RU2596699C1 - Method for localization of local greenhouse effect caused by change of power and heat levels of the earth under the effect of energy mechanism of the earth and the sun rotation relative to each other - Google Patents

Method for localization of local greenhouse effect caused by change of power and heat levels of the earth under the effect of energy mechanism of the earth and the sun rotation relative to each other Download PDF

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RU2596699C1
RU2596699C1 RU2015118775/13A RU2015118775A RU2596699C1 RU 2596699 C1 RU2596699 C1 RU 2596699C1 RU 2015118775/13 A RU2015118775/13 A RU 2015118775/13A RU 2015118775 A RU2015118775 A RU 2015118775A RU 2596699 C1 RU2596699 C1 RU 2596699C1
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Александр Алексеевич Буслаев
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Александр Алексеевич Буслаев
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Abstract

FIELD: ecology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and, in particular, to methods of controlling the greenhouse effect formed as a result of the effect of industrial emissions to the atmosphere at combustion of hydrocarbon fuel. In addition to the effect of positive electromagnetic field of the Sun, localization of local greenhouse effect formed during combustion of hydrocarbon fuel is provided by removal of electron (63) negatively charged particle. Electron is released as the result of electrochemical reactions at the outlet of combustion products from gas discharge pipe (41) into the atmosphere onto anode grounding, by positive electromagnetic field effect of electromagnetic filter (55). Electromagnetic filter (55) is made from carbon-graphite plates, it is mounted in the upper part of pipe (41) and connected into the electrochemical cathodic protection system by connection of steel strip (62) in the elevated part along the pipe and drainage cable (61) under the ground to the anode grounding from graphite tubes. Then it is connected through contact device (58) and through the switch to positive direct current source bus (56). Then the negative bus of the DC source is connected via drainage cable (61) through contact device (60) under the ground to steel underground pipeline (40).
EFFECT: ensured is creation of conditions for electrochemical reactions, in which combustion products of hydrocarbon fuel have no negative impact on atmosphere, that means no intensification of the greenhouse effect.
1 cl, 6 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the field of ecology and, in particular, to methods of combating the greenhouse effect resulting from the influence of industrial emissions into the atmosphere when burning hydrocarbon fuel.

An analogue of the invention to the author is not known.

Climate (from Greek klima, genitive - klimatos) - literally tilt, implies the tilt of the earth's surface to the sun's rays. In the modern sense, climate is a long-term weather regime that is characteristic of a particular terrain on Earth and is one of its geographical characteristics. Moreover, under the long-term surface regime is meant the totality of all weather conditions in a given area for a considerable period of time (several tens of years) and a typical intra-annual change in these conditions. By the middle of the 20th century, the concept of climate, which used to refer to the conditions of the earth’s surface, was also extended to high layers of the atmosphere, and the climate parameters included the parameters of the Earth’s thermal balance: solar radiation, radiation balance, etc. The climate began to be characterized as a statistical ensemble of states traversed by the climate system: ocean - land - atmosphere over periods of several decades. From this point of view, the theory of climate change is the statistical dynamics of the climate system. The construction of such a theory is an extremely complex physical problem.

In general, the task of computing the climate function (i.e., probability distributions for the values of all parameters characterizing the climate system - temperature, pressure, wind velocity vector, concentration of greenhouse gases, aerosols, etc. from spatial coordinates and time) with modern level of computer technology is not feasible. The task can be greatly simplified by introducing the concept of a "global climate" - a climate function integrated across the entire earth's surface. The global climate of the Earth, in principle, can be characterized by only one parameter - the global temperature (i.e., average annual temperature) of the surface air layer of the entire globe. The change in global temperature is determined by a number of interrelated astronomical and geophysical phenomena. This relationship is based on the mechanics of celestial bodies and on the thermal equilibrium of the planets as a whole and their outer shells - atmospheres. Of all the planets of the solar system, of course, the planet Earth, its global climate and the dynamics of its change are of the greatest interest.

The most obvious causes of climate change:

1. Changes in the intensity of solar radiation caused by the orbital motion of the Earth. In theory, the Earth’s radiation balance should make the most important contribution to climate formation. The astronomical theory of cyclical climate change was created by the famous Yugoslav astronomer Milankovic in the twenties of the XX century. The main reason influencing long-term climate fluctuations according to Milankovitch’s theory is a change in the eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun and the precession of the Earth’s rotation axis. His theory made it possible to calculate the times of the ice ages of the past. And the geological ages of previous glaciations, in general, coincide with the calculations of Milankovich. But since these climatic changes can occur only on a long-term scale, tens of thousands and hundreds of thousands of years, they are not considered in this article.

2. Changes in the circulation of the oceans. Huge negative thermal energy has accumulated in the depths of the ocean. Negative because the average ocean temperature is 35 ° C, and the earth's surface is 15 ° C. Therefore, any intensification of mixing of deep ocean waters with surface waters leads to a cooling of the climate. This effect can manifest itself both in the short-term scale of tens and hundreds of years, and in the time interval of hundreds of thousands and millions of years. (A change in the circulation of the oceans caused by the continental displacement (drift) of the continents according to Wegener's well-known theory). In addition, over the millennia, the oceans control the chemical composition of the atmosphere and, therefore, the radiation balance of the entire climate system.

3. Short-term variations (on a scale of tens and hundreds of years) in solar energy illumination, which, as shown by a number of authors, correlate with variations in solar activity. Until recently, this factor has not been sufficiently taken into account when developing climate models.

4. The impact of human activity.

As soon as the first deep mines appeared in the 19th century, it was discovered that the temperature in the bowels of the earth was higher than at the surface. It increases by about 30 degrees with every kilometer inland. According to deep drilling, the temperature at a depth of more than 7 km always exceeds 200 ° C at any latitude. In principle, knowing the thermal conductivity of terrestrial rocks, we can estimate the heat flux from the bowels of the earth to the outside. Calculations show that this flux is about 3 × 10 13 W, i.e. the heat flux from the bowels of the Earth is almost four orders of magnitude less than the light power coming from the Sun (1.75 × 10 17 W). Therefore, the internal climate of the Earth practically does not affect the global climate. However, this is not a negligible quantity, and when calculating the overall thermodynamic balance in the Earth-Sun system, the internal heat of the Earth should be taken into account. In the distant geological past, the internal heat of the Earth, apparently, could play a more significant role. There are even hypotheses (albeit without any convincing evidence) that the biblical flood occurred 10-12 thousand years ago, when, due to the superactivity of the earth's interior, a large heat flux escaped from the depths of the Earth, causing a significant but short-term rise in the level of the ocean . The problem of climate change is today not only a scientific, but also an economic and political problem. Errors in the dynamics of climate change are fraught with major economic disasters. A vivid example: miscalculations of 50-60. with a forecast of a fall in the level of the Caspian Sea by 2000. Then there was a war of dates and the lowest ratings. After 30 years, in the 80-90s, all this turned into a socio-economic tragedy of a large region. Currently, the price of error is incomparably greater. For a number of states, the coming climate changes are no longer issues of geopolitics, but the problem of survival.

To summarize the above, what is reliably known about climate today?

1) The Earth’s climate in the past was characterized by two more or less stable states: warm and glacial. The epochs of the change of these regimes (which takes place today - the last ice age began to recede 20 thousand years ago) were accompanied by increased instability due to instability inherent in the climate system itself. There is a positive feedback between the global temperature of the Earth and the disturbing factors that provoke climate shifts. Paleo-climatic records indicate the presence of large and rapid climatic fluctuations in the past. One of the best-documented examples of abrupt climate change is the warming that occurred at the end of the Late Glacial Period (Dryas), when glaciers last began to recede. The period lasted from 13,000 to 8,300 BC. According to the analysis of the icy cores of Greenland at the end of the late Dryer (Younger Dryas), 8850-8300 BC, the temperature began to rise rapidly and literally within a few decades, tundra was replaced by forests in Northern Europe and Canada.

2) In the XX century, global temperature began to rise, and especially rapidly the last two decades. The natural question is whether climate warming could be the result of anthropogenic impact? Or is this just the beginning of a new natural warming cycle? Most likely the last assumption. In light of the foregoing, it can be assumed that the anthropogenic effect alone cannot currently cause significant climate change, its direct impact is insignificant in comparison with natural factors. But the anthropogenic effect could provoke a climate shift and cause a new warming cycle. How dangerous is this global warming? The answer is far from mixed. The fact is that an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, on the one hand, and an increase in global temperature, on the other hand, should significantly increase the overall bio-productivity and, in particular, the yield of agricultural plants. If for industrialized countries there is the possibility of increasing food production by significantly increasing costs, then for developing countries with rapidly growing populations this way is impossible. It follows that the restoration of more favorable natural conditions for living organisms and the entire biosphere that have existed for many millennia is a very serious problem. On the other hand, it is necessary to take into account the possible negative consequences of regional-level warming (floods, an increase in the number of hurricanes and typhoons, a more arid climate in some local regions, damage to coastal and island zones located at low levels over the World Ocean, etc. ) In this case, will the partial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions provided for by the Kyoto Protocol be effective? Not very likely. Moreover, the Kyoto Protocol is not a sufficient factor to reduce the growth of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. A relatively small reduction in the emission of gases enhancing the greenhouse effect will have a negligible effect on the increase in temperature. Calculations show that in order to stabilize the level of greenhouse gases a reduction of their emission by 60-80% is required around the world. And this would lead to severe damage to modern world energy and would require costs that are unrealistic for most modern states. Therefore, it is hardly worth dramatizing the situation today, predicting a global economic catastrophe with global warming caused by an increase in anthropogenic impact. Moreover, there is substantial reason to doubt that this warming is the result of anthropogenic impact and that the beginning of the warming cycle will not be replaced in the future by another period of cooling.

Energy resources from their natural state, which are in dynamic equilibrium with the environment, to their final use at the present stage of development go through four stages:

1. Extraction, extraction or direct use of primary natural energy resources;

2. Processing of primary resources to a state suitable for conversion or use;

3. Conversion of the coupled energy of the processed resources into electric energy at thermal, nuclear, hydraulic power plants and into thermal energy in boiler houses and heat and power plants;

4. The use of energy.

Each of these interrelated stages is based on various physical, physico-chemical and technological processes that differ in scale, duration of operation and other features. The study of the totality of objects and processes determined by heterogeneous phenomena and patterns is united by a common goal - to ensure the proportional development of all components of the system at all stages of development within the framework of permissible interactions.

Energy development has an impact on various components of the environment:

- to the atmosphere through the consumption of oxygen, emissions of gases, vapors and particulate matter, electronic energy;

- to the hydrosphere through water consumption, transfer of wastewater, the creation of new reservoirs, discharges of contaminated and heated waters, liquid wastes;

- to the lithosphere through the consumption of fossil fuels, a change in water balance, a change in the landscape, emissions of solid, liquid and gaseous toxic substances on the surface and subsoil.

At the present stage of development, such influences acquire a global character and affect all structural components of our planet. For humans, the main goal now is to ensure the equilibrium functioning of the environmental system.

It is obvious that the goals of the development of the energy system and the preservation of the equilibrium functioning of the natural environment conclude an objective contradiction. The interaction of energy with the environment occurs at all stages of the energy system described above. This interaction is due to both the methods of extraction, processing and transportation of resources related to the impact on the structure and landscape of the lithosphere, the consumption and pollution of water, the change in the balance of groundwater, the release of heat, solid, liquid and gaseous substances in all environments, and the use of electric, thermal energy from common systems and autonomous sources.

Heat emissions are one of the main factors in the interaction of energy facilities with the environment, in particular with the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. To assess the effect of thermal emissions on the thermal regime of all environmental components, it is necessary to consider the main processes of heat emissions, their total amount and distribution conditions in the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

Heat is released at all stages of the conversion of the chemical energy of organic or nuclear fuel to generate electricity, as well as when using thermal energy (with direct combustion of fuel in industrial and domestic installations) and in most processes of using electricity generated by power plants.

The main characteristic of the thermal state should be considered the thermal regime - the spatio-temporal temperature distribution. The study of thermal regimes and dynamics of changes in the thermal state of environmental components is the subject of many works. The problem is investigated from the perspective of meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, physical geography, geology and other sciences. We will consider the concept of thermal conditions of environmental components only in terms of the possibility of assessing the interaction of these components with the heat generation of power plants. At the same time, the environmental components are of interest to us, on the one hand, as objects of the flow of heat released during the use of energy resources, and, on the other hand, as sources of accumulated heat. In the latter case, it is important to know not only the average planetary and average annual thermal regimes, but also the territorial distribution of temperatures - width and longitude, depth and mass. Along with stationary thermal regimes, information is needed on their periodicity or instability over time, which is associated with the balance of thermal energy.

The main factors in the formation of the thermal regime of the atmosphere are the conditions of interaction with solar radiation, radiation of the underlying surface of land and water, convective movements in the atmosphere itself, and moisture transfer.

All the heat released into the environment when energy is consumed enters the atmosphere, that is, with sufficient accuracy

ΣQЭA≈ΣQoc.

Thermal energy released by all power plants and entering the atmosphere consists of two components:

ΣQЭА = ΣQтЭА + ΣQisp.ЭА ′;

QtEL = ΣQ′tEA + ΣQ ″ TEA,

Where:

ΣQт - the fraction of thermal energy entering the atmosphere and spent on heating the air (with one stroke - directly into the atmosphere, with two strokes - through the hydrosphere)

ΣQisp. - the proportion of thermal energy entering the atmosphere from all power plants in the form of evaporated water.

In accordance with the conditions defined by equation (1), the amount of heat entering the atmosphere is determined by the calorific value of the fuel or the heat equivalent of the energy used. A significant fraction of all energy is released into the atmosphere in the area where the power plant is located, which causes a local increase in air temperature above this zone.

The chemical process of the carbon combustion reaction is accompanied by the release of thermal energy. The thermal energy of carbon is a function of the mass of oxidation (combustion) of carbon in oxygen. At this stage of industrial development, the reaction represented by the formula is considered as chemical:

C + O 2 - = CO 2.

To expand on the topic, we will consider this reaction as electrochemical, which, in essence, according to the most important characteristics, is electrochemical.

The mass of oxygen consumed is a function of the released electron energy, which is currently practically not taken into account, and oxygen in this reaction is considered not just as an oxidizing agent in a chemical reaction, but its role in the process of energy replacement of carbon electrons by the energy charge of an oxygen molecule.

The energy substitution of carbon electrons by the energy charge of oxygen molecules is represented by the formula:

С + O 2 = СО2 + 4 (е - ) ↑ + (t) ↑

where: e is an electron, a negatively charged particle,

t is thermal energy.

When burning one ton of hydrocarbons, electronic energy will be equal to the sum of the charges of the consumed mass of oxygen.

4 (e - ) = 4 19 × 1.6 × 10 C (pendant).

With appropriate calculations, the amount of electronic energy will be quite large, and if this value of electronic energy is multiplied by the mass of hydrocarbon fuel burned in a certain period of time, then it will be huge.

Most sources of CO 2 formation are natural. The decay of organic formations, such as dead trees and grass, annually leads to the release of about 220 billion tons of carbon dioxide, the seas and oceans emit about 330 billion tons. During forest and peat fires, 13 to 40% of the average annual СО 2 emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels (hydrocarbon-coal, oil, natural gas) are released. Despite the fact that initially carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere was presented as a result of volcanic activity, modern volcanoes annually emit only 130-230 million tons of CO 2 , which is less than 1% as a result of industrial activity. In the normal state, natural sources of carbon dioxide are in equilibrium with physical and biological processes that contribute to the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere - part of it is dissolved in sea and ocean water, part is removed from the air during photosynthesis.

The total mass of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere is 3.03 × 10 12 tons, of which 5.5 × 10 11 tons are usually absorbed as a result of a physical and biological process (about 57%), on average, all atmospheric CO 2 is involved in the carbon cycle every six years. An increase in CO 2 concentration as a result of industrial activity and deforestation (anthropogenic emissions) leads to an imbalance in the carbon cycle balance. As a result, carbon dioxide is gradually accumulating in the atmosphere and at present its concentration is 39% higher than pre-industrial indicators, and the growth rate was about 1.7% per year.

Given the enormous energy in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, it is natural that the temperature of the Earth rises.

The relative temperature of the Earth increases both due to thermal energy, and due to electronic energy, which is released during the combustion of carbon in oxygen. Electronic energy is converted into additional thermal energy through additional electrochemical reactions.

The resulting compound CO 2 - carbon dioxide is accompanied by the release of thermal and electronic energy. Being a greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide in the air affects the heat exchange of the planet with the surrounding space, effectively blocking re-emitted heat at a number of frequencies, and thus participates in the formation of the planet’s climate. It is clear that, to a greater extent, this process of heat generation, and, accordingly, temperature increase, is presented in cities with highly developed industrial infrastructure than in rural areas, where temperatures are usually lower. In addition to the greenhouse properties of carbon dioxide, it also matters that CO 2 is a heavier gas compared to air, an increase in its fraction leads to an increase in air density, and, accordingly, to a change in its pressure profile depending on altitude. The molar mass of air is 28.98 g / mol, and the molar mass of carbon dioxide is 44.01 g / mol. Due to the physical nature of the greenhouse effect, such a change in the properties of the atmosphere leads to an increase in the average surface temperature.

Possible effects of climate change:

1. Change in the frequency and intensity of precipitation. In general, the climate on the planet will become more humid. But the amount of precipitation does not spread evenly across the Earth. In regions that already receive a sufficient amount of precipitation, their precipitation will become more intense. And in regions with insufficient moisture, dry periods will become more frequent.

2. Sea level rise. During the XX century, the average sea level increased by 0.1-0.2 m. According to scientists, over the 21st century, sea level rise will reach 1 m. In this case, coastal territories and small islands will be the most vulnerable. States such as the Netherlands, the UK, and the small island states of Oceania and the Caribbean are the first to be at risk of flooding. In addition, high tides will become more frequent, coastal erosion will intensify.

3. Threat to ecosystems and biodiversity. There are predictions of extinction of up to 30 to 40% of plant and animal species, as their habitat will change faster than they can adapt to these changes. With a temperature increase of 1 degree, a change in the species composition of the forest is predicted. Forests are a natural accumulator of carbon (80% of all carbon in terrestrial vegetation and about 40% of carbon in soil). The transition from one type of forest to another will be accompanied by the release of a large amount of carbon.

Water vapor - the most common greenhouse gas - is excluded from this consideration, since there is no data on the increase in its concentration in the atmosphere (that is, the danger associated with it is not visible).

Carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide) (CO 2 ) is a major source of climate change, accounting for an estimated 64% of global warming. The main sources of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere are the production, transportation, processing and consumption of fossil fuels (86%), deforestation and other biomass burning (12%), and other sources (2%), such as cement production and carbon monoxide oxidation. After isolation, the carbon dioxide molecule makes a cycle through the atmosphere and biota and is finally absorbed by ocean processes or by long-term accumulation in terrestrial biological storages (i.e., absorbed by plants). The amount of time at which approximately 63% of the gas is removed from the atmosphere is called the effective residence period. The estimated effective period of stay for carbon dioxide ranges from 50 to 200 years. Methane (CH 4 ) has both natural and anthropogenic origin. In the latter case, it is formed as a result of fuel production, digestive fermentation (for example, in livestock), rice growing, deforestation (mainly due to the burning of biomass and the decay of excess organic matter). Methane accounts for an estimated 20% of global warming. Methane emissions represent a significant source of greenhouse gases.

Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is the third most important greenhouse gas of the Kyoto Protocol. It is distinguished in the production and use of mineral fertilizers, in the chemical industry, in agriculture, etc. It accounts for about 6% of global warming.

Perfluorocarbons - PFCs (Perfluorocarbons - PFCs). Hydrocarbon compounds in which fluorine partially replaces carbon. The main sources of emissions of these gases are the production of aluminum, electronics and solvents. In aluminum smelting, PFC emissions occur in an electric arc or with the so-called “anode effects”.

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are hydrocarbon compounds in which halogens partially replace hydrogen. Gases created to replace ozone-depleting substances have exceptionally high GWPs (14011700).

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) is a greenhouse gas used as an insulating material in the electric power industry. Emissions occur during its production and use. It remains extremely long in the atmosphere and is an active absorber of infrared radiation. Therefore, this compound, even with relatively low emissions, has the potential to influence the climate for a long time to come.

The greenhouse effect of different gases can lead to a common denominator expressing how 1 ton of a gas gives a greater effect than 1 ton of CO 2 . For methane, the conversion coefficient is 21, for nitrous oxide 310, and for some fluorine-containing gases several thousand.

Recommended policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions identified in the Kyoto Protocol include:

1. Improving energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the national economy;

2. Protection and improvement of the quality of sinks and accumulators of greenhouse gases, taking into account their obligations under relevant international environmental agreements; promoting sustainable forest management practices and sustainable forest regeneration;

3. Promoting sustainable forms of agriculture in the light of climate change considerations;

4. Promotion of implementation, research, development and wider use of new and renewable types of energy, carbon dioxide absorption technologies and innovative environmentally friendly technologies;

5. The gradual reduction or elimination of market imbalances, fiscal incentives, exemption from taxes and duties, subsidies contrary to the purpose of the Convention, in all sectors - sources of greenhouse gas emissions, and the use of market instruments;

6. Promoting appropriate reforms in relevant sectors to facilitate the implementation of policies and measures that limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions;

7. Measures to limit and / or reduce greenhouse gas emissions in transport;

8. Limiting and / or reducing methane emissions through recovery and use in waste disposal, as well as in the production, transportation and distribution of energy.

These provisions of the Protocol are general in nature and provide Parties with the opportunity to independently choose and implement the set of policies and measures that will maximally correspond to national circumstances and priorities. The main source of greenhouse gas emissions in Russia is the energy sector, which accounts for more than 1/3 of total emissions. The second place is occupied by coal, oil and gas production (16%), the third - industry and construction (about 13%). Thus, the greatest contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Russia can be made by the realization of the huge potential for energy conservation.

The greenhouse effect is a rise in temperature on the surface of the planet as a result of thermal energy that appears in the atmosphere due to the heating of gases. The main gases that lead to the greenhouse effect on Earth are water vapor and carbon dioxide.

The phenomenon of the greenhouse effect allows you to maintain the temperature on the surface of the Earth at which the emergence and development of life is possible. If there was no greenhouse effect, the average temperature of the surface of the globe would be much lower than it is now. However, with an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases, the atmosphere's impermeability to infrared rays increases, which leads to an increase in the temperature of the Earth.

In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the most respected international body of thousands of scientists from 130 countries, presented its Fourth Assessment Report, which summarized conclusions about past and current climate change, its impact on nature and humans. , as well as possible measures to counter such changes. According to published data, from 1906 to 2005, the average temperature of the Earth rose by 0.74 degrees. Over the next 20 years, temperature growth, according to experts, will average 0.2 degrees per decade, and by the end of the 21st century, the Earth's temperature may rise from 1.8 to 4.6 degrees (this difference in data is the result of overlapping a whole range of models future climate, which took into account various scenarios for the development of the global economy and society).

According to scientists, with 90 percent probability, the observed climate changes are associated with human activities - the burning of carbon fossil fuels (i.e. oil, gas, coal, etc.), industrial processes, as well as deforestation - natural sinks of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere .

Planet Earth has several shells, the atmosphere is an air shell, the hydrosphere is a water shell, and the lithosphere is a hard shell. Corresponding to these environments, the existence and existence of the Earth and the very life on Earth are constructed and implemented. The essential factors of vital activity in the first place are temperature conditions and electronic energy. The presence and change of thermal and electronic energy in the atmosphere, on land and in the world's oceans causes a change in life on Earth.

The processes occurring in the layers, on the surface, in the Earth’s atmosphere and affecting the thermal and electronic energy are presented at three levels.

The first level of thermal and electronic energy is associated with the formation of a hydrocarbon substance on the mantle of the Earth and the flow of hydrocarbons through the earth's arteries into the earth's voids, the so-called deposits and shale rocks.

The distribution of carbon and hydrogen compounds in the composition of the Earth’s matter implies the formation of hydrocarbons in the Earth’s deep zones and their entry through faults and cracks into the upper horizons of the Earth’s crust with the formation of deposits in favorable tectonic structures. In the developed fields, oil reserves are restored over time, which indicates a constant process of oil formation, going in the earth's interior, or its influx from the depths of the earth. There is an opinion among experts that this can be considered as the receipt of those mineral deposits that were at a certain distance from production wells at the time of production.

The formation of a hydrocarbon substance is due to the occurrence of physico-electrochemical reactions in which the constituents are water and hydrocarbon entering the Earth’s mantle through faults in the earth’s crust. Water (H 2 O) comes from the oceans, hydrocarbons - from the entire surface of the Earth from the processes of decay, burning and the like. From land, hydrocarbon is washed out of the soil, falling into streams, small and large rivers, then into the seas and oceans. A cold bottom current forms, which carries hydrocarbon to the ocean faults.

To ensure the passage of physico-electrochemical processes from the Earth's core, negatively charged electrons (e - ) are released and delivered. Physico-electrochemical reactions proceed under the influence of high temperature and internal pressure.

The resulting hydrocarbon substance has a high temperature and when moving along the earth's arteries to deposits and shale rocks located in different parts of the Earth, the earth's crust is heated. A particularly general climate and heating of the earth’s crust during hydrocarbon production from fields is reflected in certain areas of the earth’s crust where production takes place, since deposits have a specifically limited volume of production. The rationale for the foregoing is the existing factors, namely, the production of hydrocarbons in arid regions leads to even greater drying of the soil and the formation of deserts, and in the northern regions and on the shelf of the northern seas and oceans, to a decrease in the permafrost layer, an increase in the temperature of sea and ocean water, which is negative affects the life of microorganisms and accelerates the melting of ice and the appearance of icebergs in the seas and oceans in a larger amount than before. Such an accelerated appearance of icebergs contributes to a temporary decrease in water temperature, which leads to cyclical changes in climate temperature in the northern latitudes. An increase in climate temperature in the northern latitudes is accompanied by a temporary period of temperature decrease. This can be imagined when, when boiling water in a teapot mounted on a stove, drop a piece of ice into the water, the temperature of the water drops until the ice melts, but since the teapot is on a constant source of heating, the water temperature rises again. Thus, a change in climate temperature in the northern latitudes occurs due to an increase in hydrocarbon production from deposits, which leads to a constant supply of hydrocarbons from the bowels of the Earth through the arteries.

Hydrocarbon production on shales affects the temperature of the earth's crust and climate to a lesser extent, since production is carried out on a larger area and in smaller volumes. The existing technologies for the production of shale hydrocarbons are imperfect and harmful to the environment and require new high-quality technologies.

When physical and electrochemical processes of the formation of a hydrocarbon substance occur on the Earth’s mantle, hydrogen (Н) is released, which, through faults in the earth’s crust, reaches the bottom of the oceans and, passing through the thickness of ocean water, reacts with oxygen dissolved in water (O 2 ):

H + O 2 = H 2 O + e - + t.

Electrons released during the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen oxidation with oxygen enter into an electrochemical reaction in which the dielectric dissociation of water occurs. A negatively charged electron particle enters into an electrochemical reaction with water, in which a hydrogen molecule (H) is formed, which then reacts with oxygen dissolved in ocean water to give off temperature.

Also, during the physical-electrochemical process of the formation of a hydrocarbon substance, thermal energy is released on the Earth’s mantle, which is accompanied by an increase in the temperature of the water at the bottom of the ocean. Thus, in conjunction with the process of formation of a hydrocarbon substance, there is a general heating of water in the ocean, which explains the formation of warm currents.

Through the oceanic fractures of the earth's crust, a significantly larger amount of hydrogen is released into the ocean thickness relative to the oxygen dissolved in the water. Hydrogen goes to the surface of the ocean, forming “water balls”, inside of which there is hydrogen, that is, this can be represented as a physical process of the formation of soap bubbles. These "water balls", saturated with hydrogen, rise into the atmosphere above the ocean, where clouds form.

Schematically, the first level of formation of thermal and electronic energy is presented in FIG. one.

The second level of formation of thermal and electronic energy is due to the presence and movement of warm currents and water clouds formed in the ocean.

The movement of warm currents is directed towards the land to the mouths of large rivers, this is due to the fact that hydrocarbon is carried along large rivers, which is carried by cold milking currents.

The constancy of heating of warm currents is provided by the electrochemical reactions taking place in the ocean:

H + O 2 = H 2 O + e - + t,

H 2 O + e - = H + OH + t.

These reactions are carried out in the water column and continue cyclically until the hydrogen molecules find the corresponding oxygen molecules. Since the hydrogen molecule is light in molecular weight, it tends to the surface of ocean water from the water column. Water balls (water vapor) are formed on the surface of the water, inside of which are hydrogen molecules that have not reacted with oxygen and have risen from the water column. Water balls rise up into the atmosphere and saturate the clouds formed as a result of the energy and thermal processes described at the first level.

Hydrogen-water balls forming rain clouds move towards land. This movement is due to the presence of a large amount of oxygen on land due to the land cover of the land. When moving over the ocean and land, a rain cloud is saturated with water vapor, which evaporates from the surface of the ocean and land. The moisture concentration in the rain cloud and a certain atmospheric temperature contributes to the "collapse" of the water balls, while the released hydrogen reacts with atmospheric oxygen. Water (H 2 O) is formed, a negatively charged electron (e - ) particle, and the temperature (t) of the atmosphere rises. Water in the form of rainfall falls on land, electronic energy forms a lightning discharge, which, passing from a thundercloud to the Earth's surface, forms ozone in the atmosphere. Thus, the electrochemical reaction of ozone formation can be represented as follows:

O 2 + e - = O 3 .

The smell felt in the atmosphere after a thunderstorm is ozone (O 3 ). The ozone formed as a result of the electrochemical reaction becomes a negatively charged molecule and, under the influence of the electromagnetic field of the Sun, which is known to have a positive charge, ozone rises to the upper atmosphere, where it forms the ozone layer.

With increasing production, burning and renewal of hydrocarbon deposits, the amount of hydrogen released from the bowels of the Earth increases. Electrochemical reactions involving more hydrogen contribute to an increase in the temperature of warm currents and an increase in the number of thunderclouds. All this ultimately leads to an increase in temperature on Earth and in the atmosphere. It is impossible to regulate the increase in this temperature and this should be perceived as a payment for civilization.

Schematically, the second level of formation of thermal and electronic energy is presented in FIG. 2.

The third level of formation of thermal and electronic energy is due to the processes of hydrocarbon combustion, decay, respiration, accompanied by an increase in temperature in the atmosphere.

The passage of electrochemical reactions of the conversion of hydrocarbon substances of all types is accompanied by the release of molecules of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), water (H 2 O), hydrogen (H,) and external factors, pressure, temperature, and concentration are important .

The effect of increasing the temperature on the equilibrium chemical reaction is to shift the equilibrium towards the endothermic reaction, and lowering the temperature to the exothermic reaction.

For a reaction involving gaseous substances, an increase in pressure leads to an increase in the number of molecules per unit volume. Therefore, in this case, the equilibrium will shift towards a decrease in the number of molecules, that is, towards the reaction of the formation of gaseous substances that occupy a smaller volume.

Equilibrium shift: to the right - with increasing pressure, to the left - with decreasing pressure.

Influence of the concentration of substances on the equilibrium system: an increase in the concentration of substances shifts the equilibrium towards their consumption, and a decrease towards their formation. So, with an increase in the concentration of CO and H 2 O, the reaction equilibrium shifts to the right, and when the concentration of these components decreases, to the left:

Figure 00000001

For the biosphere, the principle of chemical equilibrium ensures the preservation of its stability and stability. The passage of electrochemical reactions during combustion, respiration, decay with the release of thermal and electronic energy can be called the formation of a natural natural greenhouse effect.

The magnitude of the thermal and electronic energy released during electrochemical processes in different climatic regions of the Earth is different. In the time range on Earth, until recently, the value of thermal and electronic energy was practically unchanged, that is, the natural natural greenhouse effect that has developed since the moment of life on Earth has a character of constancy. However, with the increase in industrial production of hydrocarbon production and processing, this principle of electrochemical equilibrium is violated, which leads to environmental consequences, that is, climate change and an increase in the greenhouse effect.

The basis of the invention is the task of creating conditions for the passage of electrochemical reactions at a person’s energy and thermal levels of the Earth, in which the products of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuel do not negatively affect the atmosphere, that is, do not contribute to an increase in the greenhouse effect.

When industrial hydrocarbons are burned in industrial plants through gas exhaust devices (pipes), mainly carbon monoxide (CO) and water vapor molecules rise into the atmosphere under the influence of temperature and pressure, and at lower temperature and pressure carbon dioxide molecules (CO 2) enter the atmosphere from the pipes ) and hydrogen (H). Since gas pipes are currently quite high, when the combustion products exit at that height, the oxide molecule has a lower specific gravity than the carbon dioxide molecule. A carbon monoxide molecule has two negatively charged particles (electrons) on the external energy layer compared to a CO 2 molecule, therefore, a carbon monoxide (CO) molecule has a more negative charge compared to a CO 2 molecule and taking into account a lower specific gravity and a more negative charge a carbon monoxide molecule rises to a greater height from the Earth's surface than a carbon dioxide molecule. The rise to a high altitude of a carbon monoxide molecule with a negative charge is due to the electromagnetic positively charged zero of the Sun, that is, the electromagnetic field of the Sun pulls up carbon monoxide molecules. Therefore, the electrochemical reactions of oxidation (burning) of carbon monoxide in oxygen occur in the higher layers of the atmosphere, resulting in the formation of carbon dioxide with the release of thermal and electronic energy. This is one of the causes of the additional greenhouse effect, which is local in nature.

Concentrated in the atmosphere at high altitude, carbon dioxide is carried by the wind over the surface of the earth, including the seas and oceans, over long distances, contributing to an increase in the area of plant mass. In order for carbon dioxide to reach the surface of the Earth and the ocean from a great height, a long period of time is required. This time value is characterized by the process of slow deposition of carbon dioxide on the surface, which is the main reason for the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Another reason for the increase in temperature in the atmosphere is the presence of hydrogen molecules, which enter the atmosphere from industrial pipes during electrochemical reactions of the combustion of hydrocarbons with the release of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. A hydrogen molecule enters into an electrochemical reaction with atmospheric oxygen, in which water is formed, a negatively charged electron particle, and thermal energy is released. A negatively charged electron particle enters into an electrochemical reaction with a molecule of atmospheric water vapor, while dielectric dissociation occurs with the restoration of a hydrogen molecule and OH hydrate.

Figure 00000002

Electrochemical reactions are cyclical in nature and thermal energy is released during each of them. Thus, the increase in the temperature of the atmosphere and the Earth's surface is due to the temperature released in these reactions, and is the total temperature of the additional local greenhouse effect.

The end of the cyclicity of the described reactions occurs at a height where there are no water vapor molecules. The remaining negative negatively charged particles, the electrons, joining the oxygen molecule, form ozone (O 3 ):

O 2 + e - = O 3 .

The formed ozone molecule rises upward relative to the Earth’s surface to a certain height, where the ozone layer is formed. The height at which the ozone layer is formed is due to the fact that the ozone molecule having a negative charge, which is affected by the positive electromagnetic field of the Sun, rises up into the atmosphere. In addition, the ozone molecule has a corresponding molecular weight and therefore is attracted to the Earth. Thus, the concentration of O 3 molecules and the formation of the ozone layer is the equality of the Earth's gravity and the electromagnetic field of the Sun. Ultimately, the bulk of the ozone layer is formed during cyclic reactions and a small part during thunderstorms and during the formation of thunderclouds and precipitation.

In nature, the phenomenon of formation and localization of a natural natural greenhouse effect is associated with the energy mechanism of the Earth's rotation around its axis, around the Sun and the rotation of the Sun around its axis. The energy essence of the natural mechanism is that the Sun, having a positive electromagnetic field, picks up negatively charged particles of electrons from ozone molecules (O 3 ) that form the ozone layer of the Earth’s atmosphere, while the oxygen molecule (O 2 ) is restored.

O 3rd - = O 2 .

The formed oxygen molecule is attracted to the Earth's surface relative to its molecular weight. Reaching a certain height from the Earth’s surface, an oxygen molecule again attaches to itself a negatively charged electron particle, and an ozone molecule is formed, which rises to the height of the ozone layer. This mechanism is an “elevator” for electron delivery to the outer ozone layer. The destruction of the ozone molecule under the influence of the electromagnetic field of the Sun leads to a decrease in the ozone layer and an increase in ozone holes at the southern and northern poles of the Earth. After a certain period of time, the ozone layer is restored.

According to the physicochemical composition, the Sun can be represented in the form of three levels, or three states of electrochemical substances. The first central level consists of helium (a gaseous substance), the second level consists of hydrogen molecules, the third external level consists of positively active particles of hydrogen ions. It is the third level, consisting of positively charged particles of hydrogen ions, that creates the positive electromagnetic field of the Sun.

The electrochemical reaction of the combination of a positively charged hydrogen (H) molecule of the Sun with a negatively charged particle by the Earth's electron is the energy component of the rotation of the planets of the solar system. The rotation of the Earth around its axis occurs due to the fact that when ozone is destroyed in a certain part of the atmosphere, the negative potential of the ozone layer decreases and under the influence of the positive electromagnetic field of the Sun, the Earth rotates around the axis. In the same way, a decrease in the value of the positive potential of the external level of the Sun due to the attachment of a negatively charged particle of the Earth’s electron, the Sun rotates around its axis. Based on the described mechanism, the rotation of the Earth and the Sun occurs in different directions relative to each other. When the Earth rotates around its axis under the influence of a decrease in the negative potential of the ozone layer, as well as a decrease in the positive charge of the third external level of the Sun, translational motion of the Earth occurs, which is converted into rotational motion around the Sun.

Thus, the rotation of the Earth around the Sun can be explained by the relative difference in the mass of the Sun and the Earth, the magnitude of the negative charge of the ozone layer of the Earth and the magnitude of the positive charge of the third external level of the Sun.

On the third layer of the Sun, an electrochemical reaction occurs of the combination of a positive hydrogen ion with a negative electron to produce a hydrogen molecule, the release of thermal and light energy.

H + + e - = H.

The formed hydrogen molecule at the third level passes to the second level of the Sun, since it is heavier in mass, at the second level of the Sun, high pressure and high temperature naturally arise, and an electrochemical reaction of two hydrogen molecules occurs, at which a helium molecule is formed, which transfers to first level of the sun.

The energy mechanism of rotation of the Earth and the Sun is presented in figure 4.

Thus, the formation and localization of the natural greenhouse effect in the Earth’s atmosphere occurs. The regulation of the formation and localization of the considered energy mechanism occurs due to the natural mechanism of changing the inclination of the axis of the Earth and the speed of rotation of the Earth around its axis and the speed of rotation around the Sun.

The drawback of the natural mechanism of regulation and localization of the natural greenhouse effect, taking into account the formation of local greenhouse effects, is a relatively large period of time and the speed of the Earth's rotation around the axis and around the Sun, as well as a small change in the inclination of the Earth's axis, taking into account the formation of local effects on the entire Earth's surface.

To solve the problem and achieve the claimed technical result, it is necessary to install an electromagnetic filter included in the electrochemical system of cathodic protection of hydrocarbon fuel supply pipelines at industrial enterprises for processing and burning hydrocarbon fuel in gas pipes.

The specified electrochemical system consists of devices that are connected as follows. An anode grounding is connected to a direct current source from a positive bus through an automatic machine through a contact device using a drainage cable laid in the ground, then anode grounding with a drainage cable in the underground part and a steel strip in the above-ground part is connected to an electromagnetic filter installed in the upper part of the exhaust pipe at the exit of combustion products into the atmosphere. The negative bus of the DC source is connected through a contact device to a steel underground pipeline (supply gas pipeline, oil pipeline, fuel oil pipeline, heat pipe). A pipeline connected in this way in the working electrochemical system will additionally be under cathodic polarization from a direct current source, that is, electrochemical protection of the steel underground pipeline from electrochemical corrosion will be implemented in accordance with Interstate Standard GOST 9.602-2005 “Unified System of Protection against Corrosion and Aging. Underground constructions ”(developed by the GUN Academy of Public Utilities named after KD Pamfilov, GUP VNII railway transport, FSUE VNIIstandard, was put into effect by order of the Federal Agency for Technical Regulation and Metrology dated 25.10.2005 No. 262-st.)

Known electrochemical cathodic protection system includes:

- a direct current source, presented as an AC to DC converter, connected to a voltage of 220 Volts, which ensures the creation of a protective electrochemical potential at the steel-soil electrolyte interface;

- anode grounding made of a material having sufficient resistance to electrolytic dissolution, namely carbon graphite, the function of which is to provide a given resistance to spreading and distribution of the potential difference "pipe-to-ground" along the pipeline;

- drainage cable and contact device are designed to connect system elements.

- an automatic machine used in electrical circuits to protect against high electrical overvoltage.

The protection of the converter by an automatic device is due to the fact that the electromagnetic filter installed on the gas pipe and included in the electrochemical system has a positive electromagnetic field and, when the system is turned on, will be an active lightning catcher with their further discharge to the anode ground electrode, thereby protecting the converter from damage .

The electrical characteristics of the cathode converter, drainage cable, anode grounding, automatic machine will be determined by a specific working project for each source of combustion of the corresponding mass of hydrocarbon fuel.

The electromagnetic filter introduced by the claimed method into the electrochemical system is made in the form of a volumetric lattice of carbon-graphite plates. The choice of carbon-graphite material is due to the fact that water acting as an electrolyte will condense in the entire volume of the filter on carbon-graphite plates, therefore, the lattice will undergo electrochemical corrosion, which means that the material must have corrosion resistance. It is known that carbon graphite with respect to its natural (stationary potential) according to the Faraday Law has low electrolytic solubility. The dimensions of the electromagnetic filter (height and diameter) depend specifically on each industrial source where a certain amount of hydrocarbon fuel is burned.

The connection diagram of the system in question is shown in FIG. 6

The described electrochemical system in the working state performs the function of creating a positive electromagnetic field in the electromagnetic filter, which, in addition to the positive electromagnetic field of the Sun, will act as a blocker of the local greenhouse effect.

The justification that due to the use of an electromagnetic filter, the result of localization of the local greenhouse effect is achieved is the following. In an electromagnetic filter, two parallel electrochemical reactions are carried out at the outlet of the combustion products into the atmosphere, namely:

- the reaction of burning carbon monoxide (CO) in atmospheric oxygen (О 2 ) with the release of thermal energy and electronic energy in the form of a negatively charged electron particle: СО + О 2 = СО 2 + t ↑ + е - ↑;

- the reaction of burning hydrogen (H) in atmospheric oxygen (О 2 ) with the release of thermal energy and electronic energy in the form of a negatively charged electron particle: Н + О 2 = Н 2 О + е ↑ + е - ↑.

The volume and mass of the passage of one or another of the described electrochemical reactions will depend on the magnitude of the pressure and temperature at which hydrocarbon fuel combustion processes occur. The positive electromagnetic field created in the electromagnetic filter will capture the negatively charged electrons and direct them to the anode ground using a constant current source and then take them to a protected underground pipeline. Thus, the technical result is achieved as a result of the fact that a negatively charged electron (e) particle is trapped and diverted to the ground, so that there is no dielectric dissociation of water with subsequent reduction of hydrogen molecules and with the passage of cyclic electrochemical reactions considered in the description of the natural greenhouse effect with the formation of ozone, which are presented in figure 3.

If there is a lack of atmospheric oxygen at the installation site of the electromagnetic filter for the localization of CO and H, it is advisable to perform additional forced ventilation of atmospheric air containing oxygen by installing a ventilation device. So that carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) formed in the electromagnetic filter during electrochemical reactions does not spread over large distances, the height of the gas exhaust pipes should be 50-100 meters, that is, at the height of the trees for more efficient absorption of carbon dioxide by green spaces. The water formed during the electrochemical reaction (H 2 O) will settle on the carbon-graphite plates of the electromagnetic filter, which will be susceptible to electrochemical corrosion. The need to replace the filter will arise as it collapses, and financially, the costs are negligible, since carbon graphite is an affordable material and relatively inexpensive compared to other electrolytic resistant materials such as gold and silver.

Figure 1. The first level of formation of thermal and electronic energy of the Earth.

Section A is the first level of formation of thermal and electronic energy of the Earth.

1. The core of the earth

2. Earth Mantle

3. Earth's crust

4. Hydrocarbon substance

5. Faults in the Earth's crust

6. Earth arteries

7. Ocean

8. The bottom of the ocean

9. The surface of the ocean

10. The place of accumulation of hydrocarbons (field)

11. Formation of a warm current

12. Warm current

13. Negatively charged electron particle

14. Hydrogen molecule (H)

15. Water (H2O)

16. Carbon compounds

17. Hydrogen, rising from the bottom of the ocean, reacts with oxygen dissolved in ocean water with the release of thermal and electronic energy, the reaction is described by the formula (Н + О 2 = Н 2 О + е - + t)

18. Electrochemical dissociation of water with the release of thermal energy, is described by the reaction (Н 2 О + е - = Н + ОН + t)

19. The formation of clouds saturated with hydrogen-water "balls"

20. Installations for hydrocarbon production (oil, gas, etc.)

Figure 2. The second level of formation of thermal and electronic energy of the Earth.

The figure 2 presents the following elements:

Section A - the first level of formation of thermal and electronic energy of the Earth

Section B - the second level of formation of thermal and electronic energy of the Earth

1. The core of the earth

2. Earth Mantle

3. Earth's crust

4. Hydrocarbon substance

5. Faults in the Earth's crust

7. Ocean

8. The bottom of the ocean

9. The surface of the ocean

12. Warm current

17. Hydrogen, rising from the bottom of the ocean, reacts with oxygen dissolved in ocean water with the release of thermal and electronic energy, the reaction is described by the formula

(H + O 2 = H 2 O + e - + t)

18. Electrochemical dissociation of water with the release of thermal energy is described by the reaction (H 2 O + e - = H + OH + t)

19. The formation of clouds saturated with hydrogen-water "balls"

21. The direction of movement of the cloud towards land

22. Land

23. The sun

24. The electromagnetic field of the sun

25. Rain clouds

26. Lightning discharge

27. Oxygen (O 2 )

28. The moisture concentration in the rain cloud and a certain atmospheric temperature promotes the "collapse" of water balls, while the released hydrogen reacts with atmospheric oxygen with the release of thermal and electronic energy, the reaction is described by the formula H + O 2 = H2O + e - + t.

29. The reaction of ozone formation is described by the reaction O 2 + e - = O 3

Figure 3. The formation of natural and local greenhouse effect.

The figure 3 schematically shows the process of formation of a natural greenhouse effect during the combustion, decay, respiration and local greenhouse effect during the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels.

FIG. 3 contains the following elements:

23. The sun

24. The electromagnetic field of the sun

29. The formation of ozone O 2 + e - = O 3

30. The cyclic reaction in the atmosphere is described by the formula

H 2 + O 2 = H 2 O + e - + t °

31. The cyclic reaction in the atmosphere is described by the formula

H 2 O + e - = H + OH

32. Carbon dioxide (CO 2) is absorbed by the vegetation

33. Combustion products rise into the atmosphere through a pipe, described by the reaction

Figure 00000003

34. The processes of combustion, respiration, decay occurring in nature are described by the reaction

Figure 00000004

35. Hydrogen (H) rising into the atmosphere

36. Uncontrolled electrochemical reaction of atmospheric oxygen oxidation of combustion products - carbon monoxide and a hydrogen molecule

37. Atmospheric conductivity of electronic energy

38. Industrial enterprise for the processing of hydrocarbons

39. The process of burning hydrocarbon fuel

40. Underground metal structure (pipeline) for the supply of hydrocarbon fuel

41. Industrial pipes through which combustion products enter the atmosphere

42. Carbon dioxide rises and disperses in the atmosphere under pressure and at high temperature.

43. The ozone layer

FIG. 4. The mechanism of rotation of the earth.

In FIG. Figure 4 shows the mechanism of the Earth's rotation under the influence of electronic energy released as a result of electrochemical reactions

23. The sun

24. The electromagnetic field of the sun

27. Atmospheric oxygen (O 2 )

29. The formation of ozone O 2 + e - = O 3

43. The ozone layer

44. Planet Earth

45. Earth axis

49. Rotation of the Sun around its axis

50. Earth rotation around its axis

51. The rotation of the earth around the sun

52. Negatively charged particle electron.

53. Hydrogen ions in the sun

54. The destruction of ozone O 3 -e - = O 2

Figure 5. Method for localizing the local greenhouse effect

The figure 5 presents a plan for installing an electromagnetic filter to localize the local greenhouse effect during the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels in industrial enterprises.

FIG. 5 contains the following elements:

13. Negatively charged electron particle

23. The sun

24. The electromagnetic field of the sun

26. Lightning discharge

29. The formation of ozone O 2 + e - = O 3

30. The cyclic reaction in the atmosphere is described by the formula

H 2 + O 2 = H 2 O + e - + t °

31. The cyclic reaction in the atmosphere is described by the formula

H 2 O + e - = H + OH

32. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) absorbed by green spaces

33. Combustion products rise into the atmosphere through a pipe, described by the reaction

Figure 00000005

34. The combustion processes (fires, automobile exhaust gases, etc.), respiration, rotting occurring in nature are described by the reaction

Figure 00000006

35. Hydrogen (H) rising into the atmosphere

36. The electrochemical reaction at the outlet of the industrial pipe is described by the reaction CO + H 2 O = CO 2 + H

37. Atmospheric conductivity of electronic energy

38. Industrial enterprise for the processing of hydrocarbons

39. The process of burning hydrocarbon fuel

40. Underground metal structure (pipeline) for the supply of hydrocarbon fuel

41. Industrial pipes through which combustion products enter the atmosphere

43. The ozone layer

55. Electromagnetic filter from carbon-graphite plates

56. DC source

57. Automatic high voltage protection device

58. Contact device for connecting the anode electrodes to the positive bus of the DC source

59. Anode electrodes of carbon-graphite pipes

60. Contact device for connecting an underground pipeline to the negative bus of a DC source

61. Drain cable

62. Steel strip

63. The direction of motion of a negatively charged electron

FIG. 6. The connection diagram of the electromagnetic localization filter of the local greenhouse effect.

In FIG. 6. An electrical circuit for connecting an electromagnetic filter is presented.

FIG. 6 contains the following elements:

32. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) absorbed by green spaces

39. The process of burning hydrocarbon fuel

40. Underground metal structure (pipeline) for the supply of hydrocarbon fuel

41. Industrial pipes through which combustion products enter the atmosphere

55. Electromagnetic filter from carbon-graphite plates

56. DC source

57. Automatic high voltage protection device

58. Contact device for connecting the anode electrodes to the positive bus of the DC source

59. Anode electrodes of carbon-graphite pipes

60. Contact device for connecting an underground pipeline to the negative bus of a DC source

61. Drain cable

62. Steel strip

63. The direction of motion of a negatively charged electron

64. Grounding of a direct current source

65. VL 220 V column for supplying a direct current source (depending on the situational plan, the source can be installed on a stand near the wall of an industrial building with 220 V power supply connected).

66. Power cable

67. Long-acting copper sulfate electrode for measuring electrochemical potential

68. Ground level

Claims (1)

  1. A method for localizing the local greenhouse effect that occurs when the Earth’s energy and thermal levels change under the influence of the energy mechanism of the Earth and the Sun’s rotation relative to each other, characterized in that, in addition to the action of the positive electromagnetic field of the Sun, localization of the local greenhouse effect formed during the combustion of hydrocarbon fuel is provided by removing a negatively charged particle, an electron released as a result of electrochemical reactions at the output of the products of combustion from a gas pipe into the atmosphere on the anode ground, by the action of a positive electromagnetic field of an electromagnetic filter made of carbon graphite plates, which is installed in the upper part of the pipe and connected to the electrochemical cathodic protection system by connecting a steel strip in the above-ground part along the pipe and a drain cable under ground to the anode ground of carbon-graphite pipes and then connect through the contact device and through the machine to the positive bus of the source current, then the negative bus of the DC source is connected by a drain cable through a contact device underground to a steel underground pipeline.
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2720625C2 (en) * 2018-07-05 2020-05-12 Сергей Владимирович Бриндюк Greenhouse effect reduction method
RU2721857C2 (en) * 2018-07-05 2020-05-25 Сергей Владимирович Бриндюк Method of preserving water resources and combating desertification and drought

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RU93018805A (en) * 1993-04-12 1997-02-27 Н.И. Русских Method for reducing the intensity of natural anomalies on the ground
CN101263774A (en) * 2007-03-13 2008-09-17 钟显亮 Earth warm-stopping and temperature-reducing ecological ancient-returning comprehensive treatment system engineering
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US5003186A (en) * 1990-04-23 1991-03-26 Hughes Aircraft Company Stratospheric Welsbach seeding for reduction of global warming
RU93018805A (en) * 1993-04-12 1997-02-27 Н.И. Русских Method for reducing the intensity of natural anomalies on the ground
CN101263774A (en) * 2007-03-13 2008-09-17 钟显亮 Earth warm-stopping and temperature-reducing ecological ancient-returning comprehensive treatment system engineering
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2720625C2 (en) * 2018-07-05 2020-05-12 Сергей Владимирович Бриндюк Greenhouse effect reduction method
RU2721857C2 (en) * 2018-07-05 2020-05-25 Сергей Владимирович Бриндюк Method of preserving water resources and combating desertification and drought

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