JP5312261B2 - Robot control method - Google Patents

Robot control method Download PDF

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JP5312261B2
JP5312261B2 JP2009188812A JP2009188812A JP5312261B2 JP 5312261 B2 JP5312261 B2 JP 5312261B2 JP 2009188812 A JP2009188812 A JP 2009188812A JP 2009188812 A JP2009188812 A JP 2009188812A JP 5312261 B2 JP5312261 B2 JP 5312261B2
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robot
position
conversion coefficient
measurement
coordinate system
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JP2011036975A (en
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彩絵子 小松
義人 大竹
英哉 山室
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本田技研工業株式会社
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Description

  The present invention relates to a coordinate system shift between a robot equipped with a three-dimensional position measuring device (stereo camera) and a three-dimensional position measuring device, or a coordinate system with another robot that performs operations related to the three-dimensional position measuring device. The present invention relates to a robot control method for correcting a deviation.

  In order to process a workpiece with a jig attached to the tip of the robot arm, the workpiece is fixed at a predetermined position, and this position is taught to the robot in advance, so that the workpiece is automatically and continuously processed. Processing is performed.

  However, in an actual production line, the workpiece is not necessarily fixed at a predetermined position, so the teaching position and the actual workpiece position are slightly shifted. A proposal for correcting this shift is made in Patent Document 1.

In Patent Document 1, an imaging means such as a stereo camera is detachably attached to the tip of a robot arm, and the amount of deviation from the reference position of the workpiece is detected by this imaging means, and the robot operation position data according to this deviation amount. The content which corrects is disclosed.

JP 2005-138223 A

  The above-described technique causes a problem when a plurality of robots are used to perform related work on one workpiece. That is, the coordinate systems of a plurality of robots or three-dimensional position measuring devices should be essentially the same, but actually there is a slight deviation between individual robots or three-dimensional position measuring devices. For example, when the robot moves based on the position detected by the three-dimensional position measuring device, when the rotation of the coordinate axes of the three-dimensional position measuring device and the robot is shifted by 1 °, an error of 1.75 mm is obtained when the tip of the robot is shifted 100 mm. Will occur. The error of 1.75 mm is a serious problem when a welding jig or a tightening device is attached to the end of the robot arm.

  FIG. 7 shows an example of teaching the robot the operation using the hub master. In this example, the first robot 101 performs the final tightening of the tire, and the second robot 102 performs the temporary tightening of the tire.

  That is, the first and second robots 101 and 102 are instructed to operate with the master 103 serving as a reference, and the actual position of the hub 104 attached to the vehicle body by the stereo camera 105 provided in the first robot 101 is determined. The conventional method is to detect and correct the teaching operation based on the actual position error between the hub 104 and the master 103.

However, even if the position information measured by the stereo camera 105 is transmitted to the first and second robots 101 and 102 as they are, it cannot be assembled successfully. The reason is the difference in the coordinate system between the robot and the stereo camera. In other words, when the scale of the stereo camera is measured to be 10 mm, but the robot scale is determined to be 11 mm, if the robot is moved on the scale of the stereo camera, the work position by the robot is shifted.
Further, since the difference in hub position due to the difference in model is obvious from the design value of the vehicle body, the teaching operation is corrected by adding the difference in the design value of the vehicle body (model difference, for example, 30 mm) to the position of the master 103. Can be considered.
However, even if the same correction amount (for example, 30 mm) is given to the first and second robots 101 and 102, the first robot 101 moves 33 mm and the second robot 102 moves only 27 mm due to the difference in coordinate scale. .

In order to solve the above problems, a first invention is a control method for operating the first robot based on position information of an object detected by a three-dimensional position measuring device disposed at a tip of the first robot, Three or more different measurement positions set on the XY plane of the robot coordinates of the first robot and two or more different measurement positions set on the Z axis perpendicular to the XY plane by operating the first robot , The position of the measurement object is measured by the three-dimensional position measurement device, and based on the movement amount of the first robot and the position coordinates of each measurement position of the measurement object in the coordinate system of the three-dimensional position measurement device, A first conversion coefficient from the coordinate system of the three-dimensional position measurement device to the coordinate system of the first robot is calculated, and the position of the object measured by the three-dimensional position measurement device using the first conversion coefficient It converts the broadcast, and to operate the first robot based on the converted value.

The second invention is a control method for operating the second robot based on the position information of the object detected by the three-dimensional position measurement device disposed at the tip of the first robot,
The position of three or more different measurement objects set on the XY plane of the robot coordinates of the second robot by operating the second robot and two or more different measurements in the Z-axis direction perpendicular to the XY plane The position of the object is measured by the three-dimensional position measurement device, and based on the movement amount of the second robot and the position coordinates of each measurement position of the measurement object in the coordinate system of the three-dimensional position measurement device, the third order A second conversion coefficient from the coordinate system of the original position measuring device to the coordinate system of the second robot is calculated, and the position information of the object measured by the three-dimensional position measuring device is converted by the second conversion coefficient, The second robot is operated based on the converted value.

The third invention is a control method for operating the first robot and the second robot based on position information of an object detected by a three-dimensional position measuring device disposed at the tip of the first robot, By operating the first robot, at three or more different measurement positions set on the XY plane of the robot coordinates of the first robot and at two or more different measurement positions set on the Z axis perpendicular to the XY plane The position of the measurement object is measured by the three-dimensional position measurement device, and based on the movement amount of the first robot and the position coordinates of each measurement position of the measurement object in the coordinate system of the three-dimensional position measurement device, A first conversion coefficient from the coordinate system of the three-dimensional position measurement device to the coordinate system of the first robot is calculated, and the robot seat of the second robot is operated by operating the second robot. The three-dimensional position measuring device measures the position of three or more different measurement objects set on the XY plane and the position of two or more different measurement objects in the Z-axis direction perpendicular to the XY plane, Based on the movement amount of the second robot and the position coordinates of each measurement position of the measurement object in the coordinate system of the three-dimensional position measurement device, the coordinates of the three-dimensional position measurement device arranged at the tip of the first robot The second conversion coefficient from the system to the coordinate system of the second robot is calculated, the third conversion coefficient is calculated based on the first conversion coefficient and the second conversion coefficient, and the form of the reference first workpiece is When measuring the position of an object placed on a different second workpiece, the first robot is operated based on information on the difference in form between the first workpiece and the second workpiece, and The three-dimensional by the first transformation coefficient The position information of the object measured by the position measuring device is converted, the first robot is operated based on the converted value, and the difference in form between the first workpiece and the second workpiece is determined by the third conversion coefficient. Converting, operating the second robot based on the converted value, further converting the position information of the object measured by the three-dimensional position measuring device by the second conversion coefficient, and based on the converted value The second robot is operated.

According to the present invention, even when a plurality of robots operate in cooperation with each other, or even when the position of a workpiece (object) is deviated from the taught position, the relative relationship between the robot and the three-dimensional position measurement device is relatively small. Therefore, the subsequent operation can be handled by the same operation as before the change.

Further, according to the present invention, the coordinate conversion coefficient can be easily calculated, and the reliability of the robot operation can be improved.

The whole perspective view of the tire assembly line which applied the control method of the robot concerning the present invention Tire assembly line block diagram (A)-(e) is the figure which showed the procedure of the calibration of a 1st robot. The figure which shows the relationship between the inspection jig | tool attached to the 2nd robot, and the three-dimensional position measuring device (stereo camera) attached to the 1st or 2nd robot. Side view showing misalignment between master and actual hub Explanatory drawing when the coordinate system of the 1st robot 1 and the 2nd robot 2 has shifted | deviated A diagram explaining conventional problems

  Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the accompanying drawings. As shown in FIG. 1, in the embodiment, the first robot 1, the second robot 2, and the third robot 3 are arranged along the tire assembly line of the automobile body W.

  The first robot 1 and the third robot 3 are the robots that finally tighten the tire T on the hub bolt of the automobile body W. The first robot 1 is disposed at a position corresponding to the hub 4 of the front wheel, and the third robot 3 is the rear wheel. It is arrange | positioned in the location corresponding to the hub 5.

  The first robot 1 and the third robot 3 are provided with stereo cameras (three-dimensional position measuring devices) 6 and 7 for detecting the position of the hub at the tip and a fastening device.

  On the other hand, the second robot 2 includes a tire gripping portion 8 and a tightening device, receives the tire T from the tire supply portion 9, and temporarily tightens the tire T to the hubs 4 and 5 of the front and rear wheels. The tire supply unit 9 is provided with a camera (sensor) 10 for detecting whether or not the tire T has been carried to the delivery position.

  Also, in the vicinity of the first robot 1 and the third robot 3, a nut supply unit 11 to be fastened to the hub bolt and a table 12 for arranging and setting a predetermined number (4 or 5) of nuts are arranged. Yes.

  As shown in FIG. 2, the stereo camera 6 of the first robot 1 outputs image information of the front wheel hub 4 to the first image processing device 21, and the stereo camera 7 of the third robot 3 is connected to the second image processing device 22. The image information of the wheel hub 5 is output. Image information of the tire T is input to the second image processing device 22 from the camera (sensor) 10 and the image information is processed.

The first image processing device 21 and the second image processing device 22 are connected to a calculation unit 23, in which the hub bolt position of the front wheel hub 4, the hub bolt position of the rear wheel hub 5, and the tire supply unit 9. The bolt hole position of the upper tire is calculated and output to the main controller 24. The main controller 24 controls the operation of the first, second, and third robots 1, 2, 3 based on the calculation information input from the calculation unit 23.

Further, a master M having a hub shape as a reference is arranged in the vicinity of the transfer line, and the first robot, the second robot 2 and the third robot 3 are instructed to operate based on the master M.

The tire T is attached to the hub of the vehicle body W by the first robot 1, the second robot 2, and the third robot 3 performing the taught operation. In this embodiment, the positions of the hubs 4 and 5 are confirmed by the stereo cameras 6 and 7 of the first robot 1 and the third robot 3, and the tire gripping portion 8 of the second robot 2 is tired based on this confirmation information. The tire T is received from the supply unit 9, the tire T is attached to the hubs 4 and 5, and temporarily tightened. Thereafter, the first robot 1 and the third robot 3 finally tighten the temporarily tightened tire T.

By the way, if the coordinate systems (coordinate axes and scales) of the first robot 1 and the stereo camera 6 do not match, the sensing position by the stereo camera 6 and the operating position of the first robot 1 are shifted, and the nut can be tightened on the hub bolt. Problems such as not occurring.

In the present invention, calibration is performed in advance to make the coordinate system of the first robot 1 and the stereo camera 6 coincide. A calibration method for the first robot 1 will be described below with reference to FIG.

  First, as shown in FIG. 3, an inspection jig 30 for calibration is attached to the master M. A mark 31 is provided on the inspection jig 30. In order to calibrate the first robot 1 using the inspection jig 30, the mark 31 is confirmed (first point) on the upper left of the screen of the stereo camera 6 as shown in FIG. By moving the stereo camera 6 by the first robot 1, the mark 31 is confirmed at the upper right of the screen of the stereo camera 6 (second point) as shown in (b), and the stereo camera 6 is sequentially moved by the first robot 1. By moving, the mark 31 is confirmed at the lower right, lower left, and center of the screen of the stereo camera 6 as shown in (c) to (e) (third to sixth points).

The sixth point overlaps the fifth point on the XY plane, but has moved 30 mm in the Z-axis direction.
In the illustrated example, five points on the XY plane are used, but three or more points may be used.

  Here, the coordinates from the first point to the sixth point (the coordinate system of the stereo camera 6) are (x1, y1, z1), (x2, y2, z2), (x3, y3, z3), (x4, y4, z4), (x5, y5, z5), and (x6, y6, z6).

The coordinate system of the first robot 1 is the amount of shift between the points. That is,
X RB ... Robot shift amount from the first point to the second point X ' RB ... Robot shift amount from the third point to the fourth point Y RB ... Robot shift amount from the second point to the third point Y' RB ... Robot shift amount Z RB from the fourth point to the first point Z RB ... Robot shift amount X RB = X ′ RB in the Z direction from the fifth point to the sixth point
Y RB = Y ' RB

From the above, a scale value which is a three-dimensional conversion coefficient (first conversion coefficient) is obtained.
Since scale = (robot coordinates) ÷ (stereo camera coordinates),
Scale X = X RB ÷ {(x2−x1) + (x2−x4)} / 2
Scale Y = Y RB ÷ {(y4−y1) + (y3−y2)} / 2
Scale Z = Z RB ÷ (z5- z6)

For example, the coordinates of a stereo camera are (x1, y1, z1) = (0, 5, 0,), (x2, y2, z2) = (5, 5, 0,), (x3, y3, z3) = ( 5, 0, 0,), (x4, y4, z4)-= (0, 0, 0,), (x5, y5, z5) = (3, 3, 0,), (x6, y6, z6) = (3, 3, 3,) and the amount of movement of the robot is X RB = 5.1, Y RB = When 4.9 and Z RB = 3.1, the scales (first conversion coefficients) of X, Y, and Z are scale X = 5.1 / 5.0, scale Y = 4.9 / 5.0 and scale Z = 3.1 / 3.0.

In the above, first, the first robot moves the tip to a previously taught position, and the stereo camera provided in the first robot acquires the position information of the hub at that position. Specifically, an error between the position information of the master M and the actual position information of the hub is recognized. Thereafter, the scale X, scale Y, and scale Z calculated in advance are multiplied by the measured values for the respective coordinate axes. In more detail, it is as follows.

Value X ′ after conversion X ′ = Measured value X × scale X measured with a stereo camera
Y-direction value after conversion Y ′ = measured value Y measured with a stereo camera × scale Y
Value Z ′ after conversion Z ′ = Measured value Z × scale Z measured with a stereo camera

For example, it is assumed that the actual hub position is shifted from the master position by 5 mm in the x direction, 5 mm in the y direction, and 3 mm in the z direction. Moreover, since the scale X obtained by the above-described method is 5.1 / 5.0, the scale Y = 4.9 / 5.0, and the scale Z = 3.1 / 3.0,
Value X ′ after conversion X ′ = 5 × 5.1 / 5.0 = 5.1
Y-direction value after conversion Y ′ = 5 × 4.9 / 5.0 = 4.9
The Z-direction value after conversion Z ′ = 3 × 3.1 / 3.0 = 3.1.

When the robot is instructed to move according to each value after conversion, it is shifted by 5 mm in the x direction, 5 mm in the y direction, and 3 mm in the z direction with respect to the motion recognized by the stereo camera. Operate in position.

The calibration method and operation procedure of the third robot are the same. That is, the inspection jig 30 is attached to the master M, a three-dimensional conversion coefficient (first conversion coefficient) is obtained, hub position information measured by the stereo camera 7 is converted, and the third robot is based on the converted value. To work.

Unlike the first robot and the third robot, the second robot 2 does not include a stereo camera. This calibration is performed by attaching an inspection jig 30 to the tip of the second robot 2.

The second robot 2 temporarily tightens the tire T on the front wheel hub 4 and the rear wheel hub 5 based on image information from the stereo cameras 6 and 7 of the first robot 1 and the third robot 3. Calibration between 7 is required.

In order to perform calibration between the second robot 2 and the stereo camera 6 or the stereo camera 7, as shown in FIG. 4, an inspection jig 30 is attached to the tire gripping portion 8 of the second robot 2, and thereafter As in the case shown in FIG. 3, 5 points are traced on the screen of the stereo camera 6 (the sixth point is 30 mm in the Z-axis direction), and the second conversion coefficient of the second robot 2 with respect to the stereo camera 6 is obtained.

That is, in order to calibrate the second robot 2 using the inspection jig 30, as shown in FIG. 3A, the mark 31 is confirmed at the upper left of the screen of the stereo camera 6 (first point), Next, by moving the inspection jig 30 by the second robot 2, a mark 31 is confirmed (second point) on the upper right of the screen of the stereo camera 6 as shown in FIG. By moving the tool 30, as shown in (c) to (e), the mark 31 is confirmed at the lower right, lower left, and center of the screen of the stereo camera 6 (third to sixth points). The sixth point overlaps the fifth point on the XY plane, but has moved 30 mm in the Z-axis direction.

  Here, the coordinates from the first point to the sixth point (the coordinate system of the stereo camera 6) are (x1, y1, z1), (x2, y2, z2), (x3, y3, z3), (x4, y4, z4), (x5, y5, z5), and (x6, y6, z6).

The coordinate system of the second robot 2 is the amount of shift between the points. That is,
X RB ... Robot shift amount from the first point to the second point X ' RB ... Robot shift amount from the third point to the fourth point Y RB ... Robot shift amount from the second point to the third point Y' RB ... Robot shift amount Z RB from the fourth point to the first point Z RB ... Robot shift amount X RB = X ′ RB in the Z direction from the fifth point to the sixth point
Y RB = Y ' RB

From the above, a scale value which is a three-dimensional conversion coefficient (second conversion coefficient) is obtained.
Since scale = (robot coordinates) ÷ (stereo camera coordinates),
Scale X = X RB ÷ {(x2−x1) + (x2−x4)} / 2
Scale Y = Y RB ÷ {(y4−y1) + (y3−y2)} / 2
Scale Z = Z RB ÷ (z5- z6)

For example, the coordinates of a stereo camera are (x1, y1, z1) = (0, 5, 0,), (x2, y2, z2) = (5, 5, 0,), (x3, y3, z3) = ( 5, 0, 0,), (x4, y4, z4)-= (0, 0, 0,), (x5, y5, z5) = (3, 3, 0,), (x6, y6, z6) = (3, 3, 3,) and the amount of movement of the robot is X RB = 5.1, Y RB = When 4.9 and Z RB = 3.1, the scales (first conversion coefficients) of X, Y, and Z are scale X = 5.1 / 5.0, scale Y = 4.9 / 5.0 and scale Z = 3.1 / 3.0.

In the above, the stereo camera provided in the first robot recognizes an error between the position information of the master M and the actual position information of the hub. Thereafter, the scale X, scale Y, and scale Z are multiplied by the measured values for the respective coordinate axes.

When the second robot 2 is instructed to operate according to the converted values, the operation is performed according to the error recognized by the stereo camera.

By the way, when the deviation between the master M and the actual hub is small (within 20 mm), since the actual hub can be detected by the stereo camera 6 attached to the first robot 1, the second conversion coefficient obtained above is used. The second robot 2 may be operated using this.

However, as shown in FIG. 5, when the positions of the master M and the hub 4 of the model A do not substantially coincide, specifically, the position of the hub largely deviates between the master based on the small car and the hub of the large car. It will be. For example, the position information of the hub 4 measured by the stereo camera 6 is a deviation in the wheel base direction (T) = 30 mm from the master M with reference to the wheel base, a deviation in the tread direction (B) = 0 mm, and a deviation in the height direction. When (H) = 20 mm, the actual hub cannot be detected because it exceeds the recognition range of the stereo camera 6 attached to the first robot 1.

  When changing the model (work), it can be predicted in advance from the model (work) data how much the hub position differs from the master. Therefore, when changing the model, the first robot and the second robot The third robot operates by correcting the teaching operation so as to correspond to the hub position (gap) predicted in advance with respect to the master position.

However, since the coordinate system of the robot is different for each robot, even if a position (gap) of the hub predicted in advance with respect to the master position is given to each robot, each robot performs different operations.
For example, when the gap is 30 mm in the wheel base direction, even if this value is given to each robot, the first robot 1 is 31 mm, the second robot 2 is 27 mm, It is conceivable that the robot 3 is 30 mm. The difference in the amount of movement of each robot cannot be canceled even if a value calculated by multiplying the hub position sensed by the stereo camera by the conversion coefficient described above is given.

  Therefore, it is conceivable that other robots are linked to one robot. For example, when the first robot 1 moves 33 mm and the second robot 2 moves 27 mm in response to a command of 30 mm, the second robot 2 moves 33 mm along with the first robot 1. is there.

In the present embodiment, the third conversion coefficient is calculated in order to link the second robot not equipped with the stereo camera in accordance with the first robot 1 equipped with the stereo camera.

  The third conversion coefficient is obtained by dividing the second conversion coefficient by the first conversion coefficient. According to FIG. 6, 11/10 is the scale of the first robot 1 and 9/10 is the scale of the second robot 2. Assuming that 30 is given as a gap, the first robot 1 operates by correcting the position of 33, and the second robot 2 operates by correcting the position of 27. As a result, displacement between positions 33 and 27 occurs, and the interlocked movement cannot be performed as it is. Therefore, by multiplying 27 by 11/9 as the third conversion coefficient to 33, the second robot can be operated in conjunction with the operation of the first robot.

That is, it is summarized as follows.
Third conversion coefficient = second conversion coefficient / first conversion coefficient Value given to the first robot = model correction amount + (sensing amount × first conversion coefficient)
Value given to the second robot = (model correction amount × 1 / third conversion coefficient) + (sensing amount × second conversion coefficient)

  As with the first robot and the second robot, the second conversion coefficient and the conversion coefficient corresponding to the third conversion coefficient can be calculated between the third robot and the second robot. The conversion coefficient and the third conversion coefficient are used as the fourth and fifth conversion coefficients when the tire is attached to the hub of the rear wheel.

The present invention can be applied to a line in which, for example, a hub of a vehicle body is detected by a stereo camera and a tire is automatically mounted on the hub by a robot.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... 1st robot, 2 ... 2nd robot, 3 ... 3rd robot, 4,5 ... Hub, 6, 7 ... Stereo camera, 8 ... Gripping part, 9 ... Tire supply part, 10 ... Camera (sensor), 11 ... Nut supply unit, 12 ... Table, 21 ... First image processing device, 22 ... Second image processing device, 23 ... Calculation unit, 24 ... Main control device 24, 30 ... Inspection jig, 31 ... Mark, W ... Body, T ... tyre.

Claims (1)

  1. In a control method for operating the first robot and the second robot based on position information of an object detected by a three-dimensional position measurement device disposed at the tip of the first robot,
    Three or more different measurement positions set on the XY plane of the robot coordinates of the first robot and two or more different measurement positions set on the Z axis perpendicular to the XY plane by operating the first robot , The position of the measurement object is measured by the three-dimensional position measurement device, and based on the movement amount of the first robot and the position coordinates of each measurement position of the measurement object in the coordinate system of the three-dimensional position measurement device, Calculating a first conversion coefficient from the coordinate system of the three-dimensional position measuring device to the coordinate system of the first robot;
    The position of three or more different measurement objects set on the XY plane of the robot coordinates of the second robot by operating the second robot and two or more different measurements in the Z-axis direction perpendicular to the XY plane Measure the position of the object with the three-dimensional position measurement device,
    Based on the movement amount of the second robot and the position coordinates of each measurement position of the measurement object in the coordinate system of the three-dimensional position measurement apparatus, the three-dimensional position measurement apparatus disposed at the tip of the first robot. Calculating a second conversion coefficient from the coordinate system to the coordinate system of the second robot;
    Calculating a third conversion coefficient based on the first conversion coefficient and the second conversion coefficient;
    When measuring the position of an object placed on a second workpiece having a different form from the reference first work, it is based on information on the difference in form between the first work and the second work. Operating the first robot;
    Further, the position information of the object measured by the three-dimensional position measurement device is converted by the first conversion coefficient, and the first robot is operated based on the converted value,
    A difference in form between the first workpiece and the second workpiece is converted by the third conversion coefficient, and the second robot is operated based on the converted value.
    The robot control method further comprises converting the position information of the object measured by the three-dimensional position measuring device using the second conversion coefficient, and operating the second robot based on the converted value.


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JP2012211775A (en) * 2011-03-30 2012-11-01 Hino Motors Ltd In-line hardness inspection device, in-line hardness inspection method and robot
JP5507595B2 (en) * 2012-02-17 2014-05-28 ファナック株式会社 Article assembling apparatus using robot
JP2014180720A (en) * 2013-03-19 2014-09-29 Yaskawa Electric Corp Robot system and calibration method
CN104816307B (en) * 2015-03-25 2016-08-17 西北工业大学 The four-point method of the accurate drilling of industrial robot is to leveling method
JP6407826B2 (en) * 2015-09-03 2018-10-17 ファナック株式会社 Coordinate system setting method, coordinate system setting device, and robot system provided with coordinate system setting device
CN106584093A (en) * 2015-10-20 2017-04-26 沈阳新松机器人自动化股份有限公司 Self-assembly system and method for industrial robots
JP2018126839A (en) * 2017-02-10 2018-08-16 川崎重工業株式会社 Robot system and control method thereof

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JP3104448B2 (en) * 1992-12-25 2000-10-30 三菱電機株式会社 Setting method of coordinate system of robot with visual sensor
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