of 800 Amperes has a capacity of about 20 Ampere-hours.
The disadvantage of this method is the limited possibility of its implementation within the electrical networks of collective use or during the operation of the internal combustion engine of the vehicle. In general, the specified drawback limits the mobility of the vehicle, impairs the sonic secrecy and is associated with the fuel consumption for ensuring the operation of the vehicle's internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator.
The proposed technical solution is aimed at increasing the mobility of a vehicle that uses a storage battery, improving sound masking and reducing vehicle fuel consumption.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the method of compensating for the self-discharge of lead starter batteries with energy sources of limited power and intermittent action, which consists in passing an electric current through the battery in the opposite direction in comparison with the operating current, measuring the voltage at the open terminals of the battery, in comparison with the measured voltage with the criterion of charging voltage and current cut-off, additionally estimate the discharge value and self-discharge rate of the battery, determine the maximum charge current
Figure 00000002
where P is the limited power of the energy source;
n is the number of batteries in the battery,
determine the minimum current flow time I charge max to compensate for the lost charge
Figure 00000003
where ΔQ sweat is the value of the lost battery charge during self-discharge, a current is passed from an energy source with a power of P for at least 2 t min. , then periodically in time
Figure 00000004
where dQ / dt is the self-discharge rate,
pass a reverse current (charge current) through the battery from a source with limited power for a period of at least
Figure 00000005
The proposed invention can be implemented using a device whose functional diagram is shown in the figure.
One of the variants of the device for implementing the method of compensating the self-discharge of lead starter batteries with energy sources of limited power and intermittent action (hereinafter referred to as the device) contains a series-connected photoelectric converter 1 of light energy (solar cell), a converter of DC voltage value 2, a switch 5, a meter of electrical characteristics (voltage, current, power) 6 and a storage battery 7, as well as a control device 4 connected to a converter 2 by a switch 5 and a meter 6, and a chronometer 3 connected to a control device 4.
Photoelectric converter (hereinafter PV) 1 converts light energy into electrical energy. Using converter 2, the voltage value is set equal to
Figure 00000006
where U gp is the voltage of the galvanic pair, for the Pb-PbO pair equal to 2 V;
U ext - additional voltage exceeding the voltage of the galvanic pair;
n is the number of galvanic pairs (batteries in a battery).
The boost voltage allows the reverse current to pass through the battery cells. The switch 5, the control unit 4 and the chronometer 3 provide the setting of the control mode and the self-discharge value of the battery 7, switching to the charging mode and monitoring the time, current and voltage of the battery 7 charge after the next self-discharge process.
The method is carried out as follows. Connect the battery to the self-discharge compensation device (figure), in particular, to the meter of electrical characteristics 6. To implement the self-discharge compensation method, it is necessary to apply voltage to the battery according to formula (6).
For lead-acid batteries with a known mode of charging (charging) with constant voltage, the value of the additional voltage is U add = 0.3-0.4 V. In this case, the charge can reach 85%, that is, the "lost" charge ΔQ sweat is not less than 15%. When charged with a current, as in the prototype, U ext reaches 0.7 V. At this voltage, abundant gas evolution occurs with the formation of a kind of blistering, that is, very small gas bubbles with a huge internal pressure (tens of atmospheres). Upon contact with the surface of the active mass, the bubbles burst with the release of great energy and destroy the surface of the grains of the active mass. The grains of the active mass of the positive electrode are comparable in size to the bubbles, therefore, the bond between the grains of the porous active mass is destroyed, and the electrode crumbles (in hydraulics, such phenomena are characterized as "cavitation").
In the proposed method, to eliminate cavitation in the pores of the positive electrode, the value of U add is taken equal to 0.6 V, at which there is no "boiling" gas release and the cavitation destruction of the electrode is eliminated. Moreover, this voltage is higher than the additional voltage of the constant voltage mode (0.3-0.4) V and provides a charge of more than 95%. This estimate follows from the linear interpolation of the dependence of the degree of charge on the value of the additional voltage: at U add = 0.4 V, the degree of charge is 85%, and at U add = 0.7 V, the degree of charge is 100%.
A comparative analysis with the prototype showed that the proposed invention makes it possible to compensate for self-discharge using autonomous, mobile and silent energy sources in time intervals of daily frequency of action from the permissible values of self-discharge (25% in winter and 50% in summer), until maintaining a level close to full readiness (more than 95% state of charge); use silent, mobile, compact solar cells and compensate for self-discharge of batteries in conditions of sunlight, as well as daytime diffusely scattered light. The use of standard solar cells as PV cells with dimensions of 20 × 30 × 1 cm 3 allows you to obtain a voltage of 12 V and provide a power of more than 10 W. For a vehicle with a 6ST-190 storage battery, self-discharge compensation can be provided in all operating conditions in real time using four PV modules with a total power of 40 W.

Claims (1)

  1. A method of compensating for the self-discharge of lead starter batteries by energy sources of limited power and intermittent action, which consists in passing an electric current through the battery in the opposite direction in comparison with the operating current, measuring the voltage at the open terminals of the battery in comparison with the measured voltage criterion with the charge voltage criterion and turning off the current , characterized in that the discharge value and the self-discharge rate of the battery are additionally estimated, the maximum charge current I charge max = P / (2.6 n) is determined, where P is the limited power of the energy source, n is the number of batteries in the battery, the minimum current flow time I charge max to compensate for lost charge t min = ΔQ pot / I charge max , where ΔQ sweat is the amount of lost battery charge during self-discharge, current is passed from an energy source with power P for at least 2 t min. , then periodically after a time t = ΔQ pot / (dQ / dt), where dQ / dt is the self-discharge rate, a reverse current or a charge current is passed through the battery from a source with limited power for a time not less than t = 5.2 n ΔQ sweat / R.
RU2019145585A 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 Method for self-discharge compensation of lead starter storage battery RU2726941C1 (en)

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Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2000324702A (en) * 1999-05-10 2000-11-24 Denso Corp Method and apparatus for detecting discharge capacity of battery and controller for car battery
RU2494514C1 (en) * 2010-11-25 2013-09-27 Панасоник Корпорэйшн Charge control circuit, device operating from battery, charging device and method of charging
CN204858672U (en) * 2015-08-12 2015-12-09 杭州绿泽节能技术有限公司 Activated equipment charges
CN105846507A (en) * 2016-05-22 2016-08-10 桂林理工大学 Lead-acid battery large current equalization method based on single-chip microcomputer control
RU2707274C2 (en) * 2014-10-22 2019-11-26 ФОРД ГЛОУБАЛ ТЕКНОЛОДЖИЗ, ЭлЭлСи Method for charging storage battery of vehicle, method of controlling voltage source and vehicle

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2000324702A (en) * 1999-05-10 2000-11-24 Denso Corp Method and apparatus for detecting discharge capacity of battery and controller for car battery
RU2494514C1 (en) * 2010-11-25 2013-09-27 Панасоник Корпорэйшн Charge control circuit, device operating from battery, charging device and method of charging
RU2707274C2 (en) * 2014-10-22 2019-11-26 ФОРД ГЛОУБАЛ ТЕКНОЛОДЖИЗ, ЭлЭлСи Method for charging storage battery of vehicle, method of controlling voltage source and vehicle
CN204858672U (en) * 2015-08-12 2015-12-09 杭州绿泽节能技术有限公司 Activated equipment charges
CN105846507A (en) * 2016-05-22 2016-08-10 桂林理工大学 Lead-acid battery large current equalization method based on single-chip microcomputer control

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