JP6828836B1 - Backwashing method for filtration equipment and filtration equipment - Google Patents

Backwashing method for filtration equipment and filtration equipment Download PDF

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JP6828836B1
JP6828836B1 JP2020013458A JP2020013458A JP6828836B1 JP 6828836 B1 JP6828836 B1 JP 6828836B1 JP 2020013458 A JP2020013458 A JP 2020013458A JP 2020013458 A JP2020013458 A JP 2020013458A JP 6828836 B1 JP6828836 B1 JP 6828836B1
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健次 勝又
健次 勝又
幸輝 野田
幸輝 野田
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【課題】給水人口の減少等により浄水量が減少した場合でも、追加の設備費及び動力費を要することなく、所定の洗浄機能を維持することができるろ過装置及びろ過装置の逆洗方法の提供。【解決手段】ろ材層が配置されたろ過池と、原水がろ材層を通過して得られた浄水が流入する浄水渠14と、ろ過池と排水手段を介して連通している排水渠16と、を備え、ろ過池内の水を、前記排水手段により前記排水渠に導くことにより、浄水渠内の浄水を前記ろ材層内を逆流させて前記ろ材層を逆洗するろ過装置であって、ろ材層はそれぞれが区画された複数のろ材層9a、9bに分割されており、複数のろ材層9a、9bの下方には各ろ材層から浄水が流出する複数の浄水室が設けられており、複数の浄水室のそれぞれには開閉手段を有する、浄水排出手段11a、11b及び捨水手段20が設けられ、各浄水室は前記各浄水排出手段を介して浄水渠14に連通している、ろ過装置。【選択図】図2−1PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a filtration device and a backwash method for a filtration device capable of maintaining a predetermined cleaning function without requiring additional equipment cost and power cost even when the amount of purified water decreases due to a decrease in the water supply population or the like. .. SOLUTION: A filtration pond in which a filter medium layer is arranged, a water purification culvert 14 into which purified water obtained by passing raw water through the filter medium layer flows in, and a drainage culvert 16 communicating with the filtration pond through a drainage means. The filter medium is a filtration device for backwashing the filter medium layer by causing the purified water in the water purification culvert to flow back into the filter medium layer by guiding the water in the filtration pond to the drainage culvert by the drainage means. The layer is divided into a plurality of filter medium layers 9a and 9b, each of which is partitioned, and a plurality of water purification chambers from which purified water flows out from each filter medium layer are provided below the plurality of filter medium layers 9a and 9b. Each of the water purification chambers is provided with water purification discharge means 11a, 11b and water disposal means 20, which have opening / closing means, and each water purification room communicates with the water purification culvert 14 via the water purification discharge means. .. [Selection diagram] Fig. 2-1

Description

本発明は、ろ過装置及びろ過装置の逆洗方法に関する。 The present invention relates to a filtration device and a backwashing method for the filtration device.

浄水場では河川や貯水池などの水源から原水を取水し、浄化処理を施して水道水として一般の需要に供給している。前記浄化処理の方式としては急速ろ過方式が広く採用されている。
急速ろ過方式とは、原水に凝集沈殿処理を施して懸濁質及びコロイド質を可能な限り沈殿池で除去した後に、急速ろ過池でろ過処理を施す方式をいう。急速ろ過池から流出された処理水は、殺菌処理されたのちに水道水として一般に供給される
At water purification plants, raw water is taken from water sources such as rivers and reservoirs, purified, and supplied to general demand as tap water. The rapid filtration method is widely adopted as the purification treatment method.
The rapid sand filter method refers to a method in which raw water is subjected to a coagulation sedimentation treatment to remove suspended matter and colloidal substances as much as possible in a sedimentation pond, and then filtered in a rapid sand filter pond. The treated water discharged from the rapid sand filter is sterilized and then generally supplied as tap water.

急速ろ過方式によって原水を浄化する急速ろ過池におけるろ過処理においては、急速ろ過池内に配置されたろ材に原水を比較的早い流速で流すことにより、原水中のフロック等の縣濁物質がろ材に付着されるか、ろ材層によってふるい分けされることにより除去される。
ろ過処理を継続すると、原水から除去された縣濁物質がろ材に堆積してろ材間で目詰まりが生じ、急速ろ過池におけるろ過処理能力は低下する。ろ過処理能力が低下すると、ろ過処理を経た原水の濁度が上昇して水質が悪化したり、損失水頭が増加して必要とされるろ過流量を得ることが難しくなったりする。このため、間欠的にろ材を洗浄してろ材に堆積した縣濁物質を取り除く逆洗によってろ材を再生させる必要がある。
In the filtration process in a rapid sand filter that purifies raw water by the rapid sand filter method, by flowing the raw water through the filter medium placed in the rapid sand filter at a relatively high flow rate, turbid substances such as flocs in the raw water adhere to the filter medium. It is removed or removed by sieving by a filter medium layer.
If the filtration treatment is continued, the turbid substances removed from the raw water will be deposited on the filter medium, causing clogging between the filter media, and the filtration treatment capacity in the rapid sand filter will be reduced. When the filtration treatment capacity decreases, the turbidity of the raw water that has undergone the filtration treatment increases and the water quality deteriorates, or the head loss increases and it becomes difficult to obtain the required filtration flow rate. For this reason, it is necessary to intermittently wash the filter medium to regenerate the filter medium by backwashing to remove the turbid substances accumulated on the filter medium.

特許文献1には、急速ろ過池のろ材層を逆洗する際に、浄水渠内の浄水の水位とろ過池内の水位(排水トラフ天端)の高低差を維持することで、逆洗に必要な水量(水圧)を確保するようにした自然平衡型ろ過装置が記載されている。 Patent Document 1 states that when the filter medium layer of a rapid sand filter is backwashed, it is necessary for backwashing by maintaining the height difference between the purified water level in the water purification culvert and the water level in the filtration pond (the top of the drainage trough). A naturally balanced filtration device that ensures a sufficient amount of water (water pressure) is described.

特開2015−100739号公報Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. 2015-100739

従来のろ過装置においては、逆洗に必要な逆洗水として共通の浄水渠に溜められた浄水を使用しており、この浄水渠には、全てのろ過池で処理された浄水が流入する。
浄水場においては計画浄水量に応じたろ過池面積を確保しつつ、洗浄工程に入っているろ過池1池分の逆洗に必要な洗浄水量を、ろ過継続中の他池の浄水量で補充できるように池数(分割数)を決定している。
In the conventional filtration device, purified water stored in a common water purification culvert is used as the backwash water required for backwashing, and the purified water treated in all the filtration ponds flows into this water purification culvert.
At the water purification plant, while securing the area of the filtration pond according to the planned amount of water purification, the amount of washing water required for backwashing of one filtration pond in the washing process is replenished with the amount of water purified from other ponds that are continuing filtration. The number of ponds (number of divisions) is determined so that it can be done.

逆洗は、浄水渠の浄水とろ過池の排水トラフとの水位差(900mm以上)を利用し、洗浄水を逆流させることによって行う。ろ過砂の表面洗浄(表洗)は、別途設ける表洗ポンプによる圧力水(0.15〜0.2MPa)にて行う。表洗ポンプの給水源は、浄水渠や浄水池が一般的である。 Backwashing is performed by backflowing the washed water using the water level difference (900 mm or more) between the purified water of the water purification culvert and the drainage trough of the filtration pond. The surface cleaning (surface cleaning) of the filtered sand is performed with pressure water (0.15 to 0.2 MPa) using a separately provided surface cleaning pump. The water supply source of the surface washing pump is generally a water purification culvert or a water purification pond.

ところで、浄水場全体のろ過水量によっては、逆洗や表洗により浄水渠の水位が低下することがある。浄水渠の水位が低下すると、前記水位差が小さくなり逆洗水量が減少して逆洗不良となる。このため、浄水渠の水位は一定水位以上に保たなければならない。
また、逆洗操作は、逆洗の途中で停止することができないため、浄水渠の水位が低下した場合には浄水渠の水位を回復するための補給水が必要となる。
しかしながら、ろ過水量によって補給水量を自動調整するには制御設備として新たな設備が必要となる。また、逆洗水量と同等の補給水を供給するには大容量のポンプ等を設置する必要がある。
By the way, depending on the amount of filtered water in the entire water purification plant, the water level of the water purification culvert may drop due to backwashing or surface washing. When the water level of the water purification culvert drops, the difference in water level becomes smaller and the amount of backwash water decreases, resulting in poor backwashing. Therefore, the water level of the water purification culvert must be kept above a certain level.
Further, since the backwash operation cannot be stopped in the middle of the backwash, when the water level of the water purification culvert drops, make-up water for recovering the water level of the water purification culvert is required.
However, in order to automatically adjust the amount of make-up water according to the amount of filtered water, new equipment is required as control equipment. In addition, it is necessary to install a large-capacity pump or the like in order to supply make-up water equivalent to the amount of backwash water.

上記した従来の逆洗方式では、将来的な給水人ロの減少等により浄水量が減少した場合、ろ過継続中の他のろ過池の浄水で洗浄水を補充することが不可能となる。そのため、浄水池等からポンプを用いて洗浄水を補充することが必要となり、追加の設備費及び動力費が問題となる。 In the conventional backwashing method described above, if the amount of purified water decreases due to a decrease in the number of water supply personnel in the future, it becomes impossible to replenish the washed water with purified water from another filtration pond during which filtration is continuing. Therefore, it is necessary to replenish the washing water from a water purification pond or the like using a pump, and additional equipment costs and power costs become a problem.

本発明は、将来的な給水人口の減少等により浄水量が減少した場合でも、追加の設備費及び動力費を要することなく、所定の洗浄機能を維持することができるろ過装置及びろ過装置の逆洗方法を提供することを目的とする。 The present invention is the reverse of a filtration device and a filtration device capable of maintaining a predetermined cleaning function without requiring additional equipment cost and power cost even when the amount of purified water decreases due to a decrease in the water supply population in the future. The purpose is to provide a washing method.

上記課題を解決するための本発明の実施形態は以下に記載するとおりのものである。
(1)ろ材層が配置されたろ過池と、
原水が前記ろ材層を通過して得られた浄水が流入する浄水渠と、
前記ろ過池と排水手段を介して連通している排水渠と、を備え、
前記ろ過池内の水を、前記排水手段により前記排水渠に導くことにより、前記浄水渠内の前記浄水を前記ろ材層内を逆流させて前記ろ材層を逆洗するろ過装置であって、
前記ろ材層はそれぞれが区画された複数のろ材層に分割されており、
前記複数のろ材層の下方には各ろ材層から浄水が流出する複数の浄水室が設けられており、
前記複数の浄水室のそれぞれには開閉手段を有する浄水排出手段及び開閉手段を有する捨水手段が設けられ、
前記各浄水室は、前記各浄水排出手段を介して前記浄水渠に連通し、前記捨水手段を介して前記排水渠に連通している、
ことを特徴とするろ過装置。
(2)前記ろ材層は第1ろ材層と第2ろ材層とに2分割されており、
前記第1ろ材層の下方には第1浄水室が、前記第2ろ材層の下方には第2浄水室がそれぞれ設けられており、
前記第1浄水室及び前記第2浄水室は、それぞれの浄水室の壁に設けられた開閉扉又は開閉弁を介して前記浄水渠に連通している、上記(1)に記載のろ過装置。
(3)前記ろ材層は第1ろ材層と第2ろ材層とに分割して形成されており、
前記第1ろ材層の下方には第1浄水室が、前記第2ろ材層の下方には第2浄水室がそれぞれ設けられており、
前記第1浄水室には開閉手段を有する第1浄水流出管が接続され、前記第2浄水室には開閉手段を有する第2浄水流出管が接続されており、
前記第1浄水流出管及び前記第2浄水流出管は、前記第1浄水流出管を通る浄水と、前記第2浄水流出管を通る浄水とを合流させて浄水を前記浄水渠に導く浄水合流管に接続されている、上記(1)に記載のろ過装置。
(4)前記第1ろ材層と前記第2ろ材層の前記浄水排出手段が設けられた側とは反対側の端部にガリットが配置されており、前記ガリットは開閉手段を介して前記排水渠に連通している、上記(2)又は(3)に記載のろ過装置。
(5)前記第1ろ材層と前記第2ろ材層とはガリットを挟んで配置されており、前記ガリットは開閉手段を介して前記排水渠に連通していることを特徴とする上記(2)又は(3)のいずれか1項に記載のろ過装置。
(6)前記各ろ材層の上方には、ろ材層の表面に加圧水を噴射する表面洗浄管が設けられている、上記(1)〜(5)のいずれか1項に記載のろ過装置。
(7)上記(1)に記載のろ過装置を逆洗する方法であって、
ろ過池内の原水を前記浄水排手段によって前記排水渠に排出する工程と、
前記複数のろ材層の内の一つのろ材層の浄水室に設けられた前記浄水排出手段を開放して、前記浄水渠内の浄水を浄水室及びろ材層に流入させてろ材層を逆洗し、逆洗後の洗浄水を前記排水渠に排出する逆洗工程と、
前記の逆洗工程を他のろ材層について順次行う工程と、
前記逆洗工程を全てのろ材層について行った後に、前記原水を前記ろ過池に供給し、得られた浄水を前記捨水手段を介して前記排水渠に排出する捨水工程と、
前記捨水工程の後、ろ材層を通過して得られた浄水を前記浄水渠に流出させる工程と、
を有することを特徴とするろ過装置の逆洗方法。
(8)上記(2)に記載のろ過装置を逆洗する方法であって、
ろ過池内の原水を前記浄水排手段によって前記排水渠に排出する工程と、
前記第1浄水室に設けられた開閉手段を開放することによって、前記浄水渠から浄水を前記第1浄水室及び前記第1ろ材層に流入させて前記第1ろ材層を逆洗し、逆洗後の洗浄水を前記排水渠に排出する第1逆洗工程と、
前記第2浄水室に設けられた開閉手段を開放することによって、前記浄水渠から浄水を前記第2浄水室及び前記第2ろ材層に流入させて前記第2ろ材層を逆洗し、逆洗後の洗浄水を前記排水渠に排出する第2逆洗工程と、
前記第2逆洗工程の終了後に、前記原水を前記ろ過池に供給して、前記第1ろ材層及び前記第2ろ材層で得られた浄水を前記捨水手段を介して前記排水渠に排出する捨水工程と、
前記捨水工程の後、前記第1及び前記第2ろ材層を通過して得られた浄水を前記浄水渠に流出させる工程と、
を有することを特徴とするろ過装置の逆洗方法。
(9)上記(3)に記載のろ過装置を逆洗する方法であって、
ろ過池内の原水を前記浄水排手段によって前記排水渠に排出する工程と、
前記浄水渠から浄水を前記浄水合流管及び前記第1浄水流出管を通して逆流させて前記第1ろ材層を逆洗し、逆洗後の洗浄水を前記排水手段を介して前記排水渠に排出する第1逆洗工程と、
前記浄水渠から浄水を前記浄水合流管及び前記第2浄水流出管を通して逆流させて前記第2ろ材層を逆洗し、逆洗後の洗浄水を前記排水手段を介して前記排水渠に排出する第2逆洗工程と、
前記第2逆洗工程の終了後に前記原水を前記ろ過池に供給し、得られた浄水を前記捨水手段を介して前記排水渠に排出する捨水工程と、
前記捨水工程の後、前記第1及び第2ろ材層を通過して得られた浄水を前記浄水渠に貯蔵する工程と、
を有することを特徴とするろ過装置の逆洗方法。
(10)前記第1逆洗工程及び前記第2逆洗工程の前に、各ろ材層の上方に設けた表面洗浄管から加圧水を噴射して表面洗浄を行う表面洗浄工程を有する、上記(8)又は(9)のいずれか1項に記載のろ過装置の逆洗方法。
An embodiment of the present invention for solving the above problems is as described below.
(1) A filtration pond with a filter medium layer and
A water culvert into which the purified water obtained by passing the raw water through the filter medium layer flows in,
It is equipped with a drainage culvert that communicates with the filtration pond via a drainage means.
A filtration device for backwashing the filter medium layer by guiding the water in the filtration pond to the drainage culvert by the drainage means so that the purified water in the water purification culvert flows back into the filter medium layer.
The filter medium layer is divided into a plurality of filter medium layers, each of which is partitioned.
Below the plurality of filter medium layers, a plurality of water purification chambers through which purified water flows out from each filter medium layer are provided.
Each of the plurality of water purification chambers is provided with a purified water discharge means having an opening / closing means and a water disposal means having an opening / closing means.
Each of the water purification chambers communicates with the water purification culvert through the water purification discharge means, and communicates with the drainage culvert through the water disposal means.
A filtration device characterized by that.
(2) The filter medium layer is divided into a first filter medium layer and a second filter medium layer.
A first water purification chamber is provided below the first filter medium layer, and a second water purification chamber is provided below the second filter medium layer.
The filtration device according to (1) above, wherein the first water purification chamber and the second water purification chamber communicate with the water purification culvert through an on-off door or an on-off valve provided on the wall of each water purification chamber.
(3) The filter medium layer is divided into a first filter medium layer and a second filter medium layer, and is formed.
A first water purification chamber is provided below the first filter medium layer, and a second water purification chamber is provided below the second filter medium layer.
A first purified water outflow pipe having an opening / closing means is connected to the first water purification chamber, and a second purified water outflow pipe having an opening / closing means is connected to the second water purification chamber.
The first purified water outflow pipe and the second purified water outflow pipe combine the purified water passing through the first purified water outflow pipe and the purified water passing through the second purified water outflow pipe to guide the purified water to the purified water culvert. The filtration device according to (1) above, which is connected to.
(4) Galit is arranged at the end of the first filter medium layer and the second filter medium layer on the side opposite to the side where the purified water discharge means is provided , and the galit is connected to the drainage culvert via the opening / closing means. The filtration device according to (2) or (3) above, which communicates with the above.
(5) The first filter medium layer and the second filter medium layer are arranged so as to sandwich a gallit, and the gallit communicates with the drainage culvert via an opening / closing means (2). Or the filtration device according to any one of (3).
(6) The filtration device according to any one of (1) to (5) above, wherein a surface cleaning tube for injecting pressurized water onto the surface of each filter medium layer is provided above each filter medium layer.
(7) A method of backwashing the filtration device according to (1) above.
A step of discharging the drainage culvert by a raw water filtration Ikeuchi the purified water discharge detecting means,
The purified water discharge means provided in the water purification chamber of one of the plurality of filter medium layers is opened, and the purified water in the water purification culvert is allowed to flow into the water purification chamber and the filter medium layer to backwash the filter medium layer. , The backwashing step of discharging the washing water after backwashing to the drainage channel,
A step of sequentially performing the backwashing step for other filter media layers, and
After performing the backwashing step for all the filter medium layers, the raw water is supplied to the filtration pond, and the obtained purified water is discharged to the drainage culvert through the drainage means.
After the water disposal step, a step of causing the purified water obtained through the filter medium layer to flow out to the water purification culvert,
A method for backwashing a filtration device, which comprises the above.
(8) A method of backwashing the filtration device according to (2) above.
A step of discharging the drainage culvert by a raw water filtration Ikeuchi the purified water discharge detecting means,
By opening the opening / closing means provided in the first water purification chamber, purified water is allowed to flow from the water purification culvert into the first water purification chamber and the first filter medium layer to backwash the first filter medium layer and backwash. The first backwashing step of discharging the subsequent washing water to the drainage ditch, and
By opening the opening / closing means provided in the second water purification chamber, purified water is allowed to flow from the water purification culvert into the second water purification chamber and the second filter medium layer to backwash the second filter medium layer and backwash. The second backwashing step of discharging the subsequent washing water to the drainage ditch, and
After the completion of the second backwashing step, the raw water is supplied to the filtration pond, and the purified water obtained in the first filter medium layer and the second filter medium layer is discharged to the drainage ditch via the wastewater means. Water disposal process and
After the water disposal step, a step of causing the purified water obtained through the first and second filter medium layers to flow out to the water purification culvert.
A method for backwashing a filtration device, which comprises the above.
(9) A method of backwashing the filtration device according to (3) above.
A step of discharging the drainage culvert by a raw water filtration Ikeuchi the purified water discharge detecting means,
The purified water is backflowed from the purified water culvert through the purified water confluence pipe and the first purified water outflow pipe to backwash the first filter medium layer, and the washed water after the backwash is discharged to the drainage culvert through the drainage means. The first backwash process and
The purified water is backflowed from the purified water culvert through the purified water confluence pipe and the second purified water outflow pipe to backwash the second filter medium layer, and the washed water after the backwash is discharged to the drainage culvert through the drainage means. The second backwash process and
After the completion of the second backwashing step, the raw water is supplied to the filtration pond, and the obtained purified water is discharged to the drainage culvert through the wastewater means.
After the water disposal step, a step of storing the purified water obtained through the first and second filter medium layers in the water purification culvert, and
A method for backwashing a filtration device, which comprises the above.
(10) The above (8) having a surface cleaning step of injecting pressurized water from a surface cleaning pipe provided above each filter medium layer to perform surface cleaning before the first backwashing step and the second backwashing step. ) Or (9), the method for backwashing the filtration device according to any one of the following items.

本発明により、将来的な給水人口の減少等により浄水量が減少した場合でも、追加の設備費及び動力費を要することなく、所定の洗浄機能を維持することができるろ過装置及びろ過装置の逆洗方法を提供することができる。 According to the present invention, even if the amount of purified water decreases due to a decrease in the water supply population in the future, the reverse of the filtration device and the filtration device capable of maintaining a predetermined cleaning function without requiring additional equipment cost and power cost. A washing method can be provided.

本発明のろ過装置の実施形態の一つを示す図である。It is a figure which shows one of the embodiments of the filtration apparatus of this invention. 本発明の逆洗方法の実施形態のろ過工程を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the filtration process of embodiment of the backwashing method of this invention. 本発明の逆洗方法の実施形態の排水工程を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the drainage process of embodiment of the backwashing method of this invention. 本発明の逆洗方法の実施形態の表面洗浄工程1を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the surface cleaning step 1 of the embodiment of the backwashing method of this invention. 本発明の逆洗方法の実施形態の逆洗工程1を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the backwash process 1 of embodiment of the backwash method of this invention. 本発明の逆洗方法の実施形態の表面洗浄工程2を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the surface cleaning step 2 of the embodiment of the backwashing method of this invention. 本発明の逆洗方法の実施形態の逆洗工程2を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the backwashing process 2 of embodiment of the backwashing method of this invention. 本発明の逆洗方法の実施形態の注水工程を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the water injection process of embodiment of the backwash method of this invention. 本発明の逆洗方法の実施形態の捨水工程を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the water disposal process of embodiment of the backwashing method of this invention. 本発明の逆洗方法の実施形態のろ過工程を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the filtration process of embodiment of the backwashing method of this invention. 本発明のろ過装置の実施形態の一つを示す図である。It is a figure which shows one of the embodiments of the filtration apparatus of this invention. 本発明のろ過装置の実施形態の一つを示す図である。It is a figure which shows one of the embodiments of the filtration apparatus of this invention. 本発明のろ過装置の実施形態の一つを示す図である。It is a figure which shows one of the embodiments of the filtration apparatus of this invention. 本発明のろ過装置の実施形態の一つを示す図であるIt is a figure which shows one of the embodiments of the filtration apparatus of this invention. 本発明のろ過装置の実施形態の一つを示す図であるIt is a figure which shows one of the embodiments of the filtration apparatus of this invention.

本発明のろ過装置は、一つのろ過池におけるろ過池内のろ材層を複数個に分割して、分割された各ろ材層をそれぞれ独立して逆洗することを可能とした点に特徴がある。
なお、この場合、ろ過池の全体面積は、従来のろ過池の全体面積と同等とする。
The filtration device of the present invention is characterized in that the filter medium layers in the filtration pond in one filtration pond can be divided into a plurality of parts, and each of the divided filter medium layers can be backwashed independently.
In this case, the total area of the filtration pond is the same as the total area of the conventional filtration pond.

まず、本発明のろ過装置について、一つのろ過池においてろ材層を二つに分割した場合を例にとって説明する。
ろ材層の分割数を2とした場合、洗浄面積が半分となり、ろ過層を逆洗するために必要な逆洗水量は半分となる。逆洗水量が減少すると、浄水渠からろ過池に供給される逆洗水量も半分となり、浄水渠からろ過池への浄水の単位時間当たりの流量が減少する。
そうすると、浄水場のろ過水量が少ない場合であっても、浄水渠から流出する逆洗水の水量を少なくすることができ、浄水渠の水位の低下を防ぐことができる。
First, the filtration device of the present invention will be described by taking as an example a case where the filter medium layer is divided into two in one filtration pond.
When the number of divisions of the filter medium layer is 2, the cleaning area is halved, and the amount of backwash water required for backwashing the filtration layer is halved. When the amount of backwash water decreases, the amount of backwash water supplied from the water purification culvert to the filtration pond is also halved, and the flow rate of purified water from the water purification culvert to the filtration basin per unit time decreases.
Then, even when the amount of filtered water in the water purification plant is small, the amount of backwash water flowing out from the water purification culvert can be reduced, and the water level of the water purification culvert can be prevented from dropping.

また、これに伴い、表面洗浄水の水量も半分となるため、表洗ポンプの吐出量を半分にできるため表洗ポンプの容量を小さくすることができる。
上記のように本発明のろ過装置は、将来の水需要減少に対応してダウンサイジング可能なろ過装置である。
Further, along with this, the amount of surface washing water is also halved, so that the discharge amount of the surface washing pump can be halved, and the capacity of the surface washing pump can be reduced.
As described above, the filtration device of the present invention is a filtration device that can be downsized in response to a future decrease in water demand.

本発明のろ過装置の種々の実施形態について以下説明する。 Various embodiments of the filtration device of the present invention will be described below.

[第1の実施形態]
図1は本発明の第1の実施形態のろ過装置の平面図を示す図である。
図1に示すろ過装置の詳細は図2−1〜図2−9に基づいて説明するが、その特徴は以下の通りである。
・ろ過池を二分するようにガリット8を配置し、ガリットを挟んで第1ろ材層9a及び第2ろ材層9bを配置する。
・表面洗浄管(ノズル)10a、10bに洗浄水を供給する表洗ポンプは浄水渠14または浄水池に設置する。
・第1ろ材層9a及び第2ろ材層9bによって浄化された浄水は浄水流出管11a、11bから合流管12に流入し浄水渠14に送られる。
[First Embodiment]
FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a plan view of the filtration device according to the first embodiment of the present invention.
The details of the filtration device shown in FIG. 1 will be described with reference to FIGS. 2-1 to 2-9, and the features thereof are as follows.
-The Galit 8 is arranged so as to divide the filtration pond into two, and the first filter medium layer 9a and the second filter medium layer 9b are arranged so as to sandwich the Galit.
-The surface washing pump that supplies the washing water to the surface washing pipes (nozzles) 10a and 10b is installed in the water purification culvert 14 or the water purification pond.
-The purified water purified by the first filter medium layer 9a and the second filter medium layer 9b flows into the merging pipe 12 from the purified water outflow pipes 11a and 11b and is sent to the purified water culvert 14.

(1)STEP1
(ろ過工程:図2−1参照)
図2−1のAはろ過装置の正面断面図であり、Bはろ過装置の側断面図であり、Cはろ過装置の集水ブロック部の平面図である。
原水流入弁(扉)1からガリット8へ流入した原水は、ガリット8の両側のろ材層9a,9bの上方から下方へ流下しながらろ過されて浄水となる。浄水はそれぞれ浄水流出管11a,11bから流出し、合流管12を通って浄水渠14に流入する。
(1) STEP1
(Filtration process: see Fig. 2-1)
A of FIG. 2-1 is a front sectional view of the filtration device, B is a side sectional view of the filtration device, and C is a plan view of a water collecting block portion of the filtration device.
The raw water that has flowed into the Galit 8 from the raw water inflow valve (door) 1 is filtered while flowing downward from above the filter medium layers 9a and 9b on both sides of the Galit 8 to purify the water. The purified water flows out from the purified water outflow pipes 11a and 11b, respectively, and flows into the purified water culvert 14 through the merging pipe 12.

(2)STEP2
(排水工程:図2−2参照)
図2−2のBは排水トラフ15aの縦断面を示す側断面図であり、Dはろ過装置の平面図である。
原水流入弁(扉)1を閉じ、原水の流入を停止する。原水の流入停止後もろ材上方の水位が所定の水位になるまでろ過を継続させたのち浄水弁5を閉止する。その後、ガリット8端部の排水弁(扉)2を開き、ろ過池内(ガリット8内、排水トラフ15a、15b上方)の原水を排水渠16へ排出する。
(2) STEP2
(Drainage process: see Fig. 2-2)
B of FIG. 2-2 is a side sectional view showing a vertical cross section of the drainage trough 15a, and D is a plan view of the filtration device.
The raw water inflow valve (door) 1 is closed to stop the inflow of raw water. After the inflow of raw water is stopped, filtration is continued until the water level above the filter medium reaches a predetermined water level, and then the water purification valve 5 is closed. After that, the drain valve (door) 2 at the end of the Galit 8 is opened, and the raw water in the filtration pond (inside the Galit 8, above the drain troughs 15a and 15b) is discharged to the drainage culvert 16.

(3)STEP3
(表面洗浄工程1:図2−3参照)
第1ろ材層9aの表面洗浄弁3aを開き、浄水渠14または浄水池からポンプ圧送した表面洗浄水を表面洗浄管(ノズル)10aから噴射し、ろ材層9aの表層の泥状層を水流エネルギーにより破砕する。所定時間が経過した後に表面洗浄管(ノズル)10aの弁を閉じ、表面洗浄工程1を終了する。
(3) STEP3
(Surface cleaning step 1: see Fig. 2-3)
The surface cleaning valve 3a of the first filter medium layer 9a is opened, the surface cleaning water pumped from the water purification culvert 14 or the water purification pond is injected from the surface cleaning pipe (nozzle) 10a, and the muddy layer on the surface of the filter medium layer 9a is subjected to water flow energy. Crush by. After a lapse of a predetermined time, the valve of the surface cleaning pipe (nozzle) 10a is closed to end the surface cleaning step 1.

(4)STEP4
(逆洗工程1:図2−4参照)
図2−4のBはろ過装置における逆洗水の流れを示す、側断面図である。
STEP4(逆洗工程1)はSTEP3(表面洗浄工程1)を終了する1分程前に開始する。
浄水弁5と第1ろ材層9aの逆洗弁6aを開き、浄水渠14から合流管12と浄水流出管11aを通って流下した洗浄水をろ材層9aの下方から上方へ逆流させて、汚濁物質が付着したろ材を洗浄する。ろ材層9aの下層部分から流出してくる洗浄水は、排水トラフ15aの上端から越流してガリット8へ流下し、ガリット8の端部の排水弁(扉)2から排水渠16へ排出する。所定時間が経過した後に、逆洗弁6aを閉じ、逆洗工程1を終了する。
(4) STEP4
(Backwash step 1: see Fig. 2-4)
FIG. 2-4 B is a side sectional view showing the flow of backwash water in the filtration device.
STEP4 (backwashing step 1) is started about 1 minute before the end of STEP3 (surface cleaning step 1).
The backwash valve 6a of the water purification valve 5 and the first filter medium layer 9a is opened, and the wash water flowing down from the water purification culvert 14 through the merging pipe 12 and the purified water outflow pipe 11a is made to flow back from the lower side to the upper side of the filter medium layer 9a to pollute. Clean the filter media to which the substance has adhered. The washing water flowing out from the lower layer portion of the filter medium layer 9a overflows from the upper end of the drainage trough 15a and flows down to the Galit 8, and is discharged from the drain valve (door) 2 at the end of the Galit 8 to the drainage culvert 16. After the predetermined time has elapsed, the backwash valve 6a is closed and the backwash step 1 is completed.

(5)STEP5
(表面洗浄工程2:図2−5参照)
第2ろ材層9bの表面洗浄弁3bを開き、浄水渠14または浄水池からポンプ圧送した表面洗浄水を表面洗浄管(ノズル)10bから噴射し、ろ材層9bの表層の泥状層を水流エネルギーにより破砕する。所定時間が経過した後に表面洗浄管(ノズル)10bの弁を閉じ、表面洗浄工程2を終了する。
(5) STEP5
(Surface cleaning step 2: see Fig. 2-5)
The surface cleaning valve 3b of the second filter medium layer 9b is opened, the surface cleaning water pumped from the water purification culvert 14 or the water purification pond is injected from the surface cleaning pipe (nozzle) 10b, and the muddy layer on the surface of the filter medium layer 9b is subjected to water flow energy. Crush by. After a lapse of a predetermined time, the valve of the surface cleaning pipe (nozzle) 10b is closed to end the surface cleaning step 2.

(6)STEP6
(逆洗工程2:図2−6参照)
STEP6(逆洗工程2)はSTEP5(表面洗浄工程2)を終了する1分程前に開始する。
浄水弁5と第2ろ材層9bの逆洗弁6bを開き、浄水渠14から合流管12と浄水流出管11bを通って流下した洗浄水を第2ろ材層9bの下方から上方へ逆流させて、汚濁物質が付着したろ材を洗浄する。第2ろ材層9bの下層部分から流出してくる洗浄水は、排水トラフ15b上端から越流してガリット8へ流下し、ガリット8端部の排水弁(扉)2から排水渠16へ排出する。所定時間が経過した後に、逆洗弁6bと浄水弁5を閉じ、逆洗工程2を終了する。
(6) STEP6
(Backwash step 2: see Fig. 2-6)
STEP 6 (backwashing step 2) is started about 1 minute before the end of STEP5 (surface cleaning step 2).
The backwash valve 6b of the water purification valve 5 and the second filter medium layer 9b is opened, and the wash water flowing down from the water purification culvert 14 through the confluence pipe 12 and the purified water outflow pipe 11b is made to flow back from the lower side to the upper side of the second filter medium layer 9b. , Clean the filter media with pollutants. The washing water flowing out from the lower layer portion of the second filter medium layer 9b overflows from the upper end of the drainage trough 15b and flows down to the Galit 8, and is discharged from the drain valve (door) 2 at the end of the Galit 8 to the drainage culvert 16. After the predetermined time has elapsed, the backwash valve 6b and the water purification valve 5 are closed, and the backwash step 2 is completed.

(7)STEP7
(注水工程:図2−7参照)
ガリット8端部の排水弁(扉)2を閉じ、原水流入弁(扉)1を開いて原水をガリット8に流入させ、ろ過池の水位を所定の高さまで上げる。
(8)STEP8
(捨水工程:図2−8参照)
逆洗弁6a、6bを開き、同時に捨水弁20を開いてろ過を再開する。ろ過再開直後にろ材層9a、9bでろ過された浄水は、浄水流出管11a、11bから流出し、捨水管21を通って排水渠16に排出する。所定時間が経過した後に、捨水弁20を閉じ、捨水工程を終了する。
(7) STEP7
(Water injection process: see Fig. 2-7)
The drain valve (door) 2 at the end of the Galit 8 is closed, the raw water inflow valve (door) 1 is opened to allow the raw water to flow into the Galit 8, and the water level of the filtration pond is raised to a predetermined height.
(8) STEP8
(Water disposal process: see Fig. 2-8)
The backwash valves 6a and 6b are opened, and at the same time, the waste water valve 20 is opened to restart the filtration. Immediately after resuming filtration, the purified water filtered by the filter medium layers 9a and 9b flows out from the purified water outflow pipes 11a and 11b, and is discharged to the drainage culvert 16 through the wastewater pipe 21. After the predetermined time has elapsed, the water disposal valve 20 is closed to end the water disposal process.

(9)STEP9
(ろ過工程:図2−9参照)
浄水弁5を開き、通常ろ過を再開する。第1ろ材層9a及び第2ろ材層9bでろ過された浄水は、浄水流出管11a、11bから合流管12を通って浄水渠14に流入する。
(9) STEP9
(Filtration process: see Fig. 2-9)
The water purification valve 5 is opened and normal filtration is restarted. The purified water filtered by the first filter medium layer 9a and the second filter medium layer 9b flows into the purified water culvert 14 from the purified water outflow pipes 11a and 11b through the merging pipe 12.

[第2の実施形態]
本実施形態のろ過装置を図3に示す。
図3に示したものは、実施形態1のろ過装置と比べると、第1ろ材層と第2ろ材層とをガリット8を挟んで設けた点では同じである。
図3において第2ろ材層についてはろ材層の下方にありろ材層を支持する集水ブロック34を示している。
第1の実施形態ではろ材層からの浄水の流出及びろ材層への逆洗水の流入のために合流管12及び浄水流出管11a、11bを用いたが、本実施形態では、合流管12及び浄水流出管11a、11bを設ける代わりに、第1浄水室の壁に浄水扉31aを設け、第2浄水室の壁に浄水扉31bを設けて浄水室と浄水渠14とを浄水扉31a、31bを介して連通させたものである。
本実施形態による逆洗工程は以下のようにして行われる。但し、表面洗浄工程についての説明は省略する。
[Second Embodiment]
The filtration device of this embodiment is shown in FIG.
The one shown in FIG. 3 is the same as the filtration device of the first embodiment in that the first filter medium layer and the second filter medium layer are provided with the gallit 8 interposed therebetween.
In FIG. 3, the second filter medium layer is below the filter medium layer and shows a water collecting block 34 that supports the filter medium layer.
In the first embodiment, the merging pipe 12 and the purified water outflow pipes 11a and 11b were used for the outflow of purified water from the filter medium layer and the inflow of backwash water into the filter medium layer, but in the present embodiment, the merging pipe 12 and Instead of providing the water purification outflow pipes 11a and 11b, a water purification door 31a is provided on the wall of the first water purification room, a water purification door 31b is provided on the wall of the second water purification room, and the water purification room and the water purification culvert 14 are provided with the water purification doors 31a and 31b. It is communicated through.
The backwashing step according to this embodiment is performed as follows. However, the description of the surface cleaning process will be omitted.

(第1逆洗工程)
ろ過池内の原水をガリットに設けた排水弁(扉)2を開放することによって排水渠16に排出する。
次いで第1浄水室に設けられた浄水扉31aを開放し、浄水扉31bを閉止することによって、浄水渠14から浄水扉31aを介して浄水を第1浄水室に流入させ、第1ろ材層9a内を逆流させて前記第1ろ材層9aを逆洗し、逆洗後の洗浄水を前記排水渠16に排出して第1逆洗工程を行う。
第1逆洗工程が終了したら第1浄水室に設けられた浄水扉31aを閉止する。
(1st backwash process)
The raw water in the filtration pond is discharged to the drainage culvert 16 by opening the drainage valve (door) 2 provided in the gallit.
Next, by opening the water purification door 31a provided in the first water purification chamber and closing the water purification door 31b, purified water flows from the water purification culvert 14 through the water purification door 31a into the first water purification chamber, and the first filter medium layer 9a The inside is backflowed to backwash the first filter medium layer 9a, and the washing water after the backwash is discharged to the drainage culvert 16 to perform the first backwashing step.
When the first backwashing step is completed, the water purification door 31a provided in the first water purification chamber is closed.

(第2逆洗工程)
第2浄水室に設けられた浄水扉31bを開放することによって、前記浄水渠14から浄水を第2浄水室に流入させ、第2ろ材層9b内を逆流させて第2ろ材層9bを逆洗し、逆洗後の洗浄水を前記排水渠16に排出して第2逆洗工程を行う。
第2逆洗工程が終了したら第2浄水室に設けられた浄水扉31bを閉止する。
(Second backwash process)
By opening the water purification door 31b provided in the second water purification chamber, purified water flows into the second water purification chamber from the water purification culvert 14 and flows back in the second filter medium layer 9b to backwash the second filter medium layer 9b. Then, the washing water after the backwash is discharged to the drainage culvert 16 to perform the second backwash step.
When the second backwashing step is completed, the water purification door 31b provided in the second water purification chamber is closed.

(注水工程)
ガリット8端部の排水弁(扉)2を閉じ、原水管30の原水流入弁(扉)を開放して原水をガリット8に流入させ、ろ過池の水位を所定の高さまで上げる。
(Water injection process)
The drain valve (door) 2 at the end of the Galit 8 is closed, the raw water inflow valve (door) of the raw water pipe 30 is opened to allow the raw water to flow into the Galit 8, and the water level of the filtration pond is raised to a predetermined height.

(捨水工程)
ろ過を再開し、第1ろ材層9a及び第2ろ材層9bで得られた浄水を捨水扉32a、32bを介して排水渠16に排出する。所定時間が経過した後に、捨水扉32a、32bを閉じ、捨水工程を終了する。
(Water disposal process)
Filtration is restarted, and the purified water obtained in the first filter medium layer 9a and the second filter medium layer 9b is discharged to the drainage culvert 16 through the wastewater doors 32a and 32b. After the predetermined time has elapsed, the water disposal doors 32a and 32b are closed to end the water disposal process.

(ろ過工程)
浄水扉31a、31bを開き、通常ろ過を再開する。ろ材層9a、9bでろ過された浄水は、浄水扉31a、31bを通って浄水渠14に流入する。
(Filtration process)
The water purification doors 31a and 31b are opened, and normal filtration is resumed. The purified water filtered through the filter medium layers 9a and 9b flows into the water purification culvert 14 through the water purification doors 31a and 31b.

[第3の実施形態]
本実施形態のろ過装置を図4に示す。
第1の実施形態では、第1ろ材層9aと第2ろ材層9bとをガリット8を挟んで設けた。
これに対し、第3の実施形態では図4に示すように、第1ろ材層9aと第2ろ材層9bとを区画壁35を介して設けると共に、ガリット8を第1ろ材層9aと第2ろ材層9bの端部に設けた。
[Third Embodiment]
The filtration device of this embodiment is shown in FIG.
In the first embodiment, the first filter medium layer 9a and the second filter medium layer 9b are provided with the gallit 8 interposed therebetween.
On the other hand, in the third embodiment, as shown in FIG. 4, the first filter medium layer 9a and the second filter medium layer 9b are provided via the partition wall 35, and the Galit 8 is provided in the first filter medium layer 9a and the second. It was provided at the end of the filter medium layer 9b.

[第4の実施形態]
本実施形態のろ過装置を図5に示す。
第2の実施形態では、第1ろ材層9aと第2ろ材層9bとをガリット8を挟んで設けた。
これに対し、第4の実施形態では図5に示すように、第1ろ材層9aと第2ろ材層9bとを区画壁35を介して設けると共に、ガリット8を第1ろ材層9aと第2ろ材層9bの端部に設けた。
また、第1浄水室及び第2浄水室は浄水扉31a、31bを介して浄水渠14に連通している。
本実施形態による逆洗工程は以下のようにして行われる。但し、表面洗浄工程についての説明は省略する。
[Fourth Embodiment]
The filtration device of this embodiment is shown in FIG.
In the second embodiment, the first filter medium layer 9a and the second filter medium layer 9b are provided with the gallit 8 interposed therebetween.
On the other hand, in the fourth embodiment, as shown in FIG. 5, the first filter medium layer 9a and the second filter medium layer 9b are provided via the partition wall 35, and the Galit 8 is provided in the first filter medium layer 9a and the second. It was provided at the end of the filter medium layer 9b.
Further, the first water purification room and the second water purification room communicate with the water purification culvert 14 via the water purification doors 31a and 31b.
The backwashing step according to this embodiment is performed as follows. However, the description of the surface cleaning process will be omitted.

(第1逆洗工程)
ろ過池内の原水をガリットに設けた排水弁(扉)2を開放することによって排水渠16に排出する。
次いで第1浄水室に設けられた浄水扉31aを開放することによって、浄水渠14から浄水を第1浄水室に流入させ、第1ろ材層9a内を逆流させて前記第1ろ材層9aを逆洗し、逆洗後の洗浄水を排水渠16に排出して第1逆洗工程を行う。
第1逆洗工程が終了したら第1浄水室に設けられた浄水扉31aを閉止する。
(1st backwash process)
The raw water in the filtration pond is discharged to the drainage culvert 16 by opening the drainage valve (door) 2 provided in the gallit.
Next, by opening the water purification door 31a provided in the first water purification chamber, purified water flows into the first water purification chamber from the water purification culvert 14 and flows back in the first filter medium layer 9a to reverse the first filter medium layer 9a. After washing, the washing water after backwashing is discharged to the drainage culvert 16 to perform the first backwashing step.
When the first backwashing step is completed, the water purification door 31a provided in the first water purification chamber is closed.

(第2逆洗工程)
第2浄水室に設けられた浄水扉31bを開放することによって、浄水渠14から浄水を第2浄水室に流入させ、第2ろ材層9b内を逆流させて前記第2ろ材層9bを逆洗し、逆洗後の洗浄水を排水渠16に排出して第2逆洗工程を行う。
第2逆洗工程が終了したら第2浄水室に設けられた浄水扉31bを閉止する。
(Second backwash process)
By opening the water purification door 31b provided in the second water purification chamber, purified water flows into the second water purification chamber from the water purification culvert 14 and flows back in the second filter medium layer 9b to backwash the second filter medium layer 9b. Then, the washing water after the backwash is discharged to the drainage culvert 16 to perform the second backwash step.
When the second backwashing step is completed, the water purification door 31b provided in the second water purification chamber is closed.

(注水工程)
ガリット8の端部の排水弁(扉)2を閉じ、原水管30の原水流入弁(扉)1を開いて原水をガリット8に流入させ、ろ過池の水位を所定の高さまで上げる
(Water injection process)
The drain valve (door) 2 at the end of the Galit 8 is closed, the raw water inflow valve (door) 1 of the raw water pipe 30 is opened to allow the raw water to flow into the Galit 8, and the water level of the filtration pond is raised to a predetermined height.

(捨水工程)
ろ過を再開し、第1ろ材層9a及び第2ろ材層9bで得られた浄水を捨水扉32a、32bを介して排水渠16に排出する。所定時間が経過した後に、捨水扉32a、32bを閉じ、捨水工程を終了する。
(Water disposal process)
Filtration is restarted, and the purified water obtained in the first filter medium layer 9a and the second filter medium layer 9b is discharged to the drainage culvert 16 through the wastewater doors 32a and 32b. After the predetermined time has elapsed, the water disposal doors 32a and 32b are closed to end the water disposal process.

(ろ過工程)
第1ろ材層9a及び第2ろ材層9bでろ過された浄水は、浄水扉31a、31bを通って浄水渠14に流入する。
(Filtration process)
The purified water filtered by the first filter medium layer 9a and the second filter medium layer 9b flows into the water purification culvert 14 through the water purification doors 31a and 31b.

[第5の実施形態]
本実施形態のろ過装置を図6に示す。
本実施形態は図4に示した第3の実施形態の変形例である。
第3の実施形態ではろ材層を2分割したが、本実施形態は、図6に示すように、ろ材層をNo.1〜No.nまでのn個に分割したものである。
逆洗工程はNo.1のろ材層を逆洗する逆洗工程1からNo.nのろ材層を逆洗する逆洗工程nまで順次行われる。
[Fifth Embodiment]
The filtration device of this embodiment is shown in FIG.
This embodiment is a modification of the third embodiment shown in FIG.
In the third embodiment, the filter medium layer was divided into two, but in the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 6, the filter medium layer is No. 1-No. It is divided into n pieces up to n.
The backwash process is No. Backwashing step 1 to backwash the filter medium layer of No. 1 The backwashing step n of backwashing the filter medium layer of n is sequentially performed.

[第6の実施形態]
本実施形態のろ過装置を図7に示す。
本実施形態は図5に示した第4の実施形態の変形例である。
第4の実施形態ではろ材層を2分割したが、本実施形態は、図7に示すように、ろ材層をNo.1〜No.nまでのn個に分割したものである。
逆洗工程はNo.1のろ材層を逆洗する逆洗工程1からNo.nのろ材層を逆洗する逆洗工程nまで順次行われる。
[Sixth Embodiment]
The filtration device of this embodiment is shown in FIG.
This embodiment is a modification of the fourth embodiment shown in FIG.
In the fourth embodiment, the filter medium layer was divided into two, but in the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 7, the filter medium layer is No. 1-No. It is divided into n pieces up to n.
The backwash process is No. Backwashing step 1 to backwash the filter medium layer of No. 1 The backwashing step n of backwashing the filter medium layer of n is sequentially performed.

[本発明のろ過装置と従来の過装置との比較]
以下では、本発明の濾過装置の逆洗水量と従来の濾過装置の逆洗水量とを対比する
比較する際の条件は以下の通りとした。
ろ過水量 : 30,000m/日の急速ろ過池
ろ過速度 : 150 m/日
予備力 : 1池休止時100%
池数 : 8池
逆洗水量 : 0.7m/(m・分)
表洗水量 : 0.2m/(m・分)
逆洗時間 : 6分
表洗時間 : 4分
捨水時間 : 10分
ろ過池面積:30,000m/日÷(150m/日÷(8−1)池)=28.57m/池
[Comparison between the filtration device of the present invention and the conventional over-device]
In the following, the conditions for comparing the amount of backwash water of the filtration device of the present invention and the amount of backwash water of the conventional filtration device are as follows.
Filtration water volume: 30,000 m 3 / day Rapid sand filter Filtration speed: 150 m / day Reserve capacity: 1 100% when the pond is at rest
Number of ponds: 8 Ponds Backwash water volume: 0.7m 3 / (m 2 minutes)
Table wash amount: 0.2m 3 / (m 2・ min)
Backwash time: 6 minutes Table wash time: 4 minutes Water disposal time: 10 minutes Filtration pond area: 30,000 m 3 / day ÷ (150 m / day ÷ (8-1) pond) = 28.57 m 2 / pond

(従来の濾過装置における逆洗水量)
従来の濾過装置の逆洗水量は下記計算式より「20.00m/分」である。
計算式:28.57m/池×0.7m/m・分=20.00m/分
30,000m/日で処理しているときのろ過水量は、1池が洗浄中でも変わらず30,000m/日である。
従って、逆洗用水として使用可能な水量は下記計算式より「20.83m/分」である、
計算式:30,000m/日÷1440分/日=20.83m/分
通常ろ過池では、ろ過水量が減少した時に逆洗水量が不足するため、外部から補給水で補填しなければならない。
例えば、ろ過水量が20,000m/日となった場合、逆洗用水として使用可能な水量は下記計算式より「13.9m/分」である
計算式:20,000m/日÷1,440分/日=13.89m/分
従って、下記計算式より「6.11m/分」の逆洗水が不足する。
計算式:20.00m/分−13.89m/分=6.11m/分
(Backwash water amount in conventional filtration device)
The amount of backwash water of the conventional filtration device is "20.00 m 3 / min" from the following formula.
Calculation formula: 28.57m 2 / pond x 0.7m 3 / m 2 · min = 20.00m 3 / min 30,000m The amount of filtered water when processing at 3 / day does not change even when one pond is washed. It is 30,000 m 3 / day.
Therefore, the amount of water that can be used as backwash water is "20.83 m 3 / min" from the following formula.
Calculation formula: 30,000 m 3 / day ÷ 1440 minutes / day = 20.83 m 3 / min In a normal filtration pond, the amount of backwash water is insufficient when the amount of filtered water decreases, so it must be supplemented with make-up water from the outside. ..
For example, when the amount of filtered water is 20,000 m 3 / day, the amount of water that can be used as backwash water is "13.9 m 3 / min" from the following formula. Calculation formula: 20,000 m 3 / day ÷ 1 , 440 minutes / day = 13.89 m 3 / min Therefore, the backwash water of "6.11 m 3 / min" is insufficient from the following formula.
Formula: 20.00m 3 / min -13.89m 3 / minute = 6.11m 3 / min.

また、補給水用ポンプの動力は、吐出水量と揚程に比例し、次式によって求められる
P=(0.163×γ×Q×H)×(1十α)/η
P:ポンプ軸動力(kW)
H:全揚程(m)
γ;水の比重(γ=1)
α:余裕率(0.15)
Q:ポンプ吐出量(m/分)
η:ポンプ効率(η=0.65)
ここで、不足する逆洗水を5mの全揚程をもって揚水するときのポンプ必要動力は、下記計算式より「8.83kW」となり、≒1lkwのポンプが必要となる。
計算式:P=0.163×1×6.12m/分×5m)×(1+0.15)/0.65=8.83kW
また、ろ過水量がさらに減少するとより大きな出力の補給水ポンプを備えなければならなくなる。
The power of the make-up water pump is proportional to the amount of discharged water and the head, and is calculated by the following equation: P = (0.163 × γ × Q × H) × (10 α) / η
P: Pump shaft power (kW)
H: Total head (m)
γ; Specific gravity of water (γ = 1)
α: Margin rate (0.15)
Q: Pump discharge amount (m 3 / min)
η: Pump efficiency (η = 0.65)
Here, the required power for the pump when pumping the insufficient backwash water with a total head of 5 m is "8.83 kW" from the following formula, and a pump of about 1 kW is required.
Calculation formula: P = 0.163 × 1 × 6.12m 3 / min × 5m) × (1 + 0.15) /0.65=8.83kW
Also, as the amount of filtered water decreases further, it becomes necessary to provide a make-up water pump with a larger output.

(本発明のろ過装置における逆洗水量)
以下の計算では、池を8池構成とし、各池は二つのろ過層に分割されたものとした。
一つのろ過層のろ過面積は14.29[m/池]である。
計算式:28.57[m/池]÷2=14.29[m/池]
二つのろ過層を同時に洗浄した場合の逆洗水量は、20.00[m/分]である。
計算式:28.57[m/池]×0.7[m/m・分]=20.00[m/分]
一つのろ過層の洗浄に必要な逆洗水量は10.00[m/分]である。
計算式:14.29[m/池]×0.7[m/m・分]=10.00[m/分]
洗浄池以外の7池でこの逆洗水量を供給する場合のろ過流量は、14,400[m/日]
計算式:10.00[m/分]×1,440分/日=14,400m/日
一日浄水量が水需要の低下と共に減少しても、48.0[%]まで補給水ポンプに頼らない運用が可能となる。
計算式:14,400[m/日]÷30,000×100%=48.0%
ろ過池の構成池数を増加すれば1池当たりの面積を縮小出来るので洗浄水量を確保可能であるが、ろ過池毎に必要とする制御弁類が表1のとおり、増加する池数の分だけ追加で必要となり建設コストだけでなく維持管理コストも増加してしまう。
今回開発した分割洗浄方式では、1池のろ過池を2またはそれ以上に分割するため、下表の様に原水弁や排水弁といった弁類を共通化でき、コストの低減に寄与することができる。
(Backwash water amount in the filtration device of the present invention)
In the following calculation, the pond was composed of 8 ponds, and each pond was divided into two filtration layers.
The filtration area of one filtration layer is 14.29 [m 2 / pond].
Calculation formula: 28.57 [m 2 / pond] ÷ 2 = 14.29 [m 2 / pond]
When the two filtration layers are washed at the same time, the amount of backwash water is 20.00 [m 3 / min].
Calculation formula: 28.57 [m 2 / pond] x 0.7 [m 3 / m 2 · min] = 20.00 [m 3 / min]
The amount of backwash water required to wash one filtration layer is 10.00 [m 3 / min].
Calculation formula: 14.29 [m 2 / pond] x 0.7 [m 3 / m 2 · min] = 10.00 [m 3 / min]
When this amount of backwash is supplied to 7 ponds other than the wash pond, the filtration flow rate is 14,400 [m 3 / day].
Calculation formula: 10.00 [m 3 / min] x 1,440 minutes / day = 14,400 m 3 / day Even if the daily water purification amount decreases with the decrease in water demand, make-up water up to 48.0 [%] Operation without relying on a pump becomes possible.
Calculation formula: 14,400 [m 3 / day] ÷ 30,000 x 100% = 48.0%
By increasing the number of filtration ponds, the area per pond can be reduced, so the amount of washing water can be secured. However, as shown in Table 1, the control valves required for each filtration pond are the same as the number of ponds. However, not only the construction cost but also the maintenance cost will increase.
In the split cleaning method developed this time, one filtration pond is divided into two or more, so valves such as raw water valves and drain valves can be shared as shown in the table below, which can contribute to cost reduction. ..

Figure 0006828836
Figure 0006828836

1 原水流入弁(扉)
2 排水弁(扉)
3a、3b 表面洗浄弁
5 浄水弁
6a、6b 逆洗弁
8 ガリット
9a、9b ろ材層
10a、10a、10a、10b 表面洗浄管(ノズル)
11a、11b 浄水流出管
12 合流管
14 浄水渠
15、15a、15a、15a、15b 排水トラフ
16 排水渠
20 捨水弁
21 捨水管
30 原水管
31、31a31a、31a、31a、31b 浄水扉
32、32a、32a、32a、32a、32b 捨水扉
34 集水ブロック
35 区画壁
1 Raw water inflow valve (door)
2 Drain valve (door)
3a, 3b the surface cleaning valve 5 purified water valve 6a, 6b backwash valve 8 Garitto 9a, 9b filter medium layer 10a, 10a 1, 10a n, 10b surface cleaning pipe (nozzle)
11a, 11b purified water outlet pipe 12 merging pipe 14 purified water culverts 15,15a, 15a 1, 15a n, 15b overflow outlet 16 draining groove 20 water discard valve 21 water discard tube 30 raw water pipe 31,31a 1 31a 2, 31a n, 31a, 31b clean water door 32,32a 1, 32a 2, 32a n , 32a, 32b water discard door 34 collecting block 35 partition wall

Claims (12)

ろ材層が配置されたろ過池と、
原水が前記ろ材層を通過して得られた浄水が流入する浄水渠と、
前記ろ過池と排水手段を介して連通している排水渠と、を備え、
前記ろ過池内の水を、前記排水手段により前記排水渠に導くことにより、前記浄水渠内の前記浄水を前記ろ材層内を逆流させて前記ろ材層を逆洗するろ過装置であって、
前記ろ材層はそれぞれが区画された複数のろ材層に分割されており、
前記複数のろ材層の下方には各ろ材層から浄水が流出する複数の浄水室が設けられており、
前記複数の浄水室のそれぞれには開閉手段を有する浄水排出手段及び開閉手段を有する捨水手段が設けられ、
前記捨水手段は前記浄水室の壁に設けられた捨水扉であり、
前記各浄水室は、前記各浄水排出手段を介して浄水渠に連通し、前記捨水扉を介して排水渠に連通している、
ことを特徴とするろ過装置。
A filtration pond with a filter medium layer and
A water culvert into which the purified water obtained by passing the raw water through the filter medium layer flows in,
It is equipped with a drainage culvert that communicates with the filtration pond via a drainage means.
A filtration device for backwashing the filter medium layer by guiding the water in the filtration pond to the drainage culvert by the drainage means so that the purified water in the water purification culvert flows back into the filter medium layer.
The filter medium layer is divided into a plurality of filter medium layers, each of which is partitioned.
Below the plurality of filter medium layers, a plurality of water purification chambers through which purified water flows out from each filter medium layer are provided.
Each of the plurality of water purification chambers is provided with a purified water discharge means having an opening / closing means and a water disposal means having an opening / closing means.
The water disposal means is a water disposal door provided on the wall of the water purification room.
Each of the water purification chambers communicates with the water purification culvert through the water purification discharge means, and communicates with the drainage culvert through the waste water door .
A filtration device characterized by that.
ろ材層が配置されたろ過池と、A filtration pond with a filter medium layer and
原水が前記ろ材層を通過して得られた浄水が流入する浄水渠と、A water culvert into which the purified water obtained by passing the raw water through the filter medium layer flows in,
前記ろ過池と排水手段を介して連通している排水渠と、を備え、It is equipped with a drainage culvert that communicates with the filtration pond via a drainage means.
前記ろ過池内の水を、前記排水手段により前記排水渠に導くことにより、前記浄水渠内の前記浄水を前記ろ材層内を逆流させて前記ろ材層を逆洗するろ過装置であって、A filtration device for backwashing the filter medium layer by guiding the water in the filtration pond to the drainage culvert by the drainage means so that the purified water in the water purification culvert flows back into the filter medium layer.
前記ろ材層はそれぞれが区画された複数のろ材層に分割されており、The filter medium layer is divided into a plurality of filter medium layers, each of which is partitioned.
前記複数のろ材層の下方には各ろ材層から浄水が流出する複数の浄水室が設けられており、Below the plurality of filter medium layers, a plurality of water purification chambers through which purified water flows out from each filter medium layer are provided.
前記複数の浄水室のそれぞれには開閉手段を有する浄水排出手段及び開閉手段を有する捨水手段が設けられ、Each of the plurality of water purification chambers is provided with a purified water discharge means having an opening / closing means and a water disposal means having an opening / closing means.
前記捨水手段は、前記浄水排出手段と連通する捨水管に設けられた捨水弁であり、The water disposal means is a water disposal valve provided in a water disposal pipe that communicates with the purified water discharge means.
前記各浄水室は、前記各浄水排出手段を介して浄水渠に連通し、前記捨水弁を介して排水渠に連通している、Each of the water purification chambers communicates with the water purification culvert through the respective water purification discharge means, and communicates with the drainage culvert through the waste water valve.
ことを特徴とするろ過装置。A filtration device characterized by that.
前記ろ材層は第1ろ材層と第2ろ材層とに2分割されており、
前記第1ろ材層の下方には第1浄水室が、前記第2ろ材層の下方には第2浄水室がそれぞれ設けられており、
前記第1浄水室及び前記第2浄水室は、それぞれの浄水室の壁に設けられた開閉扉又は開閉弁を介して前記浄水渠に連通している、請求項1又は2に記載のろ過装置。
The filter medium layer is divided into a first filter medium layer and a second filter medium layer.
A first water purification chamber is provided below the first filter medium layer, and a second water purification chamber is provided below the second filter medium layer.
The filtration device according to claim 1 or 2 , wherein the first water purification chamber and the second water purification chamber communicate with the water purification culvert through an on-off door or an on-off valve provided on the wall of each water purification chamber. ..
前記ろ材層は第1ろ材層と第2ろ材層とに分割して形成されており、
前記第1ろ材層の下方には第1浄水室が、前記第2ろ材層の下方には第2浄水室がそれぞれ設けられており、
前記第1浄水室には開閉手段を有する第1浄水流出管が接続され、前記第2浄水室には開閉手段を有する第2浄水流出管が接続されており、
前記第1浄水流出管及び前記第2浄水流出管は、前記第1浄水流出管を通る浄水と、前記第2浄水流出管を通る浄水とを合流させて浄水を前記浄水渠に導く浄水合流管に接続されている、請求項に記載のろ過装置。
The filter medium layer is divided into a first filter medium layer and a second filter medium layer, and is formed.
A first water purification chamber is provided below the first filter medium layer, and a second water purification chamber is provided below the second filter medium layer.
A first purified water outflow pipe having an opening / closing means is connected to the first water purification chamber, and a second purified water outflow pipe having an opening / closing means is connected to the second water purification chamber.
The first purified water outflow pipe and the second purified water outflow pipe are a purified water confluence pipe that merges the purified water passing through the first purified water outflow pipe and the purified water passing through the second purified water outflow pipe to guide the purified water to the purified water culvert. The filtration device according to claim 3 , which is connected to.
前記第1ろ材層と前記第2ろ材層の前記浄水排出手段が設けられた側とは反対側の端部にガリットが配置されており、前記ガリットは開閉手段を介して前記排水渠に連通している、請求項3又は4に記載のろ過装置。 A gallit is arranged at the end of the first filter medium layer and the second filter medium layer on the side opposite to the side where the purified water discharge means is provided, and the gallit communicates with the drainage culvert via an opening / closing means. The filtration device according to claim 3 or 4 . 前記第1ろ材層と前記第2ろ材層とはガリットを挟んで配置されており、前記ガリットは開閉手段を介して前記排水渠に連通していることを特徴とする請求項3又は4に記載のろ過装置。 The third or four claim, wherein the first filter medium layer and the second filter medium layer are arranged with a gallit sandwiched therein, and the gallit communicates with the drainage culvert via an opening / closing means. Filtration device. 前記各ろ材層の上方には、ろ材層の表面に加圧水を噴射する表面洗浄管が設けられている、請求項1〜のいずれか1項に記載のろ過装置。 The filtration device according to any one of claims 1 to 6 , wherein a surface cleaning tube for injecting pressurized water onto the surface of each filter medium layer is provided above each filter medium layer. 請求項1に記載のろ過装置を逆洗する方法であって、
ろ過池内の原水を前記浄水排出手段によって前記排水渠に排出する工程と、
前記複数のろ材層の内の一つのろ材層の浄水室に設けられた前記浄水排出手段を開放して、前記浄水渠内の浄水を浄水室及びろ材層に流入させてろ材層を逆洗し、逆洗後の洗浄水を前記排水渠に排出する逆洗工程と、
前記の逆洗工程を他のろ材層について順次行う工程と、
前記逆洗工程を全てのろ材層について行った後に、前記原水を前記ろ過池に供給し、得られた浄水を前記捨水扉を介して前記排水渠に排出する捨水工程と、
前記捨水工程の後、ろ材層を通過して得られた浄水を前記浄水渠に流出させる工程と、
を有することを特徴とするろ過装置の逆洗方法。
A method of backwashing the filtration device according to claim 1.
The process of discharging the raw water in the filtration pond to the drainage culvert by the purified water discharge means, and
The purified water discharge means provided in the water purification chamber of one of the plurality of filter medium layers is opened, and the purified water in the water purification culvert is allowed to flow into the water purification chamber and the filter medium layer to backwash the filter medium layer. , The backwashing step of discharging the washing water after backwashing to the drainage channel,
A step of sequentially performing the backwashing step for other filter media layers, and
After performing the backwashing step for all the filter medium layers, the raw water is supplied to the filtration pond, and the obtained purified water is discharged to the drainage culvert through the drainage door .
After the water disposal step, a step of causing the purified water obtained through the filter medium layer to flow out to the water purification culvert,
A method for backwashing a filtration device, which comprises the above.
請求項2に記載のろ過装置を逆洗する方法であって、A method of backwashing the filtration device according to claim 2.
ろ過池内の原水を前記浄水排出手段によって前記排水渠に排出する工程と、The process of discharging the raw water in the filtration pond to the drainage culvert by the purified water discharge means, and
前記複数のろ材層の内の一つのろ材層の浄水室に設けられた前記浄水排出手段を開放して、前記浄水渠内の浄水を浄水室及びろ材層に流入させてろ材層を逆洗し、逆洗後の洗浄水を前記排水渠に排出する逆洗工程と、The purified water discharge means provided in the water purification chamber of one of the plurality of filter medium layers is opened, and the purified water in the water purification culvert is allowed to flow into the water purification chamber and the filter medium layer to backwash the filter medium layer. , The backwashing step of discharging the washing water after backwashing to the drainage channel,
前記の逆洗工程を他のろ材層について順次行う工程と、A step of sequentially performing the backwashing step for other filter media layers, and
前記逆洗工程を全てのろ材層について行った後に、前記原水を前記ろ過池に供給し、得られた浄水を前記捨水弁を介して前記排水渠に排出する捨水工程と、After performing the backwashing step for all the filter medium layers, the raw water is supplied to the filtration pond, and the obtained purified water is discharged to the drainage culvert through the drainage valve.
前記捨水工程の後、ろ材層を通過して得られた浄水を前記浄水渠に流出させる工程と、After the water disposal step, a step of causing the purified water obtained through the filter medium layer to flow out to the water purification culvert,
を有することを特徴とするろ過装置の逆洗方法。A method for backwashing a filtration device, which comprises the above.
請求項に記載のろ過装置を逆洗する方法であって、
ろ過池内の原水を前記浄水排出手段によって前記排水渠に排出する工程と、
前記第1浄水室に設けられた開閉手段を開放することによって、前記浄水渠から浄水を前記第1浄水室及び前記第1ろ材層に流入させて前記第1ろ材層を逆洗し、逆洗後の洗浄水を前記排水渠に排出する第1逆洗工程と、
前記第2浄水室に設けられた開閉手段を開放することによって、前記浄水渠から浄水を前記第2浄水室及び前記第2ろ材層に流入させて前記第2ろ材層を逆洗し、逆洗後の洗浄水を前記排水渠に排出する第2逆洗工程と、
前記第2逆洗工程の終了後に、前記原水を前記ろ過池に供給して、前記第1ろ材層及び前記第2ろ材層で得られた浄水を前記捨水手段を介して前記排水渠に排出する捨水工程と、
前記捨水工程の後、前記第1及び前記第2ろ材層を通過して得られた浄水を前記浄水渠に流出させる工程と、
を有することを特徴とするろ過装置の逆洗方法。
A method of backwashing the filtration device according to claim 3 .
The process of discharging the raw water in the filtration pond to the drainage culvert by the purified water discharge means, and
By opening the opening / closing means provided in the first water purification chamber, purified water is allowed to flow from the water purification culvert into the first water purification chamber and the first filter medium layer to backwash the first filter medium layer and backwash. The first backwashing step of discharging the subsequent washing water to the drainage ditch, and
By opening the opening / closing means provided in the second water purification chamber, purified water is allowed to flow from the water purification culvert into the second water purification chamber and the second filter medium layer to backwash the second filter medium layer and backwash. The second backwashing step of discharging the subsequent washing water to the drainage ditch, and
After the completion of the second backwashing step, the raw water is supplied to the filtration pond, and the purified water obtained in the first filter medium layer and the second filter medium layer is discharged to the drainage ditch via the wastewater means. Water disposal process and
After the water disposal step, a step of causing the purified water obtained through the first and second filter medium layers to flow out to the water purification culvert.
A method for backwashing a filtration device, which comprises the above.
請求項に記載のろ過装置を逆洗する方法であって、
ろ過池内の原水を前記浄水排出手段によって前記排水渠に排出する工程と、
前記浄水渠から浄水を前記浄水合流管及び前記第1浄水流出管を通して逆流させて前記第1ろ材層を逆洗し、逆洗後の洗浄水を前記排水手段を介して前記排水渠に排出する第1逆洗工程と、
前記浄水渠から浄水を前記浄水合流管及び前記第2浄水流出管を通して逆流させて前記第2ろ材層を逆洗し、逆洗後の洗浄水を前記排水手段を介して前記排水渠に排出する第2逆洗工程と、
前記第2逆洗工程の終了後に前記原水を前記ろ過池に供給し、得られた浄水を前記捨水手段を介して前記排水渠に排出する捨水工程と、
前記捨水工程の後、前記第1及び第2ろ材層を通過して得られた浄水を前記浄水渠に貯蔵する工程と、
を有することを特徴とするろ過装置の逆洗方法。
A method of backwashing the filtration device according to claim 4 .
The process of discharging the raw water in the filtration pond to the drainage culvert by the purified water discharge means, and
The purified water is backflowed from the purified water culvert through the purified water confluence pipe and the first purified water outflow pipe to backwash the first filter medium layer, and the washed water after the backwash is discharged to the drainage culvert through the drainage means. The first backwash process and
The purified water is backflowed from the purified water culvert through the purified water confluence pipe and the second purified water outflow pipe to backwash the second filter medium layer, and the washed water after the backwash is discharged to the drainage culvert through the drainage means. The second backwash process and
After the completion of the second backwashing step, the raw water is supplied to the filtration pond, and the obtained purified water is discharged to the drainage culvert through the wastewater means.
After the water disposal step, a step of storing the purified water obtained through the first and second filter medium layers in the water purification culvert, and
A method for backwashing a filtration device, which comprises the above.
前記第1逆洗工程及び前記第2逆洗工程の前に、各ろ材層の上方に設けた表面洗浄管から加圧水を噴射して表面洗浄を行う表面洗浄工程を有する、請求項10又は11に記載のろ過装置の逆洗方法。 10. The claim 10 or 11 , further comprising a surface cleaning step of injecting pressurized water from a surface cleaning tube provided above each filter medium layer to perform surface cleaning before the first backwashing step and the second backwashing step. The method for backwashing the filtration device described.
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