NL2031161A - Multiple particle beam microscope and associated method with fast autofocus with special embodiments - Google Patents

Multiple particle beam microscope and associated method with fast autofocus with special embodiments Download PDF

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Publication number
NL2031161A
NL2031161A NL2031161A NL2031161A NL2031161A NL 2031161 A NL2031161 A NL 2031161A NL 2031161 A NL2031161 A NL 2031161A NL 2031161 A NL2031161 A NL 2031161A NL 2031161 A NL2031161 A NL 2031161A
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lens
autofocus
fast
particle
correction lens
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NL2031161A
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Dutch (nl)
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NL2031161B1 (en
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Schubert Stefan
Zeidler Dirk
Schmid Thomas
Pauls Walter
Mueller Ingo
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Carl Zeiss Multisem Gmbh
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/02Details
    • H01J37/21Means for adjusting the focus
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J2237/00Discharge tubes exposing object to beam, e.g. for analysis treatment, etching, imaging
    • H01J2237/21Focus adjustment
    • H01J2237/216Automatic focusing methods
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J2237/00Discharge tubes exposing object to beam, e.g. for analysis treatment, etching, imaging
    • H01J2237/26Electron or ion microscopes
    • H01J2237/28Scanning microscopes
    • H01J2237/2809Scanning microscopes characterised by the imaging problems involved
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J2237/00Discharge tubes exposing object to beam, e.g. for analysis treatment, etching, imaging
    • H01J2237/26Electron or ion microscopes
    • H01J2237/28Scanning microscopes
    • H01J2237/2813Scanning microscopes characterised by the application
    • H01J2237/2817Pattern inspection

Abstract

Multiple particle beam microscope and associated method With fast autofocus With special embodiments Abstract The invention relates to a multiple particle beam microscope and an associated method With a fast autofocus around an adjustable working distance. Proposed is a system having fast autofocus correction lenses for adapting, in high-frequency fashion, the focusing, the position, the landing angle and the rotation of individual particle beams upon incidence on a wafer surface during the wafer inspection. Fast autofocusing in the secondary path of the particle beam system can be implemented in analogous fashion. An additional increase in precision can be attained by means of fast aberration correction means in the form of deflectors and/or stigmators. (Fig. 2 1)

Description

P132421NL00 Title: Multiple particle beam microscope and associated method with fast autofocus with special embodiments Field of the invention The invention relates to multiple particle beam microscopes for inspecting semiconductor wafers with HV structures. Prior art With the continuous development of ever smaller and ever more complex microstructures such as semiconductor components, there is a need to develop and optimize planar production techniques and inspection systems for producing and inspecting small dimensions of the microstructures. By way of example, the development and production of the semiconductor components requires monitoring of the design of the test wafers, and the planar production techniques require a process optimization for a reliable production with a high throughput. Moreover, there have been recent demands for an analysis of semiconductor wafers for reverse engineering and for a customer-specific, individual configuration of semiconductor components. Therefore, there is a need for inspection means which can be used with a high throughput for examining the microstructures on wafers with high accuracy.
Typical silicon wafers used in the production of semiconductor components have diameters of up to 300 mm. Each wafer is subdivided into to 60 repetitive regions ("dies") with a size of up to 800 mm?. A semiconductor apparatus comprises a plurality of semiconductor structures, which are produced in layers on a surface of the wafer by planar integration techniques. Semiconductor wafers typically have a plane surface on account of the production processes. The structure size of the integrated 30 semiconductor structures in this case extends from a few um to the critical dimensions (CD) of 5 nm, wherein the structure dimensions will become even smaller in the near future; in future, structure sizes or critical dimensions (CD) are expected to be less than 3 nm, for example 2 nm, or even under 1 nm. In the case of the aforementioned small structure sizes, defects of the size of the critical dimensions must be identified quickly in a very large area. For several applications, the specification requirement on the accuracy of a measurement provided by an inspection device is even higher, for example by a factor of two or one order of magnitude. By way of example, a width of a semiconductor feature must be measured with an accuracy of below 1 nm, for example 0.3 nm or even less, and a relative position of semiconductor structures must be determined with a superposition accuracy of below 1 nm, for example 0.3 nm or even less.
Therefore, it is a general object of the present invention to provide a multiple particle beam system that operates with charged particles and an associated method for operating same with a high throughput, which facilitates a highly precise measurement of semiconductor features with an accuracy of below 1 nm, below 0.3 nm or even 0.1 nm.
The MSEM, a multi-beam scanning electron microscope, 1s a relatively new development in the field of charged particle systems (charged particle microscopes, CPMs). By way of example, a multi-beam scanning electron microscope is disclosed in US 7 244 949 B2 and in US 2019/0355544 Al. In a multi-beam electron microscope or MSEM, a sample is irradiated simultaneously with a multiplicity of individual electron beams, which are arranged in a field or grid. By way of example, 4 to 10 000 individual electron beams can be provided as primary radiation, with each individual electron beam being separated from an adjacent individual electron beam by a distance of 1 to 200 micrometers. By way of example, an MSEM has approximately 100 separated individual electron beams ("beamlets"), which for example are arranged in a hexagonal grid, with the individual electron beams being separated by a distance of approximately 10 um. The multiplicity of charged individual particle beams (primary beams) are focused on a surface of a sample to be examined by way of a common objective lens. By way of example, the sample can be a semiconductor wafer which is fastened to a wafer holder that is assembled on a movable stage.
During the illumination of the wafer surface with the charged primary individual particle beams, interaction products, for example secondary electrons or backscattered electrons, emanate from the surface of the wafer. Their start points correspond to those locations on the sample on which the multiplicity of primary individual particle beams are focused in each case.
The amount and the energy of the interaction products depends on the material composition and the topography of the wafer surface. The interaction products form a plurality of secondary individual particle beams (secondary beams), which are collected by the common objective lens and which are incident on a detector arranged in a detection plane as a result of a projection imaging system of the multi-beam inspection system. The detector comprises a plurality of detection regions, each of which comprises a plurality of detection pixels, and the detector captures an intensity distribution for each of the secondary individual particle beams. An image field of for example 100 um x 100 pm is obtained in the process.
The multi-beam electron microscope of the prior art comprises a sequence of electrostatic and magnetic elements. At least some of the electrostatic and magnetic elements are adjustable in order to adapt the focus position and the stigmation of the multiplicity of charged individual particle beams. The multi-beam system with charged particles of the prior art moreover comprises at least one crossover plane of the primary or the secondary charged individual particle beams. Moreover, the system of the prior art comprises detection systems to make the adjustment easier. The multi-beam particle microscope of the prior art comprises at least one beam deflector ("deflection scanner") for collective scanning of a region of the sample surface by means of the multiplicity of primary individual particle beams in order to obtain an image field of the sample surface. Further details regarding a multi-beam electron microscope and a method for operating the same are described in the German patent application with the application number 102020206739.2, filed on May 28, 2020, the disclosure of which is incorporated in full in this patent application by reference.
In the case of scanning electron microscopes for wafer inspection, it is desirable to keep the imaging conditions stable such that the imaging can be carried out with great reliability and high repeatability. The throughput depends on a plurality of parameters, for example the speed of the stage and of the realignment at new measurement sites, and the area measured per unit of capture time. The latter is determined, inter alia, by the dwell time on a pixel, the pixel size and the number of individual particle beams. Additionally, time-consuming image postprocessing may be required for a multi-beam electron microscope; by way of example, the signal generated from charged particles by the detection system of the multi-beam system must be digitally corrected before the image field from a plurality of image subfields or partial images is put together ("stitching").
Here, the grid positions of the individual particle beams on the sample surface can deviate from the ideal grid position in a plane arrangement. The resolution of the multi-beam electron microscope can be different for each of the individual particle beams and can depend on the individual position of the individual particle beam in the field of individual particle beams, and consequently can depend on the specific grid position of said individual particle beams.
Conventional systems of charged particle beam systems are stretched to their limits with increasing demands on resolution and throughput.
It is therefore an object of the invention to provide a multiple particle beam system which facilitates highly precise and high-resolution image recording with a high throughput.
One approach for improving precision and resolution lies in the use of a so-called autofocus.
Here, while scanning the sample surface, the current relative focal position of the individual electron beams is ascertained continuously ("on-the-fly") in view of the sample surface/object plane and an 5 appropriate correction of the relative focal position is undertaken.
By way of example, the focusing of the individual particle beams is adapted for each image field.
By way of example, this procedure is based on a model of the sample or the assumption that the sample properties do not change much from 1mage field to image field such that prediction values for improved focusing can be ascertained by extrapolation or interpolation.
Nevertheless, the known autofocusing method is comparatively slow: This is because the relative focal position is optimized either by changing the working distance (WD) or by way of a different control of the objective lens.
Here, a change in the working distance by displacing the height of the sample stage (so-called "z-stage") is only possible with a certain restricted precision and speed.
Moreover, not every sample stage is displaceable in terms of its height.
If there is changed control of the objective lens or of other magnetic lenses for the purposes of varying the relative focal position, this adjustment is comparatively slow: The prior art uses magnetic objective lenses and, in particular, immersion lenses, the inductance of which is too high to allow for an even faster adaptation.
In this case, too, the time for changing the excitation ranges between several ten and several hundred milliseconds.
Moreover, the optics of multiple electron microscopes is far more complex than that of individual beam systems since meaningful recordings require the magnification in the object plane (coupled to the beam pitch of the individual particle beams in the object plane) and also the orientation, i1.e., the rotation, of the array of individual electron beams (grid arrangement) to remain unchanged when updating the relative focal position.
The same applies to the landing angle of the individual particle beams on the sample.
As a rule, the aforementioned particle optical parameters (and optionally further parameters) cannot be set independently of one another by means of only a single lens. A change in the control of the magnetic objective lens is therefore accompanied by a changed control of other particle optical components in the primary path. Thus, changes in the excitation of other magnetic and electrostatic elements typically also become necessary, with the adjustment times for the magnetic lenses being limiting in terms of time and likewise ranging from several ten to several hundred milliseconds. Similar considerations apply to particle optical components in the secondary path and to the adjustment of the focal position for a precise detection.
Against the above-described background and the increasing demands on throughput/speed and on precise measurement of ever smaller structures, the existing systems are therefore in need of improvement. There are enormous demands, especially on the inspection of semiconductor wafers as well. Then, a surface of a semiconductor wafer that is very flat per se can commonly no longer be assumed to be precisely flat within the scope of the precision inspection. Very small variations in the wafer thickness and/or the longitudinal position of the wafer surface relative to the objective lens have an influence on the optimal focus and hence on the accuracy of the measurements. This applies in particular to the inspection of polished wafer surfaces with HV structures. Thus — even under the not entirely realistic assumption of a lack of system drift and the like — it is no longer sufficient to adjust the multiple electron microscope once at a predefined working point with an associated working distance. Instead, very small changes in the working distance must be corrected by an altered relative focal position. A further precondition applying here is that the magnification must remain unchanged. The orientation of the grid arrangement on the sample surface must be exactly observed since, in the case of semiconductor wafers with HV structures, imaging is always carried out exactly parallel or orthogonal to these structures. Moreover, it is imperative to keep the landing angle precisely constant. And lastly, the optical unit in the secondary path must also be updated quickly and highly precisely in order to obtain excellent imaging. Description of the invention It is consequently an object of the present invention to provide an improved multiple particle beam system for inspecting semiconductor wafers with HV structures and an associated method for operating the same. This should operate quickly and highly precisely.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a multiple particle beam system for inspecting semiconductor wafers with HV structures and an associated method for operating the same, which allows for additional fast autofocusing of the system at a working point with a specified working distance. In this case, other particle optical parameters such as the magnification, the telecentricity and the rotation should be kept constant with great precision.
The object 1s achieved by the independent patent claims. Advantageous embodiments of the invention are evident from the dependent patent claims.
The present patent application claims the priority of German patent application 10 2021 105 201.7 filed on March 4th, 2021, the disclosure of the application in the full scope thereof is incorporated into the present patent application by reference.
According to a first aspect of the invention, the latter relates to a multiple particle beam system for semiconductor inspection, comprising the following: a multi-beam particle generator, which is configured to generate a first field of a multiplicity of charged first individual particle beams; a first particle optical unit with a first particle optical beam path, which is configured to image the generated first individual particle beams onto a wafer surface in the object plane such that the first individual particle beams strike the wafer surface at incidence locations, which form a second field;
a detection system with a multiplicity of detection regions that form a third field;
a second particle optical unit with a second particle optical beam path, which is configured to image second individual particle beams, which emanate from the incidence locations in the second field, onto the third field of the detection regions of the detection system;
a magnetic and/or electrostatic objective lens, in particular a magnetic and/or electrostatic immersion lens, through which both the first and the second individual particle beams pass;
a beam switch, which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the objective lens and which is arranged in the second particle optical beam path between the objective lens and the detection system;
a sample stage for holding and/or positioning a wafer during the wafer inspection;
an autofocus determining element, which is configured to generate data for determining actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection;
a fast autofocus correction lens; and a controller;
wherein the controller is configured for static or low-frequency adaptation of a focusing in order to control at least the objective lens and/or an actuator of the sample stage at a first working point with a first working distance in such a way that the first individual particle beams are focused on the wafer surface situated at the first working distance, and wherein the controller is configured for high-frequency adaptation of the focusing in order to generate an autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data at the first working point during the wafer inspection in order to control the fast autofocus correction lens during the wafer inspection at the first working point.
The charged particles can be, e.g., electrons, positrons, muons or ions or other charged particles. Preferably, the charged particles are electrons generated, e.g., using a thermal field emission source (TFE). However, other particle sources can also be used.
The number of first individual particle beams is able to be chosen variably in this case. However, it is advantageous if the number of particle beams is 3n (n-1)+1, where n is any natural number. This allows a hexagonal grid arrangement of the detection regions. Other grid arrangements of the detection regions, e.g., in a square or rectangular grid, are likewise possible. By way of example, the number of first individual particle beams is more than 5, more than 60 or more than 100 individual particle beams.
The multi-beam particle generator can comprise a plurality of real particle sources, which each emit an individual particle beam or else each emit a plurality of individual particle beams. However, the multi-beam particle generator might also comprise a single particle source and, in the downstream particle optical beam path, a multi-aperture plate in combination with a multi-lens array and/or a multi-deflector array. Then, as a result of the multi-beam particle generator, the multiplicity of individual particle beams are generated and imaged onto an intermediate image plane. This intermediate image plane can be a real intermediate image plane or a virtual intermediate image plane. In both cases, the locations of the individual particle beams in the intermediate image can be considered to be virtual particle sources and can consequently be considered to be origins for the further particle optical imaging using the first particle optical beam path. The virtual particle sources in this intermediate image plane are consequently imaged onto the wafer surface or into the object plane and the wafer to be inspected can be scanned using the multiplicity of individual particle beams.
If the objective lens system comprises a magnetic objective lens, the latter can provide a weak or a strong magnetic field.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the objective lens is a magnetic immersion lens.
Here, this can be a weak immersion lens or strong immersion lens.
Magnetic immersion lenses can be realized, for example, by virtue of the bore hole in the lower (sample-facing) pole shoe of the lens having a larger diameter than the bore hole in the upper (sample-distant) pole shoe of the lens.
In contrast to objective lenses which provide only a low magnetic field at the object, immersion lenses have the advantage of being able to achieve lower spherical and chromatic aberrations, and also the disadvantage of greater off-axis aberrations.
In the magnetic field of the lens, the individual particle beams passing therethrough experience a Larmor rotation (both in the primary path and in the secondary path). According to the invention, a sample stage for holding and/or positioning a wafer during the wafer inspection is provided.
Here, it is possible for the sample stage to have a mechanism for adjusting the height (e.g., z-stage) in order to set a working distance.
However, there might not be an option for adjusting the height.
Then, the sample stage only serves to hold the wafer but not to position the latter in the z-direction.
In both cases, it 1s possible but not mandatory for the sample stage to be movable along one axis (e.g., x-axis, y-axis) or in a plane (e.g., xy-plane). Further, an autofocus determining element is provided, which is configured to generate data for ascertaining actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection.
In this case, the actual autofocus data describe the current focal position with respect to the wafer surface directly or indirectly.
By way of example, the autofocus determining element can comprise or consist of an autofocus measuring element.
The data can then be measurement data.
However, it is additionally or alternatively also possible for the data for ascertaining the actual autofocus data to be generated on the basis of a model.
By way of example, this is possible if there is a sufficiently exact model of the wafer to be scanned.
In principle, autofocus measuring elements are known from the prior art and are described in US 9 530 613 B2 and in US 2017/0117114 Al, for example, the disclosures of which are included in this application in full by reference.
By way of example, use can be made of a height sensor (z-sensor). In principle, to ascertain the focal position, the current focal position of the individual particle beams with respect to the wafer surface is deduced by means of a measurement (deduction of actual autofocus data). Ideally, all foci are located exactly on the wafer surface.
The focal position of an individual particle beam is defined in this case by the position of the beam waist of a beam.
US 9 530 613 B2 discloses the use of astigmatic auxiliary beams for setting or adjusting the focus.
Depending on the focusing present, the known astigmatic (e.g., elliptic) beam profile changes during the imaging.
This change allows conclusions to be drawn about the focus and hence about the necessary focus corrections for the stigmatic beams.
US 2017/0117114 A1 discloses an "on-the-fly"-type autofocus.
In the process, the current focal position of the individual particle beams is deduced during scanning of a sample surface from the data of an image field (measured intensities) and a continuous/"on-the-fly" adjustment of the focus is implemented for the subsequent image field.
In particular, it is not necessary here to scan the same sample region multiple times.
An object property is determined in each case, optionally indirectly, by the measurement.
By way of example, this object property can be a height profile of the sample surface.
Then, for the subsequent image recording, a predicted value for the height is ascertained from the ascertained height profile and another, better adapted focus position with respect to the sample surface is set.
The multiple particle beam system according to the invention comprises a controller. The controller is configured to control particle optical components in the first and/or in the second particle optical beam path.
Preferably, but not necessarily, the controller is a central controller for the entire multiple particle beam system. The controller can have a one-part or multi-part embodiment and can be functionally subdivided.
The controller is configured for static or low-frequency adaptation of the focusing in order to control at least the objective lens and/or an actuator of the sample stage at a first working point with a first working distance, in such a way that the first individual particle beams are focused on the wafer surface situated at the first working distance, and it is configured for high- frequency adaptation in order to generate an autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data at the first working point during the wafer inspection in order to control the at least one fast autofocus correction lens during the wafer inspection at the first working point. In this case, for the high-frequency adaptation, control of the objective lens is preferably not altered; a change in the excitation of the objective lens is regularly only implemented in the case of a static or low-frequency adaptation of the focal position. In this case, the objective lens comprises at least one magnetic and/or at least one electrostatic objective lens, i.e., the objective lens can be embodied in the form of a corresponding objective lens system.
Thus, the controller controls two different focal settings at one working point which — optionally in addition to other parameters — is defined by an associated working distance between the objective lens and the wafer surface. Firstly, it controls with a significant stroke the focusing by way of a control of the objective lens and optionally further lenses and/or by way of a control of an actuator for displacing the sample stage. These final controlling elements react comparatively slowly to the control signal;
in this case, an adaptation typically requires several ten to several hundred milliseconds and is required, in particular, when a working point with the chosen working distance is honed in on for the first time, for example when a wafer 1s changed. By way of example, the stroke for changing the working distance can be +/-100, +/-200 pm or +/-300 pm.
According to the invention, the controller secondly also controls the focal setting by way of controlling the fast autofocus correction lens according to the invention. This lens can have different embodiments, for example it can be embodied as a fast electrostatic lens. Various embodiment variants and possible positions of the autofocus correction lens in the beam path will still be described in more detail below. It 1s also possible to provide for a plurality of autofocus correction lenses and for these to be controlled individually. In any case, an autofocus correction lens can be used for a quick adjustment and it acts on the relative focal position of the mdividual particle beams, wherein this effect may be quite pronounced or less pronounced. It is also possible for the autofocus correction lens to also exert an effect on other particle optical parameters in addition to the effect on the focus. In this case, quick means that the excitation of the autofocus correction lens allows a high-frequency adaptation of the relative focal position; an adaptation time TA is in the range of us, for example TA < 500 us, preferably TA < 100 us and/or TA < 50 us. The stroke for changing the working distance 1s typically several um, for example +/-20 um, +/-15 um and/or +/-10 um.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, an adaptation time TA for the high-frequency adaptation is shorter than the adaptation time TA for the low-frequency or static adaptation at least by a factor of 10, preferably at least by a factor of 100 or 1000. Moreover, a stroke for setting the working distance for the low-frequency or static adaptation can be greater than the stroke for the high-frequency adaptation at least by a factor of 5, preferably at least by a factor of 8 and/or 10.
In the two adjustment variants for the focus, it may be necessary to also update other particle optical components of the system. For these corrections, too, the controller can provide appropriate control signals. In the case of the low-frequency or static adaptation, the final controlling elements can likewise be slowly adjustable final controlling elements or they can be quickly adjustable final controlling elements. In this case, the Limiting elements in terms of time are the magnetic lenses, which include for example magnetic field lenses and also the magnetic objective lens, and/or the time for displacing the sample stage in the z-direction. In the case of the high-frequency adaptation, it is necessary for the other final control elements to also be essentially quickly adjustable. Here, their respective adaptation times are preferably of the same order of the adaptation time of the fast autofocus correction lens. By way of example, they can be slower at most by a factor of 2. However, they can also be faster than the adaptation time of the fast autofocus correction lens. By way of example, the fast additional final controlling elements can be electrostatic lenses, electrostatic deflectors and/or electrostatic stigmators. Air coils with only a few turns can also be used as fast correctors.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, a second working point is defined at least by a second working distance between the objective lens and the wafer surface, wherein the second working distance differs from the first working distance of the first working point. Then, the controller is configured to carry out a low-frequency adaptation in the case of a change between the first working point and the second working point and control at least the magnetic objective lens and/or an actuator of the sample stage at the second working point such that the first individual particle beams are focused on the wafer surface situated at the second working distance. By way of example, a change in the working point is implemented when a wafer is changed; the thickness of the wafers can be different in this case. A wafer change is a comparatively slow procedure, and so a slow adaptation is sufficient in this case.
However, it is also possible, for example, to alter the working point or the working distance because the inspection task has changed.
Preferably, the controller is configured to generate an autofocus correction lens control signal for high-frequency adaptations on the basis of the actual autofocus data at the second working point with the second working distance during the wafer inspection in order to control the fast autofocus correction lens during the wafer inspection at the second working point.
Furthermore, all the statements already made above in conjunction with the first working point at the first working distance apply to setting the fast autofocus at the second working point with the second working distance.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the first and/or the second working point are furthermore defined by a landing angle of the first individual particle beams in the object plane and by a grid arrangement of the first individual particle beams in the object plane.
The controller is then configured to keep the landing angle and the grid arrangement substantially constant during the high-frequency adaptation at the first and/or second working point.
In this case, the term grid arrangement comprises the pitch between the individual particle beams in the object plane and the rotation of the individual particle beam arrangement; by way of example, the grid arrangement can be present in the form of the aforementioned hexagon image field.
Thus, when the grid arrangement is kept constant, both the magnification, which is coupled to the pitch of the individual particle beams, and the orientation of the second field of points of incidence of the individual particle beams in the object plane are kept constant.
Here, the magnification is preferably kept constant to approximately 50 ppm, 20 ppm, 10 ppm, 1 ppm or better (e.g., 50 nm, 20 nm, 10 nm, 1 nm or better in the case of a 100 um image field size). The maximum angle deviation from the desired landing angle on the wafer surface is no more than +/-0.1°, +/-0.01° or +/-0.005°.
According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the controller is configured to keep the landing angle and the grid arrangement substantially constant even during a change between the first working point and the second working point. Thus, this relates to keeping the aforementioned parameters constant even in the case of a low-frequency adaptation of the focus. Here, the magnification is preferably kept constant to approximately 50 ppm, 20 ppm, 10 ppm, 1 ppm or better (e.g., 50 nm, 20 nm, 10 nm, 1 nm or better in the case of 100 um). The maximum angle deviation from the desired landing angle on the wafer surface is no more than +/-0.1°, +/-0.01° or +/-0.005°.
The final controlling elements for adapting particle optical parameters such as, e.g., landing angle and grid arrangement (position or magnification and rotation) and, in particular, keeping these constant can, in full or in part, be the same for the low-frequency adaptation as for the high-frequency adaptation. However, if these are the same final controlling elements in full or in part, these final controlling elements must necessarily also be suitable for high-frequency adaptation.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the autofocus correction lens comprises an electrostatic lens or consists of an electrostatic lens. As a matter of principle, settings of electrostatic lenses can be altered substantially faster than settings of magnetic lenses, in which hysteresis effects, eddy currents and self- and mutual inductances prevent a fast adaptation. According to the invention, an electrostatic lens can be provided as a complete lens, for example as a tube lens. However, it is also possible that only an additional component in the form of an additional electrode is provided as autofocus correction lens, the latter developing its electrostatic lens effect in conjunction with other components or surrounding voltages.
The fast autofocus correction lens can be arranged at various positions in the first particle optical beam path, which offer different advantages and disadvantages.
What needs to be taken into account is, firstly, the available installation space in the overall system but also,
secondly, the effect of the autofocus correction lens on other particle optical parameters than the focus.
As already mentioned at the outset, a lens in multiple particle beam systems normally does not act only on a single particle optical parameter; as a rule, the effects of particle optical components are not orthogonal to one another.
The inventors have examined these relationships in more detail and have discovered that there are a few positions in the particle optical beam path of multiple particle beam systems which have special properties: Normally, a crossover point or a crossover plane is provided in the primary beam path of a multiple particle beam system according to the invention, where the individual particle beams are superposed or cross one another.
This crossover plane is normally situated just upstream of the objective lens.
Comprehensive calculations have shown that an additional lens on the crossover substantially acts on the focus of the first individual particle beams and Gf at all) only acts weakly on other particle optical parameters such as position, telecentricity or rotation.
Consequently, it is generally advantageous to arrange the autofocus correction lens at the crossover or in the crossover plane of the first individual particle beams.
However, in practice, the crossover is not a singular point but has a spatial extent, and so it is often only possible to attain an arrangement of the autofocus correction lens close to the crossover/close to the crossover plane.
According to the invention, there are a number of options to this end:
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the autofocus correction lens is arranged in a beam tube extension, which projects into the objective lens from the direction of the upper pole shoe.
In general, the individual particle beams are guided within a beam tube.
The latter 1s evacuated. Here, the beam extension tube is precisely the region of the beam tube which protrudes a little into the magnetic objective lens from the upper pole shoe. The beam tube is at ground potential, and so the autofocus correction lens or an associated electrode can be arranged well within the beam tube extension.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, a beam deflection system is furthermore provided between the beam switch and the objective lens and it is configured to raster-scan the wafer surface with a scanning movement of the individual particle beams, wherein the autofocus correction lens is realized as an offset on the beam deflection system. Typically, a beam deflection system ("deflection scanner” or "scan deflector") is realized by two or more deflectors arranged in succession in the beam path. Now, the offset voltage is provided at all electrodes involved in the deflection. Here, the lens effect arises as a result of the superposition of the deflection field with an Einzel lens field. The embodiment described offers the advantage that no further changes are required in terms of the hardware of the system.
According to one embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a beam deflection system between the beam switch and the objective lens, configured to raster-scan the wafer surface with a scanning movement of the individual particle beams, wherein the beam deflection system comprises an upper deflector and a lower deflector arranged in succession in the direction of the beam path and wherein the autofocus correction lens is arranged between the upper deflector and the lower deflector. This embodiment is also simple to realize since only small changes have to be undertaken in the hardware of existing systems.
According to one embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a beam deflection system between the beam switch and the objective lens, configured to raster-scan the wafer surface with a scanning movement of the individual particle beams, wherein the beam deflection system comprises an upper deflector and a lower deflector arranged in succession in the direction of the beam path and wherein the autofocus correction lens is arranged between the lower deflector and the upper pole shoe of the magnetic objective lens. The autofocus correction lens is also close to the crossover plane in this embodiment variant.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the autofocus correction lens is arranged between the wafer surface and a lower pole shoe of the magnetic objective lens. Although this position is no longer in the vicinity of the crossover and the effect of the lens no longer extends only very predominantly on the focus, this embodiment offers the advantage that the autofocus correction lens only has small subsequent aberrations as it normally is the last lens directly in front of the wafer surface.
According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the autofocus correction lens is arranged between the upper and the lower pole shoe of the magnetic objective lens. This embodiment is likewise advantageous in that it is realized far toward the bottom of the beam path (autofocus correction lens as penultimate lens), and so only small subsequent aberrations arise in this case too.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a beam tube that is able to be evacuated and that substantially surrounds the first particle optical beam path from the multi-beam particle generator to the objective lens, wherein the beam tube has an interruption and wherein the autofocus correction lens 1s arranged within this interruption. Here, the beam tube is substantially tight in the aforementioned region, i.e., embodied such that a vacuum or high vacuum can be generated therein. It can have different cross sections and/or else chambers along the beam path. Here, the interruption in which the autofocus correction lens is arranged is preferably the only interruption in the beam tube. Apart from the locations of the interruption where the autofocus correction lens is situated, the inner wall of the beam tube is at ground potential. Possible connecting points/contact points between vacuum chambers and the actual beam tube should not be considered to be interruptions in this context.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a field lens system arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the beam switch, wherein the interruption of the beam tube in which the autofocus correction lens is arranged is arranged between the field lens system and the beam switch. This embodiment offers comparatively large amounts of space for the arrangement of the autofocus correction lens.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the beam switch comprises two magnet sectors and the interruption of the beam tube in which the autofocus correction lens is arranged is provided in the region of the beam switch between the two magnet sectors. This embodiment offers comparatively large amounts of space for the arrangement of the autofocus correction lens.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a beam deflection system between the beam switch and the objective lens, configured to raster-scan the wafer surface with a scanning movement of the individual particle beams, wherein the interruption of the beam tube in which the autofocus correction lens is arranged is provided between the beam switch and the beam deflection system. This embodiment offers comparatively large amounts of space for the arrangement of the autofocus correction lens.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a field lens system which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the beam switch. This field lens system can comprise one or more lenses. It comprises at least one magnetic field lens. In this embodiment of the invention, the interruption of the beam tube in which the autofocus correction lens is arranged is arranged within the one magnetic field lens of the field lens system. Comparatively large amounts of installation space are also available in this position. However, the autofocus correction lens in this position acts on the focus, the position and the tilt of the individual particle beams. Equally, it is advantageous that a position and/or beam tilts can (also) be compensated in this embodiment.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a beam tube that is able to be evacuated and that substantially surrounds the first particle optical beam path from the multi-beam particle generator to the objective lens. In this case, the autofocus correction lens is embodied as a tube lens and arranged within the beam tube. Thus, the beam tube has no interruption or perforation, simplifying the sealing/tightness of the beam tube. Once again, there are a plurality of ways of implementing this embodiment variant, four of which are specified below.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a field lens system which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the beam switch, wherein the autofocus correction lens is arranged within the beam tube between the field lens system and the beam switch. This embodiment offers comparatively large amounts of space for the arrangement of the autofocus correction lens.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the beam switch has two magnet sectors and the autofocus correction lens is provided within the beam tube between the two magnet sectors. This embodiment offers comparatively large amounts of space for the arrangement of the autofocus correction lens.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a beam deflection system between the beam switch and the objective lens, configured to raster-scan the wafer surface with a scanning movement of the individual particle beams, wherein the autofocus correction lens is provided within the beam tube between the beam switch and the beam deflection system. This embodiment offers comparatively large amounts of space for the arrangement of the autofocus correction lens.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a field lens system which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the beam switch, wherein the autofocus correction lens is arranged within the beam tube within a magnetic field lens. This embodiment offers comparatively large amounts of space for the arrangement of the autofocus correction lens. In this position, the autofocus correction lens acts on the position and the tilt of the individual particle beams in addition to the focus. This facilitates (possibly additional) corrections of position and landing angle of the first individual particle beams.
According to a further embodiment of the invention, the fast autofocus correction lens comprises a fast magnetic lens, in particular an air coil, or consists of a fast magnetic lens, in particular an air coil. Such an air coil only has comparatively little inductance and can therefore, to a certain extent, also be used as a fast autofocus correction lens. By way of example, such an air coil has several ten to several hundred turns, for example 10 <k < 500 and/or 10 <k < 200 and/or 10 <k < 50 applies to the number k of turns and the following may apply to the adaptation times TA of the air coil: TA < 500 us, preferably TA < 100 us and/or TA < 50 ps. In any case, this applies if the air coil is arranged so that no magnetic material, or at best little magnetic material, is situated in the vicinity thereof.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a beam tube that is able to be evacuated and that substantially surrounds the first particle optical beam path from the multi-beam particle generator to the objective lens, wherein the fast magnetic lens is arranged outside around the beam tube. Thus, the beam tube need not be perforated or interrupted in this case. Producing this embodiment variant is comparatively simple.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a field lens system which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the beam switch, wherein the fast magnetic lens is arranged around the beam tube between the field lens system and the beam switch. Thus, the beam tube need not be perforated or interrupted in this case. Producing this embodiment variant is comparatively simple.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the beam switch has two magnet sectors and the fast magnetic lens is arranged around the beam tube between the two magnet sectors. Thus, the beam tube need not be perforated or interrupted in this case. Producing this embodiment variant is comparatively simple.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a beam deflection system between the beam switch and the objective lens, configured to raster-scan the wafer surface with a scanning movement of the individual particle beams, wherein the fast magnetic lens is arranged around the beam tube between the beam switch and the beam deflection system. Thus, the beam tube need not be perforated or interrupted in this case. Producing this embodiment variant is comparatively simple.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a beam deflection system between the beam switch and the objective lens, configured to raster-scan the wafer surface with a scanning movement of the individual particle beams, wherein the beam deflection system comprises an upper deflector and a lower deflector arranged in succession in the direction of the beam path; and wherein the fast magnetic lens is arranged around the beam tube between the upper deflector and the lower deflector.
Thus, the beam tube need not be perforated or interrupted in this case.
Producing this embodiment variant is comparatively simple.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system moreover comprises a fast telecentricity correction means, which is configured to substantially contribute to correcting a tangential or radial telecentricity error of the first individual particle beams in the second field, and the controller of the multiple particle beam system is set up to generate a telecentricity correction means control signal for high-frequency adaptations at the respective working point during the wafer inspection on the basis of the actual autofocus data in order to control the fast telecentricity correction means during the wafer inspection.
As already explained above, a fast adaptation of other particle optical components is often also required within the scope of fast autofocusing in order to be able to keep other particle optical parameters constant.
One of these parameters is the telecentricity or the landing angle of first individual particle beams on the wafer surface (the terms telecentricity and landing angle are used synonymously in this patent application). Here, when applying an element provided for the telecentricity correction, it is also the case that this element does not necessarily only act on the telecentricity but once again interacts with other particle optical parameters on account of the non-orthogonality of the effects of the particle optical components.
Therefore, within the scope of this patent application, the fast telecentricity correction means is defined as intended to act substantially — and hence not necessarily exclusively — on the telecentricity.
Then, an essential effect relates to the telecentricity.
Strictly speaking, it is also possible for a fast autofocus correction lens to (also) be a fast telecentricity correction means, and vice versa.
How the tangential telecentricity error and a rotation error, which are generated by an immersion lens as magnetic objective lens, arise 1s explained below: In a reference arrangement of the magnetic immersion lens with a first imaging scale and a first focal plane in the magnetic field of the magnetic immersion lens, a first grid arrangement with a first beam pitch or pitch of the first individual particle beams and with a first orientation 1s formed in the object plane.
In the process, charged particles in the magnetic field of the magnetic immersion lens are steered onto helical trajectories.
Reference is made to a magnetic immersion lens if the magnetic field of an objective lens extends up to the sample or the object, for example a semiconductor wafer.
The grid arrangement of the beam foci in the object plane, in which a wafer is arranged for example, is also rotated as a result of the helical particle trajectories.
To generate a first grid arrangement in the object plane with a desired, predefined orientation, the twist or rotation of the grid arrangement is usually held in reserve, for example by arranging a generating device of the grid arrangement (e.g., in the form of a multi- aperture plate as a constituent part of a multi-beam particle generator) in a predetermined, pre-rotated position, which counters the rotation due to the magnetic immersion lens.
First individual particle beams also receive a tangential velocity component which, in the case of an immersion lens, leads to the individual particle beams no longer being incident on a sample in perpendicular fashion but in a manner tilted or inclined to a perpendicular of the sample surface in the tangential direction.
Particularly in the case of a multi-beam system, first individual particle beams have different tangential inclination angles, which increase with the distance from the optical axis of the magnetic immersion lens in the radial direction.
This error is referred to as tangential telecentricity error.
Usually, the tangential telecentricity error can be compensated by virtue of an appropriate tangential velocity component of the first individual particle beams being generated upstream of the magnetic immersion lens in targeted fashion, said tangential velocity component counteracting the tangential telecentricity error and compensating the latter at the wafer surface.
A change in the excitation of the magnetic immersion lens, a change in the relative focal position or a change in the imaging scale of the first grid arrangement of the multiplicity of first individual particle beams leads to unwanted, parasitic effects. By way of example, a tangential and/or radial telecentricity error is generated by each of the aforementioned changes.
Each of the aforementioned changes alters the fraction of a revolution of the helical electron trajectories or the rotation angle of the rotation of the grid arrangement. Consequently, a second grid arrangement of the multiplicity of primary electron beams is formed, which is rotated counter to the first grid arrangement. This rotation 1s unwanted and, according to the invention, compensated by means for changing the rotation of the grid arrangement.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the telecentricity correction means comprises a first deflector array which is arranged in an intermediate image plane of the first particle optical beam path. By way of example, such a deflector array is known from DE 10 2018 202 421 B3 and WO 2019/243349 A1; the disclosure of both documents is incorporated into this patent application in full by reference. Here, a deflector array comprises a multiplicity of deflectors arranged in an array, wherein a group of individual particle beams passes through each of the deflectors during operation. Here, a group may also consist of only one individual particle beam.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system moreover comprises a fast rotation correction means, which is configured to substantially contribute to correcting a rotation of the first individual particle beams in the second field, wherein the controller is set up, during the wafer inspection at the respective working point, to generate a rotation correction means control signal for high-frequency adaptations on the basis of the actual autofocus data in order to control the fast rotation correction means during the wafer inspection. The rotation correction means does not necessarily act only on the rotation but instead, once again, interacts with other particle optical parameters on account of the non-orthogonality of the effects of the particle optical components. Therefore, within the scope of this patent application, the fast rotation correction means is defined as intended to act substantially — and hence not necessarily exclusively — on the rotation. Then, an essential effect relates to the rotation. Strictly speaking, it is also possible for a fast autofocus correction lens to (also) be a fast rotation correction means, and vice versa.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the rotation correction means comprises an air coil. By way of example, such an air coil has several ten to several hundred turns, for example 10 <k < 500 and/or 10 <k < 200 and/or 10 < k < 50 applies to the number k of turns and the following may apply to adaptation times TA of the air core coil: TA < 500 us, preferably TA < 100 us and/or TA < 50 ps. In any case, this applies if the air coil is arranged so that no magnetic material, or at best little magnetic material, is situated in the vicinity thereof.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the rotation correction means comprises a second deflector array which, at a distance, is arranged directly upstream or downstream of the first deflector array which acts as fast telecentricity correction means. Thus, in this embodiment, a further deflector array is arranged, at a distance, upstream or downstream of the deflector array for telecentricity correction, said further deflector array causing a change in the focal position on the wafer surface as a result of deflecting individual beams and hence, in total, causing a rotation of the grid arrangement by way of an appropriate control. The openings of the respective downstream deflector array are formed correspondingly larger in this case and designed for a beam deflection of the preceding deflector array.
Consequently, a compensation of rotation and telecentricity error is facilitated by way of two deflector arrays arranged in succession.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the rotation correction means comprises a multi-lens array which is arranged, at a distance, directly upstream or downstream of the first deflector array which acts as a telecentricity correction means, in such a way that the first individual particle beams pass through the multi-lens array in off-axis fashion.
Hence, a deflecting effect also arises in addition to a focusing effect.
As a result of an offset of an individual particle beam in the tangential direction in relation to an axis of a microlens, the individual particle beam is deflected in the tangential direction.
By way of example, the tangential beam offset can be set by an upstream deflector array or by a rotation of the multi-lens array with respect to the grid arrangement.
A change in the tangential beam deflection can be generated by an active deflector array upstream of the multi-lens array or by a multi-lens array with a variable refractive power.
Then, the deflection angle also changes with the change in the refractive power.
The change in the refractive power can be compensated by a further electrostatic lens, which for example acts on all individual particle beams.
A further option lies in an active rotation of the multi-lens array through a few mrad.
Since the deflection is amplified by the lens effect, a rotation angle for rotating the multi-lens array can be smaller than the rotation angle of the rotation of the grid arrangement.
According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the multi-beam particle generator comprises the fast rotation correction means and the rotation correction means is actively rotated by the rotation correction means control signal.
By way of example, the multi-beam particle generator contains at least one deflector array or at least one multi-lens array.
A twist of the grid arrangement can be brought about by appropriate active rotation of the entire multi-beam particle generator or the entire generating device of the grid arrangement or by active rotation of individual array components. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the fast rotation correction means comprises a first magnetic field generating device for a first weak magnetic field and a second magnetic field generating device for a second weak magnetic field, wherein the first magnetic field generating device is only controlled for a rotation in a positive rotation direction and the second magnetic field generating device is only controlled for a rotation in a negative rotation direction by the controller by means of the rotation correction means control signal. Since a compensation of the twist or rotation of the grid arrangement must be very fast in conjunction with a fast autofocus, individual magnetic elements are unsuitable to this end. However, the inventors have discovered that a fast rotation of a grid arrangement together with a change in the focal position can be achieved using at least two magnetic elements by virtue of using each of the magnetic elements for rotating in one direction only. Hysteresis is avoided by two magnetic components which are each operated in one direction only and consequently a fast rotation of the grid arrangement in two rotation directions is possible. Both components can be reset in brief breaks between inspection tasks, for example while positioning the wafer from a first inspection site to a second inspection site. Thus, for example, an axial magnetic field for rotation in the positive direction can be combined with a magnetic immersion lens at the exit of the pencil of the primary beams from the generating device for rotation in the negative direction.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the first and the second magnetic field have an axial configuration and are arranged in a converging or diverging pencil of the first individual particle beams in the first particle optical beam path. Such arrangements and the underlying physical effects are described, for example, in the German patent application with the application number 10 2020 123 567.4, which was not yet laid open at the time of this application and which was filed on September 9, 2020, the disclosure of which is incorporated in this application in full by reference.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, a maximum deviation of each individual particle beam from a desired landing position on the wafer surface is no more than 10 nm, 5 nm, 2 nm, 1 nm or 0.5 nm. This is an absolute maximum deviation — it applies to any direction on the wafer surface (which is planar or approximated as planar) and can be ensured, in particular, by means of one or more of the above-described means for telecentricity correction and/or rotation correction and/or position correction.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the controller is configured to carry out the determination of the autofocus correction lens control signal and/or the rotation correction means control signal and/or the telecentricity correction means control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data using an inverted sensitivity matrix which describes the influence of excitation changes of particle optical components on particle optical parameters that characterize the particle optical imaging at the respective working point. Such an inverted sensitivity matrix is described in the German patent application DE 10 2014 008 383 Al, the disclosure of which is incorporated in this patent application in full by reference. The change of the effect of only one particle optical component in a multi-beam particle optical unit leads to a change in a plurality of parameters which characterize the particle optical imaging. However, in practice, it is desirable for settings of the particle optical unit to be changed such that only one parameter which characterizes the particle optical imaging changes as a result of the change in the setting while the remaining parameters remain unchanged. To this end, it is necessary to change the settings of effects of the plurality of particle optical components together. To determine which settings have to be changed to change only one parameter,
and to determine how these changes have to be implemented, it 1s possible, for example, to determine the entries of a matrix A, which describes these setting changes, from m x n measurements. Here, n corresponds to the number of particle optical components and m corresponds to the number of parameters which characterize the particle optical imaging. After determining the entries, this matrix can then be inverted and it is possible to determine which excitation changes have to be undertaken on what particle optical components in order to change precisely one parameter which describes the particle optical imaging.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the fast autofocus correction lens comprises a fast electrostatic lens, wherein the fast autofocus correction lens, as first fast autofocus correction lens, is arranged between the upper and the lower pole shoe of the magnetic objective lens. Here, the phrase "first fast autofocus correction lens" indicates that particularly good autofocus corrections can be obtained by means of a plurality of fast autofocus correction lenses but that these need not be used. Here, the first fast autofocus correction lens is arranged and controlled by the controller in such a way that it contributes to the fast autofocus correction. This contribution can consist of a high-frequency focus stroke being achieved by means of the first fast autofocus correction lens. However, it can also consist of, additionally or alternatively, other beam parameters such as the landing angle, a position and/or a rotation being re- corrected during a fast autofocus step.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the first fast autofocus correction lens is integrated into a beam tube extension, which projects into the objective lens from the direction of the upper pole shoe. The beam tube extension is the continuation of the beam tube that is able to be evacuated, which has already been mentioned above. The first fast autofocus correction lens can be a one-part first fast autofocus correction lens or else a multi-part first autofocus correction lens. In the latter case, this preferably is a two-part first fast autofocus correction lens.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the first autofocus correction lens has an at least two-part first autofocus correction lens. Preferably, the first autofocus correction lens comprises exactly two parts. In this case, the two parts of the first autofocus correction lens are in a relative neighborhood or in a relative proximity to one another. In this case, both parts of the first autofocus correction lens act in the style of a fast autofocus correction lens on the individual particle beam passing therethrough. However, the specific action can be different.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the beam tube extension has two interruptions, wherein one part of the two-part first autofocus correction lens is arranged in each of the two interruptions.
According to another preferred embodiment, the two parts of the two- part or at least two-part first autofocus correction lens are each embodied as a tube lens and arranged within the beam tube extension.
The two-part embodiment or, generally, multi-part embodiment of the first fast autofocus correction lens when arranging the same between the upper and lower pole shoe of the objective lens in this case has the following advantages or the following background: A fast electrostatic lens arranged between the upper pole shoe and the lower pole shoe of the objective lens, and hence arranged within a magnetic field, has a comparatively strong effect on the focus of the first individual particle beams in the second field or in the objective plane. However, it is the case that the individual particle beams experience a temporary change in velocity when passing through the electrostatic lens. If, in turn, the velocity profile of the individual particle beams now changes in an (inhomogeneous) magnetic field, this velocity profile change leads to a change in the azimuthal beam parameters in the objective plane. If now an at least two-part fast autofocus correction lens is arranged within the objective lens instead of a single fast autofocus correction lens, skillful control of the second part of the first fast autofocus correction lens allows substantial compensation of the effect on the azimuthal beam parameters.
However, since there are only focusing space charge-free round-optical lenses, it may be advantageous to control the two parts of the first autofocus correction lens with voltages of different signs.
This allows the integral | B(z) / v(z) dz for the individual particle beams in the magnetic field of the objective lens to be kept constant, even during an autofocus step.
In this case, the absolute values of the two voltages are not identical but generally different.
Moreover, it is possible to choose a three- part or generally multi-part variant instead of the two-part variant.
Even in such a configuration, it is possible to keep the path integral constant overall.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, there is a high- frequency correction of the image field rotation and hence of the azimuthal position of the individual particle beams in the objective plane, essentially in addition to the high-frequency adaptation of the focusing, by means of the control of the at least two parts of the first autofocus correction lens.
Thus, in addition to its task for correcting the focus, the two-part first autofocus correction lens also assumes the function of a rotation correction means.
However, it should once again be emphasized here that a strict assignment of lenses to, in each case, a precisely defined task or to, in each case, precisely one defined effect normally cannot be realized perfectly since the effects of lenses are generally not orthogonal to one another.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system comprises a second fast autofocus correction lens which comprises a fast electrostatic lens, wherein the second autofocus correction lens is arranged within a magnetic field of the field lens system; wherein the controller is configured to generate a second autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the second fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point.
The term "second" fast autofocus correction lens in this case indicates that the system also comprises a further fast autofocus correction lens (e.g., first fast autofocus correction lens). However, here and below, the ordinal numbers serve to distinguish between the various embodiment variants of autofocus correction lenses and do not serve to specify the number of implemented fast autofocus correction lenses.
This embodiment variant can be combined, in particular, with the embodiment according to which a one- part fast autofocus correction lens, as first fast autofocus correction lens, is arranged between the upper and the lower pole shoe of the magnetic objective lens.
The concept of this embodiment or combination of the first fast autofocus correction lens with the second fast autofocus correction lens is substantially analogous to the concept that has been realized by means of the two-part first fast autofocus correction lens.
The intent here is also that of correcting the azimuthal beam parameters.
However, this is not implemented by a second lens part of the first fast autofocus correction lens but by the provision of a separate further fast autofocus correction lens, which is arranged within a magnetic field.
This second fast autofocus correction lens is arranged within a magnetic field of the field lens system.
By way of example, in the process it may be situated within a first lens of the field lens system, within a second lens of the field lens system or within a third magnetic lens of the field lens system.
What is important is that the second autofocus correction lens is arranged within a magnetic field in order to obtain an effect on the image field rotation by the change in velocity of the particles of the individual particle beams when passing through the second fast autofocus correction lens.
It is possible here for the first fast autofocus correction lens and the second fast autofocus correction lens to be controlled by the controller with voltages of different signs; however, this is not necessarily the case.
Moreover, it should be noted that the arrangement of the second fast autofocus correction lens does not primarily serve to change the focus itself but instead serves to correct the changes of other beam parameters, in particular the image field rotation in this case, which necessarily accompany this. More detailed information in respect of the field lens system can be gathered from for example US 2019/0355545 Al, the disclosure of which is incorporated in this patent application in full by reference.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the control of the second fast autofocus correction lens substantially implements a high- frequency correction of the image field rotation or of the azimuthal position of the individual particle beams.
Once again, arranging the second fast autofocus correction lens within the magnetic field of the field lens system can be realized in this case by the provision of an interruption in the beam tube and the arrangement of the fast electrostatic lens within this interruption. Alternatively, it is also possible to embody the second fast autofocus correction lens as a tube lens and arrange the latter within the beam tube and within the magnetic field of the field lens system. However, in conjunction with these implementations it was found that the necessary voltages range, for instance, between two and twenty kV, for example at around 5 kV.
According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system comprises a third fast autofocus correction lens, wherein the third fast autofocus correction lens comprises a fast magnetic lens, in particular an air coil, which 1s arranged outside around the beam tube in the first particle optical beam path and arranged in a position that is substantially magnetic field-free; wherein the controller is configured to generate a third autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the third fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point. The term "third" fast autofocus correction lens in this case indicates that the system comprises at least one further fast autofocus correction lens.
However, it need not necessarily comprise three or more fast autofocus correction lenses. The ordinal number(s) used serve here and below to distinguish better between various embodiments of the invention and not to specify the number of utilized fast autofocus correction lenses. For the magnetic lens and, in particular, the air coil, what was already explained above applies: By way of example, such an air coil has several 10 to 100 turns, for example 10 < k < 500 and/or 10 < k <200 and/or 10 <k < 50 applies to the number k of turns and the following may apply to the adaptation times tA of the air coil: tA < 500 ps, preferably tA < 100 ps and/or tA < 50 us. In any case, this applies if the air coil is arranged so that no magnetic material, or at best little magnetic material, is situated in the vicinity thereof. The adaptation time tA describes how quickly or with what interval beam parameters can be set by means of the air coil. In this embodiment, the adaptation times of the air coil are short enough to (also) undertake a high-frequency adaptation of beam parameters by means of the air coil.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the first particle optical beam path has an intermediate image plane and the third fast autofocus correction lens is disposed just downstream of this intermediate image plane in the direction of the particle optical beam path.
In one example, there is no magnetic material or at best hardly any magnetic material at this position.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the control of the third fast autofocus correction lens substantially implements a high- frequency correction of the azimuthal position of the individual particle beams in the object plane. Thus, the third fast autofocus correction lens acts substantially on the image field rotation and not on the focus.
Consequently, the third fast autofocus correction lens functionally also corresponds to a rotation correction means.
According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises the following: A fourth fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises a fast electrostatic lens, wherein the beam tube has an interruption within a magnetic field lens of the field lens system and wherein the fourth fast autofocus correction lens is arranged within this interruption and wherein the controller is configured to generate a fourth autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the fourth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point.
Here, the fourth fast autofocus correction lens can have a one-part embodiment, or else a multi-part embodiment.
The fourth fast autofocus correction lens can have a physically identical embodiment as the second fast autofocus correction lens.
However, the fourth fast autofocus correction lens differs from the second fast autofocus correction lens in terms of its primary functionality: According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the control of the fourth fast autofocus correction lens substantially implements a high-frequency correction of the radial landing angle of the individual particle beams in the object plane.
By contrast, the second fast autofocus correction lens is substantially used for the high- frequency correction of the image field rotation, to be precise by preference in combination with a one-part first fast autofocus correction lens.
Additionally, the fourth fast autofocus correction lens can be successfully used both in combination with a one-part and in combination with a two-
part first fast autofocus correction lens and optionally with further fast autofocus correction lenses.
According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises the following: A fifth fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises a fast electrostatic lens, wherein the fifth fast autofocus correction lens is arranged at the multi-beam particle generator, and wherein the controller is configured to generate a fifth autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the fifth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point.
Here, the fifth fast autofocus correction lens can have a one-part or multi- part embodiment.
The fifth fast autofocus correction lens is arranged at the multi-beam particle generator, i.e, it can be part of the multi-beam particle generator but it can also be arranged in the direct vicinity of constituent parts of the multi-beam particle generator.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multi-beam particle generator comprises a multi-lens array with a multi-aperture plate and a counter electrode, wherein the fifth fast autofocus correction lens is realized as an offset voltage that is able to be applied to the counter electrode.
The voltage applied to the multi-beam particle generator or the voltage applied to the micro-optical unit is normally a high voltage in the region of many kilovolts, for example 20 kV, 60 kV or 90 kV.
Now, if a slight offset is applied to the counter electrode, this offset voltage has a significant influence on the enlargement of the individual particle beams in the object plane but has no noticeable influence on the relative position of the focal position.
Consequently, by means of the fifth fast autofocus correction lens it 1s possible to correct a radial image position of the individual particle beams in the object plane.
However, fast voltage changes as offset in the region of several kilovolts tend to be more difficult to implement or are linked to a certain design of the multi-beam particle generator.
According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the fifth fast autofocus correction lens is therefore realized in alternative fashion: According to this embodiment variant, the multiple particle generator comprises a multi-lens array with a multi-aperture plate and a counter electrode, wherein the fifth fast autofocus correction lens is realized as an additional electrode which is arranged between the multi-aperture plate and the counter electrode or just downstream of the counter electrode in relation to the particle optical beam path.
Thus, the offset is dispensed with in this embodiment with two variants; instead work 1s carried out with a separate additional electrode which is controllable at low-volt potential.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the control of the fifth fast autofocus correction lens substantially implements a high- frequency correction of the radial position of the individual particle beams in the object plane.
However, in addition or as an alternative thereto, it is also possible to correct other beam parameters by means of the fifth fast autofocus correction lens.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises the following: a sixth fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises a fast electrostatic lens, wherein the sixth fast autofocus correction lens is embodied in the vicinity of an intermediate image plane as a two-part lens, the first part of which is arranged upstream of the intermediate image plane and the second part of which is arranged downstream of the intermediate image plane, as viewed in the direction of the particle optical beam path, and wherein the controller is configured to generate a sixth autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the sixth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point. Here, the two parts of the sixth fast autofocus correction lens are preferably arranged symmetrically in relation to the intermediate image plane. As a consequence, the sixth fast autofocus correction lens as a combination of the lenses can attain the same effect as a single fast correction lens arranged in the intermediate image plane. By way of example, by means of the sixth fast autofocus correction lens it is possible to set the telecentricity of the individual particle beams in the object plane in high-frequency fashion.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the sixth fast autofocus correction lens is provided with a bias. The bias can be negative or positive.
According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises the following: a magnetic field compensation lens, which comprises a magnetic lens, wherein the magnetic field compensation lens is arranged between the objective lens and the object plane and wherein the controller is configured to control the magnetic field compensation lens with a magnetic field compensation control signal in static or low-frequency fashion, in such a way that the magnetic field in the object plane takes the value of zero.
Unlike the first to fifth fast autofocus correction lens — and optionally one or more fast autofocus correction lenses — the magnetic field compensation lens does not serve for high-frequency autofocus correction. Normally, the magnetic field compensation lens is not suitable for fast autofocus correction either since the magnetic field compensation lens comprises a magnetic lens. On account of hysteresis effects, this magnetic lens is usually switched more slowly or, within the meaning of the definition in this patent application, in low-frequency fashion. According to the invention, the magnetic field compensation lens serves to set the magnetic field in the object plane or on the wafer to zero. As a result, it is possible to keep constant the azimuthal landing angle in the object plane or on the wafer, or to pull this to zero. Simulations by the inventors have shown that a high- frequency correction of the azimuthal landing angle is not mandatory either since the residual error to be corrected theoretically is significantly smaller in terms of percentages than in the case of other beam parameters following the high-frequency correction and, in particular, is significantly smaller than the residual error of the radial landing angle following a high- frequency correction.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the magnetic field compensation lens is coupled to the objective lens. Such a configuration of a magnetic field compensation lens is already known from the prior art. An example 1s described in the international patent application with the publication number WO 2007/060017 A2, the disclosure of which is incorporated in the present application in full by reference. Coupling of the magnetic field compensation lens to the objective lens relates to the magnetic flux in the lower pole shoe of the objective lens in the aforementioned example. Since the magnetic field compensation lens with a further winding is situated below the objective lens, a magnetic flux can also be generated in the lower pole shoe of the objective lens when exciting this further winding. The magnetic flux caused by the first winding, which should be assigned to the objective lens, in the lower pole shoe of the objective lens 1s oriented substantially in the same direction as the magnetic flux that is generated by an excitation of the winding belonging to the magnetic field compensation lens. Specifically, the current direction in the winding belonging to the objective lens is oriented inversely to the current direction in the winding belonging to the magnetic field compensation lens. What can be achieved by way of an appropriate control of the magnetic field compensation lens and/or the objective lens at a working point is that the magnetic field in the object plane substantially takes the value of zero.
It is also possible to realize a magnetic field compensation lens in a different way.
The present patent application has described various embodiments of fast autofocus correction lenses, telecentricity correction means, rotation correction means and position correction means.
Specific configurations and arrangements of first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and further fast autofocus correction lenses were likewise described.
They can all contribute to the multiple particle beam system being configured such that the beam parameters of focus, landing angle and grid arrangement in the object plane are kept constant at a working point by means of high-frequency corrections.
Comprehensive investigations and simulations by the inventors have now shown that some combinations of autofocus correction lenses and further correctors are particularly well suited to realize a fast autofocus in the first particle optical beam path of the multiple particle beam system.
In particular, two combinations were found to be particularly suitable.
By means of these combinations, it is possible to respectively realize a fast autofocus at different working points while keeping the remaining beam parameters of landing angle, rotation and position in the object plane constant.
These two exemplary embodiments will be described in more detail below.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises the following: a first fast autofocus correction lens, which as at least two-part fast electrostatic lens is arranged between the upper and the lower pole shoe of the magnetic objective lens; the fourth fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises a fast electrostatic lens arranged within a magnetic field of a magnetic lens of the field lens system; and the fifth fast autofocus correction lens, which is arranged at the multiple particle generator; wherein the controller is configured to generate an autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the at least two-part fast autofocus correction lens by means of the first autofocus correction lens control signal with voltages of different signs during the wafer inspection at the respective working point; wherein the controller is configured to generate a fourth autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the fourth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point; and wherein the controller is configured to generate a fifth autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the fifth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point.
A constraint applying here is that the magnetic field in the object plane takes the value of zero, as can be achieved, for example, using the above-described magnetic field compensation lens.
Moreover, it preferably is the case that both the focus stroke and the image field rotation are set by means of the at least two-part first fast autofocus correction lens.
Preferably, it is moreover the case that the radial image position in the object plane is predominantly set by means of the fifth fast autofocus correction lens.
Finally, substantially the radial landing angle in the object plane is corrected or drawn to zero (perpendicular incidence) by means of the fourth fast autofocus correction lens, which is preferably arranged within an interruption of the beam tube within a magnetic lens of the field lens system.
According to a further particularly preferred embodiment variant of the invention, the multi-beam particle beam system furthermore comprises the following: the first fast autofocus correction lens, which in particular has a one- part embodiment and which, as fast electrostatic lens, is arranged between the upper and the lower pole shoe of the magnetic objective lens; the third fast autofocus correction lens, wherein the third fast autofocus correction lens comprises a fast magnetic lens, in particular an air coil, which is arranged outside around the beam tube in the first particle optical beam path and arranged in a position that is substantially magnetic field-free; the fourth fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises a fast electrostatic lens arranged within a magnetic field of a magnetic lens of the field lens system; and the fifth fast autofocus correction lens, which is arranged at the multiple particle generator; wherein the controller is configured to generate a first autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the first fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point; wherein the controller is configured to generate a third autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the third fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point; wherein the controller is configured to generate a fourth autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the fourth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point; and wherein the controller is configured to generate a fifth autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the fifth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point. Once again, a constraint applying here is that the magnetic field in the object plane takes the value of zero, as can be achieved, for example, by means of the above-described magnetic field compensation lens. Here, it preferably is the case that the focus is set by means of the first fast autofocus correction lens while the rotation is set by means of the third fast autofocus correction lens. The radial landing angle can be set or kept constant by means of the fourth fast autofocus correction lens and the radial position in the object plane can be set or kept constant by means of the fifth fast autofocus correction lens.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the controller is configured to carry out the determination of the autofocus correction lens control signals on the basis of the actual autofocus data using an inverted sensitivity matrix which describes the influence of control changes of particle optical components on particle optical parameters that characterize the particle optical imaging at the respective working point. In respect of details relating to the inverted sensitivity matrix, reference is once again made to the German patent application DE 10 2014 008 383 Al, the disclosure of which is incorporated in this patent application in full by reference.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the controller is configured to determine the autofocus correction lens control signals using multidimensional lookup tables. The multidimensional property of the lookup tables arises from the fact that the multi-heam particle beam system according to the invention can realize a fast autofocus at more than one working point. Values for a specific working point are located in each dimension of the lookup table. In particular, lookup tables can find use if a feedforward loop is implemented in the system for the purposes of determining the autofocus correction lens control signals. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises the following: a hysteresis correction measuring element in the second particle optical beam path in order to generate hysteresis correction measurement data for characterizing the particle optical imaging in the object plane following a low-frequency change in the control of at least one magnetic lens in the first particle optical beam path, in particular following a change in the working distance, with otherwise unchanged settings in the second particle optical beam path, wherein the controller is configured to generate a hysteresis correction control signal on the basis of the hysteresis control measurement data during the wafer inspection in order to correct at least one autofocus correction lens control signal in high-frequency fashion at the respective working point.
This embodiment variant offers the option of implementing additional feedback loops in the multi-beam particle beam system. The autofocus determining element is configured to generate data, in particular measurement data, during the wafer inspection for the purposes of determining actual autofocus data and to undertake a high-frequency adaptation of the focusing on the basis of these data. This means that the parameter to be adapted is improved directly by these data or by measurement values, or is adapted in a feedback loop. No conventional feedback loop is implemented in the system in respect of the other beam parameters, such as, for example, rotation and magnification. Instead, an adaptation of the other beam parameters is also undertaken (a so-called feedforward) on the basis of the data, in particular measurement data, for the focusing, i.e, on the basis of the generated or measured actual autofocus data. This situation is different in the case of the implemented hysteresis correction measuring element: By means of the hysteresis correction measuring element, it is also possible to generate measurement values for other particle optical parameters than the focus and to use these in a feedback loop for high-frequency correction. This correction is particularly expedient in systems where hysteresis occurs. This is the case when conventional magnetic lenses are used. If a feedforward is implemented in respect of the control of other correction lenses instead of an additional feedback, this is implemented under the assumption that the hysteresis in the system has no effect at all on the utilized settings. Should this nevertheless be the case, a setting by means of a feedforward is not optimal in the system. In this case, the implementation of an additional feedback in respect of other beam parameters offers optimization advantages.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the hysteresis correction measuring element comprises a CCD camera in the second particle optical beam path. Such a CCD camera is arranged in the projection path in any case in known multiple particle beam systems. It can now be used to characterize the particle-optical imaging in the object plane. The CCD camera can be the same camera as will still be described below in respect of obtaining projection path measurement data for characterizing the particle optical imaging in the secondary path.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the hysteresis correction control signal realizes a correction of the individual beam parameters of radial position and/or azimuthal position in the object plane. Expressed differently, a correction of the individual beam parameters can be ascertained in respect of the magnification and in respect of the image field rotation. The insights obtained therefrom can be used for generating a feedback signal for controlling autofocus correction lenses. The controlled autofocus correction lenses can be those correction lenses that do not serve exclusively for the correction of the relative focal position. However, it is also possible for the autofocus correction lens that predominantly sets the focus of the system in the object plane to also be controlled.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises the following: at least one fast electrostatic aberration correction means, which is arranged in the particle optical beam path upstream of any fast autofocus correction lens, in particular upstream of each implemented fast autofocus correction lens, and which is set up to keep the path of the individual particle beams through the column constant in highly precise fashion, wherein the controller is configured to generate an aberration correction control signal during the wafer inspection in order to control the one fast aberration correction means or the fast aberration correction means at the respective working point in high-frequency fashion.
The fast electrostatic aberration correction means or the multiplicity of fast electrostatic aberration correction means serve to compensate invariably occurring tolerance aberrations. It is very important that the relative position of the individual particle beams does not change in the column during an autofocus setting; they should experience neither an offset nor a tilt and astigmatism should be prevented as well.
By way of example, the fast electrostatic aberration correction means can be a fast electrostatic deflector or a corresponding deflector arrangement. According to a preferred embodiment, the aberration correction means has an electrode arrangement in the form of an octupole. By means of this octupole, it is possible to correct both a beam offset and a beam tilt and also possibly occurring astigmatism.
Keeping the beam paths constant during their passage through the column 1s very important; in particular, it 1s important that the individual particle beams in the crossover are incident exactly in centric fashion on a scan deflector (octupole) arranged there because only this ensures that the pixel size does not change from left to right during a scan over the image field. If the condition that the crossover is directed at the scan deflector in 100 percent centric fashion is not satisfied, the pixel size changes from left to right over the image field by approximately 0.01 — 0.1 parts per thousand; this value does not appear high but is too large for a high precision application. It can be corrected by means of the above-described measure(s). Further details can be gathered from the German application with the application number 102020209833.6, filed on August 5, 2020, the disclosure of which is incorporated in this patent application in full by reference.
It is particularly preferred for the beam position of the individual particle beams to not change during the passage through the entire column during an autofocus setting. However, it is also already advantageous if the positions of the individual particle beams in the crossover itself and upon entry into the objective lens do not change or are not kept constant in highly precise fashion. To this end, the multiple particle beam system according to the invention comprises a fast electrostatic aberration correction means, wherein the aberration correction means is arranged in the first particle optical beam path upstream of the crossover of the first individual particle beams and is set up to keep the position of the first individual particle beams constant in highly precise fashion for the purposes of forming the crossover and wherein the controller is configured to generate an aberration correction control signal during the wafer inspection in order to control the fast aberration correction means at the respective working point in high- frequency fashion. In this embodiment variant, too, use can be made for example of an electrode arrangement in the form of an octupole as an aberration correction means.
According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the multi-beam particle beam system furthermore comprises the following:
a scanning unit and a beam deflection system between the beam switch and the objective lens, said beam deflection system being configured to raster-scan the wafer surface by way of a scanning movement of the individual particle beams and being able to be controlled by means of the scanning unit; wherein the controller is set up to control the scanning unit by means of a scanning unit control signal during the wafer inspection at the respective working point and to correct the scanning unit control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data at the respective working point in high-frequency fashion. This high frequency correction of the scanning parameters is necessary in order to correct small changes that arise from the adaptation of the overall system during the autofocus setting. Additionally, a slightly changed control of deflectors and/or stigmators can lead to a slight change in the scanning parameters. These scanning parameters include the pixel dimension, the rotation, the skew and the quadraticity. The pixel dimension describes the pixel dimension, the rotation describes the rotation of an X-axis of the image, the skew describes the angle between the X-axis and the Y-axis of the image and the quadraticity specifies whether the pixel size is the same along both axis directions. In practice, these scanning parameters are described by simple 2 x 2 matrices. A correction of the scanning parameters can be implemented dynamically during an autofocus step by means of lookup tables. Accordingly, the scanning parameters of pixel size, rotation, skew and/or quadraticity are corrected in high-frequency fashion by means of lookup tables according to a preferred embodiment of the invention.
The multiple particle beam system described in various embodiments above facilitates a high-frequency correction of the focus in the object plane at a working point and at various working points; however, it additionally also allows other beam parameters, for example the rotation, the position and the landing angle, to be kept constant. This is essential for many applications in the field of multiple particle beam systems. In principle, however, there are also applications where it is not necessary to actually keep all beam parameters constant in the object plane. By way of example, it may be necessary to only keep the focus and the landing angle constant.
Accordingly, according to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the system is set up to undertake a high-frequency correction of the beam parameters of focus and landing angle in the object plane by means of fast autofocus correction means, in particular by means of fast autofocus correction lenses, and to undertake a high-frequency correction of the beam parameters of magnificationand image field rotation in the object plane by means of control of a scanning unit. In this case, the beam parameters not physically corrected in the object plane are preferably corrected purely by computation. This is because there are beam parameters that can be corrected with comparatively little computational effort. By way of example, these include beam positions since a displacement of an image requires comparatively little computational effort and also does not change the data directly. By contrast, correcting the rotation requires much computational effort and, additionally, the data are altered by an interpolation used in the process. By contrast, it is not even possible to correct a landing angle by way of a calculation and a physical correction is expedient or indispensable if the sample to be examined has 3-D structures. According to the invention, only those beam parameters whose numerical correction 1s complicated or impossible are now physically corrected by way of correction means using fast autofocus correction lenses/correction means in this embodiment variant. The result is a hybrid system.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, a change in the image field rotation of the individual particle beams in the object plane is compensated by an adjustment of the rotation by means of the scanning unit and a change of the magnification in the object plane is corrected by an adjustment of the pixel size by means of the scanning unit. Then, it is preferably the case that an image displacement of the individual particle beams in the object plane is corrected purely by computation by means of the controller. To this end, it 1s not necessary to alter the obtained image data itself but only the tags thereof (position of pixel 1). The advantages are enormous because it is possible to dispense with a multiplicity of correction elements/lens elements in the case of such applications. To correct image displacements, generated by charging artifacts of the sample and other distortion effects for example, experience teaches us that this step is required in any case within the scope of multi-beam systems.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the system is then set up to undertake a high-frequency correction of the beam parameters only using those fast correction means arranged downstream of the crossover in the direction of the particle optical beam path. These correction means can be fast autofocus correction lenses and/or fast electrostatic aberration correction means (deflectors and/or stigmators).
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the controller of the multiple particle beam system is furthermore configured for a static or low-frequency adaptation of a focusing in the second particle optical beam path in order, at the respective working point with the associated working distance, to control particle optical components in the second particle optical beam path in such a way that the second individual particle beams, which emanate from the wafer surface situated at the respective working distance, are focused on the detection regions in the third field. By way of example, the particle optical components which can be used for setting the focus and/or further particle optical parameters describing the particle optical imaging in the second particle optical beam path can be a projection lens system. The particle optical components and, in particular, the projection lens system can also comprise a magnetic lens or a plurality of magnetic lenses, the effect(s) of which can be adjusted comparatively slowly by the controller. Other and/or further magnetic and/or electrostatic lenses,
deflectors and/or stigmators can also be controlled by the controller to set the focus and/or other parameters such as the magnification (pitch of the second individual particle beams in the detection plane, position), the rotation and/or the telecentricity at the respective working point with a specified working distance. It is possible for the control of some or all components to be implemented quickly and not slowly (at a low frequency); however, a fast control is not necessary in the secondary path for the basic adjustment at the first working point.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a fast projection path correction means, which may have a multi-part embodiment and which is configured to undertake a high-frequency adaptation of the focus of the second individual particle beams, of the grid arrangement, of landing angles and/or of the contrast of the second individual particle beams upon incidence on the detection regions in the third field. Here, the controller is configured to generate a projection path control signal or a set of projection path control signals on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection at the respective working point in order to control the fast projection path correction means. The set of projection path control signals is generated, in particular, if the projection path correction means has a multi-part embodiment and the components thereof are controlled separately.
In particular, the high-frequency adaptations in the secondary path are necessary if the second individual particle beams, which emanate from the wafer surface, also pass through the fast autofocus correction lens. This is because the latter also has an influence on the trajectory of the second individual particle beams in this case. However, even if the second individual particle beams do not pass through the fast autofocus correction lens, a resetting of the focus and/or other parameters describing the particle optical imaging in the secondary path may be implemented or may become necessary in the secondary path. In the secondary path, it is normally desirable for the second individual particle beams to be incident on the detection regions in focused fashion and with predetermined landing angles, in particular in telecentric fashion, and with a predetermined grid arrangement (pitch of the incidence locations and orientation of the incidence locations in the third field). Therefore, a high-frequency adaptation of fast particle optical components is also advantageous in the secondary path.
The manner of the adaptation can be implemented here substantially analogously to the procedure in the primary path.
Here, too, the particle optical components described above in conjunction with the primary beams, or else other components, can be used to undertake — optionally after an appropriate orthogonalization — fast/high-frequency corrections in the beam profile of the second individual particle beams.
By way of example, a further fast autofocus correction lens can be arranged in the (pure) secondary beam path, i.e, between the beam switch and the detection unit.
By way of example, this can be a fast electrostatic lens or a fast magnetic lens, in particular in the form of an air coil with only a few turns.
By way of example, this second autofocus correction lens can be arranged in the region of a crossover plane in the secondary path.
By way of example, such a crossover plane in the secondary path is arranged in the region of the projection lens system in the secondary path.
However, a different arrangement of the second autofocus correction lens in the secondary path is also possible.
By way of example, the fast telecentricity correction means described in conjunction with the primary path can also be used in the secondary path; in said means, for example, a deflector array is arranged in an intermediate image plane in the secondary path.
It is also possible, as described for the primary path, to use a rotation correction means which, for example in the form of a further deflector array, can be arranged directly upstream or downstream of the deflector array for correcting the telecentricity in the secondary path.
According to the embodiment described, the generation of the projection path control signals is based on the ascertained actual autofocus data for the first particle optical beam path. To this end, work can be carried out using empirical values/lookup tables, for example, which directly or indirectly assign to the actual autofocus data necessary corrections for the focus on the detector and/or for other parameters in the secondary path. The associated control signals/the set of control signals can be stored.
According to a further embodiment of the invention, the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a projection path measuring element for generating projection path measurement data for characterizing the particle optical imaging in the secondary path during the wafer inspection, wherein the multiple particle beam system furthermore has a fast projection path correction means, which may have a multi-part embodiment and which is configured to undertake a high-frequency adaptation of the focus of the second individual particle beams, of the grid arrangement, of landing angles and/or of the contrast of the second individual particle beams upon incidence on the detection regions in the third field, and wherein the controller is configured to generate a projection path control signal or a set of projection path control signals on the basis of the projection path measurement data during the wafer inspection at the respective working point in order to control the fast projection path correction means. Thus, the controller does not or not only use the actual autofocus data for the high-frequency/fast adaptation of the particle optical components in this embodiment variant of the invention; instead, the measurement data in the secondary path are used for the high-frequency adaptation. Fast measurement methods, which supply data for an adaptation "on-the-fly", are already known, in principle, from the prior art. Data for a high-frequency adaptation can be ascertained for example by way of evaluating images of a CCD camera, which are recorded in addition to the scanned images that are obtained by means of the detection regions in the third field. By means of known measuring methods, it is possible, in particular, to determine the current relative focal position, the landing angle and/or the grid arrangement in the third field upon incidence on the detection regions.
There may be a particular requirement on the second particle optical beam path in respect of the topography contrast: It is possible to provide a contrast aperture stop within a crossover plane in the second particle optical beam path.
A ring-shaped stop can be used to filter the interaction products in accordance with their starting angle upon emergence from the wafer.
Then, only those second individual particle beams that have left the wafer surface within a certain angular range can pass through the contrast aperture stop.
The topography contrast can be increased by means of such a contrast aperture stop since the interaction products (e.g., secondary electrons) predominantly emerge at a greater inclination angle relative to the incident particles at edges of the wafer surface.
Further information in respect of contrast settings and in respect of aperture stops can be gathered from DE 10 2015 202 172 B4 and US 2019/0355544 A1, the disclosures of which are each incorporated in this application in full by reference.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, a contrast aperture stop 1s arranged in the second particle optical beam path in a crossover plane, wherein the projection path correction means comprises a fast contrast correction means with at least one electrostatic deflector, at least one electrostatic lens and/or at least one electrostatic stigmator for influencing the particle optical beam path through the contrast aperture stop, and wherein the controller is configured to control the contrast correction means using a contrast correction control signal or a set of contrast correction control signals, in such a way that a contrast of the second individual particle beams is kept substantially constant upon incidence on the detection regions in the third field.
What can be achieved by means of the electrostatic components of the fast contrast correction meansis a high-frequency adaptation and, in particular, a constancy of the contrast. Here, the contrast correction control signal can be determined for example on the basis of the projection path measurement data of the secondary path and/or on the basis of the actual autofocus data of the primary path.
All the aforementioned explanations apply not only to fast autofocusing but also to fast auto-stigmation. By definition, focusing also comprises a stigmation within the scope of this application. In principle, a stigmation can be physically equated to focusing in only one direction or with different focusings in different directions. The number of particle optical parameters describing the particle optical imaging is increased or doubled if a stigmation is taken into account: By way of example, two parameters for the focus and two parameters for the position, two parameters for the landing angle and two parameters for the rotation are required in each case. In this context, reference is also made to fast multi- pole lenses which are described, for example, in the German patent application with application number 10 2020 107 738.6, filed on March 20, 2020, which has not yet been laid open; the disclosure of said patent application is incorporated in the present patent application in full by reference.
According to a second aspect of the invention, the latter relates to a multiple particle beam system for semiconductor inspection, comprising the following: a multi-beam particle generator, which is configured to generate a first field of a multiplicity of charged first individual particle beams; a first particle optical unit with a first particle optical beam path, which is configured to image the generated first individual particle beams onto a wafer surface in the object plane such that the first individual particle beams strike the wafer surface at incidence locations, which form a second field;
a detection system with a multiplicity of detection regions that form a third field; a second particle optical unit with a second particle optical beam path, which is configured to image second individual particle beams, which emanate from the incidence locations in the second field, onto the third field of the detection regions of the detection system; a magnetic and/or electrostatic objective lens, in particular a magnetic and/or electrostatic immersion lens, through which both the first and the second individual particle beams pass; a beam switch, which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the objective lens and which is arranged in the second particle optical beam path between the objective lens and the detection system; a sample stage for holding and/or positioning a wafer during the wafer inspection; an autofocus determining element, which is configured to generate data for determining actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection; a fast autofocus correction lens; and a controller; wherein the controller is configured for static or low-frequency adaptation of a focusing 1n order to control at least the magnetic objective lens and/or an actuator of the sample stage at a first working point with a first working distance, in such a way that the first individual particle beams are focused on the wafer surface situated at the first working distance.
Thus, in this embodiment of the invention the controller is configured to set the focusing for a given first working point which is assigned a first working distance. Thus, it is possible by means of the system to adjust the working point as described and then set the focusing.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the controller is furthermore configured for high-frequency adaptation of the focusing in order to generate an autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data at the first working point during the wafer inspection in order to control the fast autofocus correction lens during the wafer inspection at the first working point.
Otherwise, everything that was defined and/or described in conjunction with the first aspect of the invention also applies to the second aspect of the invention.
According to a third aspect of the invention, the latter relates to a method for operating a multiple particle beam system, in particular a multiple particle beam system as described in conjunction with the first aspect of the invention. All terms and definitions explained or introduced in conjunction with the first aspect of the invention also apply to the method according to the invention. The method for operating a multiple particle beam system includes the following steps: - generating measurement data at a first working point for a current focus on the wafer surface; - determining actual autofocus data on the basis of the measurement data; - determining an autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data; and - controlling a fast autofocus correction lens system with a first fast autofocus correction lens and keeping the focus on the wafer surface constant in high-frequency fashion, wherein the landing angle, the rotation and/or the position of the first individual particle beams upon incidence on the wafer surface are likewise kept constant at the first working point. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the fast autofocus correction lens comprises at least one electrostatic lens and/or consists of exactly one electrostatic lens. What was already stated in conjunction with the multiple particle beam system according to the invention applies in respect of the options for configuring the electrostatic lens and the placements thereof in the beam path.
According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the fast autofocus correction lens comprises at least one fast magnetic lens, in particular an air coil, and/or consists of exactly one magnetic lens.
What was already stated in conjunction with the multiple particle beam system according to the invention applies in respect of the options for configuring the magnetic lens and the placements thereof in the beam path.
To keep the grid arrangement on the wafer surface and the landing angle constant, it is possible — as described above in conjunction with the first aspect of the invention — to use a fast telecentricity correction means and/or a fast rotation correction means and/or a fast position correction means.
The fast telecentricity correction means, the fast rotation correction means and/or the fast position correction means then forms/form the autofocus correction lens system together with the autofocus correction lens with optionally a multi-part embodiment.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the method furthermore includes the following steps: - generating a telecentricity correction control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data; and - controlling the fast telecentricity correction means.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the method furthermore includes the following steps: - generating a rotation correction control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data; and - controlling the fast rotation correction means.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the method furthermore includes the following steps:
generating a second fast autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data and controlling the second fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion; and/or generating a third fast autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data and controlling the third fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion; and/or generating a fourth fast autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data and controlling the fourth fast autofocus correction lens 1n high-frequency fashion; and/or generating a fifth fast autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data and controlling the fifth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion; and / or generating a sixth fast autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data and controlling the sixth fast autofocus correction lens in high- frequency fashion.
The second, third, fourth, fifth and/or sixth fast autofocus correction lens is/are the fast autofocus correction lenses already described in conjunction with the first aspect of the invention.
What was explained in this context also applies without restrictions to the method described in accordance with the third aspect of the invention.
According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the method furthermore includes the following steps: changing a working point, in particular changing the working distance, and generating hysteresis correction measurement data for characterizing the particle optical imaging in the object plane; and correcting the autofocus correction lens control signal or the autofocus correction lens control signals in high-frequency fashion on the basis of the hysteresis correction measurement data.
Depending on what measurement data are available as hysteresis correction measurement data, further feedback loops can be integrated into the workflow for the purposes of controlling further autofocus correction lenses. By way of example, it is possible to generate actual data regarding the magnification and/or regarding the rotation of the individual particle beams in the object plane using a CCD camera arranged in the second particle optical beam path. These data can then be used as actual data for correcting those autofocus correction lenses which correct the corresponding beam parameters in high-frequency fashion. It is not necessary (albeit possible) to also use this additional information for correcting the first autofocus correction lens control signal which is primarily used to correct the focus.
Otherwise, what was already stated in conjunction with the first aspect also applies to this embodiment of the invention. Further details in relation to the generation of measurement data in the second particle optical beam path can be gathered from US 2019/0355544 Al, the disclosure of which is incorporated in this patent application in full by reference.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the method furthermore includes the following steps: generating aberration correction control signals and correcting beam positions in highly precise fashion by means of the aberration correction control signals. Such a highly precise correction can be implemented upstream of each fast autofocus correction lens, in particular. The correction serves to keep the position of the individual particle beams constant to high precision when passing through the column. This also includes keeping the path of the individual particle beams constant when passing through the various lens elements. However, a highly precise correction is expedient upstream of the autofocus correction lenses, in particular. In this way, it is also possible to keep a position of the crossover exactly constant so that, during the scanning procedure, a pixel size in the image field does not practically change (accuracy in the range of 0.01-0.1 per thousand). Otherwise, what was already stated in conjunction with the first aspect of the invention also applies in this respect.
According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the method furthermore includes the following steps: generating scanning unit control signals and correcting the scanning unit control signals in high-frequency fashion at the respective working point, in particular by means of using multidimensional lookup tables.
These method steps take account of the fact that, following an adaptation of the autofocus and a corresponding aberration correction optionally undertaken, the scanning parameters of the scanning unit nevertheless need to be adapted. Otherwise, everything that was already stated in conjunction with the first aspect of the invention also applies in this respect.
According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the method furthermore includes the following steps: correcting image data in purely computational fashion in respect of at least one beam parameter, in particular correcting image data in purely computational fashion in respect of an image displacement. Moreover, it is possible in particular to confront a rotation of the beam parameters by way of a counter rotation of the scanning unit and to compensate a change in the magnification in the object plane by changing the pixel size setting on the scanning unit.
Accordingly, the invention according to a further aspect (fourth aspect) relates to a method for operating a multiple particle beam system for fast autofocus correction at a working point, said method including the following steps: physically setting the focus in the object plane by means of at least one fast autofocus correction lens; physically setting the landing angle in the object plane by means of at least one fast autofocus correction means; setting the image field rotation by means of the scanning unit by quickly setting a counter rotation;
setting the magnification by means of the scanning unit by quickly setting a pixel size; and compensating an image field displacement in purely computational fashion.
Here, this can be a multiple particle beam system as has been described above in a plurality of embodiment variants. The fast autofocus correction means for physically setting the landing angle can be (at least) one fast autofocus correction lens with corresponding properties; however, other embodiment variants are also possible.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the method furthermore includes the following steps: quickly setting the scanning parameter of quadradicity of the scanning unit and/or quickly setting the scanning parameter of skew of the scanning unit. In this case, this step/these steps is/are preferably carried out before the purely computational compensation of the image displacement. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the method furthermore includes the following steps: - orthogonalizing effects of the particle optical components which are used for the correction or corrections of beam parameters. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the method furthermore includes the following steps: - generating projection path measurement data for characterizing the particle optical imaging in the secondary path; - determining a projection path control signal or a set of projection path control signals on the basis of the projection path measurement data; and - controlling a fast projection path correction means, which may have a multi-part embodiment, by means of the projection path control signal or by means of the set of projection path control signals, wherein the focus, the grid arrangement and the landing angle of the second individual particle beams upon incidence in a detection plane are kept constant at the first working point.
Thus, when the focus is kept constant, the relative focal position is updated while the grid arrangement and the landing angle are kept constant.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the method furthermore includes the following step: - controlling a fast contrast correction means by means of a contrast correction control signal or a set of contrast correction control signals and keeping the contrast constant in the detection plane.
By controlling the fast contrast correction means, it is also possible to influence the relative position of the crossover in the secondary path in a targeted fashion, in particular to keep the latter constant.
According to a further aspect of the invention, the latter relates to a computer program product having a program code for carrying out the method as described above in conjunction with the third and fourth aspect of the invention.
The above-described embodiments of the invention in accordance with the above-described aspects of the invention can be combined with one another in full or in part, provided that no technical contradictions arise as a result.
The invention will be understood even better with reference to the accompanying figures. In the figures: Fig. 1 shows a multi-beam particle microscope in a schematic illustration; Fig. 2 shows a schematic illustration of an excerpt of a controller of the multi-beam particle microscope with a fast autofocus correction lens;
Fig. 3 shows a schematic illustration of a larger excerpt of a controller of the multi-beam particle microscope with a fast autofocus correction lens; Fig. 4 schematically shows a method for setting a fast autofocus by means of an autofocus correction lens;
Fig. 5 schematically shows a section through a multi-beam particle microscope in which the autofocus correction lens according to the invention can be arranged;
Fig. 6 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with an autofocus correction lens; Fig. 7 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with an autofocus correction lens; Fig. 8 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with an autofocus correction lens; Fig. 9 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with an autofocus correction lens; Fig. 10 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with an autofocus correction lens; Fig. 11 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with an autofocus correction lens; Fig. 12 schematically illustrates further embodiments of the invention with an autofocus correction lens; Fig. 13 schematically illustrates further embodiments of the invention with an autofocus correction lens; Fig. 14 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with an autofocus correction lens; Fig. 15 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with an autofocus correction lens; Fig. 16 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with an autofocus correction lens;
Fig. 17 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with an autofocus correction lens; Fig. 18 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with a two-part first autofocus correction lens; Fig. 19 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with a fast autofocus correction lens within the magnetic field of a field lens; Fig. 20 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with a fast autofocus correction lens at the multiple particle beam generator; Fig. 21 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with a multiplicity of fast autofocus correction lenses; Fig. 22 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with a multiplicity of fast autofocus correction lenses; Fig. 23 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with a multiplicity of fast autofocus correction lenses; Fig. 24 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with a multiplicity of fast autofocus correction lenses; Fig. 25 shows a schematic illustration of an excerpt of a controller of the multi-beam particle microscope with a multiplicity of fast autofocus correction lenses; Fig. 26 schematically shows a workflow for fast autofocus correction; and Fig. 27 schematically shows a workflow for fast autofocus correction in a multi-beam particle beam system, in which the fast autofocus correction is implemented as a hybrid system.
Below, the same reference signs denote the same features, even if these are not explicitly mentioned in the text.
Figure 11s a schematic illustration of a particle beam system 1 in the form of a multi-beam particle system 1, which uses a multiplicity of particle beams. The particle beam system 1 generates a multiplicity of particle beams which strike an object to be examined in order to generate there interaction products, e.g., secondary electrons, which emanate from the object and are subsequently detected.
The particle beam system 1 is of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) type, which uses a plurality of primary particle beams 3 which are incident on a surface of the object 7 at a plurality of locations 5 and generate there a plurality of electron beam spots, or spots, that are spatially separated from one another.
The object 7 to be examined can be of any desired type, e.g., a semiconductor wafer, in particular a semiconductor wafer with HV structures (i.e., with horizontal and/or vertical structures), or a biological sample, and can comprise an arrangement of miniaturized elements or the like.
The surface of the object 7 is arranged in a first plane 101 (object plane) of an objective lens 102 of an objective lens system 100. The enlarged excerpt I; in figure 1 shows a plan view of the object plane 101 having a regular rectangular field 103 of incidence locations 5 formed in the first plane 101. In figure 1, the number of incidence locations is 25, which form a 5 x 5 field 103. The number 25 of incidence locations is a number chosen for reasons of simplified illustration.
In practice, the number of beams, and hence the number of incidence locations, can be chosen to be significantly greater, such as, for example, 20 x 30, 100 x 100 and the like.
In the embodiment illustrated, the field 103 of incidence locations 5 1s a substantially regular rectangular field having a constant pitch Pi between adjacent incidence locations.
Exemplary values of the pitch Pi are 1 micrometer, 10 micrometers and 40 micrometers.
However, it is also possible for the field 103 to have other symmetries, such as a hexagonal symmetry, for example.
A diameter of the beam spots shaped in the first plane 101 can be small.
Exemplary values of said diameter are 1 nanometer, 5 nanometers, 10 nanometers, 100 nanometers and 200 nanometers.
The focusing of the particle beams 3 for shaping the beam spots 5 is carried out by the objective lens system 100. In this case, the objective lens system can comprise a magnetic immersion lens, for example. The primary particles striking the object generate interaction products, e.g., secondary electrons, back-scattered electrons or primary particles that have experienced a reversal of movement for other reasons, which emanate from the surface of the object 7 or from the first plane 101. The interaction products emanating from the surface of the object 7 are shaped by the objective lens 102 to form secondary particle beams 9. The particle beam system 1 provides a particle beam path 11 for guiding the multiplicity of secondary particle beams 9 to a detector system 200. The detector system 200 comprises a particle optical unit with a projection lens 205 for directing the secondary particle beams 9 at a particle multi-detector
209.
The excerpt Iz in figure 1 shows a plan view of the plane 211, in which individual detection regions of the particle multi-detector 209 on which the secondary particle beams 9 are incident at locations 213 are located. The incidence locations 213 lie in a field 217 with a regular pitch P2 with respect to one another. Exemplary values of the pitch Pz are 10 micrometers, 100 micrometers and 200 micrometers.
The primary particle beams 3 are generated in a beam generation apparatus 300 comprising at least one particle source 301 (e.g., an electron source), at least one collimation lens 303, a multi-aperture arrangement 305 and a field lens 307, or a field lens system made of a plurality of field lenses. The particle source 301 generates at least one diverging particle beam 309, which is collimated or at least substantially collimated by the at least one collimation lens 303 in order to shape a beam 311 which illuminates the multi-aperture arrangement 305.
The excerpt I; in figure 1 shows a plan view of the multi-aperture arrangement 305. The multi-aperture arrangement 305 comprises a multi- aperture plate 313, which has a plurality of openings or apertures 315 formed therein. Midpoints 317 of the openings 315 are arranged in a field 319 that is imaged onto the field 103 formed by the beam spots 5 in the object plane 101. A pitch Ps between the midpoints 317 of the apertures 315 can have exemplary values of 5 micrometers, 100 micrometers and 200 micrometers. The diameters D of the apertures 315 are smaller than the pitch Ps between the midpoints of the apertures. Exemplary values of the diameters D are 0.2 x P3, 0.4 x P3 and 0.8 x Ps.
Particles of the illuminating particle beam 311 pass through the apertures 315 and form particle beams 3. Particles of the illuminating beam 311 which strike the plate 313 are absorbed by the latter and do not contribute to the formation of the particle beams 3.
On account of an applied electrostatic field, the multi-aperture arrangement 305 focuses each of the particle beams 3 in such a way that beam foci 323 are formed in a plane 325. Alternatively, the beam foci 323 can be virtual. A diameter of the beam foci 323 can be, for example, 10 nanometers, 100 nanometers and 1 micrometer.
The field lens 307 and the objective lens 102 provide a first imaging particle optical unit for imaging the plane 325, in which the beam foci 323 are formed, onto the first plane 101 such that a field 103 of incidence locations 5 or beam spots arises there. Should a surface of the object 7 be arranged in the first plane, the beam spots are correspondingly formed on the object surface.
The objective lens 102 and the projection lens arrangement 205 provide a second imaging particle optical unit for imaging the first plane 101 onto the detection plane 211. The objective lens 102 is thus a lens that is part of both the first and the second particle optical unit, while the field lens 307 belongs only to the first particle optical unit and the projection lens 205 belongs only to the second particle optical unit.
A beam switch 400 is arranged in the beam path of the first particle optical unit between the multi-aperture arrangement 305 and the objective lens system 100. The beam switch 400 is also part of the second optical unit in the beam path between the objective lens system 100 and the detector system 200. Further information relating to such multi-beam particle beam systems and components used therein, such as, for instance, particle sources, multi-aperture plate and lenses, can be obtained from the international patent applications WO 2005/024881, WO 2007/028595, WO 2007/028596, WO 2011/124352 and WO 2007/060017 and the German patent applications having the publication numbers DE 10 2013 016 113 Al and DE 10 2013 014 976 A1, the disclosure of which in the full scope thereof is incorporated by reference in the present application.
The multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a computer system 10 configured both for controlling the individual particle optical components of the multiple particle beam system and for evaluating and analyzing the signals obtained by the multi-detector 209. In this case, the computer system 10 can be constructed from a plurality of individual computers or components. It can also control the fast autofocus correction lens according to the invention and the telecentricity correction means and/or the fast rotation correction means and/or further fast correction means (none of which are illustrated in figure 1).
Figure 2 shows a schematic illustration of an excerpt of a controller of the computer system 10 of the multi-beam particle microscope 1 with a fast autofocus correction lens 824. Specifically, the excerpt shows the controller 821 for the fast autofocus. The controller 821 for the fast autofocus is set up to carry out high-frequency adaptations of the focusing at a working point during the wafer inspection. This means that adaptations of the focusing can be carried out very quickly, for example within a few microseconds. In addition to the overarching control system 821 (a part of the computer system 10 in this case), the following further components are provided for these fast adaptations: a measuring element 822, an autofocus algorithm
823 for processing the measurement data, and at least one final controlling element which is set in accordance with the processing of the measurement data. In the specific example, a final controlling element is provided by the autofocus correction lens 824. Additional fast final controlling elements, specifically a telecentricity correction means 825, a fast rotation correction means 826 and a fast position correction means 827 in this case, are likewise provided in this example. In this case, these additional final controlling elements can be formed by further fast autofocus correction lenses; however, they can also be configured differently to fast lenses. The measuring element 822 is configured to generate measurement data for determining actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection. In this case, the actual autofocus data describe the current position of the focus with respect to the wafer surface directly or indirectly. Instead of the autofocus measuring element 822, provision can also be made more generally of an autofocus determining element which generates data for determining actual autofocus data, for example on the basis of a model of a wafer. In principle, autofocus measuring elements are known from the prior art. Examples in this respect are the use of astigmatic auxiliary beams for setting the focus and height measurements at a sample surface (e.g., by means of a z-sensor).
What is important is that the measuring member 822 or measuring members 822 also allow the determination of continuous, i.e., ongoing "on- the-fly" settings of the focus for each image field obtained in each case by means of the multiplicity of individual particle beams. Now — depending on the measuring element 822 and manner of evaluation — the autofocus algorithm 823 is set up to generate actual autofocus data from the measurement data and to generate an autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data in order to control the fast autofocus correction lens 824 in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at a working point. As a result, the relative focal position is adapted. As already explained multiple times, the effects of particle optical components of a multiple particle beam system are normally not orthogonal to one another. This means that a variation of an effect at only one particle optical component normally does not allow only a single parameter characterizing the particle optical imaging to be altered. Instead, the system is more complex and changing a parameter of the particle optical imaging normally requires a variation of effects at a plurality of particle optical components. In the specific case, this means that a readjustment/fine setting of the relative focal position is accompanied by the change in further particle optical parameters. By way of example, these are the magnification (coupled to the beam pitch of the individual particle beams), the telecentricity and the rotation of the individual particle beams upon incidence on the sample or the wafer 7. However, a change in these additional parameters 1s undesired, and so these are also corrected and/or kept constant within the scope of the fast autofocus. Thus, provision is made in exemplary fashion of a telecentricity correction means 825, a rotation correction means 826 and a position correction means 827. The fast telecentricity correction means is configured to substantially contribute to correcting a tangential or radial telecentricity error of the first individual particle beams 3 in the second field 103, and the fast autofocus controller 8211s set up to generate a telecentricity correction means control signal for high-frequency adaptations at the respective working point during the wafer inspection on the basis of the actual autofocus data in order to control the fast telecentricity correction means during the wafer inspection. By way of example, a first deflector array arranged in an intermediate image plane, for example in the intermediate image plane 325, of the first particle optical beam path can be used as telecentricity correction means. However, other embodiment variants are also possible.
To correct the rotation, specifically the unwanted rotation of the grid arrangement in the second field 101, provision is furthermore made of a fast rotation correction means 826, which is configured to substantially contribute to correcting a rotation of the first individual particle beams 3 in the second field 101. Here, the fast autofocus controller 821 is configured to generate a rotation correction means control signal for high-frequency adaptations on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection at the respective working point in order to control the fast rotation correction means 826 during the wafer inspection. By way of example, such a rotation correction means 826 can be realized as a second deflector array, which is arranged, at a distance, directly upstream or downstream of the first deflector array for the telecentricity correction.
However, other embodiments are also possible, for example by means of a multi-lens array which is arranged, at a distance, directly upstream or downstream of the first deflector array and in such a way that the first individual particle beams 3 pass through the multi-lens array in off-axis fashion. Alternatively, the multi-beam particle generator 305 can comprise the fast rotation correction means 826 and the rotation correction means 826 can be actively rotated by the rotation correction means control signal. It is also possible to combine two magnetic field generating devices to one another for weak magnetic fields directed against one another and to use each of the magnetic fields only for a change of the rotation in a certain direction.
Figure 3 shows a schematic illustration of a larger excerpt of a controller of the computer system 10 of the multi-beam particle microscope 1 with a fast autofocus correction lens 824. Control units 810 for the primary path and 830 for the secondary path are illustrated in exemplary fashion. In this case, the controller of the computer system 10 can have further constituent parts to the ones shown in figure 3. In view of the present invention, a few important control elements should be discussed below. The controller 810 in the primary path comprises a controller 811 for setting the working point and the controller 821 for setting the fast autofocus. In this case, in particular, the controller 811 is configured for static or low-
frequency adaptation of a focusing in order to control at least the magnetic objective lens and/or an actuator of the sample stage at a first working point with a first working distance, in such a way that the first individual particle beams are focused on the wafer surface situated at the first working distance. In addition to the focus, other parameters of the particle optical imaging are also set, for example the individual beam spacing (pitch), the magnification connected therewith, a rotation of the grid arrangement of the individual particle beams upon incidence on the wafer surface and the desired landing angle upon incidence on the wafer surface. Thus, the working point setting 811 comprises a slow autofocus and additional correction functions. For the setting itself, provision is made of a measuring element 812, an adjustment algorithm 813 and various final controlling elements 814. These final controlling elements 814 include, in particular, the magnetic and/or electrostatic objective lens 102 and, in the case of a height-adjustable sample stage, optionally an actuator of the sample stage as well. The final controlling elements 814 for setting the working point moreover comprise for example a field lens system 307 and the multi-beam particle generator 305. Further particle optical elements in the first particle optical beam path can act as further final controlling elements 814; they can be magnetic and/or electrostatic lenses. A comparatively long stroke for changing the working distance can be generated by the means for setting the working point; by way of example, said stroke can be +/-300, 200, 100 um. An adaptation time to a selected working distance is comparatively long in this case; by way of example, it can lie in the range of several ten to several hundred milliseconds.
The controller 821 for fast autofocusing comprises the measuring element 822 (or, more generally, the autofocus determining element), an autofocus algorithm 823 and at least the autofocus correction lens 824; however, other correction means may also be provided, for example the above-described telecentricity correction means 825, the rotation correction means 826 and/or the position correction means 827. A high-frequency adaptation of the focus is possible by means of the controller 821 for the fast autofocus, typical adaptation times lie in the region of a few microseconds; by way of example, an adaptation time is TA < 500 us, preferably TA < 100 us and/or TA < 50 us. The stroke for changing the relative focal position is typically several micrometers, for example +/-20 um, +/-15 um and/or +/- pm. In this case, for example, an adaptation time TA for the high- frequency adaptation is shorter than the adaptation time TA for the low- frequency or static adaptation by means of the controller for setting the 10 working point 811 at least by a factor of 10, preferably at least by a factor of 100 and/or 1000.
A change in the relative focal position or the position of the wafer surface may also entail a necessary resetting or readjustment of particle optical components in the secondary path. Accordingly, the controller 830 for controlling the secondary path is part of the controller of the computer system 10. The control elements in the secondary path can also be subdivided into low-frequency or static control elements 831 and high- frequency control elements 841 (corresponding to a second fast autofocus, for example). The slow working point setting is controlled by the controller 831; a measuring element 832, for example a CCD camera, a second adjustment algorithm 833 and a final controlling element 834 or a plurality of final controlling elements 834 are provided to this end. By way of example, these final controlling elements 834 include magnetic projection lenses 205, which are controlled in such a way that the foci of the second individual particle beams 9 are imaged exactly on the surface of the detection regions of the detection unit 209. However, other final controlling elements can also be controlled by means of the controller 831 for setting the working point. The controller 841 controls the fast second autofocus in the secondary path: In this case, refocusing is carried out in the secondary path during the wafer inspection. Also, it is possible that further particle optical parameters such as position, telecentricity and rotation are likewise quickly readjusted. To this end, the controller 841 comprises a measuring element 842, a second autofocus algorithm 843 and fast projection path correction means 844, in particular electrostatic lenses, electrostatic deflectors, and/or electrostatic stigmators, in this embodiment. By way of example, a fast CCD camera 1s considered as measuring element 842, or else, e.g., means for measuring current around a contrast stop arranged in a crossover plane in the secondary path. However, it is also possible to dispense with the measuring element 842 in the secondary path and instead work with a feedforward loop. Then, control signals for the fast projection path correction means 844 are determined by means of the second autofocus algorithm 843 on the basis of values/settings that were determined for the primary path, and the projection path correction means 844 are controlled accordingly. In this case, the autofocus algorithm 843 can comprise lookup tables. It is also possible to combine the two described variants with one another, i.e, additionally use a measuring element 842 and, for example, explicitly redetermine the settings of the final controlling elements/projection path correction means 844 for the secondary path only in the case of certain measured deviations from a reference value.
The controller of the computer system 10 with control elements 810 for controlling the primary path and 830 for controlling the secondary path now is set up, furthermore, in such a way that the controllers 810 and 830 are matched to one another in time, 1.e., synchronized, with their respective constituent parts. The electronics used for the control are likewise very fast but it is necessary to ensure that, for example for each image field (mFOV), settings of the particle optical components in the primary path and also in the secondary path that are as optimal as possible are guaranteed. Details in respect of realizing a fast control of particle optical components/in respect of fast electronics are known to a person skilled in the art and are also disclosed, for example, in the German patent application 102020209833.6,
filed on August 5, 2020, the disclosure of which is incorporated in this patent application in full by reference.
Figure 4 schematically shows a method for setting a fast autofocus by means of an autofocus correction lens 824. It is assumed that a (slow) adjustment of the system at a first working point with an associated first working distance has already been implemented by means of adjusting the magnetic objective lens and/or by means of controlling an actuator for a sample stage; in the process, other parameters have also already been set in accordance with specifications for the working point (magnification, telecentricity, rotation).
In a method step S1, measurement data are generated for a current focus at the selected working point AP. A working point is defined at least by the working distance between the objective lens and the wafer surface; however, further parameters can also be used to define the working point.
Examples thereof include the relative focal position, the position and the telecentricity or the landing angle of individual particle beams 3 on the wafer surface and the rotation of a grid arrangement of individual particle beams 3 upon incidence on the wafer surface. An example is intended to be used below but should not be construed as restrictive for the invention. In a method step S2, actual autofocus data are determined on the basis of measurement data. These measurement data can be obtained using the above-described measuring elements 812 and the actual autofocus data can be determined therefrom by means of the adjustment algorithm 813. Thus, for example, the actual autofocus data specify whether over-focusing or under-focusing is present, or what the magnitude of the same is. However, it is also possible for the measurement data to form the actual autofocus data directly (identity map). After the actual autofocus data have been determined, control signals are generated in steps S3, S4 and S5 on the basis of the actual autofocus data: In step S3, an autofocus correction lens control signal is generated on the basis of the actual autofocus data. In step
S4, a telecentricity correction means control signal is generated on the basis of actual autofocus data. In step S5, a rotation correction means control signal is generated on the basis of the actual autofocus data. In this case, adjusting the autofocus correction lens does not only alter the relative focal position but normally also alters the magnification (position, not illustrated), the telecentricity and/or the rotation of a grid arrangement of the individual particle beams. Within the scope of determining the control signals, an orthogonalization matrix or inverted sensitivity matrix 850 is used in the example shown; from this, it is possible to derive which particle optical components have to be excited differently by what absolute value in order to exactly set a particle optical parameter differently. As a result, there is preferably simultaneous control of the autofocus correction lens in step S6, control of the telecentricity correction means in step S7 and control of the rotation correction means in step S8, and optional control of further fast correction means.
Once these adjustments have been implemented for the primary path, the secondary path is updated in high-frequency fashion: This is feedforward in the example shown, while feedback is implemented in the primary path: Second measurement data for the current second relative autofocus position (detection plane) in the secondary path are generated in a method step S9. In addition or as an alternative thereto, it 1s possible to determine the current relative position of the crossover of the second individual particle beams in the secondary path. Second actual autofocus data for the secondary path are ascertained in method step S10. In addition or as an alternative thereto, values can also be used for the secondary path which were already assigned to the actual autofocus data of the primary path in advance. Projection path correction means control signals are then determined on the basis of the second actual autofocus data in method step S11. Here, this may be a set of control signals. Preferably, a second orthogonalization matrix or second inverted sensitivity matrix 851 for the secondary path is used for the generation of the control signals. Then, fast projection path correction means are controlled in a method step S12 using the control signals. This preferably includes a fast second autofocus correction lens. Moreover, it is possible to control a fast telecentricity correction means (e.g., in the form of a deflector array in an intermediate image plane in the secondary path) and/or a fast rotation correction means (e.g., in the form of a second deflector array directly upstream or downstream of the deflector array for fast telecentricity correction in the secondary path) and/or further fast correction means, for example electrostatic lenses, electrostatic deflectors and/or electrostatic stigmators. It is also possible to control a fast contrast correction means. By way of example, a fast contrast correction means can be integrated in the projection lens system of the secondary path, for example as described in US 2019/0355544 A1, the disclosure of which is incorporated in this application in full by reference. Then, an image field is recorded in method step S13 using the settings of step S12. Then, measurement data for the current focus at the working point can be generated anew (method step S1). A corresponding procedure is carried out until the entire image recording process has been completed.
In one example, the first or second orthogonalization or inverted sensitivity matrix 850, 851 may depend on the working point setting according to the adjustment using the controllers 811 and 831. By way of example, a necessary dynamic correction for a tangential or radial telecentricity error parallel to a fine correction of a focus plane may depend on a few pm of the working point or the coarse focus setting within the long- range focal range of several 100 pm. In this case, the orthogonalization or inverted sensitivity matrices 850, 851 for a selected working point are chosen from a memory in which a plurality of orthogonalization or inverted sensitivity matrices 850, 851 are stored for different focus setting within the long-range focal range.
Figure 5 schematically shows a section through a multi-heam particle microscope 1 in which the autofocus correction lens 824 according to the invention can be arranged. The multiple particle beam system 1 initially comprises a particle source 301. In the shown example, this particle source 301 emits an individual particle beam with charged particles, e.g., electrons. In figure 5, particle beams or a particle optical beam path are illustrated schematically by the dashed line with reference sign 3. The individual particle beam initially passes through a condenser lens system 303 and subsequently strikes a multi-aperture arrangement 305. This multi- aperture arrangement 305, possibly with further particle optical components, serves as a multi-beam generator. The first particle beams emanating from the multi-aperture arrangement 305 then pass through a field lens or a field lens system 307 and subsequently enter a beam switch
400. This beam switch 400 comprises a beam tube arrangement 460, which has a Y-shaped embodiment and three limbs 461, 462 and 463 in the example shown. Here, in addition to two flat, interconnected structures for holding the magnetic sectors 410, 420, the beam switch 400 includes the magnetic sectors 410 and 420 which are contained in, or secured to, said structures. After passing through the beam switch 400, the first particle beams pass through a scan deflector 500 and, thereupon, a particle optical objective lens 102, before the first particle beams 3 are incident on an object 7, in this case a semiconductor wafer with HV structures. As a result of this incidence, secondary particles, e.g., secondary electrons, are released from the object 7. These secondary particles form second particle beams, which have assigned a second particle optical beam path 9. After emerging from the object 7, the second particle beams initially pass through the particle optical objective lens 102 and subsequently pass through the scan deflectors 500, before said second particle beams enter the beam switch 400. Subsequently, the second particle beams 9 emerge from the beam switch 400, pass through a projection lens system 205 (illustrated in much simplified fashion), pass through an electrostatic element 260 and then are incident on a particle optical detection unit 209 (in this case, the reference sign 260 denotes the so-called anti-scan, which compensates the otherwise occurring scanning movement of the secondary beams 9 upon incidence on the detection unit 209).
Situated within the beam switch 400, there is the beam tube arrangement 460, which also extends beyond the beam switch 400 in the example shown. Splitting the beam path within the beam switch 400 into the first particle optical beam path 3 and the second particle optical beam path 9 is implemented within the beam switch 400 with the aid of magnetic sectors 410, 420. In the example illustrated in figure 5, the beam tube arrangement 460 also continues outside of the beam switch 400. In this case, it extends, in particular, to the particle optical objective lens 102 or into the particle optical objective lens 102 (beam tube extension). The beam tube arrangement 460 expands into vacuum chambers 350, 355 and 250 in the region of the particle source 301, in the region of the multi-aperture arrangement 305, and in the region of the detector unit 209. At least in the region of the beam switch 400, the beam tube arrangement normally has a one-piece embodiment, i.e, it has neither weld points or weld seams nor solder points or solder seams. The beam tube arrangement contains copper in the shown example; however, it could also include titanium or any other element or any other compound. Here, there is a high vacuum in the region of the beam tube arrangement 460 within the beam switch 400, preferably with a pressure of less than 105 mbar, in particular less than 107 mbar and/or 10-Y mbar. In the chambers 350, 355 and 250, already mentioned, there is a vacuum, preferably with respective pressures of less than 10 mbar, in particular less than 10-7 mbar and/or 10° mbar.
In the example shown, the objective lens 102 has an upper pole shoe 108 and a lower pole shoe 109. A winding 110 for generating a magnetic field is situated between the two pole shoes 108 and 109. Here, the upper pole shoe 108 and the lower pole shoe 109 can be electrically insulated from one another. In the example shown, the particle optical objective lens 102 1s a single magnetic lens in the form of an immersion lens; however, the objective lens or the objective lens system can also comprise further magnetic lenses or electrostatic lenses.
Now, the fast autofocus correction lens 824 according to the invention can be integrated, in a plurality of configurations and at a plurality of positions, optionally with further fast correctors, in the multi-beam particle microscope 1 shown in figure 5. Depending on the position, the fast autofocus correction lens 824 acts more or less strongly on the focus of the individual particle beams 3 in this case; however, it may also act on other particle optical parameters such as the position, the landing angle and/or the rotation of the individual particle beams 3. Additionally, a second or an additional or a plurality of further autofocus correction lens(es) can be integrated in the primary path and/or in the secondary path; optionally, further fast correction means can be provided in the primary path and/or in the secondary path.
Figure 6 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with a fast autofocus correction lens 824. In this embodiment, the autofocus correction lens 824 is provided in the form of an additional electrode. By way of example, it can be embodied as a single aperture plate with a central opening, to which a voltage Uar 1s applied. Level and the sign of the voltage can be provided in this case by means of the controller 821 for the fast autofocus. This exemplary embodiment is advantageous in that the autofocus correction lens, as penultimate lens, is realized comparatively far down in the beam path. As a result, only small subsequent aberrations are generated. The greater the voltage Uar is in terms of absolute value, the more difficult it is to realize fast changes in the voltage from a technical point of view. The exemplary embodiment shown is therefore particularly well suitable if the sample voltage Usample applied to the sample 7 1s not too high. Figure 7 schematically illustrates a further embodiment of the invention with an autofocus correction lens 824. In the example shown, the autofocus correction lens 824 is arranged within the magnetic objective lens
102. Here, the autofocus correction lens 824 is situated between the upper pole shoe 108 and the lower pole shoe 109 of the objective lens 102. In this case, a voltage U; is applied to the upper pole shoe 108 and a voltage Us 1s applied to the lower pole shoe 109. These voltages can be comparatively high and are a few kilovolts, for example. The same can also apply to the voltage Uar that is able to be applied to the autofocus correction lens 824. In this case, too, the autofocus correction lens 824 can therefore be operated at a comparatively high voltage Uar. However, if the upper pole shoe 108 is at ground potential, the voltage Uar can be chosen to be comparatively small in terms of absolute value. In this embodiment, too, the autofocus correction lens 824 is arranged comparatively far down in the first particle optical beam path; it is the penultimate particle optical element in the example shown. This 1s once again advantageous in that possible subsequent aberrations are also small in this embodiment variant.
Figure 8 shows a further embodiment of the invention with a fast autofocus correction lens 824 in a schematic illustration. In this embodiment variant, the autofocus correction lens 824 is provided between the beam deflection system 500 and the upper pole shoe 108 of the magnetic objective lens 102. This is a quickly controllable electrode, to which the voltage Uar 1s applied, the value of the latter being adjustable by means of the controller 821 of the fast autofocus. This embodiment variant is advantageous in that the electrode 824 is substantially arranged within the crossover plane. Comprehensive calculations of the inventors in this respect have shown that the influence of the electrode 824 at this position is substantially directed at the focus. The other particle optical parameters such as position, landing angle and rotation remain substantially unchanged. Moreover, this embodiment is advantageous in that the effect in the crossover on all individual particle beams is identical. This makes it easier to precisely set the autofocus.
Figure 9 schematically illustrates a further embodiment of the invention with autofocus correction lens 824. In this case, too, the autofocus correction lens 824 is embodied as a fast electrostatic element or as a fast electrostatic lens. Starting from the upper pole shoe 108 of the objective lens 101, the beam tube extension 464 protrudes a little into the magnetic objective lens 101. This beam tube extension 464 is at ground potential — like the entire beam tube 460. Here, the autofocus correction lens 824 is arranged within the beam tube extension 464. An adjustable voltage Uar 1s applied, in turn, to the former by way of the controller 821. It can be comparatively low. In this case, the illustrated position of the autofocus correction lens 824 is situated close to the crossover plane. Comprehensive calculations have shown that positioning the autofocus correction lens 824 at the crossover or in the vicinity of the crossover acts predominantly on the focus of the individual particle beams. Therefore, adaptations of further particle optical parameters such as position, landing angle and rotation are either not mandatory or, at least, smaller. This allows a faster readjustment of the remaining parameters or the correction elements can have a weaker design. This generates smaller subsequent aberrations.
Figure 10 schematically illustrates a further embodiment of the invention with a fast autofocus correction lens 824. In the exemplary embodiment shown, the autofocus correction lens 824 is provided as an offset for the scan deflector 500: In the illustrated example, the scan deflector 500 comprises an upper deflector 500a and a lower deflector 500b. Here, in principle, the upper deflector 500a and the lower deflector 500b can have the same design. By way of example, they can be embodied as a deflector plate pair, as a quadrupole element or as an octupole element. The voltage Uur is now applied to both the upper deflector 500a and the lower deflector 500b as an offset. Once again, the corresponding control signal is provided by means of the controller 821 for the fast autofocus. This embodiment variant is advantageous in that the fast autofocus correction lens 8241s once again arranged close to the crossover of the individual particle beams 3. In this case, too, an excitation of the autofocus correction lens 824 therefore acts substantially on the focus. Moreover, this realization does not require additional hardware: It 1s only necessary to apply the voltage Uar as an offset to the upper deflector 5004 and the lower deflector 500Db.
Figure 11 shows a further embodiment of the invention with a fast electrostatic autofocus correction lens 824. In this embodiment, the fast autofocus correction lens 824 is provided as a ring electrode between the upper deflector 5004 and the lower deflector 500b. In this case, it is also true that the autofocus correction lens 824 is arranged relatively close to the crossover of the individual particle beams 3. Therefore, the lens 824 mainly acts on the focus of the individual particle beams. Moreover, changes to the hardware of the system 1 can be carried out comparatively easily. Instead of as a ring electrode, the fast autofocus correction lens 824 can also be embodied as an air coil around the beam tube 861 (not illustrated in figure 11).
Figure 12 shows further embodiments of the invention with a fast autofocus correction lens 824 in a schematic illustration. In these embodiments, the beam tube 460 is interrupted at the sites at which the autofocus correction lens 824 is provided. In the overall system 1, these positions offer comparatively large amounts of space, simplifying an integration of the autofocus correction lens 824 in the system overall. Specifically, three different positions at which the autofocus correction lens 824 can be arranged are illustrated in figure 12: According to a first example, the autofocus correction lens 824a is situated above the beam switch 400 or above the magnetic sector 410 in the particle optical beam path. Expressed differently, the interruption of the beam tube 460, in which the autofocus correction lens 824a is arranged, is situated between the field lens system 307 (not illustrated in figure 12) and the beam switch 400. A second option lies in providing the interruption of the beam tube 460 between the two magnetic sectors 410 and 420 and arranging the autofocus correction lens 824b in this interruption. A third option lies in arranging the beam tube 460 between the beam switch 400 and the beam deflection system 500. Part of the inner wall of the beam tube 460 is therefore replaced by the autofocus correction lens 824a, 824b and/or 824c in these embodiment variants or is not — like the beam tube 460 — at ground potential.
Figure 13 shows further embodiments of the invention with fast autofocus correction lenses 824. The example illustrated in figure 13 differs from the example illustrated in figure 12 in that no interruption of the beam tube 460 1s provided. Instead, a tube lens 824a, 824b and 824c 1s integrated in the beam tube 460 in each case. This makes it easier to design the beam tube 460 in sealed fashion and to maintain the vacuum or high vacuum situated therein. In the case of the realization variant with the tube lenses, the voltage Uar is applied to the central electrode; the upper and the lower electrode are preferably at ground potential. Alternatively, a fast magnetic lens, for example in the form of an air coil, can be arranged around the beam tube 460 at the sites shown. The latter only has a few turns k, for example 10 <k < 500 and/or 10 <k < 200 and/or 10 <k < 50 applies.
Figure 14 shows a further embodiment of the invention with a fast autofocus correction lens 824, wherein the beam tube 460 is interrupted. The autofocus correction lens 824 is arranged within this interruption. Here, this interruption is situated within a magnetic field lens of the field lens system 307. This embodiment variant can be realized comparatively easily on account of the available installation space. Moreover, the beam tube 460 1s at ground potential, which 1s why only a comparatively low voltage, as voltage Uar, needs to be applied to the autofocus correction lens 824 in order to influence the individual particle beams 3. However, in this embodiment the autofocus correction lens acts both on the focus and on the position and the landing angle of the individual particle beams upon incidence on the wafer surface. Conversely, it is possible to use a position within the field lens 307 to correct a tilt of the beams and also the position of the beams.
Figure 15 shows a further embodiment of the invention with a fast autofocus correction lens 824. In comparison with the embodiment variant illustrated in figure 14, it is the case here that the beam tube 460 does not have an interruption. Instead, a tube lens as a fast autofocus correction lens 824 is arranged within the beam tube 460. In this embodiment variant, too, a realization is comparatively simple if sufficient installation space is available. Conversely, it is once again the case that the autofocus correction lens 824 also acts on the position and the landing angle of the individual particle beams 3 in addition to the focus. It is therefore optionally advantageous to (also) correct the tilt of the individual particle beams and/or the position of the individual particle beams by way of the autofocus correction lens.
Figure 16 shows a further embodiment of the invention with a fast autofocus correction lens 824 in a schematic illustration. In this exemplary embodiment, the autofocus correction lens 824 is arranged in the vicinity of the intermediate image plane 325: Here, the autofocus correction lens 824 in this example is embodied as a combined lens with a first constituent part 824a and a second constituent part 824b. If these two constituent parts 824a and 824b are provided symmetrically with respect to the intermediate image plane 325, the effect of the combination is the same as if the autofocus correction lens 824 were arranged directly within the intermediate image plane 325. The advantage of this embodiment variant is that further particle optical components of the overall system 1 can be arranged in the intermediate image plane 325 itself. By way of example, positioning in the intermediate image plane 325 is expedient for a first multi-deflector array since this can implement a fast telecentricity correction for the first individual particle beams, as described above in the general part of the application. However, the autofocus correction lens 824 can alternatively also be embodied in one-part fashion (i.e, only with the constituent part 824a or only with the constituent part 824b in the vicinity of the intermediate image plane 325. In a further alternative, the autofocus correction lens 824 can be arranged in one-part fashion (i.e, only with the constituent part 824a or only with the constituent part 824b as exactly within the intermediate image plane 325 as possible. Then, the autofocus correction lens 824 has a comparatively large effect on the telecentricity of the individual particle beams 3 passing therethrough, like in the case of the symmetric arrangement of the constituent parts 824a and 824b.
Figure 17 shows a further embodiment of the invention with a fast autofocus correction lens 824. In this embodiment, the fast autofocus correction lens 824 is integrated in the multi-aperture arrangement 305. In addition to a multi-aperture plate 313, which is used to generate individual beams, this multi-aperture arrangement 305 comprises further multi- aperture plates or multi-lens arrays and/or multi-deflector arrays (e.g., for individual focusing and/or stigmation of the individual particle beams; not illustrated in figure 17). In this sequence of the so-called micro-optical unit, the fast autofocus correction lens 824 can be provided in the form of a fast multi-Einzel lens arrangement. In this case, the multi-aperture plate 824a and the multi-aperture plate 824c are at ground potential. Situated therebetween is the multi-aperture plate 824b, to which the autofocus correction voltage Uar can be applied by means of the controller 821. An advantage of this embodiment of the invention is that, in principle, no change in the position and no tilt of the individual particle beams is caused;
however, spherical aberrations in the autofocus correction lens 824 in the form of a multi-Einzel lens arrangement and manufacturing tolerances in the multi-aperture plate may be critical. Additionally, a comparatively high voltage must currently be used as voltage Uar.
Figure 18 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with a two-part first autofocus correction lens 901. Here, this first fast autofocus correction lens 901 is arranged between the upper pole shoe 108 and the lower pole shoe 109 of the objective lens 102. Specifically, the two- part first fast autofocus correction lens 901 is integrated in the beam tube extension 464. The beam tube extension 464 is at ground potential — like the entire beam tube 460. The two parts 824a and 824b are each embodied as fast electrostatic lenses. By way of example, they can be arranged in interruptions in the beam tube extension 464 but can also be provided as tube lens within the beam tube extension 464 in each case. In this respect, figure 18 is only a schematic illustration. In the example shown, the two parts 824a and 824b of the first fast autofocus correction lens 901 fulfill different tasks: In the example shown, the first part 824a substantially serves to set the focus upon incidence on the object 7, consequently in the object plane, in high-frequency fashion. An electrostatic lens normally does not act on the azimuthal beam parameters of the individual particle beams 3 passing therethrough. However, if the electrostatic lens, in this case the lens 824a, is in a magnetic field — in this case within the magnetic objective lens 102 with its two pole shoes 108 and 109 — then the charged particles within the inhomogeneous magnetic field experience a change in velocity, which is why the azimuthal beam parameters change within the lens field. The second part 824b of the first fast autofocus correction lens 901 substantially serves to compensate this unwanted effect. In principle, the lens 824b also has a focusing effect on the individual particle beams 3 passing therethrough. However, a compensation of the azimuthal deviations can substantially be attained in the case of a different polarity of the two parts 824a and 824b. Here, it 1s not necessarily the case that the voltages applied to the two parts 824a and 824b are of equal magnitude but opposite sign, although this may be so. What needs to be taken into account here is that the magnetic field of the objective lens is not homogeneous. Overall, the two parts 824a and 824b of the first fast autofocus correction lens 901 are set such that the integral [| B(z)/v(z) dz disappears upon passage through the objective lens 102. This corresponds to the compensation of the unwanted azimuthal effects but facilitates the adjustment of a focus in the case of a fast readjustment in the object plane 101.
Figure 19 schematically illustrates a further embodiment of the invention with a fast autofocus correction lens 902 within the magnetic field of a field lens 307. This field lens 307 can be one of a plurality of field lenses of a field lens system. The embodiment variant illustrated in this figure can be combined, in particular, with a merely one-part first fast autofocus correction lens 824a or 901, which 1s arranged between the upper 108 and lower pole shoe 109 of the objective lens 102. The basic idea is as follows: As already explained above in conjunction with figure 18, a corresponding counter rotation is required to correct undesirably occurring changes in azimuthal beam parameters in the magnetic field. While the counter rotation in the exemplary embodiment as per figure 18 is realized by the second lens part 824b within the same magnetic lens, the embodiment variant illustrated in figure 19 realizes this counter rotation by the provision of the second fast autofocus correction lens 902 in a different magnetic lens. In the example shown, the beam tube 460 was interrupted to this end and the second fast electrostatic autofocus correction lens 902 is arranged within this interruption. In the example shown, the second fast autofocus correction lens 902 is controlled in high frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point such that there is a high-frequency correction of the image field rotation. In practice, it was found that work should be carried out at comparatively high voltages in the region of a few kV, for example approximately 5 kV, in this embodiment of the invention. This is comparatively high for fast adaptation of voltages; however, a correction in this high-voltage region can also be carried out quickly by way of appropriate engineering.
Figure 20 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with a fifth fast autofocus correction lens 905 on the multi-beam particle generator. In the exemplary embodiment shown, the multi-beam particle generator comprises a multi-lens array with a multi-aperture arrangement 305 and a counter electrode 306. Overall, the voltage applied to the counter electrode 306 brings about the lens effect of the multi-beam particle generator and, depending on the level of the voltage, the individual particle beams 3 are focused on different locations when passing through the multi- beam particle generator. Here, the effect on the relative position of the focal plane in the Z-direction is significantly smaller than the effect on the magnification or the pitch of the individual particle beams 3 within the focal plane or intermediate image plane 325 (not illustrated in figure 20). If there is now a change in the voltage at the multi-beam particle generator, this allows the magnification of the imaging in the object plane 101 to be set. In this case, the fifth fast autofocus correction lens 905 can be realized as an offset voltage, which is able to be applied to the counter electrode 306. However, it is now the case that a voltage in the region of a plurality of kV is usually applied to the counter electrode 306. Implementing fast changes in this case is linked with corresponding engineering difficulties even though it is possible. Figure 20 therefore shows another realization, specifically using an additional fifth fast autofocus correction lens 905. This fifth fast autofocus correction lens 905 is realized as an additional electrode which is arranged between the multi-aperture arrangement 305 and the counter electrode 306. Alternatively, such an additional electrode could be arranged just downstream of the counter electrode 306.
Figure 21 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with a multiplicity of fast autofocus correction lenses 901, 903, 904, 905 and
906. By means of the fast autofocus correction lenses 901, 903, 904, 905 and 906, it is possible to set different beam parameters or keep these constant within the scope of fast autofocusing at a respective working point or at a plurality of working points. Here, the various fast autofocus correction lenses 901, 903, 904, 905 and 906 have different (principal) tasks in respect of the high-frequency corrections to be undertaken. In the example shown, a one-part first fast autofocus correction lens 824 or 901 is arranged between the upper pole shoe 108 and the lower pole shoe 109 of the objective lens 102, wherein the controller is configured to generate a first autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the first fast autofocus correction lens 901 in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point. It is predominantly the autofocus correction itself that is undertaken with this lens 901; the remaining fast autofocus correction lenses 903, 904, 905, 906 can serve to correct the remaining beam parameters at the respective working point, with the control thereof being based on a feedback loop and/or a feedforward loop. Here, too, the actual autofocus data can be used within the scope of the feedforward loop and the values for the autofocus correction lens control signals of the fast autofocus correction lenses 903, 904, 905 and 906 are generated on the basis of these actual autofocus data by means of multidimensional lookup tables. However, it is also possible to use additional actual data for correction purposes, which actual data can be generated, for example, by evaluating an image of a CCD camera in the second particle optical beam path (not illustrated) Gmplementing a further feedback) or by a z-level sensor, which measures the distance of the sample surface from the lowermost pole shoe of the objective lens.
In the exemplary embodiment shown, a fifth fast autofocus correction lens 905 is situated in the region of the multi-beam particle generator, as has also already been illustrated in conjunction with figure 20. A two-part fast electrostatic autofocus correction lens 906 is situated in the region of the intermediate image plane 325. Its constituent parts are symmetrically arranged upstream and downstream of the intermediate image plane 325, which is why this lens 906 can be treated as if it were arranged entirely within the intermediate image plane 325. In the example shown, this lens 906 can be provided with a positive or negative bias, for example with a negative bias of a few 100 V, for example -200 V, -300 V, -400 V or the like. Moreover, the example shown illustrates a third fast autofocus correction lens 903 which, in the example shown, comprises a fast magnetic lens in the form of an air coil, which is arranged outside around the beam tube 460 in the first particle optical beam path at a position that is substantially magnetic field-free. This condition is satisfied just after the passage through the intermediate image plane 325; however, it may also be satisfied at other positions in the particle optical beam path. By way of example, the third fast autofocus correction lens 903 can realize a high-frequency correction of the azimuthal position of the individual particle beams, and hence a correction of the image field rotation in the object plane.
In the example shown, a fourth fast autofocus correction lens 904, which is a fast electrostatic lens, is furthermore arranged within a magnetic field lens 307. Substantially a high-frequency correction of the radial landing angle of the individual particle beams in the object plane 101 can be implemented by means of this fourth fast autofocus correction lens 904. However, it would also be possible to carry out substantially a high- frequency correction of the image field rotation in the object plane 101 by means of the corresponding lens 904 like in the case of the second fast autofocus correction lens 902.
In addition to the aforementioned fast autofocus correction lenses 901, 903, 904, 905 and 906, a magnetic field compensation lens 120 comprising a magnetic lens is provided in the example shown, wherein the magnetic field compensation lens 120 is arranged between the objective lens 102 and the object plane 101 or the object 7. In the example shown, the controller 10 is configured to control the magnetic field compensation lens 120 with a magnetic field compensation control signal in static or low- frequency fashion, in such a way that the magnetic field in the object plane 101 or upon incidence on the object 7 takes the value of zero.
In the example shown, the magnetic field compensation lens 120 is coupled to the objective lens 102. The two windings 110 and 121 are impinged with technical currents of different signs such that the arising magnetic flux through the lower pole shoe 109 of the objective lens 102 is directed in the same way in both cases.
It can therefore be controlled by means of an appropriate control.
Further information in respect of the design of a magnetic field compensation lens 120 can be gathered for example from WO 2007/060017 A2, the disclosure of which is incorporated in the present patent application in full by reference.
The magnetic field compensation lens 120 is controlled in a static or low-frequency fashion by means of the controller.
This means that a setting of the azimuthal landing angle in the object plane is not re- corrected in high-frequency fashion.
However, it was found that the static or low-frequency control of the magnetic field compensation lens 120 is absolutely sufficient: The remaining error in respect of the azimuthal landing angle is significantly smaller in percentage terms than the error of the radial landing angle following a high-frequency correction.
By way of example, it can be corrected by means of the fourth fast autofocus correction lens 904, which is arranged in the field lens 307. In very general terms, it is the case that the effect of additional fast autofocus correction lenses on the beam parameters of focus, beam position and the telecentricity depends on their respective position within the column.
Here, the inventors found out that there are substantially three different positions which exhibit different effects: There is predominantly an effect on the focus near the crossover.
There is predominantly an effect on the telecentricity near an intermediate image plane.
There is predominantly an effect on the magnification near the micro-optical unit or just below the micro-optical unit.
At every other position the electrostatic lenses bring about a mixture of effects on the respective beam parameters.
Now, the inventors examined the sensitivity of the additional fast autofocus correction lenses 901, 903, 904, 905, 906, illustrated in figure 21, on the beam parameters of focus, beam position and telecentricity in a paraxial approximation.
In principle, only five additional elements are required to set the focus, the azimuthal and radial position, and the azimuthal and radial telecentricity.
However, the inventors carried out their examinations for more than five additional elements and in each case examined the necessary lens excitations for lenses at a focus of several ten um, whereas the other beam parameters were kept constant.
In total, more than 20 combinations of elements and different strategies were examined.
More in-depth information in respect of the possible arrangement of particle optical components in the beam path and the control thereof can be gathered, for example, from US 2019/0355545 Al, the disclosure of which is incorporated in this patent application in full by reference.
To ascertain the control of the fast autofocus correction lenses, use was made of an inverted sensitivity matrix which describes the influence of actuation changes of particle optical components on particle optical parameters which characterize the particle optical imaging at the respective working point.
Here, solutions in which the column vectors of the sensitivity matrix are significantly dominated by one entry in each column are sought after in a targeted fashion.
Here, it was found that there are no dominant entries in the column vectors for some fast autofocus correction lenses, which is why the sensitivity of these autofocus correction lenses is very low during the desired optimization at this point.
It was a surprise to find that the solution space is very small in the multiplicity of possible solutions.
Two particularly advantageous solutions could be ascertained.
One of these solutions is illustrated in figure 22. Figure 22 schematically illustrates an embodiment of the invention with a multiplicity of fast autofocus correction lenses 901, 903, 904 and 905. The fast autofocus correction lens 906 in the region of the intermediate image plane 325 is not required in this solution.
The first fast autofocus correction lens 901 or 824 is provided in one part between the upper pole shoe 108 and the lower pole shoe 109. The fast magnetic lens 903 in the form of an air coil is mandatory in this solution.
Moreover, a constraint to be satisfied 1s that the magnetic field compensation coil 120 draws the magnetic field on the sample 7 to zero.
In the combination shown in figure 21, the fast autofocus correction lens 905 substantially sets the magnification.
There substantially is a correction of the image field rotation by means of the third fast autofocus correction lens 903. There substantially is the correction of the radial landing angle by means of the fourth fast autofocus correction lens 904. The azimuthal landing angle is not explicitly adapted; however, its accuracy is sufficiently high and explicitly better than the accuracy that can be obtained for the radial landing angle, even in the case of a high-frequency correction.
Figure 23 schematically shows a further embodiment of the invention with a multiplicity of fast autofocus correction lenses 901, 904, 905 and 906. In the example shown, the first fast autofocus correction lens 901 has a two- part embodiment with the constituent parts 901a and 901b.
In return, the third fast autofocus correction lens 903, which was embodied in the form of a fast magnetic lens in figures 21 and 22, has been dispensed with.
Especially distinguished solutions were also sought after for the setup shown in figure 23 using the aforementioned sensitivity matrix. In this case, the solution space is also very small.
A particularly distinguished solution is illustrated in figure 24. It was found that the sixth fast autofocus correction lens 906 in the region of the intermediate image plane 325 does not supply a substantial contribution to the solution for this setup. Therefore, its implementation can also be dispensed with — as illustrated in figure 24. In the example shown, the focusing is substantially set by the first part 901a and the second part 901b of the first fast autofocus correction lens 901. The azimuthal position is substantially corrected by the second part 901b of the first fast autofocus correction lens 901, as described above in the general part of the patent application. The fifth fast autofocus correction lens 905 substantially facilitates an adjustment of the radial image position (adjustment of the enlargement). The fourth fast autofocus correction lens substantially corrects the radial landing angle. Like in the example illustrated in figure 22, there is no high-frequency correction of the azimuthal landing angle either; instead, the azimuthal landing angle is already set precise enough or set to zero once or in static fashion and/or in low-frequency fashion by means of the magnetic field compensation lens 122.
It should be emphasized that the particularly suitable solutions of the arrangements illustrated in figures 22 and 24 supply adjustment options for the autofocus not only at a single working point but at the multiplicity of working points that come into question. Moreover, it is possible here to likewise re-correct the remainmg beam parameters, or keep these constant, facilitating a multiplicity of interesting application options for the multiple particle beam system according to the invention.
Figure 25 shows a schematic illustration of an excerpt of a controller of the multi-beam particle microscope with a multiplicity of fast autofocus correction lenses. In this case, the controller 821 of the fast autofocus, which is integrated in the controller 10 or the computer system 10, comprises various final controlling elements in addition to the measuring element or the autofocus determining element 822 and the autofocus algorithm 823. In the example shown, these final controlling elements are realized by the first fast autofocus correction lens 901 or 824 and by the further fast autofocus correction lenses 902, 903, 904, 905 and 906 and optionally by further fast autofocus correction lenses. The controller of the fast autofocus 821 illustrated in figure 25 can be integrated in analogous fashion in the overall controller 10, as has already been illustrated in figure 3. Therefore, reference is made to figures 2 and 3 above in respect of further details.
Figure 26 schematically illustrates a workflow for fast autofocus correction, which has further high precision adjustment options. In a first step S20, the autofocus correction lenses are adjusted, for example, on the basis of feedback and/or feedforward loops. This was already described in detail above in conjunction with the fast autofocus correction lenses 901 to
906.
Aberration correction means can be set in a further step S21. These can be deflectors and/or stigmators, which are arranged in the first particle optical beam path, for example. By way of example, it is possible to arrange a fast electrostatic aberration correction means upstream of each implemented fast autofocus correction lens 901, 902, 903, 904, 905, 906. This serves to keep the path of the individual particle beams constant to high precision when passing through the column. The fast aberration correction means are controlled by means of the controller 10 already described above, to be precise in high-frequency fashion and preferably with use of multidimensional lookup tables for each working point. By way of example, the aberration correction means can be realized in the form of an octupole which can be equally used as a deflector and/or else as a stigmator.
The scanning parameters are updated in a further method step S22. The required scanning parameters may change slightly within the scope of the high-frequency correction of the autofocus and the other beam parameters. By way of example, these scanning parameters include pixel size, rotation, skew and/or quadradicity. Once again, these scanning parameters can be corrected for each working point in high-frequency fashion by means of lookup tables.
Figure 27 schematically shows a workflow for fast autofocus correction in a multi-beam particle beam system, in which the fast autofocus correction is implemented as a hybrid system. According to a method step S30, the focus is physically set in the object plane 101 by means of at least one fast autofocus correction lens 901. This can be realized in one of the embodiment variants described in more detail above and can be implemented, for example, as a fast electrostatic lens in one part or in many parts, for example between the upper 108 and the lower pole shoe 109 of the objective lens 110. In a method step S31, the landing angle is physically set in the object plane 101 by means of at least one fast autofocus correction means. This can be a fast autofocus correction lens or a plurality of fast autofocus correction lenses 824, for example the fourth fast autofocus correction lens 904. Thus, focus and landing angle are physically corrected, wherein at least the focus and the radial landing angle are corrected in high-frequency fashion. A low-frequency correction, i.e., once for the selected working point, is normally sufficient for the correction of the azimuthal landing angle.
In a further method step S32, the image field rotation in the object plane 101 is set by means of the scanning unit by quickly setting a counter rotation. In a further step S33, the magnification in the object plane 101 is likewise set by means of the scanning unit by quickly setting the pixel size. These two method steps S32 and S33 can easily be carried out quickly since the scan deflector 500 is easily controlled by means of the scanning unit. Optionally, there can also be fast adjustment of the scanning parameters of quadradicity and/or skew (not illustrated).
There is a purely computational compensation of an image displacement in a further method step S34. To this end, it is not necessary to change the obtained image data themselves; it is only necessary to computationally adapt their tags (metadata or position of pixel 1).
All the aforementioned explanations apply not only to fast autofocusing but also to fast auto-stigmation. By definition, focusing also comprises a stigmation within the scope of this application. In principle, a stigmation can be physically equated to focusing in only one direction or with different focusings in different directions. In this context, reference is also made to fast multi-pole lenses which are described, for example, in the German patent application with application number 10 2020 107 738.6, filed on March 20, 2020, which has not yet been laid open; the disclosure of said patent application is incorporated in the present patent application in full by reference.
The illustrated embodiments can be combined with one another in full or in part, provided that no technical contradictions arise as a result. Incidentally, the illustrated embodiments should not be construed as constrictive for the invention.
Further examples relating to the invention are listed below. These examples can be combined with the embodiments of the invention claimed in the patent claims provided no technical contradictions arise as a result.
Example 1: A multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection, comprising the following: a multi-beam particle generator, which is configured to generate a first field of a multiplicity of charged first individual particle beams; a first particle optical unit with a first particle optical beam path, which is configured to image the generated first individual particle beams onto a wafer surface in the object plane such that the first individual particle beams strike the wafer surface at incidence locations, which form a second field;
a detection system with a multiplicity of detection regions that form a third field,
a second particle optical unit with a second particle optical beam path, which is configured to image second individual particle beams, which emanate from the incidence locations in the second field, onto the third field of the detection regions of the detection system;
a magnetic and/or electrostatic objective lens, in particular a magnetic and/or electrostatic immersion lens, through which both the first and the second individual particle beams pass;
a beam switch, which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the objective lens and which is arranged in the second particle optical beam path between the objective lens and the detection system;
a sample stage for holding and/or positioning a wafer during the wafer inspection;
an autofocus determining element, which is configured to generate data for determining actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection;
a fast autofocus correction lens; and a controller;
wherein the controller is configured to control particle optical components in the first and/or in the second particle optical beam path,
wherein the controller is configured for static or low-frequency adaptation of a focusing in order to control at least the objective lens and/or an actuator of the sample stage at a first working point with a first working distance, in such a way that the first individual particle beams are focused on the wafer surface situated at the first working distance, and wherein the controller is configured for high-frequency adaptation of the focusing in order to generate an autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data at the first working point during the wafer inspection in order to control the fast autofocus correction lens during the wafer inspection at the first working point.
Example 2: The multiple particle beam system according to example 1, wherein an adaptation time TA for the high-frequency adaptation is shorter than the adaptation time TA for the low-frequency adaptation at least by a factor of 10, in particular at least by a factor of 100 or 1000. Example 3: The multiple particle beam system according to either of the preceding examples, wherein a stroke for setting the working distance for the low-frequency or static adaptation is greater than the stroke for the high-frequency adaptation at least by a factor of 5, in particular by a factor of 8 and/or 10. Example 4: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of the preceding examples, wherein a second working point is defined at least by a second working distance between the objective lens and the wafer surface and wherein the second working distance differs from the first working distance of the first working point, wherein the controller is configured to carry out a low-frequency adaptation in the case of a change between the first working point and the second working pomt and control at least the magnetic objective lens and/or an actuator of the sample stage at the second working point such that the first individual particle beams are focused on the wafer surface situated at the second working distance.
Example 5: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein the controller is configured to generate an autofocus correction lens control signal for high-frequency adaptations on the basis of the actual autofocus data at the second working point during the wafer inspection in order to control the fast autofocus correction lens during the wafer inspection at the second working point.
Example 6: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of the preceding examples, wherein the first and/or the second working point are furthermore defined by a landing angle of the first individual particle beams in the object plane and by a grid arrangement of the first individual particle beams in the object plane, and wherein the controller is furthermore configured to keep the landing angle and the grid arrangement substantially constant during the high- frequency adaptation at the first and/or second working point.
Example 7: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein the controller is configured to keep the landing angle and the grid arrangement substantially constant even during a change between the first working point and the second working point.
Example 8: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of the preceding examples, wherein the autofocus correction lens comprises a fast electrostatic lens.
Example 9: The multiple particle beam system according to example 8, wherein the autofocus correction lens is arranged in a crossover plane of the first individual particle beams.
Example 10: The multiple particle beam system according to example 8, wherein the autofocus correction lens is arranged between the wafer surface and a lower pole shoe of the magnetic objective lens.
Example 11: The multiple particle beam system according to example 8, wherein the autofocus correction lens is arranged between the upper and lower pole shoe of the magnetic objective lens.
Example 12: The multiple particle beam system according to example 8, wherein the autofocus correction lens is arranged in a beam tube extension, which protrudes into the objective lens from the direction of the upper pole shoe.
Example 13: The multiple particle beam system according to example 8, moreover comprising a beam deflection system between the beam switch and the objective lens which is configured to raster scan the wafer surface by means of a scanning movement of the individual particle beams, wherein the autofocus correction lens is realized as an offset on the beam deflection system.
Example 14: The multiple particle beam system according to example 8, moreover comprising a beam deflection system between the beam switch and the objective lens which is configured to raster scan the wafer surface by means of a scanning movement of the individual particle beams; wherein the beam deflection system comprises an upper deflector and a lower deflector arranged in succession in the direction of the beam path; and wherein the autofocus correction lens is arranged between the upper deflector and the lower deflector.
Example 15: The multiple particle beam system according to example 8, moreover comprising a beam deflection system between the beam switch and the objective lens which is configured to raster scan the wafer surface by means of a scanning movement of the individual particle beams; wherein the beam deflection system comprises an upper deflector and a lower deflector arranged in succession in the direction of the beam path; and wherein the autofocus correction lens is arranged between the lower deflector and an upper pole shoe of the magnetic objective lens.
Example 16: The multiple particle beam system according to example 8, moreover comprising a beam tube which is able to be evacuated and which substantially encloses the first particle optical beam path from the multi-beam particle generator to the objective lens, wherein the beam tube has an interruption and wherein the autofocus correction lens is arranged within this interruption.
Example 17: The multiple particle beam system according to example 16, moreover comprising a field lens system which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the beam switch, wherein the interruption of the beam tube in which the autofocus correction lens is arranged is arranged between the field lens system and the beam switch.
Example 18: The multiple particle beam system according to example 16, wherein the beam switch comprises two magnetic sectors and wherein the interruption of the beam tube in which the autofocus correction lens is arranged is provided in the region of the beam switch between the two magnetic sectors.
Example 19: The multiple particle beam system according to example 16, moreover comprising a beam deflection system between the beam switch and the objective lens which is configured to raster scan the wafer surface by means of a scanning movement of the individual particle beams, wherein the interruption of the beam tube in which the autofocus correction lens is arranged 1s provided between the beam switch and the beam deflection system.
Example 20: The multiple particle beam system according to example 16, moreover comprising a field lens system which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the beam switch, wherein the interruption of the beam tube in which the autofocus correction lens is arranged is arranged within a magnetic field lens of the field lens system.
Example 21: The multiple particle beam system according to example 8, moreover comprising a beam tube which is able to be evacuated and which substantially encloses the first particle optical beam path from the multi-beam particle generator to the objective lens, wherein the autofocus correction lens is embodied as a tube lens and arranged within the beam tube.
Example 22: The multiple particle beam system according to example 21, moreover comprising a field lens system which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the beam switch, wherein the autofocus correction lens is arranged between the field lens system and the beam switch within the beam tube.
Example 23: The multiple particle beam system according to example 21, wherein the beam switch has two magnetic sectors and wherein the autofocus correction lens is provided between the two magnetic sectors within the beam tube.
Example 24: The multiple particle beam system according to example 21, moreover comprising a beam deflection system between the beam switch and the objective lens which is configured to raster scan the wafer surface by means of a scanning movement of the individual particle beams, wherein the autofocus correction lens is provided between the beam switch and the beam deflection system within the beam tube.
Example 25: The multiple particle beam system according to example 21, moreover comprising a field lens system which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the beam switch, wherein the autofocus correction lens is arranged within a magnetic field lens within the beam tube.
Example 26: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples 1 to 7, wherein the fast autofocus correction lens comprises a fast magnetic lens, in particular an air coil.
Example 27: The multiple particle beam system according to example 26, moreover comprising a beam tube which is able to be evacuated and which substantially encloses the first particle optical beam path from the multi-beam particle generator to the objective lens, wherein the fast magnetic lens is arranged outside around the beam tube.
Example 28: The multiple particle beam system according to example 27, moreover comprising a field lens system which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the beam switch, wherein the fast magnetic lens is arranged between the field lens system and the beam switch around the beam tube.
Example 29: The multiple particle beam system according to example 27, wherein the beam switch has two magnetic sectors and wherein the fast magnetic lens is arranged between the two magnetic sectors around the beam tube.
Example 30: The multiple particle beam system according to example 27, moreover comprising a beam deflection system between the beam switch and the objective lens which is configured to raster scan the wafer surface by means of a scanning movement of the individual particle beams, wherein the fast magnetic lens is arranged between the beam switch and the beam deflection system around the beam tube.
Example 31: The multiple particle beam system according to example 27, moreover comprising a beam deflection system between the beam switch and the objective lens which is configured to raster scan the wafer surface by means of a scanning movement of the individual particle beams; wherein the beam deflection system comprises an upper deflector and a lower deflector arranged in succession in the direction of the beam path; and wherein the fast magnetic lens is arranged between the upper deflector and the lower deflector around the beam tube. Example 32: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of the preceding examples, wherein the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a fast telecentricity correction means, which is configured to substantially contribute to correcting a tangential telecentricity error of the first individual particle beams in the second field, and wherein the controller is set up to generate a telecentricity correction means control signal for high-frequency adaptations at the respective working point during the wafer inspection on the basis of the actual autofocus data in order to control the fast telecentricity correction means during the wafer inspection.
Example 33: The multiple particle beam system according to example 32, wherein the telecentricity correction means comprises a first deflector array which is arranged in an intermediate image plane of the first particle optical beam path.
Example 34: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of the preceding examples, wherein the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a fast rotation correction means, which is configured to substantially contribute to correcting a rotation of the first individual particle beams in the second field, and wherein the controller is set up to generate a rotation correction means control signal for high-frequency adaptations on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection at the respective working point in order to control the fast rotation correction means during the wafer inspection.
Example 35: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein the rotation correction means comprises an air coil.
Example 36: The multiple particle beam system according to examples 33 and 34, wherein the rotation correction means comprises a second deflector array, which is arranged, at a distance, directly upstream or downstream of the first deflector array.
Example 37: The multiple particle beam system according to examples 33 and 34, wherein the rotation correction means comprises a multi-lens array which is arranged, at a distance, directly upstream or downstream of the first deflector array and in such a way that the first individual particle beams pass through the multi-lens array in off-axis fashion.
Example 38: The multiple particle beam system according to example 34, wherein the multi-beam particle generator comprises the fast rotation correction means and the rotation correction means is actively rotated by the rotation correction means control signal.
Example 39: The multiple particle beam system according to example 34, wherein the fast rotation correction means comprises a first magnetic field generating device for a first weak magnetic field and a second magnetic field generating device for a second weak magnetic field, and wherein the first magnetic field generating device is only controlled for a rotation in a positive rotation direction and the second magnetic field generating device is only controlled for a rotation in a negative rotation direction by the controller by means of the rotation correction means control signal.
Example 40: The multiple particle beam system according to example 39, wherein the first and the second magnetic field have an axial configuration and are arranged in a converging or diverging pencil of the first individual particle beams in the first particle optical beam path.
Example 41: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of the preceding examples, wherein a maximum deviation of each individual particle beam from a desired landing position on the wafer surface is no more than 10 nm, in particular no more than 5 nm, 2 nm, 1 nm or 0.5 nm.
Example 42: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of the preceding examples, wherein the controller is configured to carry out the determination of the autofocus correction lens control signal and/or the rotation correction means control signal and/or the telecentricity correction means control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data using an inverted sensitivity matrix which describes the influence of control changes of particle optical components on particle optical parameters that characterize the particle optical imaging at the respective working point.
Example 43: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of the preceding examples, wherein the controller is configured for a static or low-frequency adaptation of a focusing in the second particle optical beam path in order, at the respective working point with the associated working distance, to control particle optical components in the second particle optical beam path in such a way that the second individual particle beams, which emanate from the wafer surface situated at the respective working distance, are focused on the detection regions in the third field.
Example 44: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of the preceding examples, wherein the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a fast projection path correction means, which may have a multi-part embodiment and which is configured to undertake a high- frequency adaptation of the focus of the second individual particle beams, of the grid arrangement, of landing angles and/or of the contrast of the second individual particle beams upon incidence on the detection regions in the third field, and wherein the controller is configured to generate a projection path control signal or a set of projection path control signals on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection at the respective working point in order to control the fast projection path correction means.
Example 45: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of the preceding examples, wherein the multiple particle beam system moreover comprises a projection path measuring element in order to generate projection path measurement data for characterizing the particle optical imaging in the secondary path during the wafer inspection, wherein the multiple particle beam system furthermore comprises a fast projection path correction means, which may have a multi-part embodiment and which is configured to undertake a high-frequency adaptation of the focus of the second individual particle beams, of the grid arrangement, of landing angles and/or of the contrast of the second individual particle beams upon incidence on the detection regions in the third field, and wherein the controller is configured to generate a projection path control signal or a set of projection path control signals on the basis of the projection path measurement data during the wafer inspection at the respective working point in order to control the fast projection path correction means.
Example 46: The multiple particle beam system according to either of the two examples 44 and 45, wherein a contrast aperture stop is arranged in the second particle optical beam path in a crossover plane, wherein the projection path correction means comprises a fast contrast correction means with at least one electrostatic deflector, at least one electrostatic lens and/or at least one electrostatic stigmator for influencing the particle optical beam path through the contrast aperture stop, and wherein the controller is configured to control the contrast correction means with a contrast correction control signal or a set of contrast correction control signals, in such a way that a contrast of the second individual particle beams is kept substantially constant during the incidence on the detection regions in the third field.
Example 47: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of the preceding examples, comprising a further autofocus correction lens or a plurality of further fast autofocus correction lenses.
Example 48: A multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection, comprising the following: a multi-beam particle generator, which is configured to generate a first field of a multiplicity of charged first individual particle beams;
a first particle optical unit with a first particle optical beam path, which is configured to image the generated first individual particle beams onto a wafer surface in the object plane such that the first individual particle beams strike the wafer surface at incidence locations, which form a second field;
a detection system with a multiplicity of detection regions that form a third field;
a second particle optical unit with a second particle optical beam path, which is configured to image second individual particle beams, which emanate from the incidence locations in the second field, onto the third field of the detection regions of the detection system;
a magnetic and/or electrostatic objective lens, in particular a magnetic and/or electrostatic immersion lens, through which both the first and the second individual particle beams pass;
a beam switch, which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the objective lens and which is arranged in the second particle optical beam path between the objective lens and the detection system;
a sample stage for holding and/or positioning a wafer during the wafer inspection;
an autofocus determining element, which is configured to generate data for determining actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection;
a fast autofocus correction lens; and a controller;
wherein the controller is configured to control particle optical components in the first and/or in the second particle optical beam path,
wherein the controller is configured for static or low-frequency adaptation of a focusing in order to control at least the magnetic objective lens and/or an actuator of the sample stage at a first working point with a first working distance, in such a way that the first individual particle beams are focused on the wafer surface situated at the first working distance.
Example 49: A method for operating a multiple particle beam system, in particular a multiple particle beam system according to any one of the preceding examples 1 to 47, said method including the following steps: generating measurement data at a first working point for a current focus in the object plane; determining actual autofocus data on the basis of the measurement data; determining an autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data; and controlling the fast autofocus correction lens, wherein the grid arrangement and the landing angle of the first individual particle beams are kept constant upon incidence on the object plane at the first working point.
Example 50: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein the fast autofocus correction lens comprises an electrostatic lens.
Example 51: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to either of examples 49 to 50, wherein the fast autofocus correction lens comprises a magnetic lens.
Example 52: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples 49 to 51, furthermore including the following steps: generating a telecentricity correction control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data; and controlling the fast telecentricity correction means.
Example 53: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples 49 to 52, furthermore including the following steps:
generating a rotation correction control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data; and controlling the fast rotation correction means.
Example 54: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples 49 to 53, furthermore including the following step: orthogonalizing effects of the particle optical components which are used for the correction or corrections.
Example 55: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples 49 to 54, furthermore including the following steps: generating projection path measurement data for characterizing the particle optical imaging in the secondary path; determining a projection path control signal on the basis of the projection path measurement data; and controlling the fast projection path correction means, which may have a multi-part embodiment, by means of the projection path control signal or by means of a set of protection path control signals, wherein the focus, the grid arrangement and the landing angle of the second individual particle beams upon incidence in the detection plane are kept constant at the first working point.
Example 56: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples 49 to 55, controlling a fast contrast correction means by means of a contrast correction control signal or a set of contrast correction control signals and keeping the contrast constant 1n the detection plane.
Example 57: A multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection, in particular a multi-beam particle microscope, comprising a multiplicity of fast autofocus correction lenses for a high-frequency adaptation of beam parameters in the object plane.
Example 58: A multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection, in particular a multi-beam particle microscope, comprising an at least two-part autofocus correction lens for a high-frequency adaptation of beam parameters, in particular for a high-frequency adaptation of the focusing, in the object plane. Here, the parts of the multi-part autofocus correction lens are arranged spatially close together in the particle optical beam path, in particular directly in succession in the particle optical beam path.
Example 59: A multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection, in particular a multi-beam particle microscope, comprising exactly three fast autofocus correction lenses for a high-frequency adaptation of beam parameters in the object plane, wherein one of the autofocus correction lenses has a multi-part embodiment, in particular a two-part embodiment.
Example 60: A multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection, in particular a multi-beam particle microscope, comprising exactly four fast autofocus correction lenses for a high-frequency adaptation of beam parameters in the object plane.
Example 61: The multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection according to either of examples 59 and 60, moreover comprising means for setting a magnetic field in the object plane to zero.
Example 62: The multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection according to the preceding example, wherein the means has a magnetic field compensation lens.
Example 63: The multiple particle beam system according to example 61, wherein the means comprises an objective lens or an objective lens system, or consists thereof. Thus, this example does not necessarily require a magnetic field compensation lens since the magnetic field in the objective plane can be set sufficiently accurately to zero purely by way of the objective lens. This relates in particular to the operation of the multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection at only one working point.
Example 64: A multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection, in particular a multi-beam particle microscope, comprising a multiplicity of fast electrostatic aberration correction means for keeping the path of individual particle beams constant to a very precise extent during the passage through the column.
Example 65: The multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection according to the preceding example, wherein the fast electrostatic aberration correction means are arranged upstream of fast autofocus correction lenses in each case.
Example 66: A multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection, in particular a multi-beam particle microscope, comprising a controller configured to control a scanning unit in high-frequency fashion.
Example 67: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein the scanning parameters of the pixel size, rotation, skew and/or quadraticity are corrected in high-frequency fashion by controlling the scanning unit.
Example 68: A multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection, comprising the following: a multi-beam particle generator, which is configured to generate a first field of a multiplicity of charged first individual particle beams; a first particle optical unit with a first particle optical beam path, which is configured to image the generated first individual particle beams onto a wafer surface in the object plane such that the first individual particle beams strike the wafer surface at incidence locations, which form a second field; a detection system with a multiplicity of detection regions that form a third field, a second particle optical unit with a second particle optical beam path, which is configured to image second individual particle beams, which emanate from the incidence locations in the second field, onto the third field of the detection regions of the detection system;
a magnetic and/or electrostatic objective lens, in particular a magnetic and/or electrostatic immersion lens, through which both the first and the second individual particle beams pass;
a beam switch, which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the objective lens and which is arranged in the second particle optical beam path between the objective lens and the detection system;
a sample stage for holding and/or positioning a wafer during the wafer inspection;
an autofocus determining element, which is configured to generate data for determining actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection;
a first fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises a fast electrostatic lens and which is arranged between the upper pole shoe and the lower pole shoe of the objective lens, wherein the first fast autofocus correction lens comprises an at least two-part first autofocus correction lens; and a controller;
wherein the controller is configured to control particle optical components in the first and/or in the second particle optical beam path, wherein the controller is configured for static or low-frequency adaptation of a focusing in order to control at least the objective lens and/or an actuator of the sample stage at a first working point with a first working distance, in such a way that the first individual particle beams are focused on the wafer surface situated at the first working distance, and wherein the controller is configured for high-frequency adaptation of the focusing in order to generate a first autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data at the first working point during the wafer inspection in order to control the first fast autofocus correction lens during the wafer inspection at the first working point.
Example 69: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein the first fast autofocus correction lens is integrated into a beam tube extension, which protrudes into the objective lens from the direction of the upper pole shoe.
Example 70: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein the beam tube extension has two interruptions and wherein one part of the two-part first fast autofocus correction lens is arranged in each of the two interruptions.
Example 71: The multiple particle beam system according to example 69, wherein the two parts of the two-part first autofocus correction lens are each embodied as a tube lens and arranged within the beam tube extension.
Example 72: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of preceding examples 68 to 71, wherein the controller is configured to control the two parts of the first autofocus correction lens with voltages of the same or opposite signs by means of the autofocus correction lens control signal.
Example 73: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein a high-frequency correction of the image field rotation is implemented substantially additionally to the high-frequency adaptation of the focusing by means of the control of the two parts of the first autofocus correction lens.
Example 74: A multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection, comprising the following: a multi-beam particle generator, which is configured to generate a first field of a multiplicity of charged first individual particle beams; a first particle optical unit with a first particle optical beam path, which is configured to image the generated first individual particle beams onto a wafer surface in the object plane such that the first individual particle beams strike the wafer surface at incidence locations, which form a second field;
a detection system with a multiplicity of detection regions that form a third field;
a second particle optical unit with a second particle optical beam path, which is configured to image second individual particle beams, which emanate from the incidence locations in the second field, onto the third field of the detection regions of the detection system;
a magnetic and/or electrostatic objective lens, in particular a magnetic and/or electrostatic immersion lens, through which both the first and the second individual particle beams pass;
a beam switch, which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the objective lens and which is arranged in the second particle optical beam path between the objective lens and the detection system;
a field lens system with at least one magnetic field lens, arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the beam switch;
a sample stage for holding and/or positioning a wafer during the wafer inspection;
an autofocus determining element, which is configured to generate data for determining actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection;
a first fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises a fast electrostatic lens and which is arranged between the upper and the lower pole shoe of the magnetic objective lens;
a second fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises a fast electrostatic lens and which is arranged within a magnetic field of the field lens system; and a controller;
wherein the controller is configured to control particle optical components in the first and/or in the second particle optical beam path, wherein the controller is configured for static or low-frequency adaptation of a focusing in order to control at least the objective lens and/or an actuator of the sample stage at a first working point with a first working distance, in such a way that the first individual particle beams are focused on the wafer surface situated at the first working distance, wherein the controller is configured for high-frequency adaptation of the focusing in order to generate a first autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data at the first working point during the wafer inspection in order to control the first fast autofocus correction lens during the wafer inspection at the first working point; and wherein the controller is configured to generate a second autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the second fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the working point.
Example 75: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein substantially a high-frequency correction of the image field rotation is implemented by means of controlling the second fast autofocus correction lens.
Example 76: A multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection, comprising the following: a multi-beam particle generator, which is configured to generate a first field of a multiplicity of charged first individual particle beams; a first particle optical unit with a first particle optical beam path, which is configured to image the generated first individual particle beams onto a wafer surface in the object plane such that the first individual particle beams strike the wafer surface at incidence locations, which form a second field;
a detection system with a multiplicity of detection regions that form a third field;
a second particle optical unit with a second particle optical beam path, which is configured to image second individual particle beams, which emanate from the incidence locations in the second field, onto the third field of the detection regions of the detection system;
a magnetic and/or electrostatic objective lens, in particular a magnetic and/or electrostatic immersion lens, through which both the first and the second individual particle beams pass;
a beam switch, which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the objective lens and which is arranged in the second particle optical beam path between the objective lens and the detection system;
a beam tube which is able to be evacuated and which substantially encloses the first particle optical beam path from the multi-beam particle generator to the objective lens;
a sample stage for holding and/or positioning a wafer during the wafer inspection;
an autofocus determining element, which is configured to generate data for determining actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection;
a first fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises a fast electrostatic lens and which is arranged between the upper and the lower pole shoe of the magnetic objective lens; and a third fast autofocus correction lens which comprises a fast magnetic lens, in particular an air coil, and which is arranged outside around the beam tube in the first particle optical beam path and arranged in a position that is substantially magnetic field-free; and a controller;
wherein the controller is configured to control particle optical components in the first and/or in the second particle optical beam path,
wherein the controller is configured for static or low-frequency adaptation of a focusing in order to control at least the objective lens and/or an actuator of the sample stage at a first working point with a first working distance, in such a way that the first individual particle beams are focused on the wafer surface situated at the first working distance, wherein the controller is configured for high-frequency adaptation of the focusing in order to generate a first autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data at the first working point during the wafer inspection in order to control the first fast autofocus correction lens during the wafer inspection at the first working point; and wherein the controller is configured to generate a third autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the third fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point.
Example 77: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein the first particle optical beam path has an intermediate image plane and wherein the third fast autofocus correction lens is arranged just downstream of this intermediate image plane in the direction of the particle optical beam path.
Example 78: The multiple particle beam system according to either of examples 76 and 77, wherein substantially a high-frequency correction of the azimuthal position of the individual particle beams in the object plane is implemented by means of controlling the third fast autofocus correction lens.
Example 79: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of preceding examples 68 to 78, furthermore comprising the following:
a fourth fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises a fast electrostatic lens, wherein the fourth fast autofocus correction lens is arranged within a magnetic field of the field lens system and wherein the controller is configured to generate a fourth autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the fourth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point.
Example 80: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein substantially a high-frequency correction of the radial landing angle of the individual particle beams in the object plane is implemented by means of controlling the fourth fast autofocus correction lens.
Example 81: The multiple particle beam system as claimed in any one of preceding examples 68 to 80, furthermore comprising the following: a fifth fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises a fast electrostatic lens, wherein the fifth fast autofocus correction lens is arranged at the multi-beam particle generator; and wherein the controller is configured to generate a fifth autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the fifth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point.
Example 82: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein the multi-beam particle generator comprises a multi-lens array with a multi-aperture plate and a counter electrode and wherein the fifth fast autofocus correction lens is realized as an offset voltage that is able to be applied to the counter electrode.
Example 83: The multiple particle beam system according to example 81, wherein the multi-beam particle generator comprises a multi-lens array with a multi-aperture plate and a counter electrode and wherein the fifth fast autofocus correction lens is realized as an additional electrode which is arranged between the multi-aperture plate and the counter electrode or just downstream of the counter electrode in relation to the particle optical beam path.
Example 84: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples 81 to 83, wherein substantially a high-frequency correction of the radial position of the individual particle beams in the object plane is implemented by means of controlling the fifth fast autofocus correction lens.
Example 85: The multiple particle beam system as claimed in any one of preceding examples 68 to 84, furthermore comprising the following: a sixth fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises a fast electrostatic lens, wherein the sixth fast autofocus correction lens is embodied in the vicinity of an intermediate image plane as a two-part lens, the first part of which is arranged upstream of the intermediate image plane and the second part of which is arranged downstream of the intermediate image plane, as viewed in the direction of the particle optical beam path, and wherein the controller is configured to generate a sixth autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the sixth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point.
Example 86: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein the sixth fast autofocus correction lens is provided with a bias.
Example 87: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of preceding examples 68 to 86, furthermore comprising the following:
a magnetic field compensation lens, which comprises a magnetic lens, wherein the magnetic field compensation lens is arranged between the objective lens and the object plane and wherein the controller is configured to control the magnetic field compensation lens with a magnetic field compensation control signal in static or low-frequency fashion, in such a way that the magnetic field in the object plane takes the value of zero.
Example 88: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein the magnetic field compensation lens is coupled to the objective lens.
Example 89: A multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection, comprising the following: a multi-beam particle generator, which is configured to generate a first field of a multiplicity of charged first individual particle beams; a first particle optical unit with a first particle optical beam path, which is configured to image the generated first individual particle beams onto a wafer surface in the object plane such that the first individual particle beams strike the wafer surface at incidence locations, which form a second field; a detection system with a multiplicity of detection regions that form a third field; a second particle optical unit with a second particle optical beam path, which is configured to image second individual particle beams, which emanate from the incidence locations in the second field, onto the third field of the detection regions of the detection system; a magnetic and/or electrostatic objective lens, in particular a magnetic and/or electrostatic immersion lens, through which both the first and the second individual particle beams pass; a beam switch, which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the objective lens and which 1s arranged in the second particle optical beam path between the objective lens and the detection system;
a field lens system with at least one magnetic field lens, arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the beam switch;
a sample stage for holding and/or positioning a wafer during the wafer inspection;
an autofocus determining element, which is configured to generate data for determining actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection;
a first fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises a fast electrostatic lens and which is arranged between the upper pole shoe and the lower pole shoe of the objective lens, wherein the first fast autofocus correction lens comprises an at least two-part first autofocus correction lens;
a fourth fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises a fast electrostatic lens arranged within a magnetic field of a magnetic lens of the field lens system;
a fifth fast autofocus correction lens, which is arranged at the multi- beam particle generator; a magnetic field compensation lens, which comprises a magnetic lens and which is arranged between the objective lens and the object plane and a controller;
wherein the controller is configured to control particle optical components in the first and/or in the second particle optical beam path,
wherein the controller is configured for static or low-frequency adaptation of a focusing in order to control at least the objective lens and/or an actuator of the sample stage at a first working point with a first working distance, in such a way that the first individual particle beams are focused on the wafer surface situated at the first working distance,
wherein the controller is configured to control the magnetic field compensation lens with a magnetic field compensation control signal in static or low-frequency fashion, in such a way that the magnetic field in the object plane takes the value of zero; wherein the controller is configured to generate a first autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the at least two-part fast autofocus correction lens by means of the first autofocus correction lens control signal with voltages of different signs in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point; wherein the controller is configured to generate a fourth autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the fourth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point; and wherein the controller is configured to generate a fifth autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the fifth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point.
Example 90: A multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection, comprising the following: a multi-beam particle generator, which is configured to generate a first field of a multiplicity of charged first individual particle beams; a first particle optical unit with a first particle optical beam path, which is configured to image the generated first individual particle beams onto a wafer surface in the object plane such that the first individual particle beams strike the wafer surface at incidence locations, which form a second field; a detection system with a multiplicity of detection regions that form a third field;
a second particle optical unit with a second particle optical beam path, which is configured to image second individual particle beams, which emanate from the incidence locations in the second field, onto the third field of the detection regions of the detection system;
a magnetic and/or electrostatic objective lens, in particular a magnetic and/or electrostatic immersion lens, through which both the first and the second individual particle beams pass;
a beam switch, which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the objective lens and which is arranged in the second particle optical beam path between the objective lens and the detection system;
a field lens system with at least one magnetic field lens, arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the beam switch;
a beam tube which is able to be evacuated and which substantially encloses the first particle optical beam path from the multi-beam particle generator to the objective lens;
a sample stage for holding and/or positioning a wafer during the wafer inspection;
an autofocus determining element, which is configured to generate data for determining actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection;
a first fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises an in particular one-part fast electrostatic lens and which is arranged between the upper pole shoe and the lower pole shoe of the objective lens;
a third fast autofocus correction lens, wherein the third fast autofocus correction lens comprises a fast magnetic lens, in particular an air coil and is arranged outside around the beam tube in the first particle optical beam path and arranged in a position that is substantially field-free;
a fourth fast autofocus correction lens, which comprises a fast electrostatic lens arranged within a magnetic field of a magnetic lens of the field lens system;
a fifth fast autofocus correction lens, which is arranged at the multi-
beam particle generator;
a magnetic field compensation lens, which comprises a magnetic lens and which is arranged between the objective lens and the object plane and a controller;
wherein the controller is configured to control particle optical components in the first and/or in the second particle optical beam path,
wherein the controller is configured for static or low-frequency adaptation of a focusing in order to control at least the objective lens and/or an actuator of the sample stage at a first working point with a first working distance, in such a way that the first individual particle beams are focused on the wafer surface situated at the first working distance,
wherein the controller is configured to control the magnetic field compensation lens with a magnetic field compensation control signal in static or low-frequency fashion, in such a way that the magnetic field in the object plane takes the value of zero;
wherein the controller is configured to generate a first autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the first fast autofocus correction lens by means of the first autofocus correction lens control signal in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point;
wherein the controller is configured to generate a third autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the third fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point;
wherein the controller is configured to generate a fourth autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the fourth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point; and wherein the controller is configured to generate a fifth autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection in order to control the fifth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion during the wafer inspection at the respective working point.
Example 91: The multiple particle beam system according to examples 89 or 90, wherein the system is configured to keep the beam parameters of focus, landing angle and grid arrangement in the object plane constant by means of the high-frequency corrections.
Example 92: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of preceding examples 68 to 91, wherein the controller is configured to carry out the determination of the autofocus correction lens control signals on the basis of the actual autofocus data using an inverted sensitivity matrix which describes the influence of control changes of particle optical components on particle optical parameters that characterize the particle optical imaging at the respective working point.
Example 93: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of preceding examples 68 to 92, wherein the controller is configured to determine the autofocus correction lens control signals using multidimensional lookup tables.
Example 94: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of preceding examples 68 to 93, furthermore comprising the following: a hysteresis correction measuring element in the second particle optical beam path in order to generate hysteresis correction measurement data for characterizing the particle optical imaging in the object plane following a low-frequency change in the control of at least one magnetic lens in the first particle optical beam path, in particular following a change in the working distance, with otherwise unchanged settings in the second particle optical beam path, wherein the controller is configured to generate a hysteresis correction control signal on the basis of the hysteresis control measurement data during the wafer inspection in order to correct at least one autofocus correction lens control signal in high-frequency fashion at the respective working point.
Example 95: The multiple particle-beam system according to the preceding example, wherein the hysteresis correction measuring element comprises a CCD camera in the second particle optical beam path.
Example 96: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples 94 to 95, wherein the hysteresis correction control signal realizes a correction of the beam parameters of radial position and/or azimuthal position in the object plane.
Example 97: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of preceding examples 68 to 96, furthermore comprising the following: at least one fast electrostatic aberration correction means, which is arranged in the particle optical beam path upstream of a fast autofocus correction lens, in particular upstream of each implemented fast autofocus correction lens, and which is set up to keep the path of the individual particle beams during the passage through the column constant in highly precise fashion, wherein the controller is configured to generate an aberration correction control signal during the wafer inspection in order to control the one fast aberration correction means or the fast aberration correction means at the respective working point in high-frequency fashion.
Example 98: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein the aberration correction means comprises an electrode arrangement in the form of an octupole.
Example 99: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of preceding examples 68 to 98, furthermore comprising the following: a fast electrostatic aberration correction means, wherein the aberration correction means is arranged in the first particle optical beam path upstream of the crossover of the first individual particle beams and is set up to keep the position of the individual particle beams constant in highly precise fashion for the purposes of forming the crossover and wherein the controller is configured to generate an aberration correction control signal during the wafer inspection in order to control the fast aberration correction means at the respective working point in high- frequency fashion.
Example 100: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of preceding examples 68 to 99, furthermore comprising the following: a scanning unit and a beam deflection system between the beam switch and the objective lens, said beam deflection system being configured to raster-scan the wafer surface by way of a scanning movement of the individual particle beams and being able to be controlled by means of the scanning unit; wherein the controller is set up to control the scanning unit by means of a scanning unit control signal during the wafer inspection at the respective working point and to correct the scanning unit control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data at the respective working point in high-frequency fashion.
Example 101: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein the scanning parameters of the pixel size,
rotation, skew and/or quadraticity are corrected in high-frequency fashion by means of lookup tables.
Example 102: A multiple particle beam system for wafer inspection, comprising the following: a multi-beam particle generator, which is configured to generate a first field of a multiplicity of charged first individual particle beams; a first particle optical unit with a first particle optical beam path, which is configured to image the generated first individual particle beams onto a wafer surface in the object plane such that the first particle beams strike the wafer surface at incidence locations, which form a second field; a detection system with a multiplicity of detection regions that form a third field; a second particle optical unit with a second particle optical beam path, which is configured to image second individual particle beams, which emanate from the incidence locations in the second field, onto the third field of the detection regions of the detection system; a magnetic and/or electrostatic objective lens, in particular a magnetic and/or electrostatic immersion lens, through which both the first and the second individual particle beams pass; a beam switch, which is arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator and the objective lens and which is arranged in the second particle optical beam path between the objective lens and the detection system; a sample stage for holding and/or positioning a wafer during the wafer inspection; an autofocus determining element, which is configured to generate data for determining actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection; a scanning unit; fast autofocus correction means, in particular fast autofocus correction lenses; and a controller; wherein the controller is configured to control particle optical components in the first and/or in the second particle optical beam path, wherein the controller is configured for static or low-frequency adaptation of a focusing in order to control at least the objective lens and/or an actuator of the sample stage at a first working point with a first working distance, in such a way that the first individual particle beams are focused on the wafer surface situated at the first working distance, wherein the controller is set up to undertake a high-frequency correction of the beam parameters of focus and landing angle in the object plane by means of the fast autofocus correction means, in particular by means of the fast autofocus correction lenses, and to undertake a high- frequency correction of the beam parameters of magnification and image field rotation in the object plane by means of high-frequency control of the scanning unit.
Example 103: The multiple particle beam system according to example 102, wherein a change in the image field rotation of the individual particle beams in the object plane is compensated by setting the rotation by means of the scanning unit and wherein a change in the magnification in the object plane is corrected by setting the pixel size by means of the scanning unit.
Example 104: The multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein an image displacement of the individual particle beams in the object plane is corrected purely by computation by means of the controller.
Example 105: The multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples 102 to 104, wherein the system is set up to undertake a high- frequency correction of beam parameters by means of fast autofocus correction means, in particular by means of fast autofocus correction lenses,
only downstream of the crossover in relation to the particle optical beam path.
Example 106: A method for operating a multiple particle heam system, in particular a multiple particle beam system according to any one of the preceding examples 68 to 105, said method including the following steps: generating data at a first working point for a current focus in the object plane; determining actual autofocus data on the basis of the data; generating a first autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data and controlling the first fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion; and/or generating a second fast autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data and controlling the second fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion; and/or generating a third fast autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data and controlling the third fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion; and/or generating a fourth fast autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data and controlling the fourth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion; and/or generating a fifth fast autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data and controlling the fifth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion; and/or generating a sixth fast autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data and controlling the sixth fast autofocus correction lens in high-frequency fashion; wherein the controlling of one or more of the fast autofocus correction lenses keeps the focusing in the object plane constant at the first working point.
Example 107: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, wherein the landing angle, the rotation and/or the position of the first individual particle beams in the object plane are also kept constant at the first working point.
Example 108: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples 106 to 107, wherein the fast autofocus correction lens comprises an electrostatic lens.
Example 109: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples claims 106 to 108, wherein the fast autofocus correction lens comprises a magnetic lens.
Example 110: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples 106 to 109, furthermore including the following step: orthogonalizing effects of the particle optical components which are used for the correction or corrections.
Example 111: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples 106 to 110, furthermore including the following steps: changing a working point, in particular changing the working distance, and generating hysteresis correction measurement data for characterizing the particle optical imaging in the object plane; and correcting the autofocus correction lens control signal in high- frequency fashion or correcting the autofocus correction lens control signals in high-frequency fashion on the basis of the hysteresis correction measurement data.
Example 112: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples 106 to 111, furthermore including the following steps: generating aberration correction control signals and correcting beam positions in highly precise fashion and in particular in high-frequency fashion by means of the aberration correction control signals.
Example 113: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples 106 to 112, furthermore including the following steps: generating scanning unit control signals and correcting the scanning unit control signals in high-frequency fashion at the respective working point, in particular by using multidimensional lookup tables.
Example 114: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to any one of examples 106 to 113, furthermore including the following steps: correcting image data in purely computational fashion in respect of at least one beam parameter, in particular correcting image data in purely computational fashion in respect of an image displacement in the object plane.
Example 115: A method for operating a multiple particle beam system, in particular according to any one of examples 106 to 114, for fast autofocus correction at a working point, including the following steps: physically setting the focus in the object plane by means of a fast autofocus correction lens; physically setting the landing angle in the object plane by means of a fast autofocus correction means; setting the image field rotation by means of the scanning unit by quickly setting a counter rotation; setting the magnification by means of the scanning unit by quickly setting a pixel size; and compensating an image displacement in purely computational fashion.
Example 116: The method for operating a multiple particle beam system according to the preceding example, furthermore including the following steps: quickly setting the scanning parameter of quadradicity of the scanning unit and/or quickly setting the scanning parameter of skew of the scanning unit.
List of reference signs 1 Multi-beam particle microscope 3 Primary particle beams (individual particle beams) 5 Beam spots, incidence locations 7 Object 9 Secondary particle beams Computer system, controller 100 Objective lens system 10 101 Object plane 102 Objective lens 103 Field 108 Upper pole shoe of the objective lens 109 Lower pole shoe of the objective lens 110 Winding in the objective lens 120 Magnetic field compensation lens 121 Winding in the magnetic field compensation lens 122 Lower pole shoe of the magnetic field compensation lens 200 Detector system 205 Projection lens 209 Particle multi-detector 211 Detection plane 213 Incidence locations 217 Field 250 Vacuum chamber 260 Scan deflector in the secondary path 300 Beam generation apparatus 301 Particle source 303 Condenser lens system 305 Multi-aperture arrangement
306 Counter electrode in the multi-beam particle generator 313 Multi-aperture plate 315 Openings in the multi-aperture plate 317 Midpoints of the openings 319 Field
307 Field lens system 309 Diverging particle beam 311 Illuminating particle beam 323 Beam foc
325 Intermediate image plane 350 Vacuum chamber 355 Vacuum chamber 400 Beam switch 410 Magnetic sector
420 Magnetic sector 460 Beam tube, beam tube arrangement 461 Limb of the beam tube 462 Limb of the beam tube 463 Limb of the beam tube
464 Beam tube extension 500 Scan deflector in the primary path 810 Controller for the primary path 811 Controller for the working point setting (slow) 812 Measuring element
813 Adjustment algorithm 814 Final controlling elements in the primary path 821 Controller for the fast autofocus in the primary path 822 Measuring element, autofocus determining element 823 Autofocus algorithm
824 Fast autofocus correction lens
825 Fast telecentricity correction means 826 Fast rotation correction means 827 Fast position correction means 831 Controller for the working point setting in the secondary path (slow) 832 Measuring element 833 Second adjustment algorithm (secondary path) 834 Final controlling elements in the secondary path 841 Controller for the second fast autofocus (secondary path) 842 Measuring element 843 Second autofocus algorithm (secondary path) 844 Fast projection path correction means 850 Orthogonalization matrix or inverted sensitivity matrix for the primary path 851 Orthogonalization matrix or inverted sensitivity matrix for the secondary path 901 First fast autofocus correction lens (one-part or multi-part) 902 Second fast autofocus correction lens 903 Third fast autofocus correction lens 904 Fourth fast autofocus correction lens 905 Fifth fast autofocus correction lens 906 Sixth fast autofocus correction lens Sl Generating measurement data for the current focus at the working point AP S2 Determining actual autofocus data on the basis of measurement data S3 Generating an autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of actual autofocus data S4 Generating a telecentricity correction means control signal on the basis of actual autofocus data
S5 Generating a rotation correction means control signal on the basis of actual autofocus data S6 Controlling an autofocus correction lens S7 Controlling telecentricity correction means S8 Controlling rotation correction means S9 Generating second measurement data for a second autofocus in the secondary path S10 Determining second actual autofocus data on the basis of second measurement data S11 Generating a projection path correction means control signal (set) S12 Controlling projection path correction means including a second autofocus correction lens S13 Recording an image field S20 Adjusting autofocus correction lenses S21 Adjusting aberration correction means (deflectors/stigmators) S22 Updating scanning parameters S30 Physically setting the focus in the object plane by means of a fast autofocus correction lens S31 Physically setting the landing angle in the object plane by means of a fast autofocus correction means/fast autofocus correction lens S32 Setting the image field rotation by means of the scanning unit by quickly setting a counter rotation S33 Setting the enlargement by means of the scanning unit by quickly setting a pixel size S34 Compensating an image displacement in purely computational fashion.

Claims (38)

ConclusiesConclusions 1. Een meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) voor waferinspectie, omvattende het volgende: een multi-bundel deeltjesgenerator (300), die is ingericht om een eerste veld (319) van een veelheid van geladen eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (3) te genereren; een eerste deeltjes optische eenheid met een eerste deeltjes optisch bundelpad, dat is ingericht om de gegenereerde eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (3) af te beelden op een waferoppervlak in het objectvlak (101) zodanig dat de eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (3) het wateroppervlak raken bij invallocaties (5), die een tweede veld (103) vormen; een detectiesysteem (200) met een veelheid van detectiegebieden (215) die een derde veld (217) vormen; een tweede deeltjes optische eenheid met een tweede deeltjes optisch bundelpad, dat is ingericht om tweede mdividuele deeltjesbundels (9) af te beelden, die voortkomen uit de invallocaties (5) in het tweede veld (103), op het derde veld (217) van de detectiegebieden (215) van het detectiesysteem (200); een magnetische en/of elektrostatische objectieflens (102), waardoorheen zowel de eerste (3) als de tweede individuele deeltjesbundels (9) komen; een bundelschakelaar (400), die is ingericht in het eerste deeltjes optische bundelpad tussen de multi-bundel deeltjesgenerator (305) en de objectieflens (102) en die is ingericht in het tweede deeltjes optische bundelpad tussen de objectieflens (102) en het detectiesysteem (200); een veldlenssysteem (307) met ten minste één magnetische veldlens, ingericht in het eerste deeltjes optische bundelpad tussen de multi- bundel deeltjesgenerator (305) en de bundelschakelaar (400);A multiple particle beam system (1) for wafer inspection, comprising the following: a multi-beam particle generator (300) arranged to generate a first field (319) from a plurality of charged first individual particle beams (3); a first particle optical unit with a first particle optical beam path, arranged to image the generated first individual particle beams (3) onto a wafer surface in the object plane (101) such that the first individual particle beams (3) strike the water surface at incidence locations (5), forming a second field (103); a detection system (200) having a plurality of detection areas (215) forming a third field (217); a second particle optical unit with a second particle optical beam path, arranged to image second individual particle beams (9) emanating from the incidence locations (5) in the second field (103), onto the third field (217) of the detection areas (215) of the detection system (200); a magnetic and/or electrostatic objective lens (102), through which pass both the first (3) and second individual particle beams (9); a beam switch (400) arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator (305) and the objective lens (102) and arranged in the second particle optical beam path between the objective lens (102) and the detection system ( 200); a field lens system (307) having at least one magnetic field lens arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator (305) and the beam switch (400); een proefplatform voor het vasthouden en/of positioneren van een wafer (7) tijdens de waferinspectie; een autofocus bepalend element (822), dat is ingericht om gegevens te genereren voor het bepalen van actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie; een eerste snelle autofocus correctielens (901), die een snelle elektrostatische lens omvat en die is ingericht tussen de bovenste (108) en de onderste poolschoen (109) van de magnetische objectieflens (102); een tweede snelle autofocus correctielens (902), die een snelle elektrostatische lens omvat en die is ingericht binnen een magnetisch veld van het veldlenssysteem (307); en een besturingseenheid (10); waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om deeltjes optische componenten te sturen in het eerste en/of in het tweede deeltjes optische bundelpad, waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht voor statische of laagfrequente aanpassing van een focussen om ten minste de objectieflens (102) en/of een actuator van het proefplatform te sturen bij een eerste werkingspunt met een eerste werkingsafstand, op zodanige wijze dat de eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (103) gefocust worden op het wateroppervlak gesitueerd bij de eerste werkingsafstand, waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht voor hoogfrequente aanpassing van het focussen om een eerste autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal te genereren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens bij het eerste werkingspunt tijdens de waferinspectie om de eerste snelle autofocus correctielens (901) te sturen tijdens de waferinspectie bij het eerste werkingspunt; en waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om een tweede autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal te genereren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie om de tweede snelle autofocus correctielens (902) op hoogfrequente wijze te sturen tijdens de waferinspectie bij het werkingspunt.a test platform for holding and/or positioning a wafer (7) during wafer inspection; an autofocus determining element (822) configured to generate data for determining current autofocus data during the wafer inspection; a first fast autofocus correction lens (901) comprising a fast electrostatic lens and arranged between the upper (108) and the lower pole shoe (109) of the magnetic objective lens (102); a second fast autofocus correction lens (902) comprising a fast electrostatic lens and arranged within a magnetic field of the field lens system (307); and a control unit (10); wherein the controller (10) is adapted to direct particle-optical components in the first and/or second particle-optical beam path, the controller (10) being adapted to static or low-frequency adjustment of a focusing about at least the objective lens (102 ) and/or control an actuator of the test platform at a first operating point with a first operating distance, such that the first individual particle beams (103) are focused on the water surface located at the first operating distance, the control unit (10) being arranged for high-frequency focusing adjustment to generate a first autofocus correction lens drive signal based on the current autofocus data at the first operating point during the wafer inspection to drive the first fast autofocus correction lens (901) during the wafer inspection at the first operating point; and wherein the controller (10) is arranged to generate a second autofocus correction lens control signal based on the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection to drive the second fast autofocus correction lens (902) in a high-frequency manner during the wafer inspection at the point of operation. 2. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens de voorgaande conclusie, waarbij in hoofdzaak een hoogfrequente correctie van de beeldveldrotatie is geïmplementeerd door middel van het sturen van de tweede snelle autofocus correctielens (902).The multiple particle beam system (1) according to the preceding claim, wherein a high-frequency correction of the image field rotation is substantially implemented by driving the second fast autofocus correction lens (902). 3. Een meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) voor waferinspectie, omvattende het volgende: een multi-bundel deeltjesgenerator (305), die is ingericht om een eerste veld (319) van een veelheid van geladen eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (3) te genereren; een eerste deeltjes optische eenheid met een eerste deeltjes optisch bundelpad, dat is ingericht om de gegenereerde eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (3) op een waferoppervlak in het objectvlak (101) af te beelden zodanig dat de eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (3) het waferoppervlak raken bij invallocaties (5), die een tweede veld (217) vormen; een detectiesysteem (200) met een veelheid van detectiegebieden die een derde veld (217) vormen; een tweede deeltjes optische eenheid met een tweede deeltjes optische bundelpad, dat is ingericht om tweede individuele deeltjesbundels (9) af te beelden, die voortkomen uit de invallocaties (5) in het tweede veld (103), op het derde veld (217) van de detectiegebieden van het detectiesysteem (200); een magnetische en/of elektrostatische objectieflens (102), waardoorheen zowel de eerste (3) als de tweede individuele deeltjesbundels (9) komen;A multiple particle beam system (1) for wafer inspection, comprising the following: a multi-beam particle generator (305) arranged to generate a first field (319) from a plurality of charged first individual particle beams (3); a first particle optical unit with a first particle optical beam path, arranged to image the generated first individual particle beams (3) onto a wafer surface in the object plane (101) such that the first individual particle beams (3) strike the wafer surface at incidence locations (5), forming a second field (217); a detection system (200) having a plurality of detection areas forming a third field (217); a second particle optical unit with a second particle optical beam path, arranged to image second individual particle beams (9) emanating from the incidence locations (5) in the second field (103), onto the third field (217) of the detection areas of the detection system (200); a magnetic and/or electrostatic objective lens (102), through which pass both the first (3) and second individual particle beams (9); een bundelschakelaar (400), die is ingericht in het eerste deeltjes optische bundelpad tussen de multi-bundel deeltjesgenerator (305) en de objectieflens (102) en die is ingericht in het tweede deeltjes optische bundelpad tussen de objectieflens (102) en het detectiesysteem (200);a beam switch (400) arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator (305) and the objective lens (102) and arranged in the second particle optical beam path between the objective lens (102) and the detection system ( 200); een bundelbuis (460) die geévacueerd kan worden en die in hoofdzaak het eerste deeltjes optische bundelpad omsluit van de multi- bundel deeltjesgenerator (305) naar de objectieflens (102);an evacuable beam tube (460) substantially enclosing the first particle optical beam path from the multi-beam particle generator (305) to the objective lens (102); een proefplatform voor het vasthouden en/of positioneren van een wafer (7) tijdens de waferinspectie;a test platform for holding and/or positioning a wafer (7) during wafer inspection; een autofocus bepalend element (822), dat is ingericht om gegevens te genereren voor het bepalen van actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie;an autofocus determining element (822) configured to generate data for determining current autofocus data during the wafer inspection; een eerste snelle autofocus correctielens (109), die een snelle elektrostatische lens omvat en die 1s ingericht tussen de bovenste (108) en de onderste poolschoen (109) van de magnetische objectieflens (102); en een derde snelle autofocus correctielens (903), die een snelle elektrostatische lens omvat, en die is ingericht buiten rond de bundelbuis (460) in het eerste deeltjes optische bundelpad en ingericht in een positie die in hoofdzaak magnetisch veld-vrij is; en een besturingseenheid (10);a first fast autofocus correction lens (109) comprising a fast electrostatic lens and arranged between the upper (108) and the lower pole shoe (109) of the magnetic objective lens (102); and a third fast autofocus correction lens (903), comprising a fast electrostatic lens, and arranged outside around the beam tube (460) in the first particle optical beam path and arranged in a position substantially free of magnetic field; and a control unit (10); waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om deeltjes optische componenten te sturen in het eerste en/of in het tweede deeltjes optische bundelpad,wherein the controller (10) is adapted to control particle optical components in the first and/or in the second particle optical beam path, waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht voor statische of laagfrequente aanpassing van een focussen om ten minste de objectieflens (102) en/of een actuator van het proefplatform te sturen bij een eerste werkingspunt met een eerste werkingsafstand, op zodanige wijze dat de eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (103) gefocust worden op het waferoppervlak gesitueerd bij de eerste werkingsafstand,wherein the control unit (10) is arranged for static or low-frequency adjustment of a focusing to control at least the objective lens (102) and/or an actuator of the test platform at a first operating point with a first operating distance, such that the first individual particle beams (103) are focused on the wafer surface located at the first operating distance, waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) 1s ingericht voor hoogfrequente aanpassing van het focussen om een eerste autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal te genereren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens bij het eerste werkingspunt tijdens de waferinspectie om de eerste snelle autofocus correctielens (901) te sturen tijdens de waferinspectie bij het eerste werkingspunt; en waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is mgericht om een derde autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal te genereren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie om de derde snelle autofocus correctielens (903) op hoogfrequente wijze te sturen tijdens de waferinspectie bij het respectieve werkingspunt.wherein the control unit (10) 1 is configured for high-frequency focusing adjustment to generate a first autofocus correction lens control signal based on the actual autofocus data at the first operating point during the wafer inspection to drive the first fast autofocus correction lens (901) during the wafer inspection at the first operating point; and wherein the controller (10) is directed to generate a third autofocus correction lens control signal based on the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection to drive the third fast autofocus correction lens (903) in a high-frequency manner during the wafer inspection at the respective operating point. 4. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens de voorgaande conclusie, waarbij het eerste deeltjes optische bundelpad een intermediair beeldvlak heeft en waarbij de derde snelle autofocus correctielens is ingericht net stroomafwaarts van dit intermediaire beeldvlak in de richting van het deeltjes optische bundelpad.The multiple particle beam system (1) according to the preceding claim, wherein the first particle optical beam path has an intermediate image plane and wherein the third fast autofocus correction lens is arranged just downstream of this intermediate image plane in the direction of the particle optical beam path. 5. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem volgens eender welke van conclusies 3 en 4, waarbij in hoofdzaak een hoogfrequente correctie van de azimutale positie van de individuele deeltjesbundels in het objectvlak is geïmplementeerd door middel van het sturen van de derde snelle autofocus correctielens.The multiple particle beam system according to any one of claims 3 and 4, wherein a high-frequency correction of the azimuthal position of the individual particle beams in the object plane is substantially implemented by driving the third fast autofocus correction lens. 6. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem volgens eender welke van voorgaande conclusies 1 tot 5, voorts omvattende het volgende:The multiple particle beam system according to any one of claims 1 to 5, further comprising the following: een vierde snelle autofocus correctielens (904), die een snelle elektrostatische lens omvat, waarbij de vierde snelle autofocus correctielens (904) is ingericht binnen een magnetisch veld van het veldlenssysteem (307) en waarbij de besturingseenheid is ingericht om een vierde autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal te genereren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie om de vierde snelle autofocus correctielens (904) op hoogfrequente wijze te sturen tijdens de waferinspectie bij het respectieve werkingspunt.a fourth fast autofocus correction lens (904) comprising a fast electrostatic lens, the fourth fast autofocus correction lens (904) being arranged within a magnetic field of the field lens system (307), and the controller being arranged to receive a fourth autofocus correction lens control signal on the basis of the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection to drive the fourth fast autofocus correction lens (904) in a high-frequency manner during the wafer inspection at the respective operating point. 7. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens de voorgaande conclusie, waarbij in hoofdzaak een hoogfrequente correctie van de radiale landingshoek van de individuele deeltjesbundels (3) in het objectvlak is geimplementeerd door middel van het sturen van de vierde snelle autofocus correctielens (904).The multiple particle beam system (1) according to the preceding claim, wherein a high-frequency correction of the radial landing angle of the individual particle beams (3) in the object plane is substantially implemented by driving the fourth fast autofocus correction lens (904) . 8. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) zoals geclaimd in eender welke van voorgaande conclusies 1 tot 7 , voorts omvattende het volgende: een vijfde snelle autofocus correctielens (905), die een snelle elektrostatische lens omvat, waarbij de vijfde snelle autofocus correctielens (905) is ingericht bij de multi-bundel deeltjesgenerator (305); en waarbij de besturingseenheid is ingericht om een vijfde autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal te genereren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie om de vijfde snelle autofocus correctielens (905) op hoogfrequente wijze te sturen tijdens de waferinspectie bij het respectieve werkingspunt.The multiple particle beam system (1) as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 7, further comprising: a fifth fast autofocus correction lens (905) comprising a fast electrostatic lens, the fifth fast autofocus correction lens (905 ) is arranged at the multi-beam particle generator (305); and wherein the controller is configured to generate a fifth autofocus correction lens control signal based on the current autofocus data during the wafer inspection to drive the fifth fast autofocus correction lens (905) in a high-frequency manner during the wafer inspection at the respective operating point. 9. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens de voorgaande conclusie, waarbij de multi-bundel deeltjesgenerator (305) een multi-lens array omvat met een multi-opening plaat (313) en een counter elektrode (306) en waarbij de vijfde snelle autofocus correctielens (905) is gerealiseerd als een offset spanning die toegepast kan worden op de counter elektrode (306).The multi-particle beam system (1) according to the preceding claim, wherein the multi-beam particle generator (305) comprises a multi-lens array with a multi-aperture plate (313) and a counter electrode (306) and wherein the fifth fast autofocus correction lens (905) is realized as an offset voltage that can be applied to the counter electrode (306). 10. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens conclusie 8, waarbij de multi-bundel deeltjesgenerator (305) een multi-lens array omvat met een multi-opening plaat (313) en een counter elektrode (306) en waarbij de vijfde snelle autofocus correctielens (905) is gerealiseerd als een additionele elektrode die is mgericht tussen de multi-opening plaat (313) en de counter elektrode (306) of net stroomafwaarts van de counter elektrode (306) in relatie tot het deeltjes optische bundelpad.The multi-particle beam system (1) according to claim 8, wherein the multi-beam particle generator (305) comprises a multi-lens array with a multi-aperture plate (313) and a counter electrode (306), and wherein the fifth fast autofocus correction lens (905) is realized as an additional electrode directed between the multi-aperture plate (313) and the counter electrode (306) or just downstream of the counter electrode (306) in relation to the particle optical beam path. 11. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van conclusies 8 tot 10, waarbij in hoofdzaak een hoogfrequente correctie van de radiale positie van de individuele deeltjesbundels (3) in het objectvlak is geïmplementeerd door middel van het sturen van de vijfde snelle autofocus correctielens (905).The multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 8 to 10, wherein a high-frequency correction of the radial position of the individual particle beams (3) in the object plane is substantially implemented by controlling the fifth fast autofocus correction lens (905). 12. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) zoals geclaimd in eender welke van voorgaande conclusies 1 tot 11, voorts omvattende het volgende: een zesde snelle autofocus correctielens (906), die een snelle elektrostatische lens omvat, waarbij de zesde snelle autofocus correctielens (906) is belichaamd in de nabijheid van een intermediair beeldvlak (325) als een tweedelige lens, waarvan het eerste deel stroomopwaarts van het intermediaire beeldvlak (325) is ingericht en waarvan het tweede deel stroomafwaarts van het intermediaire beeldvlak (325) is ingericht, zoals gezien in de richting van het deeltjes optische bundelpad, en waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om een zesde autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal te genereren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie om de zesde snelle autofocus correctielens (906) op hoogfrequente wijze te sturen tijdens de waferinspectie bij het respectieve werkingspunt.The multiple particle beam system (1) as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 11, further comprising: a sixth fast autofocus correction lens (906) comprising a fast electrostatic lens, the sixth fast autofocus correction lens (906 ) is embodied in the vicinity of an intermediate image plane (325) as a bipartite lens, the first portion of which is arranged upstream of the intermediate image plane (325) and the second portion of which is arranged downstream of the intermediate image plane (325), as seen in the direction of the particle optical beam path, and wherein the controller (10) is arranged to generate a sixth autofocus correction lens control signal based on the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection to drive the sixth fast autofocus correction lens (906) in a high-frequency manner during the wafer inspection at the respective operating point. 13. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens de voorgaande conclusie, waarbij de zesde snelle autofocus correctielens (906) is voorzien van een bias.The multiple particle beam system (1) according to the preceding claim, wherein the sixth fast autofocus correction lens (906) is biased. 14. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van voorgaande conclusies 1 tot 13, voorts omvattende het volgende: een magnetisch veld compensatielens (120), die een magnetische lens omvat, waarbij de magnetisch veld compensatielens (120) is ingericht tussen de objectieflens (102) en het objectvlak (101), en waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om de magnetisch veld compensatielens (120) te sturen met een magnetisch veld compensatie-stuursignaal op statische of laagfrequente wijze, op zodanige wijze dat het magnetisch veld in het objectvlak (101) de waarde van nul aanneemt.The multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 1 to 13, further comprising: a magnetic field compensating lens (120) comprising a magnetic lens, the magnetic field compensating lens (120) being arranged between the objective lens (102) and the object plane (101), and wherein the control unit (10) is arranged to drive the magnetic field compensation lens (120) with a magnetic field compensation control signal in a static or low frequency manner such that the magnetic field in the object plane (101) assumes the value of zero. 15. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens de voorgaande conclusie, waarbij de magnetisch veld compensatielens (120) is gekoppeld met de objectieflens (102).The multiple particle beam system (1) according to the preceding claim, wherein the magnetic field compensation lens (120) is coupled to the objective lens (102). 16. Een meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) voor waferinspectie, omvattende het volgende:16. A multiple particle beam system (1) for wafer inspection comprising the following: een multi-bundel deeltjesgenerator (305), die is ingericht om een eerste veld (319) van een veelheid van geladen eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (3) te genereren; een eerste deeltjes optische eenheid met een eerste deeltjes optisch bundelpad, dat is ingericht om de gegenereerde eerste individuele deeltjesbundels op een waferoppervlak in het objectvlak (101) af te beelden zodanig dat de eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (3) het waferoppervlak raken bij invallocaties (5), die een tweede veld (217) vormen; een detectiesysteem (200) met een veelheid van detectiegebieden (215) die een derde veld (217) vormen; een tweede deeltjes optische eenheid met een tweede deeltjes optische bundelpad, dat is ingericht om tweede individuele deeltjesbundels (9), die voortkomen uit de invallocaties (5) in het tweede veld (103), af te beelden op het derde veld (217) van de detectiegebieden (215) van het detectiesysteem (200); een magnetische en/of elektrostatische objectieflens (102), waardoorheen zowel de eerste (3) als de tweede individuele deeltjesbundels (9) komen; een bundelschakelaar (400), die is ingericht in het eerste deeltjes optische bundelpad tussen de multi-bundel deeltjesgenerator (305) en de objectieflens (102) en die is ingericht in het tweede deeltjes optische bundelpad tussen de objectieflens (102) en het detectiesysteem (200); een veldlenssysteem (307) met ten minste één magnetische veldlens, ingericht in het eerste deeltjes optische bundelpad tussen de multi- bundel deeltjesgenerator (305) en de bundelschakelaar (400); een proefplatform voor het vasthouden en/of positioneren van een wafer (7) tijdens de waferinspectie; een autofocus bepalend element (822), dat is ingericht om gegevens te genereren voor het bepalen van actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie;a multi-beam particle generator (305) configured to generate a first field (319) from a plurality of charged first individual particle beams (3); a first particle optical unit with a first particle optical beam path, arranged to image the generated first individual particle beams onto a wafer surface in the object plane (101) such that the first individual particle beams (3) strike the wafer surface at incidence locations (5) , forming a second field (217); a detection system (200) having a plurality of detection areas (215) forming a third field (217); a second particle optical unit with a second particle optical beam path, arranged to image second individual particle beams (9) emanating from the incident locations (5) in the second field (103) onto the third field (217) of the detection areas (215) of the detection system (200); a magnetic and/or electrostatic objective lens (102), through which pass both the first (3) and second individual particle beams (9); a beam switch (400) arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator (305) and the objective lens (102) and arranged in the second particle optical beam path between the objective lens (102) and the detection system ( 200); a field lens system (307) having at least one magnetic field lens arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator (305) and the beam switch (400); a test platform for holding and/or positioning a wafer (7) during wafer inspection; an autofocus determining element (822) configured to generate data for determining current autofocus data during the wafer inspection; een eerste snelle autofocus correctielens (901), die een snelle elektrostatische lens omvat en die is ingericht tussen de bovenste poolschoen (108) en de onderste poolschoen (109) van de objectieflens (102), waarbij de eerste snelle autofocus correctielens een ten minste tweedelige eerste autofocus correctielens (9014, 901b) omvat; een vierde snelle autofocus correctielens (904), die een snelle elektrostatische lens omvat ingericht binnen een magnetisch veld van een magnetische lens van het veldlenssysteem (307); een vijfde snelle autofocus correctielens (905), die is ingericht bij de multi-bundel deeltjesgenerator (305); een magnetisch veld compensatielens (120), die een magnetische lens omvat en die is ingericht tussen de objectieflens (102) en het objectvlak (101) en een besturingseenheid;a first fast autofocus correction lens (901) comprising a fast electrostatic lens and arranged between the upper pole shoe (108) and the lower pole shoe (109) of the objective lens (102), the first fast autofocus correction lens comprising at least two parts first autofocus correction lens (9014, 901b); a fourth fast autofocus correction lens (904) comprising a fast electrostatic lens arranged within a magnetic field of a magnetic lens of the field lens system (307); a fifth fast autofocus correction lens (905) arranged at the multi-beam particle generator (305); a magnetic field compensation lens (120) comprising a magnetic lens and arranged between the objective lens (102) and the object plane (101) and a controller; waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om deeltjes optische componenten te sturen in het eerste en/of in het tweede deeltjes optische bundelpad,wherein the controller (10) is adapted to control particle optical components in the first and/or in the second particle optical beam path, waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht voor statische of laagfrequente aanpassing van een focussen om ten minste de objectieflenswherein the control unit (10) is arranged for static or low frequency adjustment of a focusing to at least the objective lens (102) en/of een actuator van het proefplatform te sturen bij een eerste werkingspunt met een eerste werkingsafstand, op zodanige wijze dat de eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (3) gefocust worden op het waferoppervlak gesitueerd bij de eerste werkingsafstand,(102) and/or drive an actuator of the proof stage at a first operating point with a first operating distance, such that the first individual particle beams (3) are focused on the wafer surface located at the first operating distance, waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om de magnetisch veld compensatielens (120) te sturen met een magnetisch veld compensatie-stuursignaal op statische of laagfrequente wijze, op zodanige wijze dat het magnetisch veld in het objectvlak (101) de waarde van nul aanneemt;wherein the control unit (10) is arranged to drive the magnetic field compensation lens (120) with a magnetic field compensation control signal in a static or low-frequency manner such that the magnetic field in the object plane (101) assumes the value of zero; waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om een eerste autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal te genereren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie om de ten minste tweedelige snelle autofocus correctielens (901a, 901b) te sturen door middel van het eerste autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal met spanningen van verschillende tekens op hoogfrequente wijze tijdens de waferinspectie bij het respectieve werkingspunt; waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om een vierde autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal te genereren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie om de vierde snelle autofocus correctielens (904) op hoogfrequente wijze te sturen tijdens de waferinspectie bij het respectieve werkingspunt; en waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om een vijfde autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal te genereren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie om de vijfde snelle autofocus correctielens (905) op hoogfrequente wijze te sturen tijdens de waferinspectie bij het respectieve werkingspunt.wherein the control unit (10) is arranged to generate a first autofocus correction lens control signal based on the current autofocus data during the wafer inspection to control the at least two-piece fast autofocus correction lens (901a, 901b) by means of the first autofocus correction lens control signal with voltages of different signs in a high-frequency manner during the wafer inspection at the respective operating point; wherein the controller (10) is configured to generate a fourth autofocus correction lens control signal based on the current autofocus data during the wafer inspection to drive the fourth fast autofocus correction lens (904) in a high-frequency manner during the wafer inspection at the respective operating point; and wherein the controller (10) is arranged to generate a fifth autofocus correction lens control signal based on the current autofocus data during the wafer inspection to drive the fifth fast autofocus correction lens (905) in a high-frequency manner during the wafer inspection at the respective operating point. 17. Een meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) voor waferinspectie, omvattende het volgende: een multi-bundel deeltjesgenerator (305), die is ingericht om een eerste veld (319) van een veelheid van geladen eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (3) te genereren; een eerste deeltjes optische eenheid met een eerste deeltjes optisch bundelpad, dat is ingericht om de gegenereerde eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (3) op een waferoppervlak in het objectvlak (101) af te beelden zodanig dat de eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (3) het waferoppervlak raken bij invallocaties (5), die een tweede veld (103) vormen; een detectiesysteem (200) met een veelheid van detectiegebieden (215) die een derde veld (217) vormen;A multiple particle beam system (1) for wafer inspection, comprising the following: a multi-beam particle generator (305) arranged to generate a first field (319) from a plurality of charged first individual particle beams (3); a first particle optical unit with a first particle optical beam path, arranged to image the generated first individual particle beams (3) onto a wafer surface in the object plane (101) such that the first individual particle beams (3) strike the wafer surface at incidence locations (5), forming a second field (103); a detection system (200) having a plurality of detection areas (215) forming a third field (217); een tweede deeltjes optische eenheid met een tweede deeltjes optische bundelpad, dat is ingericht om tweede individuele deeltjesbundels (9), die voortkomen uit de invallocaties (5) in het tweede veld (103), af te beelden op het derde veld (217) van de detectiegebieden (215) van het detectiesysteem (200); een magnetische en/of elektrostatische objectieflens (102), waardoorheen zowel de eerste (3) als de tweede individuele deeltjesbundels (9) komen; een bundelschakelaar (400), die is ingericht in het eerste deeltjes optische bundelpad tussen de multi-bundel deeltjesgenerator (305) en de objectieflens (102) en die is ingericht in het tweede deeltjes optische bundelpad tussen de objectieflens (102) en het detectiesysteem (200); een veldlenssysteem (307) met ten minste één magnetische veldlens, ingericht in het eerste deeltjes optische bundelpad tussen de multi- bundel deeltjesgenerator (305) en de bundelschakelaar (400); een bundelbuis (460) die geëvacueerd kan worden en die in hoofdzaak het eerste deeltjes optische pad omsluit van de multi-bundel deeltjesgenerator (305) naar de objectieflens (102); een proefplatform voor het vasthouden en/of positioneren van een wafer (7) tijdens de waferinspectie; een autofocus bepalend element (822), dat is ingericht om gegevens te genereren voor het bepalen van actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie; een eerste snelle autofocus correctielens (901), die een snelle elektrostatische lens (901) omvat en die is ingericht tussen de bovenste poolschoen (108) en de onderste poolschoen (109) van de objectieflens (102); een derde snelle autofocus correctielens (903), waarbij de derde snelle autofocus correctielens (903) een snelle magnetische lens omvat, en ingericht buiten rond de bundelbuis (460) in het eerste deeltjes optische bundelpad en ingericht in een positie die in hoofdzaak veld-vrij is;a second particle optical unit with a second particle optical beam path, arranged to image second individual particle beams (9) emanating from the incident locations (5) in the second field (103) onto the third field (217) of the detection areas (215) of the detection system (200); a magnetic and/or electrostatic objective lens (102), through which pass both the first (3) and second individual particle beams (9); a beam switch (400) arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator (305) and the objective lens (102) and arranged in the second particle optical beam path between the objective lens (102) and the detection system ( 200); a field lens system (307) having at least one magnetic field lens arranged in the first particle optical beam path between the multi-beam particle generator (305) and the beam switch (400); an evacuable beam tube (460) substantially enclosing the first particle optical path from the multi-beam particle generator (305) to the objective lens (102); a test platform for holding and/or positioning a wafer (7) during wafer inspection; an autofocus determining element (822) configured to generate data for determining current autofocus data during the wafer inspection; a first fast autofocus correction lens (901) comprising a fast electrostatic lens (901) and arranged between the upper pole shoe (108) and the lower pole shoe (109) of the objective lens (102); a third fast autofocus correction lens (903), the third fast autofocus correction lens (903) comprising a fast magnetic lens, and arranged outwardly around the beam tube (460) in the first particle optical beam path and arranged in a substantially field-free position is; een vierde snelle autofocus correctielens (904), die een snelle elektrostatische lens omvat ingericht binnen een magnetisch veld van een magnetische lens van het veldlenssysteem (307);a fourth fast autofocus correction lens (904) comprising a fast electrostatic lens arranged within a magnetic field of a magnetic lens of the field lens system (307); een vijfde snelle autofocus correctielens (905), die is ingericht bij de multi-bundel deeltjesgenerator (305);a fifth fast autofocus correction lens (905) arranged at the multi-beam particle generator (305); een magnetisch veld compensatielens (120), die een magnetische lens omvat en die is ingericht tussen de objectieflensa magnetic field compensation lens (120) comprising a magnetic lens and arranged between the objective lens (102) en het objectvlak (101) en een besturingseenheid (10);(102) and the object plane (101) and a controller (10); waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om deeltjes optische componenten te sturen in het eerste en/of in het tweede deeltjes optische bundelpad,wherein the controller (10) is adapted to control particle optical components in the first and/or in the second particle optical beam path, waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht voor statische of laagfrequente aanpassing van een focussen om ten minste de objectieflens (102) en/of een actuator van het proefplatform te sturen bij een eerste werkingspunt met een eerste werkingsafstand, op zodanige wijze dat de eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (3) worden gefocust op het waferoppervlak gesitueerd bij de eerste werkingsafstand,wherein the control unit (10) is arranged for static or low-frequency adjustment of a focusing to control at least the objective lens (102) and/or an actuator of the test platform at a first operating point with a first operating distance, such that the first individual particle beams (3) are focused on the wafer surface located at the first operating distance, waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om de magnetisch veld compensatielens (120) te sturen met een magnetisch veld compensatie-stuursignaal op statische of laagfrequente wijze, op zodanige wijze dat het magnetische veld in het objectvlak (101) de waarde van nul aanneemt;wherein the control unit (10) is arranged to drive the magnetic field compensation lens (120) with a magnetic field compensation control signal in a static or low-frequency manner such that the magnetic field in the object plane (101) assumes the value of zero; waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om een eerste autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal te genereren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie om de eerste snelle autofocus correctielens (901) te sturen door middel van het eerste autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal op hoogfrequente wijze tijdens de waferinspectie bij het respectieve werkingspunt; waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is mgericht om een derde autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal te genereren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie om de derde snelle autofocus correctielens (903) op hoogfrequente wijze te sturen tijdens de waferinspectie bij het respectieve werkingspunt; waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om een vierde autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal te genereren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie om de vierde snelle autofocus correctielens (904) op hoogfrequente wijze te sturen tijdens de waferinspectie bij het respectieve werkingspunt; en waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om een vijfde autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal te genereren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie om de vijfde snelle autofocus correctielens (905) op hoogfrequente wijze te sturen tijdens de waferinspectie bij het respectieve werkingspunt.wherein the control unit (10) is configured to generate a first autofocus correction lens control signal based on the current autofocus data during the wafer inspection to control the first fast autofocus correction lens (901) by means of the first autofocus correction lens control signal in a high-frequency manner during the wafer inspection at the respective operating point; wherein the controller (10) is directed to generate a third autofocus correction lens control signal based on the actual autofocus data during the wafer inspection to drive the third fast autofocus correction lens (903) in a high-frequency manner during the wafer inspection at the respective operating point; wherein the controller (10) is configured to generate a fourth autofocus correction lens control signal based on the current autofocus data during the wafer inspection to drive the fourth fast autofocus correction lens (904) in a high-frequency manner during the wafer inspection at the respective operating point; and wherein the controller (10) is arranged to generate a fifth autofocus correction lens control signal based on the current autofocus data during the wafer inspection to drive the fifth fast autofocus correction lens (905) in a high-frequency manner during the wafer inspection at the respective operating point. 18. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens conclusies 16 of 17, waarbij het systeem (1) is ingericht om de bundelparameters van focus, landingshoek en roosteropstelling in het objectvlak constant te houden door middel van de hoogfrequente correcties.The multiple particle beam system (1) according to claims 16 or 17, wherein the system (1) is arranged to keep the beam parameters of focus, landing angle and grating arrangement constant in the object plane by means of the high frequency corrections. 19. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van voorgaande conclusies 1 tot 18, waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om de bepaling van de autofocus correctielens-stuursignalen uit te voeren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens met gebruik van een inverse gevoeligheidsmatrix (850) die de invloed beschrijft van aanstuurveranderingen van deeltjes optische componenten op deeltjes optische parameters die het deeltjes optische afbeelden bij het respectieve werkingspunt karakteriseren.The multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 1 to 18, wherein the controller (10) is arranged to perform the determination of the autofocus correction lens control signals based on the current autofocus data using an inverse sensitivity matrix (850) describing the influence of drive changes of particle-optical components on particle-optical parameters characterizing the particle-optical imaging at the respective point of operation. 20. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van voorgaande conclusies 1 tot 19, waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om de autofocus correctielens-stuursignalen te bepalen met gebruik van multi-dimensionele opzoektabellen.The multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 1 to 19, wherein the controller (10) is arranged to determine the autofocus correction lens drive signals using multi-dimensional look-up tables. 21. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van voorgaande conclusies 1 tot 20, voorts omvattende het volgende: een hysteresecorrectie metend element in het tweede deeltjes optische bundelpad om hysteresecorrectie-meetgegevens te genereren voor het karakteriseren van het deeltjes optische afbeelden in het objectvlak (101) volgende een laagfrequente verandering in de sturing van ten minste één magnetische lens in het eerste deeltjes optische bundelpad, in het bijzonder volgende een verandering in de werkingsafstand, met anders ongewijzigde instellingen in het tweede deeltjes optische bundelpad, waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om een hysteresecorrectie-stuursignaal te genereren op basis van de hysterese aanstuur-meetgegevens tijdens de waferinspectie om ten minste één autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal te corrigeren op hoogfrequente wijze bij het respectieve werkingspunt.The multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 1 to 20, further comprising: a hysteresis correction measuring element in the second particle optical beam path to generate hysteresis correction measurement data for characterizing the particle optical imaging in the object plane (101) following a low frequency change in steering of at least one magnetic lens in the first particle optical beam path, in particular following a change in operating distance, with otherwise unchanged settings in the second particle optical beam path, the controller (10 ) is configured to generate a hysteresis correction drive signal based on the hysteresis drive measurement data during the wafer inspection to correct at least one autofocus correction lens drive signal in a high-frequency manner at the respective operating point. 22. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens de voorgaande conclusie, waarbij het hysteresecorrectie metende element een CCD camera omvat in het tweede deeltjes optische bundelpad.The multiple particle beam system (1) according to the preceding claim, wherein the hysteresis correction measuring element comprises a CCD camera in the second particle optical beam path. 23. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van conclusies 21 tot 22, waarbij het hysteresecorrectie-stuursignaal een correctie realiseert van de bundelparameters van radiale positie en/of azimutale positie in het objectvlak (101).The multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 21 to 22, wherein the hysteresis correction control signal realizes a correction of the beam parameters of radial position and/or azimuthal position in the object plane (101). 24. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van voorgaande conclusies 1 tot 23, voorts omvattende het volgende: ten minste één snelle elektrostatisch afwijkingscorrectiemiddel, dat is ingericht in het deeltjes optische bundelpad stroomopwaarts van een snelle autofocus correctielens (901, 902, 903, 904, 905, 906), in het bijzonder stroomopwaarts van elke geïmplementeerde snelle autofocus correctielens (901, 902, 903, 904, 905, 906), en die is geconfigureerd om het pad van de individuele deeltjesbundels tijdens de doorgang door de kolom constant te houden op zeer precieze wijze, waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om een afwijkingscorrectie-stuursignaal te genereren tijdens de waferinspectie om het één snelle afwijkingscorrectiemiddel of het snelle afwijkingscorrectiemiddel bij het respectieve werkingspunt op hoogfrequente wijze te sturen.The multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 1 to 23, further comprising: at least one fast electrostatic aberration correction means arranged in the particle optical beam path upstream of a fast autofocus correction lens (901, 902, 903, 904, 905, 906), specifically upstream of any implemented fast autofocus correction lens (901, 902, 903, 904, 905, 906), and configured to track the path of the individual particle beams as they pass through the column constant in a very precise manner, the control unit (10) being arranged to generate a deviation correction control signal during the wafer inspection to drive the one fast deviation correction means or the fast deviation correction means at the respective operating point in a high-frequency manner. 25. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens de voorgaande conclusie, waarbij het afwijkingscorrectiemiddel een elektrodeopstelling omvat in de vorm van een octupool.The multiple particle beam system (1) according to the preceding claim, wherein the deviation correcting means comprises an electrode array in the form of an octupole. 26. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van voorgaande conclusies 1 tot 25, voorts omvattende het volgende: een snel elektrostatisch correctiemiddel, waarbij het afwijkingscorrectiemiddel is ingericht in het eerste deeltjes optische bundelpad stroomopwaarts van de kruising van de eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (3) en is geconfigureerd om de positie van de individuele deeltjesbundels constant te houden op zeer precieze wijze met als doel om de kruising te vormen, en waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is ingericht om een afwijkingscorrectie-stuursignaal te genereren tijdens de waferinspectie om het snelle afwijkingscorrectiemiddel te sturen bij het respectieve werkingspunt op hoogfrequente wijze.The multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 1 to 25, further comprising: a fast electrostatic correction means, the drift correction means being arranged in the first particle optical beam path upstream of the intersection of the first individual particle beams ( 3) and is configured to keep the position of the individual particle beams constant in a very precise manner in order to form the intersection, and the control unit (10) is arranged to generate a deviation correction control signal during the wafer inspection to ensure the fast deviation correction means at the respective operating point in a high-frequency manner. 27. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van voorgaande conclusies 1 tot 26, voorts omvattende het volgende: een scaneenheid en een bundel-deflectiesysteem tussen de bundelschakelaar (400) en de objectieflens (102), waarbij voornoemd bundel- deflectiesysteem is ingericht om het waferoppervlak te rooster-scannen door middel van een scannende beweging van de eerste individuele deeltjesbundels (3) en gestuurd kan worden door middel van de scaneenheid; waarbij de besturingseenheid (10) is geconfigureerd om de scaneenheid te sturen door middel van een scaneenheid-stuursignaal tijdens de waferinspectie bij het respectieve werkingspunt en om het scaneenheid- stuursignaal te corrigeren op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens bij het respectieve werkingspunt op hoogfrequente wijze.The multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 1 to 26, further comprising: a scanning unit and a beam deflection system between the beam switch (400) and the objective lens (102), said beam deflection system being arranged to grid-scan the wafer surface by a scanning movement of the first individual particle beams (3) and can be controlled by the scanning unit; wherein the controller (10) is configured to control the scanning unit by means of a scanning unit control signal during the wafer inspection at the respective operating point and to correct the scanning unit driving signal based on the current autofocus data at the respective operating point in a high-frequency manner. 28. Het meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens de voorgaande conclusie, waarbij de scanparameters van de pixelgrootte, rotatie, scheefheid en/of kwadriciteit worden gecorrigeerd op hoogfrequente wijze door middel van opzoektabellen.The multiple particle beam system (1) according to the preceding claim, wherein the scanning parameters of the pixel size, rotation, skewness and/or quadricity are corrected in a high-frequency manner by means of look-up tables. 29. Een werkwijze voor het bedienen van een meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1), volgens eender welke van de voorgaande conclusies 1 tot 28, waarbij voornoemde werkwijze de volgende stappen omvat: het genereren van gegevens bij een eerste werkingspunt voor een stroomfocus in het objectvlak (101); het bepalen van actuele autofocusgegevens op basis van de gegevens;A method of operating a multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of the preceding claims 1 to 28, said method comprising the steps of: generating data at a first operating point for a current focus in the object plane ( 101); determining current autofocus data based on the data; het genereren van een eerste autofocus correctielens- stuursignaal op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens en het sturen van de eerste snelle autofocus correctielens (901) op hoogfrequente wijze; en/of het genereren van een tweede snelle autofocus correctielens- stuursignaal op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens en het sturen van de tweede snelle autofocus correctielens (902) op hoogfrequente wijze; en/of het genereren van een derde snelle autofocus correctielens- stuursignaal op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens en het sturen van de derde snelle autofocus correctielens (903) op hoogfrequente wijze; en/of het genereren van een vierde snelle autofocus correctielens- stuursignaal op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens en het sturen van de vierde snelle autofocus correctielens (904) op hoogfrequente wijze; en/of het genereren van een vijfde snelle autofocus correctielens- stuursignaal op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens en het sturen van de vijfde snelle autofocus correctielens (905) op hoogfrequente wijze; en/of het genereren van een zesde snelle autofocus correctielens- stuursignaal op basis van de actuele autofocusgegevens en het sturen van de zesde snelle autofocus correctielens (906) op hoogfrequente wijze; waarbij het sturen van twee of meer van de snelle autofocus correctielenzen (901, 902, 903, 904, 905, 906) het focussen in het objectvlak (101) constant houdt bij het eerste werkingspunt.generating a first autofocus correction lens drive signal based on the current autofocus data and driving the first fast autofocus correction lens (901) in a high-frequency manner; and/or generating a second fast autofocus correction lens control signal based on the current autofocus data and driving the second fast autofocus correction lens (902) in a high-frequency manner; and/or generating a third fast autofocus correction lens control signal based on the current autofocus data and driving the third fast autofocus correction lens (903) in a high-frequency manner; and/or generating a fourth fast autofocus correction lens control signal based on the current autofocus data and driving the fourth fast autofocus correction lens (904) in a high-frequency manner; and/or generating a fifth fast autofocus correction lens control signal based on the current autofocus data and driving the fifth fast autofocus correction lens (905) in a high-frequency manner; and/or generating a sixth fast autofocus correction lens control signal based on the current autofocus data and driving the sixth fast autofocus correction lens (906) in a high-frequency manner; wherein driving two or more of the fast autofocus correction lenses (901, 902, 903, 904, 905, 906) keeps the focusing in the object plane (101) constant at the first point of operation. 30. De werkwijze voor het bedienen van een meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens de voorgaande conclusie, waarbij de landingshoek, de rotatie en/of de positie van de eerste individuele deeltjesbundels in het objectvlak (101) ook constant worden gehouden bij het eerste werkingspunt.The method of operating a multiple particle beam system (1) according to the preceding claim, wherein the landing angle, the rotation and/or the position of the first individual particle beams in the object plane (101) are also kept constant at the first operating point . 31. De werkwijze voor het bedienen van een meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van conclusies 29 tot 30,The method of operating a multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 29 to 30, waarbij de snelle autofocus correctielens (901, 902, 903, 904, 905, 906) een elektrostatische lens omvat.wherein the fast autofocus correction lens (901, 902, 903, 904, 905, 906) comprises an electrostatic lens. 32. De werkwijze voor het bedienen van een meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van conclusies 29 tot 31, waarbij de snelle autofocus correctielens (901, 902, 903, 904, 905, 906) een magnetische lens omvat.The method of operating a multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 29 to 31, wherein the fast autofocus correction lens (901, 902, 903, 904, 905, 906) comprises a magnetic lens. 33. De werkwijze voor het bedienen van een meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van conclusies 29 tot 32, voorts omvattende de volgende stap: het orthogonaliseren van effecten van de deeltjes optische componenten die worden gebruikt voor de correctie of correcties.The method of operating a multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 29 to 32, further comprising the step of: orthogonalizing effects of the particle optical components used for the correction or corrections. 34. De werkwijze voor het bedienen van een meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van conclusies 29 tot 33, voorts omvattende de volgende stappen: het veranderen van een werkingspunt, in het bijzonder het veranderen van de werkingsafstand, en het genereren van hysteresecorrectie-meetgegevens voor het karakteriseren van het deeltjes optische afbeelden in het objectvlak (101); en het corrigeren van het autofocus correctielens-stuursignaal op hoogfrequente wijze of het corrigeren van de autofocus correctielens- stuursignalen op hoogfrequente wijze op basis van de hysteresecorrectie- meetgegevens.The method of operating a multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 29 to 33, further comprising the steps of: changing an operating point, in particular changing the operating distance, and generating hysteresis correction measurement data for characterizing the particle optical imaging in the object plane (101); and correcting the autofocus correction lens drive signal in a high-frequency manner or correcting the autofocus correction lens drive signals in a high-frequency manner based on the hysteresis correction measurement data. 35. De werkwijze voor het bedienen van een meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van conclusies 29 tot 34, voorts omvattende de volgende stappen:The method of operating a multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 29 to 34, further comprising the following steps: het genereren van afwijkingscorrectie-stuursignalen en het corrigeren van bundelposities op zeer precieze wijze en in het bijzonder op hoogfrequente wijze door middel van de afwijkingscorrectie-stuursignalen.generating aberration correction control signals and correcting beam positions in a very precise manner and in particular in a high-frequency manner by means of the aberration correction control signals. 36. De werkwijze voor het bedienen van een meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van conclusies 29 tot 35, voorts omvattende de volgende stappen: het genereren van scaneenheid-stuursignalen en het corrigeren van de scaneenheid-stuursignalen op hoogfrequente wijze bij het respectieve werkingspunt, in het bijzonder door het gebruik van multidimensionale opzoektabellen.The method of operating a multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 29 to 35, further comprising the steps of: generating scan unit control signals and correcting the scan unit control signals in a high-frequency manner at the respective operating point, in particular through the use of multidimensional lookup tables. 37. De werkwijze voor het bedienen van een meervoudig deeltjesbundel systeem (1) volgens eender welke van conclusies 29 tot 36, voorts omvattende de volgende stappen: het corrigeren van beeldgegevens op zuiver computationele wijze met betrekking tot ten minste één bundelparameter, in het bijzonder het corrigeren van beeldgegevens op zuiver computationele wijze met betrekking tot een beeldverplaatsing in het objectvlak (101).The method of operating a multiple particle beam system (1) according to any one of claims 29 to 36, further comprising the steps of: correcting image data in a purely computational manner with respect to at least one beam parameter, in particular the correcting image data in a purely computational manner with respect to an image displacement in the object plane (101). 38. Een computerprogrammaproduct omvattende een programmacode voor het uitvoeren van de werkwijze zoals geclaimd in eender welke van conclusies 29 tot 37.A computer program product comprising program code for performing the method as claimed in any one of claims 29 to 37.
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