RU2011860C1 - Internal combustion engine - Google Patents

Internal combustion engine Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2011860C1
RU2011860C1 SU874203007A SU4203007A RU2011860C1 RU 2011860 C1 RU2011860 C1 RU 2011860C1 SU 874203007 A SU874203007 A SU 874203007A SU 4203007 A SU4203007 A SU 4203007A RU 2011860 C1 RU2011860 C1 RU 2011860C1
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RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
engine
cylinder
combustion chamber
air
fuel
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SU874203007A
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Russian (ru)
Inventor
Мерритт Дан
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Мерритт Дан
"Ковентри Юнивесити"
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/12Improving ICE efficiencies

Abstract

FIELD: engine engineering. SUBSTANCE: engine has at least one pair of cylinders volume and diameter of the first of which exceed ones of the second cylinder and two pistons positioned within the cylinders for reciprocation and having different diameters. The engine has a means for supplying air to the first cylinder at suction stroke of its piston, means for supplying fuel to the second cylinder, and combustion chamber whose wall is provided with a means for continuous ignition and means for mixing an air-fuel mixture. The last means is made of the first opening, which is provided in the first cylinder for air supply and located tangentially to the wall of the combustion chamber, and the second opening provided in the second cylinder for supplying air-fuel mixture as a gas flow. EFFECT: enhanced efficiency. 24 dwg

Description

 The invention relates to internal combustion engines.
 An internal combustion engine system can be subdivided into a number of interconnected subsystems that work together to obtain the desired performance in terms of speed, power output, fuel consumption and engine system output. These are the following divisions: ignition means, fuel inlet control, gas flow control inside the engine cylinders and combustion chamber.
 The diesel engine system has the following subsystems: separation mechanisms, fuel and air mixing in the combustion chamber.
 Separation involves the exclusion of fuel from the combustion chamber of the engine during the intake and compression strokes of the engine to prevent premature ignition when a continuously operating ignition means is located in the combustion chamber. Separation provides a significant benefit in fuel efficiency in an internal combustion engine, since the compression ratio of the engine can be selected without regard to the fuel used, since spontaneous ignition during compression can be prevented. At partial load, the fuel inlet can be reduced without reducing the air inlet. This results in engine operation during super lean combustion. With a partial load, there is also no need for any mechanical interference with the air flow during air intake, as is the case, for example, with a throttle valve, which leads to losses in discharge.
The diesel engine is the only internal combustion engine that meets modern requirements, which uses separation in its work. During operation the air is drawn into the cylinder of the engine and is compressed to a high volume ratio (14: 1 to 25: 1), whereby the air is heated to a high temperature (between 300 and 400 ° C). Fuel is not injected into the cylinder until the end of the compression stroke. Due to the high air temperature, the fuel ignites spontaneously. However, combustion does not take place immediately after fuel injection. Fuel enters the cylinder in the form of liquid droplets. They must mix well with the air in the cylinder and evaporate before they can ignite in order to start combustion. This integral delay in combustion makes the combustion process a relatively slow process, which limits the efficient operation of a diesel engine to relatively low speeds. Separation is performed mechanically in a diesel engine by a fuel pump, the injection needle of which mechanically separates the fuel from the cylinder or combustion chamber until the moment of injection.
 In FIG. 1 schematically shows part of a coplanar internal combustion engine, section; in FIG. 2 is a partial sectional view of an engine of the invention; in FIG. 3 is a section AA in FIG. 2; in FIG. 4 - engine pistons in the internal dead center position (TDC); in FIG. 5 - an engine with a removed shell of the combustion chamber; in FIG. 6 is an improved shell shape of a combustion chamber with a cylindrical combustion chamber for the engine of FIG. 2-5, side view; in FIG. 7 is a section BB in FIG. 6; in FIG. 8-13 - the shape of the box of the combustion chamber; in FIG. 14 is a design variant of the proposed engine; in FIG. 15 is a cross-section BB in FIG. 14; in FIG. 16 is a section along the line G-G in FIG. eighteen; in FIG. 17 is a view along arrow D in FIG. sixteen; in FIG. 18 - EE in FIG. sixteen; in FIG. 19 is a partial constructional view of an internal combustion engine according to the invention; in FIG. 20 is a section along FJ in FIG. nineteen; in FIG. 21 is a sectional view taken along line II in FIG. nineteen; in FIG. 22 is a plan view of an internal combustion engine according to the invention; in FIG. 23 is a section KK in FIG. 22; in FIG. 24 is a partial cross section of the deltoid shape of a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine.
 In the drawings, the following notation: 12 - a large cylinder, 14 - a smaller cylinder; 16 - large piston, 18 - smaller piston, 20 - combustion chamber, 22 - catalytic surface, 24 - inlet valve, 25 - inlet, 26 - exhaust valve, 27 - outlet, 28 - inlet channel, 30 - exhaust channel, 32 - throttle valve in the inlet channel, 34 - hole for fuel injection, 36 - fuel injector, 38 - separation surface at the end of the smaller cylinder, 40 - hole in the surface 38, 42 - separation surface at the end of the larger cylinder, 44 - hole in the surface 42, 46 - volumetric box of the combustion chamber, 48 - hole box 46 for a spark plug or spark igniter of a starter, 50 - a vortex combustion chamber (cylindrical, double vortex type), 52 - a spark plug or spark igniter of a starter, 54 - a large crankshaft, 56 - a smaller crankshaft, 58 - a cavity in the cylinder head for box 46 of the combustion chamber, 60 — the vortex type combustion chamber (cylindrical, single vortex-axial type), 61 — the vortex type combustion chamber (spherical or spheroidal type), 62 — the head of the larger cylinder, 64 — the gap in the catalytic surface in combustion chamber, 66 — squishy protrusion on the larger piston, 68 — slot in the cylinder head for the squishy protrusion in the piston, 70 — part of the slot 68 that remains open during squishing, 74 — inlet for the two-stroke engine.
 The engine 10 has one pair (or more) of interacting cylinders 12.14, containing the corresponding pistons 16, 18, while the cylinders 12, 14 are located so that their axes coincide. The head ends of the cylinders 12,14 are constantly in communication with each other through a common compression space in which the combustion chamber 20 is located. The larger cylinder 12 has a larger working volume than the cylinder 14, and this cylinder is called an air cylinder. A smaller cylinder 14 has a smaller displacement and is called a fuel control cylinder.
 Pistons in both cylinders are connected to two crankshafts that are mechanically connected to each other, for example, by a belt or chain, with a large piston 16 connected to a large crankshaft of the engine. A small piston 18, instead of being provided with a second small crankshaft, can be connected to the crankshaft of a large piston by means of a swing rod device. In a preferred form of the engine, the pistons are coupled in phase and move in concert, i.e. they reach TDC and BDC at the same time, but the engine will operate so that the smaller piston 18 slightly lags behind the larger piston 16. Preferably, there is no phase change between the two pistons when the speed of the engine increases or decreases, although a device can be built in to effect a phase change with a change in speed. In multi-cylinder engines, larger and smaller crankshafts are parallel.
 The air cylinder 12 is in communication with the air inlet port 25 and the outlet port 27 of the inlet and outlet channels 28, 30, respectively. The opening and closing of the openings is preferably controlled by valves 24,26, for example poppet valves operated by cam or rotary sleeve valves. Although the holes (see Fig. 1) enter the cylinder at or near the TDC, either or both of them can be equally blocked or not blocked by the air piston 16 during its movement, in particular, when the engine is designed for push-pull operation principle.
 The combustion chamber 20 contains ignition means in the form of a catalyst 22, preferably in the form of a film, on part or on the entire inner wall or walls of the chamber.
 A preferred fuel is a volatile liquid, for example gasoline (gasoline). Lead-free gasoline without test additives can be used as preferred even for engines with a high compression ratio (for example, 10-16). Gaseous fuel may also be used if it is injected under moderate pressure.
 Fuel is introduced into the fuel control cylinder 14 through the fuel inlet 34. In the case of using fuel in the form of a volatile liquid, for example gasoline (gasoline), the low-pressure fuel injector 36, which can be actuated by electromagnetic means, is positioned so as to withdraw the fuel into the inlet. Preferably, the fuel inlet is located in the cylinder wall as close to the BDC of the piston as is necessary to inject the required amount of fuel so that the injection is performed in the last part of the suction stroke and the initial part of the compression stroke. This allows the piston 18 to block the injector 36 during the high pressure generated by the last part of the compression stroke and the early part of the expansion stroke. The injector should spray fuel in small drops.
 An injector capable of withstanding high pressure and temperature can be located close to an opening extending somewhere into a smaller cylinder.
 During the fuel injection process, volatile fuel is sprayed into a smaller portion of the air introduced into the fuel control cylinder 14, compared with the total amount of air introduced by the engine into the combination of the cylinders 12 and 14. This allows the rich mixture in the smaller cylinder to be above the ignition limit for the fuel and It provides high power operation methods and also helps to avoid premature ignition.
 Compared to diesel engines, the moment of the fuel injection process does not determine the start of combustion in the engine. Therefore, there is no need to get ahead or delay the start of the fuel injection process.
 When the atomized fuel evaporates into the air contained in the smaller cylinder 14 during the compression stroke, heat is generated from this air to create the necessary latent heat for evaporation, while the temperature and pressure of the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder 14 decrease, and the pressure becomes lower than the prevailing the pressure of the air compressed in the larger cylinder 12, which does not contain fuel. This facilitates the movement of air from cylinder 12 to cylinder 14 during the compression stroke by creating or increasing the pressure difference between the two cylinders.
 The operations performed by the fuel control cylinder 14 during the part of the cycle constituting the inlet and compression are equivalent to the inlet, evaporation and primary mixing of the fuel with a certain amount of air to form a rich gaseous mixture of fuel and air, which is then supplied to the combustion chamber 20.
 Both pistons 16 and 18 supply gases to the combustion chamber 20 during the compression stroke, and in the case of a smaller cylinder 14, this occurs at the end of the compression stroke when the movement of air from the cylinder 12 to the cylinder 14 stops. The entry of a rich fuel / air mixture into the combustion chamber is accompanied quick stirring.
 Ignition in a catalytic engine is a compression ignition process and depends on the engine designed to provide sufficiently high peak pressures and compression temperatures when the pistons are near TDC. Catalyst 22 contributes to ignition. The latter provides the start of an early part of the chemical reaction, which creates enough heat to ignite the rest of the fuel. The circular vortex-like motion in the combustion chamber continues during the ignition period and provides long-term contact with the catalyst for a period of time sufficient to ensure fast and complete combustion.
 The inlet channel 28 communicating with the inlet 24 is usually not limited with respect to air movement, but may include a restriction or throttle device, for example, a throttle valve 32 as a means of controlling the amount of air allowed into the engine.
 The throttle control during its use is carried out automatically using the appropriate control system built into the engine control system.
 The engine is designed to ignite the mixture at that point in the cycle when the maximum pressure and temperature are reached, namely at or near TDC, exposing the fuel / air mixture to the catalyst at that moment. Under certain conditions, such as low speed and full power, if the ignition in a particular engine design occurs very early, a slight throttling of the intake air by means of a throttle valve 32 can be used to slightly reduce the peak pressure and temperature at the TDC and thereby delay the ignition timing.
 The engine requires at least one air inlet valve, one exhaust valve preferably from the side of the air cylinder and one fuel injection hole, with the air intake valve and exhaust valve directly communicating with the large cylinder 12, while the injection hole 34 fuel provides the ability to inject fuel directly into the smaller cylinder 14.
 The combustion chamber 20 actually occupies the compression chamber of the engine, i.e., the minimum volume when the pair of pistons is closest to each other. The catalytic agent 22 may be platinum, palladium or radium, or a platinum rhodium alloy. The catalyst has the property of starting the process of fuel oxidation at a lower temperature than would otherwise be possible for a fast chemical reaction acceptable for use in the engine, as well as fuel / air mass ratios, which are very depleted ratios and can be outside the limits of self-ignition, which can begin by a compression ignition method or a spark ignition method.
 The temperature required to start a chemical reaction with a catalyst is obtained by compressing the gases in the engine, the temperature being maximum when the gas volume is close to its minimum. This principle is used to set the ignition moment in a cycle, since the rate of a chemical reaction initiated by a catalyst at an appropriate temperature can be very fast. Thus, ignition in the engine is performed by compression using a catalyst.
 The catalyst is deposited on the wall or on a part of the wall of the combustion chamber to minimize its thermal power.
 The effective operation of the engine depends on the process that delivers the rich fuel / air mixture in the combustion chamber through the piston 18 for mixing with the air supplied to the combustion chamber through the piston 16, otherwise the onset of the chemical reaction through the catalyst may remain limited to the rich mixture. In this case, the fuel / air mixture may contain insufficient oxygen and undergo incomplete combustion.
 The engine has means to ensure that near the TDC, the air and fuel in the combustion chamber 20 mix well enough to facilitate the movement of the flame front from the catalytic surface where the ignition occurs.
 The dividing surface 38 is adjacent to the smaller piston 18 in its position at TDC. It is provided with an opening 40, which increases the speed at which the primary fuel / air mixture penetrates into the combustion chamber 20.
 In FIG. 2-5, an embodiment of an internal combustion engine is shown in which the cylinders 12, 14 are arranged so that their axes are at right angles to each other. The combustion chamber 50 is generally cylindrical, although some other acceptable shape allowing the rotation of the gases can be used. The combustion chamber is located so that its longitudinal axis is actually a right angle with both axes of the cylinders 12 and 14, although another acceptable orientation can be used. The combustion chamber itself is located inside the removable box 46, which provides the ability to remove and replace it, and therefore the catalyst 22 (for example, for updating or cleaning).
 Rapid mixing in the combustion chamber 20 is facilitated by giving the chamber a cylindrical, spherical or spheroidal shape, as well as introducing air from the larger cylinder into the combustion chamber through an opening arranged so as to create a rapid circular or swirling movement of air in the combustion chamber. The fuel / air mixture can enter the combustion chamber from the smaller cylinder 14 in the same way (i.e., tangentially, for example, see Fig. 8), either radially (for example, see Fig. 6), or in the axial direction (for example, see Fig. 16).
 The combustion chamber 50 (see FIGS. 2,4,5-7) has an inlet 44. It provides air from the larger cylinder 12 to the combustion chamber with a tangential velocity component to cause air to rotate at high speed during swirling motion, creating a swirl in the combustion chamber.
 The box 46 of the combustion chamber is also made with a hole 48 to provide installation, for example, a glow plug 52 or spark plug.
 In FIG. 8 and 9, 10 and 11 show additional mixing devices of the combustion chamber 50, in which both the fuel / air mixture on the cylinder 14 and the air from the cylinder 12 are supplied to the cylindrical combustion chamber with a tangential velocity component relative to the chamber.
 In FIG. 12 and 13, a combustion chamber 61 is shown which has a spherical shape.
 Air from the air cylinder 12 (see FIGS. 14 and 15) is tangentially introduced into the cylindrical combustion chamber 60 through the opening 44, thereby creating a swirling movement in the chamber. The primary fuel / air mixture from the smaller cylinder enters the combustion chamber in the axial direction through the opening 40 in the separation surface 38 to be smeared along the catalyst by the swirling movement of air from cylinder 12, where the fuel ignites when it contacts the catalyst.
 In FIG. 16-18 show another shape of the box 46 of the combustion chamber, in which the dividing surface is made in the form of the end wall of the box of the combustion chamber with arcuate openings 40 located around the circumference.
 In FIG. Figures 19-21 show an embodiment of an internal combustion engine that uses the squish principle to further assist the mixing process.
 One of the important advantages of the device is that it provides the ability to convert the known engine into the configuration of the catalytic engine only by replacing the cylinder head with the head of the catalytic engine.
 In FIG. 22 and 23 show yet another embodiment of an internal combustion engine. In FIG. 22 shows a device of two pairs of cylinders 12.14 and the possibility of distributing all cylinders on a common crankshaft 54.
 In FIG. 24 shows a delta-shaped multi-cylinder scheme that is suitable for vehicles serving for the transport of heavy loads. The circuit operates on a push-pull basis. Each arm of the triangular circuit has a series of larger and smaller cylinders 12, 14 with air under pressure introduced through inlets 74, and exhaust gases are discharged through outlets opened by pistons 14, 16.
 The invention has the following advantages: the use of high compression ratios; the use of low-octane lead-free gasoline; the possibility of combustion during lean mixture; simple fuel injection system; lack of electrical devices to provide ignition; high speeds of rotation; fast combustion, high specific power output; two or four stroke cycle; Exception control of exhaust emissions the ability to convert the cylinder head to an existing engine.
 Instead of a catalyst, spark ignition devices or devices for ignition from a hot surface, such as a continuously operating spark plug or a glow plug 52 in an opening 48 or a hot ceramic surface, can also be used.
 The device can be used for spark ignition and ignition from a hot surface.

Claims (15)

 1. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE, containing at least one pair of cylinders, the first of which is made with a volume and diameter exceeding the volume and diameter of the second cylinder, two pistons placed in the cylinders with the possibility of reciprocating motion and made respectively with different diameters, means for supplying air to the first cylinder during the stroke of the inlet of its piston, means for supplying fuel to the second cylinder and a common combustion chamber having a continuously functioning clamping means formed on its wall genia and a means of mixing the air-fuel mixture, made in the form of a first hole emerging from the first cylinder for supplying air, and a second hole emerging from the second cylinder for supplying the air-fuel mixture in the form of a gas stream, characterized in that, in order to increase efficiency, the first hole made tangential to the wall of the combustion chamber.
 2. The engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the combustion chamber is made with an inner surface continuously curved around at least one axis.
 3. The engine according to claim 2, characterized in that the axis of the combustion chamber is perpendicular to the axis of the first cylinder.
 4. The engine according to paragraphs. 1 to 3, characterized in that the combustion chamber is made with a round or elliptical cross section.
 5. The engine according to paragraphs. 1 to 4, characterized in that the combustion chamber is cylindrical.
 6. The engine according to paragraphs. 1 to 4, characterized in that the combustion chamber is made spheroidal.
 7. The engine according to claim 6, characterized in that the combustion chamber is made spherical.
 8. The engine according to paragraphs. 1 to 7, characterized in that the second hole is made radial to the wall of the combustion chamber.
 9. The engine according to paragraphs. 1 to 7, characterized in that the second hole is made tangential to the wall of the combustion chamber.
 10. The engine of claims. 1 - 7 and 9, characterized in that the tangential first and second holes are made with the possibility of supplying air and mixture towards one another.
 11. The engine according to paragraphs. 1 to 7 and 9, characterized in that the tangential first and second openings are configured to supply air and mixture in the same direction.
 12. The engine according to paragraphs. 1 to 11, characterized in that the axes of the first and second cylinders are perpendicular to each other.
 13. The engine according to paragraphs. 1 to 12, characterized in that the means for supplying fuel to the second cylinder is made in the form of a nozzle, and an inlet is made in the side wall of the second cylinder in which the nozzle is mounted.
 14. The engine according to paragraphs. 1 to 13, characterized in that the pistons of the first and second cylinders are phase shifted relative to each other by a constant value.
 15. The engine according to paragraphs. 1 to 14, characterized in that the means of ignition is made spark.
SU874203007A 1987-08-06 1987-08-06 Internal combustion engine RU2011860C1 (en)

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SU874203007A RU2011860C1 (en) 1987-08-06 1987-08-06 Internal combustion engine

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SU874203007A RU2011860C1 (en) 1987-08-06 1987-08-06 Internal combustion engine

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
MD440C2 (en) * 1994-12-28 1996-06-30 Ковентрский Университет Internal combustion engine
MD1989C2 (en) * 1998-11-20 2003-02-28 Георге МИХАЙЛОВ Internal combustion engine

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
MD440C2 (en) * 1994-12-28 1996-06-30 Ковентрский Университет Internal combustion engine
MD1989C2 (en) * 1998-11-20 2003-02-28 Георге МИХАЙЛОВ Internal combustion engine

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Effective date: 20050807