RU2587955C2 - System and method for supply of moistened gas mixture to ventilated patient - Google Patents

System and method for supply of moistened gas mixture to ventilated patient Download PDF

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RU2587955C2
RU2587955C2 RU2013132957/14A RU2013132957A RU2587955C2 RU 2587955 C2 RU2587955 C2 RU 2587955C2 RU 2013132957/14 A RU2013132957/14 A RU 2013132957/14A RU 2013132957 A RU2013132957 A RU 2013132957A RU 2587955 C2 RU2587955 C2 RU 2587955C2
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temperature
gas mixture
means
water
patient
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RU2013132957/14A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2013132957A (en
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Мабини АРКИЛЛА
Смита ГАРДЕ
Самир АХМАД
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Конинклейке Филипс Электроникс Н.В.
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Priority to US61/424,128 priority
Application filed by Конинклейке Филипс Электроникс Н.В. filed Critical Конинклейке Филипс Электроникс Н.В.
Priority to PCT/IB2011/055629 priority patent/WO2012080941A1/en
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Abstract

FIELD: medical equipment.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to medical equipment. Humidifier system comprises a humidifier unit, including chamber to receive water from a water source, a valve configured to control fluid between water source and chamber, a heat source arranged inside chamber, a flow sensor, a temperature sensor and a controller, operably connected with valve, heat source, flow sensor and temperature sensor. Controller comprises a processor configured to receive, from flow sensor, flow data relating to water being provided to chamber from water source, receive, from temperature sensor, temperature data relating to temperature of humidified gas within patient circuit, and control valve actuation for controlling flow of water into chamber by water source based on flow data and temperature data. Disclosed is an alternative version of system, characterised by implementing a humidifying agent.
EFFECT: technical result consists in improvement of user comfort due to optimisation of humidity and temperature.
10 cl, 8 dwg

Description

BACKGROUND

1. The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to systems and methods for implementing improved humidification of a gas mixture for a patient using a breathing apparatus.

2. The level of technology

Conventional heated humidifiers are usually placed away from the patient undergoing treatment (for example, on a stand for the breathing apparatus), which may present several problems (for example, condensation in the piping of the humidifiers). The solution of these problems may be associated with additional problems associated with optimizing humidity and temperature for maximum efficiency and maximum comfort for the patient. For example, conventional humidifiers may control the output of the heating plate, but may not have mechanisms that take into account other aspects of the heater or its application. In addition, warning systems related to conventional humidifiers have unsatisfactory characteristics to warn users of potential inefficiencies, problems with patient comfort or other problems.

Other problems presented by humidifier systems may also be mentioned, regardless of their location. For example, heated humidifiers used with breathing apparatus continuously heat and moisturize the dry gas mixture from the breathing apparatus, which is then supplied to the patient. Therefore, the moisture supply either from the soft water bag or from the water chamber will eventually cease due to their emptying. Other situations may arise in which insufficient moisture is supplied to the humidifier. In addition, heat sources in heated humidifiers may overheat and / or otherwise malfunction. The scenarios mentioned may result in the patient being inappropriately heated and humidified.

In addition, the heating and humidification of the gas mixture from the breathing apparatus produced by conventional humidifiers is usually controlled by controlling the temperature level of the respective heater. Therefore, the relative humidity (RH) of the gas mixture supplied to the patient depends on the temperature of the environment surrounding the gas mixture entering the humidifier and the heating that occurs in the heating wire circuit. This relationship often leads to the production of moisture that is less than optimal or less than 100% RH. A lower level of humidity can lead to an increase in the degree of delay in secretion in patients. Accordingly, caregivers should increase the temperature setting of the heater to allow more intense evaporation of water to increase humidity levels. Such an increase in temperature can create other problems (for example, condensation in the patient’s tubes) and therefore may be an undesirable solution in case of insufficient humidity.

In addition to those mentioned, there are other problems.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In some embodiments, a humidifier system for humidifying a gas mixture that is supplied to a patient is provided. The humidifier system may comprise a water source, a humidifier unit, and a controller. The humidifier unit may be located on the patient circuit, which provides a gas mixture for the patient, and may be located proximal to the patient interface device. The humidifier unit may include a chamber that receives water from a water source, a heat source located inside the chamber, a flow sensor that measures the flow of water supplied to the chamber from the water source, and a temperature sensor that measures the temperature of the humidified gas mixture in the patient circuit. The controller comprises at least one processor, which is configured to receive from the flow sensor flow data related to the water supplied to the chamber from the water source. At least one processor is further configured to receive temperature data from a temperature sensor related to the temperature of the humidified gas mixture in the patient circuit. At least one processor is further configured to adjust the flow of water supplied to the chamber by a water source and / or thermal power of the heat source according to flow rate and / or temperature data.

In some embodiments, the implementation of the humidifier unit may also comprise an ambient temperature sensor that measures the temperature of the environment in which the humidifier system is located, a temperature sensor for the injected gas mixture that measures the temperature of the gas mixture to be humidified by the humidifier unit, and / or an output humidity sensor, which measures the humidity of a humidified gas mixture inside a patient’s circuit. In some embodiments, the controller may be a closed-loop proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller that receives or determines at least one setpoint relating to the desired temperature of the humidified gas mixture and / or the desired relative humidity of the humidified gas mixtures. A closed loop PID controller can receive process data from a temperature sensor, an ambient temperature sensor, a temperature sensor for the injected gas mixture and / or an output humidity sensor. A closed loop PID controller can further control the heat output of the heat source and / or the flow rate of the water supplied to the chamber from the water source using these process parameters to achieve at least one adopted set point.

In some embodiments, a method of moisturizing a gas mixture supplied to a patient along a patient circuit comprising a humidifier block disposed therein is provided. The humidifier unit may be located proximally relative to the patient interface device. The method may include the step of receiving flow data related to the water supplied from the water source to the humidifier unit, and the step of receiving temperature data related to the temperature of the humidified gas mixture in the patient circuit. The method may further comprise the step of adjusting the flow of water supplied to the humidifier unit by the water source and / or thermal power of the heat source according to the flow rate and / or temperature data.

In some embodiments, the method may be a closed loop closed loop control process that further comprises the step of receiving process data in the form of the ambient temperature in which the humidifier system is located, the temperature of the gas mixture to be humidified by the humidifier unit, and / or the humidified gas humidity mixtures in the patient circuit. The method may also include the step of receiving or determining at least one setpoint relating to at least one of the desired temperature of the humidified gas mixture or the desired relative humidity of the moistened gas mixture. The method may further comprise the step of adjusting the thermal power of the heat source or the flow rate of water supplied to the humidifier unit from the water source, using these process parameters, to achieve at least one adopted set point.

In some embodiments, a humidifier system may be provided to moisten the gas mixture to be supplied to the patient. The system may comprise a water source means for supplying an amount of water, a moisturizing means for moisturizing the gas mixture to be supplied to the patient, and a controller means. The moisturizer may be located in the patient circuit, which delivers the gas mixture to the patient, proximal to the patient interface device. The moisturizing means may include chamber means for receiving water from the water source means, heat source means located inside the chamber means to provide thermal power, flow sensor means for measuring the flow of water supplied to the chamber means from the water source means, and temperature sensor means for measuring the temperature of the humidified gas mixture in the patient circuit. The controller means may receive from the flow sensor means the flow data related to the water supplied to the chamber means from the water source means. The controller means may additionally receive temperature data from the temperature sensor means related to the temperature of the moistened gas mixture inside the patient circuit. The controller means may further control the water flow supplied to the chamber means by the water source means and / or the thermal power of the heat source means according to the flow rate and / or temperature data.

In some embodiments, the implementation of the humidifier may further comprise means of an ambient temperature sensor for measuring the ambient temperature in which the humidifier system is located, means of a temperature sensor of the injected gas mixture for measuring the temperature of the gas mixture to be humidified with a humidifier, and / or output humidity sensor means which measures the humidity of the humidified gas mixture inside the patient circuit. The controller means may be a closed-loop proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller that accepts or determines at least one setpoint relating to the desired temperature of the humidified gas mixture and / or the desired relative humidity of the moistened gas mixture. The closed loop PID controller means may also receive process parameter data from a temperature sensor means, an ambient temperature sensor means, a temperature sensor for a discharge gas mixture and / or an output humidity sensor means. The closed loop loop PID controller means can control the heat output of the heat source means and / or the flow rate of water supplied to the chamber means from the water source means using the process parameters to achieve at least one adopted set point.

The above and other objectives, features and characteristics of the present invention, as well as methods of operation and functions of the corresponding structural elements and a combination of parts and economical manufacturing will become clearer when considering the following description and the attached claims, with reference to the accompanying drawings, which, taken together, form part the present description, and in which the same numeric positions denote the corresponding parts in various figures. In one embodiment, the structural components depicted in the drawings are drawn to scale. However, it should be clearly understood that the drawings are for illustration and description only, and not for limitation. In addition, it should be understood that the structural features shown or described in any embodiment in this application can also be applied in other embodiments. However, it should be clearly understood that the drawings are for illustration and description only and are not intended as a description of limitations. In the context of the description and in the claims, the singular includes the plural, unless the context clearly requires otherwise.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Figure 1 is an example of a humidifier system in accordance with various embodiments of the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a sectional view of an example humidifier unit in accordance with various embodiments of the present invention.

Figure 3 is an example of a method for controlling water flow in a humidifier system in accordance with various embodiments of the present invention.

4 is an example of a method for controlling the temperature of a humidified gas mixture in a humidifier system in accordance with various embodiments of the present invention.

5 is an example of a humidifier system in accordance with various embodiments of the present invention.

6 is a sectional view of an example humidifier unit in accordance with various embodiments of the present invention.

7 is an example of a closed loop control module of a humidifier system in accordance with various embodiments of the present invention.

FIG. 8 is an example of a method for using a closed loop control module to control humidification of a gas mixture to be supplied to a patient in accordance with various embodiments of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EXAMPLE EMBODIMENTS

The embodiments described herein may provide an optimally heated and humidified gas mixture to a patient through a patient circuit. In some embodiments, said gas mixture may be supplied using a humidifier proximal to the patient interface of the ventilation system. In some embodiments, it is possible to take advantage of features related to solving problems of water leaks, blockages, or other problems with water / moisture flows to prevent the humidifier and / or discomfort of the patient from working optimally. In some embodiments, the implementation can also take advantage of signs related to solving problems associated with overheating or underheating of the heat source in the humidifier, to prevent sub-optimal operation of the humidifier and / or patient discomfort. In some embodiments, alarms or alerts related to problems related to water flow, heating, or other problems may be involved.

In some embodiments, a closed loop humidifier control system may be used with or without other features described herein. The closed loop control system may use temperature, humidity and / or other information from the sensors as input to provide preset or calculated settings for the temperature and / or humidity of the gas mixture to further provide an improved flow of the heated and humidified gas mixture to the patient.

1, a humidifier system 100 is shown, which is an example of a humidifier system that provides enhanced patient performance and comfort. The humidifier system 100 is depicted in a state of use with a breathing apparatus 101. The breathing apparatus 101 comprises a patient circuit 103 that is connected to a patient interface device 105 for supplying a gas mixture to a patient, or comprises this interface device. The patient interface may include a nasal and / or oral mask, a nasal cannula, an invasive tube and / or another interface to the patient’s breathing system. In some embodiments, a humidifier system may include a humidifier unit 107 that is located on or within the patient circuit 103, proximal to the patient interface. For example, in some embodiments, a humidifier unit 107 may be located on a patient circuit 103, 6 to 8 inches (15.2 to 20.3 cm) away from the patient interface device 105. Other distances may be used. Conventional humidifiers mounted on trolleys for breathing apparatus are typically located at a distance of 4 to 6 feet (1.22 to 1.83 m) from the patient.

The humidifier system 100 may include a water source 109 or other moisture source. In some embodiments, the implementation of the source of water 109 may contain a container (for example, a bag, bottle, etc.) with a fluid (for example, water or other fluid suitable for moistening the gas mixture to be supplied to the patient). In some embodiments, a water source 109 is connected to the humidifier unit 107 by a supply tube 111, which may be or comprise a flexible tube or other conduit capable of transporting fluid from the water source 109 to the humidifier unit 107. In some embodiments, the pneumohydraulic connection between the water source 109 and the supply pipe 111 may be such that water (or other fluid) enters the supply pipe dropwise (for example, through a dropper).

In some embodiments, a humidifier system 100 may include a flow sensor 113 that senses fluid movement from a water source 109 to a humidifier unit 107. In one example, the flow sensor 113 may be an optical sensor that is located on the supply tube 111. In some embodiments, the optical sensor may include a light emitting diode (LED) and a photodetector located on a transparent or otherwise light transmitting portion of the supply tube 111 so that the fluid flowing through the supply tube 111 flows between the LED and the photodetector, which allows the photodetector to determine the flow of fluid. In embodiments in which a fluid flows from the water source 109 dropwise, the optical sensor can detect the movement of said droplets through the supply pipe 111 and thereby determine the flow of fluid through the supply pipe 111. In some embodiments, the flow sensor 113 may be either contain flow sensors other than optical flow sensors.

In some embodiments, the humidifier system 100 may include a valve 115 that controls the flow of fluid between the water source 109 and the humidifier unit 107. For example, valve 115 may include a pinch valve located on supply pipe 111, which can be used to block the supply pipe 111 with a clamp and thereby obstruct the flow of fluid through the pipe or otherwise control the flow.

In some embodiments, a humidifier system 100 may include at least one temperature sensor. For example, FIG. 1 shows a plurality of temperature sensors 117 located on a humidifier unit 107. Temperature sensors 117 may be, for example, thermoelectric sensors or other types of temperature sensors.

In some embodiments, other sensors (including sensors described elsewhere in this application) may be provided at similar or other places in the humidifier system. For example, in the patient circuit 103, additional temperature or humidity sensors may be present. Other sensors such as, for example, flow sensors or pressure sensors can also be used.

1 shows a proximal humidifier system 100 in which humidification of a gas mixture to be supplied to a patient occurs in a humidifier unit 107. In some embodiments, a humidifier unit 107 may use a membrane humidifier. The membrane humidifier may contain a heat source that heats a small volume of water supplied by a water source (e.g., water source 109) to a water chamber separated from the main gas mixture flow path by a hydrophobic membrane (which will not allow water to flow through it in the liquid phase) . When water evaporates, water vapor passes through the membrane into the path of the gas mixture, with moistening the incoming dry gas mixture. In some embodiments, water may be supplied to the water chamber by gravity, pump, or other methods. In some embodiments, a drip feed or stream of water into the water chamber may depend on the rate of evaporation of water in the water chamber.

FIG. 2 is a sectional view of a humidifier unit 107 located on a patient circuit 103. The humidifier unit 107 may span the circumference of a portion of the patient circuit 103 and may include a heat source 201 that also spans the circumference of the patient circuit 103. In some embodiments, the heat source 201, instead of spanning the circumference of the patient circuit 103, may comprise at least one separate segment that provides heating. The heat source 201 may be, for example, a PTC (positive temperature coefficient) ceramic heating element, an etched insulated foil heater, an insulated wound wire heater, or other heating element suitable for use in medical practice. The heat source 201 may comprise connectors 207, which may be or comprise wires or other connectors providing a power and / or functional connection to the controller 119 (FIG. 1). The humidifier unit 107 may include a water chamber 203 (which, as shown in FIG. 2, also surrounds a portion of the patient circuit 103) into which moisture is supplied from a water source 109 (for example, via a supply tube 111). The humidifier unit 107 may also comprise a membrane 205 that spans a circumferential portion of the patient circuit 103 and separates the water chamber 203 from the fluid communication with the patient circuit 103. Membrane 205 may contain a hydrophobic membrane that is impervious to water in the liquid phase, but permeable to water vapor (for example, a membrane made using a material based on polytetrafluoroethylene [PTFE]). Essentially, water in the liquid phase cannot enter the patient circuit 103 from the water chamber 203, but the vaporized water can enter and thereby humidify the gas mixture in the patient circuit 103.

2 also depicts temperature sensors 117a and 117b. The temperature sensor 117a may be mounted so as to measure the temperature of the heat source 201. The temperature sensor 117b may be mounted so as to measure the temperature of the heated gas mixture in the patient circuit. In some embodiments, one of the temperature sensors 117a and 117b, or both, may be thermoelectric sensors. However, in some embodiments, other sensors may be used.

As also shown in FIG. 1, the humidifier system 100 may also include a controller 119. In some embodiments, the controller 119 may comprise a computer-based device and comprising at least one microprocessor, corresponding memory, and / or other computer components for performing various computing tasks, including receiving data, processing data, making decisions, issuing commands / instructions / signals and / or other related tasks. The controller 119 may be operatively connected to various sensors and valves that form part of the humidifier system (for example, an optical sensor 113, a pinch valve 115, a temperature sensor 117a and 117b and / or any other elements). The controller 119 may comprise at least one module 121a-121n that configures / issues instructions to at least one processor of the controller 119 to perform at least one feature or function related to humidifying the gas mixture, including receiving or determination of the required flow / flow rate of the fluid, the required temperature for the humidified gas mixture, the required humidity of the humidified gas mixture and / or other levels / settings. Modules 121a-121n may also configure / include at least one processor of controller 119 to receive data related to the flow or passage of fluid into the humidifier unit 107 from the water source 109, control the actuation of the valve 115 (and therefore control the flow or by passing a fluid from a water source 109 to a humidifier unit 107), receive data related to the temperature of the humidified gas mixture from at least one temperature sensor, receive data related to the temperature of the heat source, at imat data relating to humidity humidified mixture gas to control heat output of the heat source to perform at least one determination / calculation as described herein, and / or other signs.

For example, one of the modules 121a-121n may comprise a humidity control module. The humidity level control module may receive (for example, from the flow sensor 113) data related to the flow of water from the water source 109 to the water chamber 203 (or extrapolate data related to the flow from information received from the sensor 113). In some embodiments, a humidifier system may provide a user (eg, a healthcare professional or other caregiver / operator) with the option of setting a flow rate. Essentially, in some embodiments, the controller 119 may comprise an interface (e.g., a keyboard, touch screen, etc.) through which said flow rate is to be received from the user. In some embodiments, a humidity control module or other part of a controller 121 may determine a desired or target flow rate (for example, using a desired humidity level and / or other input).

The humidity control module can control the flow of water into the water chamber 203 by actuating the valve 115. Essentially, if the flow rate is to be reduced or stopped, the humidity control module can cause the valve 115 to be closed (full or partial) and stop or reduce the flow in the supply pipe 111. Conversely, in order to start or increase the flow of water into the water chamber 203, the humidity level control module may cause the valve 115 to open (full or partial) and to skip or increase the flow of water along the feed tube 111.

The humidity control module can not only allow the flow of water into the water chamber 203 to be controlled, but can also detect at least one problem or alarm condition related to the flow / levels of water in the humidifier system. For example, if the water source 109 is emptied and the flow of water from the water source 109 is stopped, the humidity level control module can detect this condition (using, for example, sensor 113) and turn on the alarm. The alarm can be an external alarm that notifies the user (for example, a caregiver, etc.). The external alarm may include a visual signal and / or an auditory frequency signal for the user to notify the user that the water source 109 is empty. In some embodiments, the alarm may be internal to the controller 121 (instead of notifying users of the status, or in addition to such a notification), so that the controller can automatically perform an action on said signal (for example, turning off / adjusting the heat source 201, switching to another source water, etc.). Mentioned and other alarms may be useful because the patient no longer receives the gas mixture with the required humidity. In addition, without the alarms mentioned, the heat source 201 may continue to generate heat, which in the absence of water may damage the humidifier system or may increase the heating of the gas mixture in the patient circuit beyond the recommended or required levels.

Similar to detecting an empty water source 109, the humidity control module may detect other conditions related to the supply of moisture to the humidifier system 100. For example, a humidifier system may leak in its water supply system (for example, a leak in the membrane 205, water chamber 203, feed tube, and the like). The humidity control module can detect this leak. For example, the drip feed or the flow of water into the water chamber 203 may depend on the rate of evaporation of water in the water chamber 203. As such, when a rupture or leak occurs in the membrane 205, the fluid flow will increase. The sensor 113 may provide the humidity level control module with data indicating that the fluid flow exceeds a predetermined fluid flow level necessary for the desired humidification and may cause an external alarm to notify the user and / or an internal alarm to turn off the heat source 201 and / or another portion of the humidifier system 100 (or even the breathing apparatus 101).

The humidity control module may also allow for clogging in the supply pipe 111 or humidifier unit 107 (for example, the sensor 113 may detect fluid delay or slow fluid flow in the supply pipe 111 when the valve 115 is open) and may similarly trigger an external alarm for user alerts or internal alarms for other measures (e.g. turning off heat source 201).

In some embodiments, one of the modules 121a-121n may comprise a heating control module. The heating control module may receive data related to the temperature of the heat source 201 (for example, from a sensor 117a), the temperature of the gas mixture in the patient circuit (for example, from a sensor 117b), and / or other data. In some embodiments, a humidifier system may enable a user to set a heat output. Essentially, in some embodiments, the controller 119 may comprise an interface (e.g., a keyboard, touch screen, etc.) through which said thermal power settings are to be received from the user. In some embodiments, the heating control module or other part of the controller 119 may determine the desired or target thermal power of the heat source 201 (for example, using the desired humidity level and / or other factors). Using said calculated or received required heat power, the heating control module can correct the energy sent to the heat source 201 to provide the desired heat power.

As explained in this application, the heating control module can work together with other parts of the controller to generate external or internal alarms (for example, if the temperature of the gas mixture in the patient circuit 103 is higher or lower than required) and / or to perform actions on alarms or other commands related to humidification of the gas mixture in the circuit 103 of the patient. For example, if the problems associated with the water source 109 or other parts of the moisture supply for the humidifier system 100 require lowering the heat output, increasing the heat output or turning off the heat source 201, then the heating control module may allow the above-mentioned action to be performed.

Modules 121a-121n may also include modules to provide additional features, including the closed loop control features described in this application. In addition, as explained herein, modules and alarms provided by at least one module 121a-121n (or modules 521a-521n) can be combined with alarms of the breathing apparatus so that commands or alarms from the breathing apparatus 101 can trigger the actions of at least one module 121a-121n (or modules 521a-521n). Conversely, commands or alarms from at least one module 121a-121n (or modules 521a-521n) may cause the breathing apparatus 101 or other equipment to act.

3, a method 300 is shown, which is an example of a method for optimizing the flow of water in a humidifier system. Method 300 may be performed by a humidity control module or other portion of controller 119. Method 300 includes a step 301 that controls the flow of water into the humidifier. In some embodiments, this step may include the use of a flow sensor (e.g., sensor 113) that controls flow through the supply pipe (e.g., supply pipe 111). At step 303, a determination is made whether the measured flow is greater than the first predefined flow threshold. In some embodiments, the first predefined flow threshold may be selected as an indicator of whether a leak exists in the humidifier system.

If it is determined that the flow exceeds the first predetermined threshold, then the flow of water in the humidifier system may be adjusted in step 305. This step may include using a valve (eg, valve 115) to stop the flow of water into the humidifier unit. In some embodiments, a reduction rather than a cessation of flow is possible.

Method 300 may go to step 307, where an alarm related to water leakage may be generated. As explained in this application, the alarm may be an internal or external alarm. Then, the method 300 may go to step 309, in which the temperature of the heater (for example, heat source 201) is adjusted. For example, if a leak is detected and the water flow is stopped, the heat source 201 can be turned off to prevent the heat source from overheating or giving the patient a gas mixture whose temperature is higher than required. In some cases, it is possible to reduce the temperature of the heater instead of a complete shutdown.

If it is determined in step 303 that the water flow does not exceed the first predetermined threshold, then the method 300 may proceed to step 311, in which it is determined whether the flow is less than the second predetermined threshold. A flow less than a second predetermined flow threshold may indicate that a water supply source (e.g., water source 109) has been used up or that clogging is occurring in a water supply system (e.g., feed line 111). If it is determined that the flow is less than the second predetermined threshold, the method 300 may proceed to step 313, which generates an alarm of insufficient water or clogging. As explained in this application, the alarm may be an internal or external alarm. After this, the method 300 may proceed to step 315, in which the temperature of the heater (for example, heat source 201) is controlled. For example, if the water supply source is empty, the heat source 201 may be turned off to avoid overheating the heat source or supplying the patient with a gas mixture with a temperature higher than required. In some cases, it is possible to lower the temperature instead of completely turning off the heater.

If it is determined at step 311 that the flow is not less than the second predetermined threshold, then it is possible to return to step 301, where the flow rate of the water flow is controlled.

4 shows a method 400, which is an example of a method for optimizing the temperature of a heat source in a humidifier system. In some embodiments, the method 400 may be performed by a heating control module or another controller module 119. The method 400 comprises a step 401 that controls the temperature of the humidified gas mixture to be supplied to a patient. For example, the temperature sensor 117b of the humidifier system 100 may monitor the gas mixture moistened by the humidifier unit 107. At step 403, a determination is made whether the controlled temperature exceeds a predetermined first temperature threshold. Temperatures above the first temperature threshold may cause the patient to deliver a gas mixture with sub-optimal temperature and / or humidity. If the temperature exceeds a predetermined first temperature threshold, then method 400 may proceed to step 405, in which a high temperature alarm is generated. As explained in this application, said alarm may be an internal alarm or an external alarm. Then, method 400 may proceed to step 407, where heat source adjustment is possible. For example, the output of the heat source 201 can be reduced to provide the required temperature (or humidity) of the moistened gas mixture to be supplied to the patient. In some cases, a complete cessation of power generation by the heat source 201 is possible.

After this, the method 400 can proceed to step 409, where the water supply for the humidifier system can be checked. For example, an elevated temperature may be due to a problem with the water supply (for example, emptying the water source) and therefore checked. Step 409 may comprise executing a method 300 or another method for determining if there is a problem with the water supply, the water supply control module.

If it is determined in step 403 that the temperature does not exceed a predetermined high temperature threshold, the method 400 may proceed to step 411, in which it is determined whether the temperature is lower than the predetermined low temperature threshold. A temperature lower than the low temperature threshold may be the reason for the patient to be given a gas mixture with sub-optimal temperature and / or humidity. If it is determined that the temperature is lower than a predetermined low temperature threshold, then method 400 may proceed to step 413, in which a low temperature alarm is generated. As explained in this application, said alarm may be an internal or external alarm. Then, method 400 may proceed to step 415, where heater adjustment is possible. For example, the output of the heat source 201 may be increased.

If it is determined in step 411 that the temperature is not lower than a predetermined low temperature threshold, then method 400 returns to step 401, which further controls the temperature of the humidified gas mixture.

In some applications of the humidifier, the temperature of the dry gas mixture entering the conventional humidifier can be relatively high (for example, due to the high ambient temperature, or when the corresponding breathing apparatus heats the gas mixture). Essentially, for humidifier heaters, it may not be necessary to heat the incoming gas mixture sufficiently long to reach the set temperature, since less intense heating is required. Less intense heating at the humidification point may cause less intense evaporation of moisture to add to the dry gas mixture and, therefore, create a relative humidity that is less than required. In addition, some typical humidifier heaters use heating wire circuits. Mentioned heating wires can increase the temperature of the gas mixture even higher than at the outlet of the humidifier in order to eliminate some of the problems of traditional humidifiers, for example, condensation. Mentioned and / or other problems associated with conventional systems may obscure the exact magnitude of the absolute or relative humidity provided to the patient. As a rule, only insufficient moisture is detected when an increased degree of delay in secretion is observed.

In some embodiments, a humidifier system may comprise closed loop control of heating and humidifying the gas mixture to be supplied to a patient, which may provide improved accuracy and controllability of temperature and humidity control and manipulation. 5 depicts a humidifier system 500 that can be used in conjunction with a breathing apparatus 501 and a patient circuit 503 associated therewith (comprising a patient interface 505). The humidifier system 500 comprises a humidifier unit 507, a water source 509, a supply pipe 511, a flow sensor 513, a valve 515 (e.g., a pinch valve), at least one sensor 517 (comprising at least one temperature and humidity sensor, as explained in detail in this application) and controller 519.

6 shows a humidifier membrane unit 507 comprising a heat source 601, a water chamber 603, and a membrane 605. The heat source 601 may include connectors 607, which can be either wires or other connectors providing a power and / or functional connection connection with a controller 519. FIGS. 5 and 6 also show numerous sensors that can be used in closed loop control of the temperature and humidity of the gas mixture provided to the patient using the patient circuit 503 that one. For example, the humidifier unit 507 may include a temperature sensor 517a, which may be a thermoelectric or other temperature sensor, which is positioned to measure the temperature of the gas mixture supplied to the humidifier unit 507 (i.e., upstream of the humidifier unit 507 during inhalation of the patient). This location allows you to determine the temperature of the gas mixture before humidification, and therefore, you can accurately determine the amount of moisture and / or heat required to supply the patient with a gas mixture with the desired humidity and temperature.

The humidifier system 500 may include an ambient temperature sensor 517b, which may be a thermoelectric or other temperature sensor arranged to measure the ambient temperature in which the humidifier system 500 is located. The humidifier unit 507 may also include a temperature sensor 517c, which may include a thermoelectric or other temperature sensor that is positioned to detect the temperature of the heat source 601. The humidifier unit 507 may also include a temperature sensor 517d, which may be a thermoelectric or other temperature sensor, which is positioned to measure the temperature of the humidified gas mixture in the patient circuit 503 (i.e., upstream of the humidifier unit 507 while inhaling the patient ) Taking measurements of the gas mixture after wetting, in particular in humidifiers located proximally relative to the patient interface, provides the advantage of more accurately determining the temperature of the gas mixture supplied to the patient’s breathing system. The mentioned solution allows optimization of the temperature and humidity control of the gas mixture, and temperatures that create discomfort for the patient can be avoided.

The humidifier unit 507 may also include a humidity sensor 517e, which may be positioned to measure the humidity of the humidified gas mixture for delivery to the patient (i.e., upstream of the humidifier unit 507 while the patient is inhaling). In some embodiments, the humidity sensor 517e may include a capacitive sensor, the capacitance of which varies with the relative humidity of the gas mixture (the sensor may also include the ability to measure temperature to provide accurate humidity readings).

The controller 519 may include a computer-based device and containing at least one microprocessor, corresponding memory and / or other computer components for performing various computing tasks, including receiving data, processing data, making decisions, issuing commands / instructions / signals and / or other related tasks. The controller 519 may be operatively connected to various sensors and valves that form part of the humidifier system (e.g., a flow sensor 513, a valve 515, temperature sensors 517a-d, a humidity sensor 517e and any other sensors present). The controller 519 may include at least one module 521a-521n, which enables the at least one processor to perform at least one feature or one function related (optimal) to the humidification and heating of the gas mixture provided to the patient (including features or functions identical or similar to the features or functions of the humidity level control module and the heating control module described herein in connection with the humidifier system 100).

Modules 521a through 521n may comprise a closed loop control module 521a. The closed loop control module 521a may configure / issue instructions to at least one processor of the controller 519 to provide optimal levels of heating and humidification of the gas mixture for delivery to the patient. For example, the closed loop control module 521a may apply closed-loop control (similar to a controller with proportional-integral-differential [PID] control) to control the heat output of the heat source 601 and the flow of water into the water chamber 603 (for example, using a valve 515) to control both temperature and humidification levels of a humidified gas mixture. Similar to the PID controller, the closed loop control module 521a can apply at least one process parameter (i.e., input data) and at least one setpoint (i.e., settings) to provide the aforementioned control.

7 shows a closed loop control module 521a. The closed loop control module 521a may contain at least some of the input data 701 from the sensors, which may contain data related to the temperature of the gas mixture to be humidified (for example, from the temperature sensor 517a) as process parameters / input data , the ambient temperature in which the humidifier system 500 is located (e.g., from an ambient temperature sensor 517b), data related to the temperature of the humidified gas mixture (e.g., from a temperature sensor 517d), data relating humidity-related humidified gas mixture (e.g., absolute and / or relative humidity from humidity sensor 517e), data related to output power of heat source 601 (e.g., from heat source sensor 517c), data related to water flow through feed tube 511 (e.g., from a flow sensor 513) and / or other input.

The closed loop control module 521a may also receive or determine at least one setpoint / setting 703. At least one of the settings 703 can be obtained from a user (e.g., via an interface as explained in this application), calculated and / or determined otherwise. Settings 703 may include the set temperature of the humidified gas mixture to be supplied to the patient and the relative humidity of the humidified gas mixture to be supplied to the patient. The closed loop control module can use input from sensors (e.g., ambient temperature, temperature of the injected gas mixture, etc.) and adjust the heat output of the heat source 601 and the water flow (using valve 515) to provide the required heating and relative humidity at the outlet, in accordance with the requirements of settings 703. In some embodiments, settings 703 may contain conditions whether the patient’s ventilation is invasive (eg, by intubation) or not invasive (through a mask, nasal cannula, etc.), since the level of hydration required for these methods of treatment can be different (for example, 44 mg / l at 37 degrees C for invasive and 25-30 mg / l at 31 degrees C for non-invasive ventilation). The closed loop control module 521a may also receive other settings, for example, alarm settings 705. Alarm settings may include settings that include at least one internal or external alarm for the upper and / or lower temperature limits for the humidified gas mixture, the upper and / or lower humidity limits, the upper and / or lower limits of the water flow and / or other alarm settings (see, for example, FIGS. 1-4).

As explained in the present application, the closed loop control module 521a may apply the mentioned input data and settings to create at least one output 707. The output 707 may include a heater output current to control the heat output of the heat source 601, valve control output for control the flow of water into the humidifier unit 507 (for example, using a valve 515).

Closed-loop control modules can be used with proximally located humidifiers and traditional humidifiers equipped with suitable input from sensors and control algorithms.

FIG. 8 illustrates a method 800, which is an example of a method of applying a closed loop control module to control humidification of a gas mixture to be supplied to a patient. The method 800 comprises a step 801 in which at least one setpoint / setting (e.g., setpoints 703) are determined or received (from the user) in a closed loop control module. As explained in this application, the settings / settings mentioned may contain the outlet temperature for the gas mixture to be supplied to the patient, the outlet relative humidity to be provided to the patient, an indication of whether the appropriate ventilation is invasive or non-invasive or other settings.

At 803, the closed loop control module may receive or determine at least one alarm setting (eg, alarm settings 705). Alarm settings may contain predefined high and / or low temperature, humidity, or water leakage parameters that require the formation of internal or external alarms, as explained in this application.

At 805, the closed loop control module receives at least one process parameter from various sensors in the humidifier / ventilation system. The mentioned process parameters may contain data related to the temperature of the incoming and outgoing gas mixture, the ambient temperature in which the humidifier is located, the temperature of the heat source of the humidifier, the absolute or relative humidity of the humidified gas mixture and / or other process parameters.

At 807, the closed loop control module may use process parameters to generate output signals (i.e., control output) for the heat source and water flow in the humidifier to provide temperature and humidity settings. The exact algorithm used may depend on the type and value of the received input of the process and the desired output settings. However, it should be understood that, for example, there may be some relationship between the input parameters of the process and the resulting output signals.

For example, when the desired temperature and relative humidity of the humidified gas mixture is determined or provided, a humidifier system (e.g., system 500) monitors the temperature (e.g., via temperature sensor 517a) of the incoming gas mixture (e.g., from a breathing apparatus 501). Based on the temperature difference between the incoming gas mixture and the outgoing gas mixture (for example, measured by the temperature sensor 517d), the closed loop control module will provide output data for the heater (for example, heat source 601), which will proportionally increase (or decrease if the error is negative) level and rate of change of heater current. An increase (or decrease) in the heater current will change, as a result, the temperature and humidity of the outgoing gas mixture (which is measured, for example, by the temperature sensor 517d and 517e). If the humidity of the outgoing gas mixture (for example, measured by the humidity sensor 517e) is less than the required humidity, then the closed-loop control module will proportionally increase the flow of water into the humidifier (for example, using a valve 515 to increase the flow of water through the supply pipe 511 to the humidifier block 507), and also increase the heater current so that higher humidity levels can be created in the gas mixture flow through the humidifier. According to the ambient temperature in which the humidifier system is located (for example, measured by the ambient temperature sensor 517b), the closed-loop control module can regulate the heater current needed to heat the supplied water. For example, a higher ambient temperature will result in a higher temperature of the water entering the humidifier (for example, humidifier unit 507), and the closed loop control module will increase the heater current to a value lower than when the ambient temperature Wednesday below. When the temperature and humidity of the outgoing gas mixture (for example, measured by sensors 517d and 517e) are close to the desired settings, the closed loop control module will change the heater current and water flow into the heater in small steps at a lower speed to continue to maintain the required humidity and / or temperature in the outgoing gas mixture. Temperature control of a heater (for example, heat source 601 by a sensor 517c) can also be used to convert the output generated by the closed loop control module into a suitable / required heat output.

After this, the method 800 may return to step 805, in which at least one process parameter can be adopted again. Essentially, the closed loop control module continuously monitors the process parameters and provides updated output to achieve the settings. At step 809, when at least one process parameter / one input data becomes higher or lower than some predetermined threshold (eg, alarm settings 705), at least one alarm can be generated.

Some of the embodiments described herein may be useful for ventilating therapies for adults, children, and newborns that require moisturizing and heating gas mixtures for domestic and clinical use. Types of therapy may include invasive ventilation, non-invasive ventilation, intensive oxygen therapy, continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP), CPAP therapy for adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and / or other therapies. The embodiments, components, and methods described herein can be used with other patient care and / or other moisturizing applications.

The systems and methods described in this application are presented only as examples. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the systems described herein can operate with various system configurations. Accordingly, in various embodiments, it is possible to apply and / or combine more or less of the aforementioned system components. It should also be understood that in other components other than the components described in this application, various software modules can be provided that serve to provide the functions described in this application. It should be understood that in some embodiments, the functions described herein can be implemented in various combinations of hardware and / or firmware, in addition to or instead of software. The methods described herein may apply more or less of the steps described, and the order of steps may be changed as deemed necessary.

Embodiments further include long-term computer-readable storage media (e.g., disks, memory cards, hard drives, or other volatile or non-volatile storage media) comprising computer-executable instructions that instruct / configure / instruct at least one processor to execute some or all the features and functions described in this application.

The information included in this application is intended to illustrate the example of embodiments that are currently considered the most practical and preferred, therefore, it should be understood that the information provided is for this purpose only and that the scope of the present description is not limited to the proposed options for implementation, but, on the contrary, it implies the coverage of modifications and equivalent designs that do not go beyond the essence and scope of protection of the attached claims. For example, it should be understood that the present invention provides that, as far as possible, at least one feature of any embodiment may be combined with at least one feature of any other embodiment.

Claims (10)

1. A humidifier system for humidifying a gas mixture supplied to a patient, said system comprising
a humidifier block (107, 507) located in the patient’s circuit (103, 503), configured to provide a gas mixture for the patient, the humidifier block (107, 507) located proximally to the patient interface device (105, 505) (103 , 503) of the patient, wherein the humidifier unit (107, 507) comprises
a chamber (203, 603) configured to receive water from a water source (109, 509),
a valve (115) configured to control a fluid flow between a water source (109, 509) and a chamber (203, 603),
a heat source (201, 601) located inside the chamber (203, 603),
a flow sensor (113, 513) configured to measure the flow of water supplied to the chamber (203, 603) from the water source (109, 509), and
a temperature sensor (117b, 517d) configured to measure the temperature of the humidified gas mixture in the patient circuit (103, 503); and
a controller (119, 519) operably connected to a valve (115), a heat source (201, 601), a flow sensor (113, 513), a temperature sensor (117b, 517d), the controller (119, 519) comprising at least one processor configured to
receiving from the sensor (113, 513) the flow rate data related to the water supplied to the chamber (203, 603) from the water source (109, 509),
receiving from the sensor (117b, 517d) the temperature data related to the temperature of the humidified gas mixture in the patient circuit (103, 503), and
control valve actuation to regulate the flow of water supplied to the chamber (203, 603) by the source (109, 509) of water, according to the flow rate and temperature data.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the humidifier unit (107, 507) further comprises a hydrophobic membrane (205, 605) configured to separate the chamber (203, 603) from the patient’s circuit (103, 503), wherein the hydrophobic membrane (205, 605) is configured to prevent the penetration of water in the liquid phase into the patient circuit (103, 503) from the chamber (203, 603), allowing water vapor to enter the patient circuit (103, 503) from the chamber (203, 603).
3. The system of claim 1, wherein the controller (119, 519) comprising at least one processor is further configured to
adjusting the heat output of the heat source (201, 601) with at least one of the flow rate or temperature data, and
wherein the humidifier unit (507) further comprises at least one of
an ambient temperature sensor (517b) configured to measure the ambient temperature in which the humidifier system is located,
a sensor (517a) for the temperature of the injected gas mixture, configured to measure the temperature of the gas mixture to be humidified by the humidifier unit (507), or
a sensor (517e) of the output humidity, configured to measure the humidity of the humidified gas mixture in the patient circuit (503),
and at the same time, at least one of the water flow supplied to the chamber (603) by the water source (509) or the heat power of the heat source (601) is additionally controlled by at least one of
ambient temperature
the temperature of the gas mixture to be humidified, or
humidity humidified gas mixture.
4. The system of claim 1, wherein the humidifier unit (507) further comprises at least one of
an ambient temperature sensor (517b) configured to measure the ambient temperature in which the humidifier system is located,
a sensor (517a) for the temperature of the injected gas mixture, configured to measure the temperature of the gas mixture to be humidified by the humidifier unit (507), or
an output humidity sensor (517e) configured to measure the humidity of the humidified gas mixture in the patient circuit,
and the controller (519) is a controller with proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback control, configured to
receiving or determining at least one setpoint (703) related to at least one of a desired temperature of the humidified gas mixture or a desired relative humidity of the moistened gas mixture,
receiving data (701) of process parameters from at least one of
temperature sensor (517d),
ambient temperature sensor (517b),
a sensor (517a) for the temperature of the injected gas mixture, or
sensor (517e) output humidity, and
adjusting at least one of the heat output of the heat source (601) or the flow rate of water supplied to the chamber (603) from the water source (509) using process data (701) to achieve at least one adopted set point (703).
5. The system of claim 1, wherein the at least one processor is further configured to generate at least one alarm when at least one of the following occurs:
the flow rate of water supplied to the chamber (203, 603) from the source (109, 509) of water exceeds the first predetermined threshold,
the flow rate of water supplied to the chamber (203, 603) from the source (109, 509) of water is less than the second predetermined threshold,
the temperature of the humidified gas mixture supplied to the patient exceeds a predetermined threshold for high temperature, or
the temperature of the humidified gas mixture supplied to the patient is lower than a predetermined low temperature threshold.
6. A humidifier system for humidifying a gas mixture to be supplied to a patient, the system comprising
a moisturizing agent (107, 507) for moistening the gas mixture to be supplied to the patient, the moisturizing agent located in the circuit (103, 503) of the patient, configured to supply the gas mixture to the patient, the moisturizing agent (107, 507) located proximally relative to the device ( 105, 505) pairing with the patient circuit (103, 503) of the patient, and the moisturizer (107, 507) contains
means (203, 603) of the chamber for receiving water from the means (109, 509) of the water source,
a valve (115) configured to control a fluid flow between the water source means (109, 509) and the chamber means (203, 603),
means (201, 601) of a heat source located inside the means (203, 603) of the camera to provide thermal power,
means (113, 513) of the flow sensor for measuring the flow of water supplied to the means (203, 603) of the chamber from the means (109, 509) of the water source, and
temperature sensor means (117b, 517d) for measuring the temperature of the humidified gas mixture in the patient circuit (103, 503); and
controller means (119, 519) operably connected to the valve (115), heat source means (201, 601), flow sensor means (113, 513), temperature sensor means (117b, 517d), the means (119, 519) the controller is configured to
receiving from the means (113, 513) the flow sensor of the flow data related to the water supplied to the means (203, 603) of the camera from the means (109, 509) of the water source,
receiving from the means (117b, 517d) the temperature sensor temperature data related to the temperature of the humidified gas mixture inside the patient circuit (103, 503), and
control valve actuation to adjust the flow of water supplied to the means (203, 603) of the camera means (109, 509) of the water source, according to the flow rate and temperature data.
7. The system of claim 6, wherein the moisturizer (107, 507) further comprises a release agent (205, 605) for separating the chamber means (203, 603) from the patient circuit (103, 503), and wherein the release agent ( 205, 605) is configured to prevent penetration of water in the liquid phase into the patient circuit (103, 503) from the chamber means (203, 603), allowing water vapor to enter the patient circuit (103, 503) from the chamber means (203, 603) .
8. The system of claim 6, wherein the controller means (119, 519) are further configured to
adjusting the heat output of the heat source (201, 601) with at least one of the flow rate or temperature data, and
wherein the moisturizer (507) further comprises at least one of
means (517b) of an ambient temperature sensor for measuring the ambient temperature in which the humidifier system is located,
means (517a) of the temperature sensor of the injected gas mixture for measuring the temperature of the gas mixture to be moistened with a moisturizing means (507), or
means (517e) of the output humidity sensor for measuring the humidity of the humidified gas mixture inside the patient circuit (503),
and wherein the adjustment of at least one of (i) the flow of water supplied to the chamber means (603) by the water source (509), or (ii) the heat output of the heat source (601) is further performed by at least one of
ambient temperature
the temperature of the gas mixture to be humidified, or
humidity humidified gas mixture.
9. The system of claim 6, wherein the moisturizer (507) further comprises at least one of
means (517b) of an ambient temperature sensor for measuring the ambient temperature in which the humidifier system is located,
means (517a) of the temperature sensor of the injected gas mixture for measuring the temperature of the gas mixture to be moistened with a moisturizing agent (507), or
means (517e) of an output humidity sensor measuring the humidity of the humidified gas mixture inside the patient circuit (503),
and wherein the controller means (519) is controller means with proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback control for
receiving or determining at least one setpoint (703) related to at least one of a desired temperature of the humidified gas mixture or a desired relative humidity of the moistened gas mixture,
receiving data (701) of process parameters from at least one of
temperature sensor means (517d),
means (517b) of the ambient temperature sensor,
means (517a) of the temperature sensor of the injected gas mixture, or
means (517e) of the output humidity sensor, and
adjusting at least one of the heat output of the heat source means (601) or the water flow supplied to the chamber means (603) from the water source means (509) using the process parameter data (701) to achieve at least one adopted set point (703).
10. The system of claim 6, wherein the controller means (119, 519) are further configured to generate at least one alarm when at least one of the following occurs:
the flow rate of water supplied to the chamber means (203, 603) from the means (109, 509) of the water source exceeds the first predetermined threshold,
the flow rate of the water supplied to the chamber means (203, 603) from the means (109, 509) of the water source is less than the second predetermined threshold,
the temperature of the humidified gas mixture supplied to the patient exceeds a predetermined high temperature threshold, or
the temperature of the humidified gas mixture supplied to the patient is lower than a predetermined low temperature threshold.
RU2013132957/14A 2010-12-17 2011-12-13 System and method for supply of moistened gas mixture to ventilated patient RU2587955C2 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US201061424128P true 2010-12-17 2010-12-17
US61/424,128 2010-12-17
PCT/IB2011/055629 WO2012080941A1 (en) 2010-12-17 2011-12-13 System and method for administering humidified gas to a ventilated patient

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Publication Number Publication Date
RU2013132957A RU2013132957A (en) 2015-01-27
RU2587955C2 true RU2587955C2 (en) 2016-06-27

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Citations (4)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6095505A (en) * 1998-07-15 2000-08-01 Pegasus Research Corporation Patient-end humidifier
US6102037A (en) * 1998-02-28 2000-08-15 Drager Medizintechnik Gmbh Respiration humidifier
EP1066850A1 (en) * 1999-07-08 2001-01-10 Siemens Elema AB Medical Nebulizer
RU2307674C1 (en) * 2005-12-23 2007-10-10 Зао "Вниимп-Вита" Diving gas moisturizer

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6102037A (en) * 1998-02-28 2000-08-15 Drager Medizintechnik Gmbh Respiration humidifier
US6095505A (en) * 1998-07-15 2000-08-01 Pegasus Research Corporation Patient-end humidifier
EP1066850A1 (en) * 1999-07-08 2001-01-10 Siemens Elema AB Medical Nebulizer
RU2307674C1 (en) * 2005-12-23 2007-10-10 Зао "Вниимп-Вита" Diving gas moisturizer

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