RU2214981C2 - Method for preparing mixture for building article and mixture for their making - Google Patents

Method for preparing mixture for building article and mixture for their making Download PDF

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RU2214981C2
RU2214981C2 RU2001132874A RU2001132874A RU2214981C2 RU 2214981 C2 RU2214981 C2 RU 2214981C2 RU 2001132874 A RU2001132874 A RU 2001132874A RU 2001132874 A RU2001132874 A RU 2001132874A RU 2214981 C2 RU2214981 C2 RU 2214981C2
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Prior art keywords
sand
mixture
biologically active
component
active component
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RU2001132874A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2001132874A (en
Inventor
Б.Н. Лукьянец
Ф.Н. Воскобоев
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Лукьянец Борис Николаевич
Воскобоев Фридрих Николаевич
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Abstract

FIELD: building industry. SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of building materials and can be used for preparing building brick, tale, building blocks and other building constructions. Method for preparing mixture for production of building article involves using barhan sand as one of the parent component, its treatment with another parent component and their mixing with other component. For treatment of barhan sand the biologically active component containing microorganisms is used that is mixed preliminary with barhan sand and this mixture is kept up to formation of rough surface of particles of sand. Barhan sand can be treated with biologically active component for tome from 24 to 180 h. Active slit of sewage or waste from biological production, or lake slit sapropel as a biologically active component. Treatment of barhan sand with biologically active component can be carried out at positive temperature of environment. Mixture for preparing building articles containing barhan sand, component for treatment of sand, binding agent and water comprises biologically active component including microorganisms in the following ratio of components, wt.-%: barhan sand, 60-75; indicated component for treatment of sand, 15-30; binding agent, 5-10; water, the balance. Mixture can contain active slit of sewage or waste of biological production, or lake slit sapropel as biologically active component. Mixture contains cement, flash ash or ground waste of phosphogypsum production as binding agent. Invention provides the enhanced technological effectiveness of mixture preparing used for making building articles. EFFECT: improved preparing method, reduced cost of articles making. 7 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg

Description

 The invention relates to the production of building materials and can be used in the manufacture of bricks, tiles, building blocks and other building structures.
A known method of producing a raw material mixture for the manufacture of light heat-resistant concrete according to ed. USSR certificate 1571029, С 04 В 28/34, 1990, in which orthophosphoric acid, chamotte, clay and artificial porous aggregate are mixed, sand dune with a specific surface of 2000 cm 2 / g is added, then the resulting mixture is molded and heat treated at a temperature of 600 o C. In this case, the mixture contains components in the following ratio, wt.%: phosphoric acid - 20-25; fireclay - 10-30; clay - 5-10; sand dune with a specific surface of 2000 cm 2 / g - 5-10; artificial porous aggregate - the rest.
 It is easy to see that in the mixture under consideration fine fine sand dune is introduced as a filler.
It is known that sand dunes of different grades by size of grains of sand are an inert aggregate with a very low adhesion (adhesion) to the binder due to roundness and polishing of the surface of the grains of sand, which also determines a rather low coefficient of internal friction. Therefore, such a mixture in strength cannot satisfy the requirements for load-bearing building structures. In addition, the preparation of the mixture is quite difficult technologically, in particular, due to the production of sand dune with specified parameters (specific surface 2000 cm 2 / g). The use of components such as chamotte and phosphoric acid in a mixture significantly increase the cost of manufacturing products from this mixture.
A known method of producing concrete mix according to ed. USSR certificate 1511241, С 04 В 28/34, 1989, including mixing of the starting components in the following ratio, wt.%: phosphate binder - 20-40; petrochemical aluminum-chromium wastes - 5-15; coarse aggregate (phosphite composition, wt.%: phosphate binder 20-40, clay 30-60, sand sand 20-30) - 20-60; sand dune as fine aggregate - 10-15; clay is the rest. The resulting mixture is vibroformed, and then subjected to heat treatment at 300 o C. To produce phosphite, the starting components are mixed until a homogeneous mass is passed through a screw feeder with a die plate, doused in a rotating drum and heat treated.
 In the above mixture, sand sand in the composition of coarse and fine aggregate, due to the above smoothness of the surface, interacts with other components only through the angle of internal friction, and in the presence of moisture, additionally due to film adhesion.
 With a similar force mechanism for the interaction of component components, products from such a mixture are able to withstand low shear (tangential) stresses and will practically not work in tensile stresses in their own design. Therefore, the area of possible and effective use of the mixture is quite limited (backfill, placeholder structures of a relatively small height). In addition, this mixture has the same disadvantages as the previous one, in terms of the use of expensive components (phosphoric acid) and low manufacturability of manufacturing products from the mixture.
 The known composition of the mass for the manufacture of building materials according to the USSR patent 1834876, C 04 B 33/00, including fly ash and activated sludge in the following ratio of components, wt.%: Fly ash - 25-75, activated sludge - 25-75. For the manufacture of building materials by a known method, fly ash is poured into a mixer, here, from another solution mixer, activated sludge is supplied in the form of pulp liquefied with water, the mass is mixed, adjusted to the required water content, then the products are molded, dried and fired.
 In the specified mass, activated sludge is used as a plasticizer that increases the ductility of products, and also, due to its adhesive ability, as a binder for filler particles, fly ash. However, due to the finely dispersed structure of the ash, its particles have a rather low adhesion to each other and to the binder due to the small area and smoothness of their surface. Therefore, such a mixture in strength also cannot satisfy the requirements for load-bearing building structures. To increase the strength of products from the specified mass, they require firing, which increases the cost of their manufacturing. In addition, the production of building products using fly ash as the main component is advisable to be located only near thermal power plants, which narrows the scope of this technology.
 A known method of manufacturing building bricks according to the USSR patent 1828459, C 04 B 28/18, 1993, comprising mixing sand, lime, phosphogypsum, cement and activated sludge in mixers, siloing or processing the mixture in a drum to form a silicate mass, forming products ( raw bricks) by pressing and their autoclaving.
 According to the method, the starting components are mixed almost simultaneously, after which the silage of the whole mixture is carried out, in which, essentially, sand particles are treated with active calcium oxide of lime. The pulp of activated sludge is used in this case only to dilute the resulting silicate mass and as a plasticizer due to the adhesive ability of sludge.
 Since the processing time of the mixture in the drum (siloing) is from one to several hours, the adhesive properties that the sand acquires as a result of exposure of lime to the surface of the grains of sand remain rather low, and the strength of the raw brick obtained from the mixture does not reach the required normative documents for carriers building structures. To increase the strength, the formed bricks are autoclaved for 6-8 hours in an atmosphere of water vapor under pressure. In addition, when preparing the starting components for the mixture, it is first necessary to obtain lime by calcining the limestone and grind it in ball mills. All this reduces the manufacturability of the manufacture of construction products, increases labor costs and energy costs, and thereby the cost of production.
 The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a method of preparing a binder composition according to ed. USSR certificate 1728178, С 04 В 28/26, 1992, including grinding the starting components, treating one of them with acid, mixing them and mixing them with liquid glass, using sand sand as the starting components, which is crushed to a fraction of 1-50 microns and treated with hydrochloric acid until the evolution of gas, and fused glauconite, which is crushed to a fraction of 1-50 microns and 50-160 microns in the following ratio of components, wt.%: the specified sand dune 5-20; hydrochloric acid 0.5-2.0; fused glauconite fraction 1-50 microns - 10-57, fused glauconite fraction 50-100 microns - 8-18; liquid glass - the rest.
 Processing sand dune in accordance with this method is complex and expensive. Indeed, it requires a process of crushing sand and the allocation of several of its particle size fractions, industrial production of hydrochloric acid for processing sand, obtaining fused glauconite, which also requires grinding into several groups of fractions. All this leads to low technical and economic efficiency of the method, its low technology and high cost.
 The invention solves the problem of improving the manufacturability of the mixture for the manufacture of building products and reducing the cost of their manufacture.
 To this end, according to a method for preparing a mixture for building products, including using sand dune as one of the starting components, treating it with another starting component and mixing them with other components, a biologically active component containing microorganisms is used to treat sand dune, which is pre-mixed with sandy sand and withstand this mixture until the surface roughness of the grains of sand forms. To increase the efficiency of the method, sand dune is treated with a biologically active component for a period of time from 24 to 180 hours. At the same time, activated sludge, or biological waste, or lake sludge - sapropel is used as the biologically active component, and the sand dune treatment mentioned above the biologically active component is conducted at a positive ambient temperature.
The mixture prepared by the method according to the invention for the manufacture of building products contains sand dune, a component for processing sand, a binder and water, and as a component for processing sand it contains a biologically active component containing microorganisms, in the following ratio, wt.%:
Sand dune - 60-75
Biologically active component - 15-30
Astringent - 5-10
Water - Else
As a biologically active component, the mixture contains activated sludge from sewage, or biological waste, or lake silt - sapropel.
 As a binder, the mixture contains cement, fly ash or ground phosphogypsum production waste.
 The essence of the invention lies in the fact that before starting to prepare the mixture, sand dune in its natural state is mixed with a biologically active component (for example, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants, or waste from biological production, or sapropel, or waste from the food, canning, meat and dairy industries) and maintained under its influence for the time necessary for the formation on a smooth, rounded surface of sand grains of sand dunes uneven depth of at least 5-10% of the average diameter grains of sand in order to provide, after hardening of the building mixture, the active adhesion (adhesion) of the binder to the filler and the work of the structure in any, including complex stressed states.
 As you know, sewage sludge is a suspension formed after the sewage sludge at the sewage treatment plants of urban wastewater treatment plants or after the sludge of liquid agricultural waste, such as livestock farms and poultry farms. As a biologically active component, biological wastes can also be used, for example, in the production of food supplements, as well as lake silt (sapropel). Such a suspension, in addition to organic components (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids) and a number of inorganic compounds, contains an accumulation of a large number of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi), which together with their metabolic products form an amorphous colloid.
 Apart from dune sand, dune sand can also be used as a filler, which is characterized by the same smooth, rounded, approaching a spherical, surface. These sands contain mainly silicon oxides, as well as oxides of aluminum, iron and other inorganic compounds.
 When the biologically active component is mixed with sand dune, these microorganisms settle on the smooth surface of grains of sand and corrode it, not evenly, but with the formation of irregularities in it in the form of separate grooves and grooves, changing the shape of grains of sand and creating a roughness of their surface, that is, increasing its overall surface area. In this case, not only adhesion and internal friction forces arise between the sand particles, but also the engagement of the protrusions and depressions of the grains of sand for each other. At the same time, bacteria vital products with adhesive properties are deposited on the surface of sand particles, which further increases the adhesion of sand to the binder component of the mixture. Ultimately, all this leads to an increase in the strength of products made from such a mixture.
 The depth of the resulting irregularities depends on the time of the biochemical exposure of the active component.
 As the studies showed, the most effective biochemical treatment of sand with a biologically active component takes place within 24-180 hours. At the same time, the adhesive properties of sand increase intensively, and the strength characteristics of product samples made from a mixture increase sharply. Longer processing of sand does not create significant improvements in adhesion and is not economically feasible. At a time of siloing sand with an active component of less than 24 hours, the depth of the roughness on the surface of sand particles is below 5-10% of the average diameter of the grains of sand, the effect of their engagement between each other remains weak, and the strength of the samples of products from the mixture is insufficient for load-bearing structures. The dependence of the strength characteristics of the samples on the time of siloing a mixture of sand and biologically active component is presented in the drawing.
 The method is as follows. The initial components of the mixture - sand dune, biologically active sludge from wastewater treatment plants and binders (e.g. cement, its cheap substitutes or industrial waste, such as phosphogypsum, fly ash, etc.) are stored on a covered concrete site. On the conveyor, sandy sand and silt are fed to a mixer with an active mixing rotor, where the mixture is mixed to a homogeneous mass with the addition, if necessary, of water, providing its pasty mobile state. The ratio of the starting components by weight is set depending on the desired properties of the mixture.
Then the mixed mixture is discharged from the mixer into a receiving silo tank, during which biochemical processing of the surfaces of sand dune occurs with the formation of irregularities (grooves, recesses, roughness) on them. The exposure of the mixture in the silo tank, depending on the ambient temperature, the purpose of building materials and the intensity of biochemical reactions is carried out from 24 to 180 hours. To ensure the effective flow of biochemical reactions, the silo process is carried out at a positive ambient temperature, for example, from 10 to 25 o С .
 Before molding building products, the mixture that underwent the process of biochemical processing (siloing) is again loaded into the mixer with an active rotor, binder and water are added in the proportions regulated by the technology for the production of building products for the corresponding purpose, mixed, unloaded into a shipping container and fed to the line for forming building products . After the obtained products have hardened, the process of erosion of sand dune ceases naturally. If necessary, the obtained products can be subjected to additional processing by thermal or chemical means, but this does not significantly affect the strength properties.
 Examples of the quantitative composition of the mixtures are given in table 1, and their strength properties in table 2.
 The claimed method of preparing a mixture for the manufacture of building products in comparison with the prototype and other known methods is distinguished by its comparative simplicity and manufacturability, the availability of complex mechanization of cooking processes, and high efficiency, in particular, due to unlimited stocks of waste natural raw materials, such as sand dunes sands in the countries of Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, etc. Technical indicators and quality of building products Made of a mixture prepared by the proposed method, much higher than that made from mixtures by known techniques.

Claims (6)

 1. A method of preparing a mixture for building products, including using sand dune as one of the starting components, treating it with another starting component and mixing them with other components, characterized in that a biologically active component containing microorganisms is used to treat sand dune, which is previously mixed with sand dune and maintain this mixture until the surface roughness of the grains of sand.
 2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the sand sand is treated with a biologically active component for a period of time from 24 to 180 hours
 3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as the biologically active component using activated sludge sewage, or waste from biological production, or lake sludge - sapropel.
 4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the processing of sand dune with a biologically active component is carried out at a positive ambient temperature.
5. A mixture for the manufacture of building products containing sand dune, a component for processing sand, a binder and water, characterized in that as a component for processing sand it contains a biologically active component containing microorganisms, in the following ratio, wt. %:
Dune sand - 60 - 75
The specified component for processing sand - 15 - 30
Binder - 5 - 10
Water - Else
6. The mixture according to p. 5, characterized in that as a biologically active component it contains activated sludge from sewage, or waste from biological production, or lake silt - sapropel.
 7. The mixture according to p. 5, characterized in that as a binder it contains cement, fly ash or crushed waste phosphogypsum production.
RU2001132874A 2001-12-06 2001-12-06 Method for preparing mixture for building article and mixture for their making RU2214981C2 (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN100364917C (en) * 2006-10-21 2008-01-30 杨金平 Phosphogypsum high-strength wall brick and its production method
CN100420648C (en) * 2006-10-27 2008-09-24 江油市新洪钢铁铸造有限公司 Formula for producing color tile from casting waste sand and its producing method
CN108996970A (en) * 2018-09-22 2018-12-14 西安科技大学 A kind of ultra-fine earth concrete and preparation method thereof

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN100364917C (en) * 2006-10-21 2008-01-30 杨金平 Phosphogypsum high-strength wall brick and its production method
CN100420648C (en) * 2006-10-27 2008-09-24 江油市新洪钢铁铸造有限公司 Formula for producing color tile from casting waste sand and its producing method
CN108996970A (en) * 2018-09-22 2018-12-14 西安科技大学 A kind of ultra-fine earth concrete and preparation method thereof

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Effective date: 20111207