RU2626077C1 - Method of measuring super low angular speeds - Google Patents

Method of measuring super low angular speeds Download PDF

Info

Publication number
RU2626077C1
RU2626077C1 RU2016140788A RU2016140788A RU2626077C1 RU 2626077 C1 RU2626077 C1 RU 2626077C1 RU 2016140788 A RU2016140788 A RU 2016140788A RU 2016140788 A RU2016140788 A RU 2016140788A RU 2626077 C1 RU2626077 C1 RU 2626077C1
Authority
RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
electromagnetic waves
resonator
angular velocity
waves
measuring
Prior art date
Application number
RU2016140788A
Other languages
Russian (ru)
Inventor
Дмитрий Павлович Лукьянов
Сергей Юрьевич Шевченко
Original Assignee
Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Санкт-Петербургский государственный электротехнический университет "ЛЭТИ" им. В.И. Ульянова (Ленина)
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Санкт-Петербургский государственный электротехнический университет "ЛЭТИ" им. В.И. Ульянова (Ленина) filed Critical Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Санкт-Петербургский государственный электротехнический университет "ЛЭТИ" им. В.И. Ульянова (Ленина)
Priority to RU2016140788A priority Critical patent/RU2626077C1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of RU2626077C1 publication Critical patent/RU2626077C1/en

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01PMEASURING LINEAR OR ANGULAR SPEED, ACCELERATION, DECELERATION, OR SHOCK; INDICATING PRESENCE, ABSENCE, OR DIRECTION, OF MOVEMENT
    • G01P3/00Measuring linear or angular speed; Measuring differences of linear or angular speeds

Abstract

FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for measuring super low angular speeds by exciting electromagnetic waves running in opposite direction, reflecting, detecting their parameters, and calculating the value of the effective angular speed, proportional to the change in these parameters. The exciter, reflectors and detector are mounted on at least three geostationary satellites and excite electromagnetic waves.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of measuring super low angular speeds.
3 cl, 1 dwg

Description

The method of measuring ultra-small angular velocities relates to gyroscopy and can be used to measure ultra-small angular velocities in outer space.
From the works [Bychkov S.I., Lukyanov D.P., Bakalyar A.I. Laser gyroscope. Ed. prof. S.I. Bychkova. Moscow: Sov. radio, 1975. - 424 pp.] a method for measuring angular velocity using a closed resonator consisting of three or more reflectors, an exciter of two oncoming electromagnetic waves with the same frequencies (ƒ 1 and ƒ 2, respectively) and a detector recording the same transit time of oncoming ones is known closed-loop waves in the absence of angular velocity and the difference in the propagation time of counterpropagating waves in the presence of angular velocity.
Information about the effective angular velocity Ω is distinguished by the frequency difference Δƒ = ƒ 12 counterpropagating waves, the value of which can be found from the following expression:
Figure 00000001
where S is the area of the closed resonator, L is the perimeter of the closed resonator, λ is the average wavelength, defined as
λ≈4πs / (ƒ 1 + ƒ 2 ).
It is a laser gyroscope consisting of a cathode, two anodes, three mirrors, a prism and a receiver.
Using a cathode and two anodes, two counter-running electromagnetic waves are excited with the same frequencies ƒ 1 and ƒ 2, respectively (ƒ 1 = ƒ 2 ). Through a translucent mirror, both waves arrive at the receiver, where the phase shift is proportional to the angular velocity Ω.
In the absence of rotation (Ω = 0), oncoming waves have the same frequency (ƒ 1 = ƒ 2 ), as well as a zero phase shift between them.
When the closed resonator rotates, the frequency of one of the waves increases, and the other decreases. In this case, oncoming waves acquire additional phase shifts ϕ 1 = arctan ξ 1 and ϕ 2 = arctan ξ 2 , where ξ 1, 2 = ± QΔƒ / ƒ is the generalized detuning of wave frequencies due to the presence of rotation, and Q is the resonator Q factor.
The value of the differential phase shift acquired by oncoming waves is ϕ 12 = 2arctg (QΔƒ / ƒ), or, taking QΔƒ / ƒ << 1 at small angular velocities and using expression (1), we finally obtain
Figure 00000002
,
where c is the speed of light.
The disadvantage of this method is the inability to measure ultra-small angular velocities due to the small perimeter of the closed resonator (about 30-40 cm).
The closest in technical essence to this invention is a method of measuring ultra-low angular velocities, based on different travel times of counterpropagating electromagnetic waves through a closed resonator in the presence of angular velocity [Schreiber U., Igel N., Cochard A., Velikoseltsev A., Flaws A. Schuberth B., Drewitz W.,
Figure 00000003
The GEOsensor project: rotations - a new observable for seismology // Observation of the Earth System from Space. - Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006 .-- C. 427-443; Velikoseltsev AA, Lukyanov D.P., Vinogradov V.I., Schreiber K.U. Current status and development prospects of super-large optical gyroscopes for use in geodesy and seismology. Quantum Electronics. 2014.V. 44. No. 12. S. 1151-1156], which consists in placing on the surface of the Earth a closed resonator with a perimeter of 16 meters, consisting of four reflectors, the pathogen of two oncoming electromagnetic waves with the same frequencies (ƒ 1 and ƒ 2, respectively) and a receiver detecting the same propagation time of the oncoming waves along the resonator in the absence of angular velocity and the difference in the propagation time of counterpropagating waves in the presence of angular velocity.
The value of the phase shift in this method depends on the size of the resonator and is proportional to the speed of rotation. Therefore, provided that the path length of the electromagnetic wave inside the resonator is known exactly, the measurement of the phase shift gives the exact value of the speed of rotation of the sensor. This phase shift is recalculated into the frequency difference of two counterpropagating electromagnetic waves in those cases when the waves propagate through the active medium of a closed resonator [G.E. Stedman. Ring-laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics. Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615. 1997]. It can be written that the frequency difference of two waves
Figure 00000004
where n is the normal to the plane of propagation of electromagnetic waves; Ω is the angular velocity of rotation; K is a scale factor determined by the area S and the perimeter L of the resonator and the optical wavelength λ.
Since the observed beat frequency of two electromagnetic waves is proportional to the speed of rotation, the coefficient S determines the resolution of the measured quantity.
The ability to build resonators with a large perimeter becomes more complex and almost impossible. This is due to the fundamental limitation of the possible size of the perimeter of the closed resonator, caused on the one hand by the convergence of the longitudinal types of oscillations of the oncoming waves, and on the other by the precision manufacturing precision of the individual elements of the closed resonator.
Thus, the disadvantage of this method is the lack of accuracy of measurements of ultra-low angular velocities due to the small perimeter of the resonator.
The problem solved by the invention is to increase the accuracy of measurements of ultra-low angular velocities by increasing the perimeter of the closed resonator.
To solve the problem in the proposed method, as well as in the known one, the measurement of ultra-low angular velocities is carried out by excitation of two counter-traveling electromagnetic waves, reflection, detection of their parameters and calculation of the magnitude of the effective angular velocity proportional to the change in these parameters. But unlike the well-known pathogen, reflectors and a detector are installed on at least three geostationary satellites and excite electromagnetic waves. This becomes possible due to the propagation of electromagnetic waves in free space, while they practically do not experience interference from external disturbances.
Achievable technical result - improving the accuracy of measurements of ultra-low angular velocities.
The set of features formulated in paragraph 2 characterizes a method for measuring ultra-low angular velocities, in which the phase difference of electromagnetic waves is detected and the angular velocity is calculated by the formula
Figure 00000005
,
where S is the area of the contour, λ, s is the wavelength and propagation velocity of counterpropagating electromagnetic waves, respectively, Ω is the detected angular velocity.
The set of features formulated in paragraph 3 characterizes a method for measuring ultra-low angular velocities, in which the difference in the travel times of two electromagnetic waves of the perimeter of the resonator is detected and calculated by the formula
Figure 00000006
where L 1 and L 2 is the distance that two electromagnetic waves traveling in the resonator travel in the resonator, c is the wavelength and propagation velocity of the opposing electromagnetic waves, respectively, Ω is the detected angular velocity.
The application of the methods of claim 2 and 3 gives close accuracy and the choice of one of them will be determined by the equipment installed on the satellites.
The proposed method is illustrated by drawings, where:
in FIG. 1 - shows a General diagram of a device that implements the proposed method for measuring ultra-small angular velocity.
Consider a device that implements the proposed method (Fig. 1). It consists of three or more satellites located in the geostationary orbit of the Earth with a radius of R = 42164 km. An open closed resonator is placed on them, consisting of three or more reflectors, a bi-directional pathogen of two oncoming electromagnetic waves with the same frequencies (ƒ 1 and ƒ 2, respectively) and a receiver (phase detector) detecting the same phase shift of the oncoming waves in a closed circuit in the absence of angular velocities and phase difference ϕ 1 and ϕ 2 of counterpropagating waves in the presence of angular velocity in the form
Figure 00000007
,
where S is the area of the contour, λ, s is the wavelength and propagation velocity of counter-electromagnetic waves, respectively.
Consider the two simplest versions of a closed resonator A 1 BC 1 and A 2 BC 2 (Fig. 1) formed by three satellites (in Fig. 1 they are designated A 1 , B, C 1 and A 2 , B, C 2, respectively) and having the shape of an equilateral triangle (in the general case, the shape of a closed resonator can be different). If denoted by
Figure 00000008
- the distance between the satellites A 1 and B, which is equal to the distance between the satellites B and C 1 (i.e., the resonator is an equilateral triangle), and
Figure 00000009
- the distance between satellite A 1 and the point O 1 of the intersection of the line connecting the satellites A 1 and C 1 with the height of the closed resonator h 1 having a triangular shape. The perimeter of the resonator A 1 BC 1 will be determined by the formula
Figure 00000010
,
and its area
Figure 00000011
.
The value of the height of the first closed resonator h 1 can be found from the expression for a rectangular triangle O 1 OS 1 (Fig. 1)
Figure 00000012
,
where R is the radius of the geostationary orbit relative to the center of the Earth.
Where from
Figure 00000013
. We obtain the classical quadratic equation
Figure 00000014
.
Solving it, we find the value of h 1
Figure 00000015
D = (- 2 * 42146) 2 -4 * 1500 2 = 7105141264-9000000 = 7096141264 (km)
Figure 00000016
,
Figure 00000017
.
Figure 00000018
,
Figure 00000019
.
Since h 11 = 84318.5 km is larger than the diameter of the geostationary orbit (which cannot be), then h 1 = 26.5 km.
Then the area of the resonator And 1 BC 1
Figure 00000020
(km 2 ).
To determine the perimeter, you need to find the value
Figure 00000021
which is determined from the following expression
Figure 00000022
.
Where from
Figure 00000023
km
Then the perimeter of the resonator A 1 BC 1 L 1 = 2⋅1500.23 + 2⋅1500 = 6000.46 (km), and its scale factor will be
Figure 00000024
.
For the prototype S p = 16 m 2 , L p = 16 m and, therefore,
Figure 00000025
.
Thus, in the proposed method, in comparison with the prototype, the scale factor, and therefore the sensitivity, will increase by 6.6 times. And this is not the limit. We now consider a cavity in the form of a triangle A 2 BC 2 .
The scale factor for the method according to p. 2 will be
Figure 00000026
.
For comparison, as shown in [D.P. Lukyanov, V.Ya. Raspopov, Yu.V. Filatov. Applied Theory of Gyroscopes. St. Petersburg: State Research Center of the Russian Federation Concern Central Research Institute Elektropribor, 2015. - 316 pp.] K for a fiber-optic gyro with an average sensitivity (and hence average accuracy) is
Figure 00000027
, and for high-precision (high-precision) -
Figure 00000028
. Moreover, the measurement accuracy also depends on the selected wavelength: the larger it is, the less accuracy.
Similarly, you can determine the height of the second triangular resonator A 2 BC 2 h 12 = 107 km, as well as its area S 2 = 321000 (km 2 ) and the perimeter L 2 = 12003.82 km. Therefore, the scale factor for the resonator And 2 BC 2 will be
Figure 00000029
, and an increase in sensitivity by 26.7 times.
Thus, the description of the proposed method indicates that using the proposed method, a technical result is achieved - an increase in the accuracy of measuring ultra-small angular velocities.

Claims (7)

1. A method of measuring ultra-small angular velocities by exciting oncoming electromagnetic waves, reflection, detecting their parameters and calculating the effective angular velocity proportional to the change in these parameters, characterized in that the pathogen, reflectors and detector are installed on at least three geostationary satellites and excite electromagnetic waves.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the phase difference of the electromagnetic waves is detected and the angular velocity is calculated by the formula
Figure 00000030
where S is the area of the contour, λ, s is the wavelength and propagation velocity of counterpropagating electromagnetic waves, respectively, Ω is the detected angular velocity.
3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that they detect the difference in travel times by two electromagnetic waves of the perimeter of the resonator and calculated by the formula
Figure 00000031
where L 1 and L 2 is the distance that two electromagnetic waves traveling in the resonator travel in the resonator, c is the wavelength and propagation velocity of the opposing electromagnetic waves, respectively, Ω is the detected angular velocity.
RU2016140788A 2016-10-17 2016-10-17 Method of measuring super low angular speeds RU2626077C1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
RU2016140788A RU2626077C1 (en) 2016-10-17 2016-10-17 Method of measuring super low angular speeds

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
RU2016140788A RU2626077C1 (en) 2016-10-17 2016-10-17 Method of measuring super low angular speeds

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
RU2626077C1 true RU2626077C1 (en) 2017-07-21

Family

ID=59495814

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
RU2016140788A RU2626077C1 (en) 2016-10-17 2016-10-17 Method of measuring super low angular speeds

Country Status (1)

Country Link
RU (1) RU2626077C1 (en)

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2117397C1 (en) * 1995-02-09 1998-08-10 Дассо Электроник Device which receives electromagnetic signals
WO2000022452A1 (en) * 1998-10-12 2000-04-20 Alenia Spazio S.P.A Gyrocompassing by intermittent gps interferometry
RU2005122499A (en) * 2002-12-18 2006-02-10 Интерсекьюр Лоджик Лимитед (Cy) OFFICIAL AIRCRAFT FOR OPERATIONS IN SPACE ON A TARGET SPACE AIRCRAFT, SERVICE SYSTEM AND APPLICATION METHOD FOR APPLICATION

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2117397C1 (en) * 1995-02-09 1998-08-10 Дассо Электроник Device which receives electromagnetic signals
WO2000022452A1 (en) * 1998-10-12 2000-04-20 Alenia Spazio S.P.A Gyrocompassing by intermittent gps interferometry
RU2005122499A (en) * 2002-12-18 2006-02-10 Интерсекьюр Лоджик Лимитед (Cy) OFFICIAL AIRCRAFT FOR OPERATIONS IN SPACE ON A TARGET SPACE AIRCRAFT, SERVICE SYSTEM AND APPLICATION METHOD FOR APPLICATION

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Schreiber U., Igel Н., Cochard A., Velikoseltsev A., Flaws A., Schuberth В., Drewitz W., Muller F. The GEOsensor project: rotations - a new observable for seismology // Observation of the Earth System from Space. - Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006. - C. 427-443. *

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4013365A (en) Laser gyroscope
Belfi et al. Deep underground rotation measurements: GINGERino ring laser gyroscope in Gran Sasso
Jaroszewicz et al. AFORS autonomous fibre-optic rotational seismograph: Design and application
Zhmud et al. The increase of the accuracy of the laser-based measurement of ultra-low tidal deformation of rocks
Pavlath Fiber optic gyros past, present, and future
Ayswarya et al. A survey on ring laser gyroscope technology
RU2626077C1 (en) Method of measuring super low angular speeds
Juang et al. Evaluation of ring laser and fiber optic gyroscope technology
US20120008149A1 (en) Velometer, navigational apparatus and methods for direct measurement of object&#39;s own velocity
Benser et al. Development and evaluation of a navigation grade resonator fiber optic gyroscope
Ortolan et al. The GINGER project and status of the GINGERino prototype at LNGS
US7586587B1 (en) Stand-alone speedometer using two spaced laser beams
Bouyer The centenary of Sagnac effect and its applications: From electromagnetic to matter waves
US7072043B1 (en) Fiber optic gyroscope for continuous measurement of low and high rates of rotation
US6813006B1 (en) Stand-alone speedometer directly measuring the translational speed based on the difference between dispersive dragging effects of different media
Pavlath Challenges in the development of the IFOG
Di Virgilio Sagnac gyroscopes and the GINGER Project
Jaroszewicz et al. Absolute rotation measurement based on the Sagnac effect
Çelikel Construction and characterization of interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG) with erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)
Nayak et al. Advanced optical gyroscopes
Bosi et al. Sagnac gyroscopes, GINGERINO, and GINGER
KR20150097051A (en) optical fiber gyro sensor system with low cost
Belfi et al. G-LAS a ring laser goniometer for angular metrology
CN103743392B (en) A kind of unicoupler double polarizing light fiber gyroscope
Kumagai et al. Development of an optical gyrocompass using a high-sensitivity fiber optic gyroscope