JP5044884B2 - Assembled battery - Google Patents

Assembled battery Download PDF

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Publication number
JP5044884B2
JP5044884B2 JP2004195821A JP2004195821A JP5044884B2 JP 5044884 B2 JP5044884 B2 JP 5044884B2 JP 2004195821 A JP2004195821 A JP 2004195821A JP 2004195821 A JP2004195821 A JP 2004195821A JP 5044884 B2 JP5044884 B2 JP 5044884B2
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Japan
Prior art keywords
expansion
unit cells
secondary unit
assembled battery
conductive member
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Expired - Fee Related
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JP2004195821A
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Japanese (ja)
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JP2006019140A (en
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行正 西出
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トヨタ自動車株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage
    • Y02E60/12Battery technologies with an indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/122Lithium-ion batteries

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a battery pack which cuts off a current flow at abnormal expansion caused by the abnormal rise of battery internal pressure and can prevent the further abnormal expansion and fracture of a battery, and can be simplified in structure. <P>SOLUTION: The battery pack 100 comprises a plurality of secondary unit cells 110 having terminal members 113, and the terminal members 113 of the adjoining secondary unit cells 110 are connected by a conductive member 120, and each of the secondary unit cells 110 is arranged so that the distance between the terminal members may become longer by the expansion of the secondary unit cells 110. Then, at a part of an electrical connection path 130 constructed of the terminal member 113 and the conductive member 120, a fragile part (jointing part 131) which is not fractured by the expansion of the secondary unit cells 110 at the use of SOC 0%-100% and fractured by the expansion of the secondary unit cells 110 at the start of thermorunaway and cuts off a current flow between the adjoining secondary unit cells 110 is provided. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2006,JPO&amp;NCIPI

Description

  The present invention relates to an assembled battery in which a plurality of secondary unit cells each having a terminal member are arranged. In particular, the terminal members of adjacent secondary unit cells are connected by a conductive member, and the terminal members are expanded by expansion of the secondary unit cell. The present invention relates to an assembled battery in which each secondary cell is arranged so that the distance becomes large.

In a rechargeable battery such as a lithium ion type, if the battery becomes overcharged, reversely charged, overloaded, or causes a short circuit and a large current flows, the electrolyte will decompose. Gas is generated with heat generation. Furthermore, abnormal reactions are accelerated by heat generation, causing thermal runaway and generating gas rapidly. As a result, the internal pressure of the battery suddenly rises, and the battery (container) suddenly expands and deforms and sometimes bursts.
Conventionally, various safety mechanisms have been proposed in order to prevent such extreme expansion and rupture of the secondary battery. For example, Patent Literature 1 and Patent Literature 2 disclose a battery including a current interruption mechanism that interrupts current when the battery is abnormally expanded and suppresses further generation of gas to prevent battery deformation.

As described in claim 1 and the like, the battery of Patent Document 1 includes a safety valve that is deformed by an increase in battery internal pressure, and a current interrupting unit that is activated by the deformation of the safety valve. The safety valve has a safety valve protrusion that bulges toward the power generation element at the center. A disc having a central through hole into which the safety valve convex portion is inserted and a gas through hole through which gas passes is fixed between the safety valve and the power generation element. Furthermore, a metal thin plate with one lead plate of the power generation element electrically connected to the power generation element side of the disk is attached so as to close the central through hole, and the safety valve convex part is welded to this metal thin plate through the central through hole. Has been.
In this battery, when the battery internal pressure rises, the safety valve is deformed and bulges to the side opposite to the power generation element. At this time, by selecting the welding strength between the safety valve and the metal thin plate as a required strength in advance, the safety valve is deformed and bulged, and the welded portion is peeled off. Then, since the electrical connection between the lead plate of the power generation element and the safety valve is broken, generation of further gas can be suppressed and battery rupture can be avoided.

In the battery of Patent Document 2, as described in claim 1 and the like, a lead terminal plate is disposed on an end surface portion other than the wide side surface of the battery case where the input / output terminal portion connected to the power generation element exists. is there. And the predetermined part of the lead terminal plate central part is fixed to the input / output terminal part so as to be electrically conductive and capable of being cut by pulling, and its peripheral part is in contact with the end face part via an insulating layer. Has been.
In this battery, when the internal pressure in the battery case rises and the battery case is deformed, a pulling force that tries to separate them acts on the fixing part between the input / output terminal part and the lead terminal plate of the battery case. It is cut off and electrical conduction is cut off. Therefore, generation of more gas can be suppressed and battery rupture can be avoided.

JP-A-5-343043 JP 2001-313021 A

  However, in the conventional batteries represented by the batteries of Patent Document 1 and Patent Document 2, the current interruption mechanism for preventing deformation at the time of abnormal expansion is often complicated in structure, which increases the cost of the battery. Was invited. In addition, many batteries cannot be downsized by providing a current interrupt mechanism.

  The present invention has been made in view of the present situation, and in an assembled battery in which a plurality of secondary unit cells are arranged, the energization is reliably cut off at the time of abnormal expansion due to an abnormal increase in battery internal pressure. It is an object of the present invention to provide an assembled battery that can reliably prevent further abnormal expansion and rupture of the battery and that can have a simple structure.

The solution comprises a plurality of secondary unit cells having terminal members exposed to the outside, wherein the terminal members of the adjacent secondary unit cells are connected by conductive members, and the secondary unit cells expand. Each of the secondary cells is arranged such that the distance between the terminal members is increased by at least a part of an electrical connection path constituted by the terminal members and the conductive members Furthermore, the stress due to the expansion of the secondary cell when the SOC is 0% to 100% does not break, and the stress due to the expansion is smaller than the expansion of the secondary cell at the start of thermal runaway. It is a battery pack having a fragile portion that breaks and interrupts energization between the adjacent secondary cells.

Such an assembled battery is composed of a terminal member and a conductive member in the expansion of the secondary cell when used at an SOC of 0% to 100% (this is also referred to as normal use in this specification). Even if a tensile stress is applied to the electrical connection path, the electrical connection path is not broken by this level of stress, so that energization between the secondary cells can be maintained.
On the other hand, when gas is generated in the secondary cell for some reason such as overcharge, short circuit, reverse charge, overload, etc., the battery internal pressure rises abnormally and the battery (container) expands abnormally (in this specification, this Is also referred to as abnormal expansion), before the secondary cell causes thermal runaway, the fragile portion of the electrical connection path composed of the terminal member and the conductive member breaks, and the adjacent secondary cell It is possible to cut off the electricity between Therefore, it is possible to suppress the generation of more gas in the secondary unit cell, and it is possible to prevent the occurrence of thermal runaway and further abnormal expansion and rupture of the secondary unit cell associated therewith.
In addition, according to the present invention, since it is not necessary to provide a current interruption mechanism in the battery as in the prior art, the secondary cell can be made a simple structure, and the secondary cell and the assembled battery can be reduced in size.

Here, the “fragile portion” may be provided in at least a part of the electrical connection path constituted by the terminal member and the conductive member. Therefore, a part or all of the terminal member may be a fragile part, a part or all of the conductive member may be a fragile part, or a connection part between the terminal member and the conductor member may be a fragile part. . In addition, the fragile portion is not broken by the expansion of the secondary cell during normal use, and breaks during abnormal expansion before the start of thermal runaway, and interrupts energization between adjacent secondary cells. There is no particular limitation on the shape, material, or the like.
For example, as will be described later, a small cross-sectional area portion having a smaller cross-sectional area than other portions may be provided in a part of the conductive member, and this may be a fragile portion. Further, the material strength of the conductive member can be selected as appropriate, and the entire conductive member can be made a weak part. Further, as will be described later, the welding strength between the terminal member and the conductive member can be selected as appropriate, and the joint portion can be made a fragile portion.

Another solution is a plurality of secondary unit cells having terminal members exposed to the outside, wherein the terminal members of the adjacent secondary unit cells are connected by a conductive member, and the secondary unit cells are connected. An assembled battery in which each of the secondary cells is arranged so that the distance between the terminal members is increased due to expansion of the battery, and an electric connection path constituted by the terminal members and the conductive members. At least partly, when the SOC is 0% to 100%, it is not broken by the stress due to the expansion of the adjacent secondary cells connected by the conductive member, and is connected by the conductive member. A set having a fragile portion that breaks with a stress caused by expansion smaller than the expansion of the secondary cell when the container of the adjacent secondary cell expands and breaks, and cuts off current between the adjacent secondary cells. It is a battery.

In such an assembled battery, when the secondary cell expands during normal use, even if a tensile stress is applied to the electrical connection path, the electrical connection path does not break at this level of stress. Can be maintained.
On the other hand, at the time of abnormal expansion, before the container of the secondary cell expands and breaks, the weakened portion of the electrical connection path is broken, and the energization between the adjacent secondary cells can be cut off. Therefore, it is possible to suppress the generation of more gas in the secondary unit cell, and to prevent the secondary unit cell from bursting.
In addition, since it is not necessary to provide a current interruption mechanism in the battery as in the prior art, the secondary unit cell can have a simple structure, and the secondary unit cell and the assembled battery can be downsized.
The “fragile part” is as described in the above-described invention.

  Furthermore, it is an assembled battery in any one of said, Comprising: The said weak part is good to be an assembled battery which is a junction part of the said terminal member and the said electrically-conductive member.

  According to the present invention, the fragile portion that breaks during abnormal expansion is a joint between the terminal member and the conductive member. The joint strength between the terminal member and the conductive member can be easily adjusted by appropriately selecting welding conditions and the like. For example, welding can be performed by a known method such as laser welding or ultrasonic welding, and the bonding strength can be adjusted by appropriately selecting the welding energy, the size of the welding points, the number of welding points, and the like. Therefore, a weak part can be easily provided in the electrical connection path constituted by the terminal member and the conductive member.

  Furthermore, in the assembled battery according to any one of the above, the conductive member has a small cross-sectional area part having a smaller cross-sectional area than other parts, and the weak part is the small cross-sectional area part. It is good to use an assembled battery.

According to the present invention, the conductive member is provided with a small cross-sectional area part having a smaller cross-sectional area than other parts, and this is used as a fragile part. Since it is easy to provide a small cross-sectional area portion in the conductive member, the fragile portion can be easily provided in the electrical connection path constituted by the terminal member and the conductive member.
The shape of the “small cross-sectional area portion” can be changed as appropriate as long as the cross-sectional area is smaller than that of the other portions. For example, the conductive member can be formed so that the central portion is narrow, and the central portion can be a small cross-sectional area portion. Further, the conductive member can be provided with a concave portion such as a V-shaped groove by press working or the like, and this portion can be a small cross-sectional area portion.

Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
(Embodiment 1)
FIG. 1 shows a schematic view of the assembled battery 100 according to the present embodiment as viewed from above.
The assembled battery 100 includes a plurality of secondary unit cells 110, 110,. These secondary unit cells 110, 110,... Are lithium ion type secondary batteries. Each secondary cell 110 is made of a metal such as aluminum and includes a battery case 111 having a substantially rectangular parallelepiped shape of about 15 mm × about 100 mm × about 150 mm. Inside the battery case 111 is housed a power generation element (not shown) in which a positive electrode sheet and a negative electrode sheet are wound through a separator. A pair of terminal members 113, 113 made of a metal such as aluminum (positive electrode) or copper (negative electrode) is electrically connected to the power generation element. These terminal members 113 and 113 are fixed to the battery case 111 while maintaining insulation, and protrude toward the outside (upward) of the battery. In addition, an electrolytic solution is injected into the secondary unit cell 110.

Secondary battery cells 110, 110,... Constituting the assembled battery 100 are laminated in one direction with no gap through an insulating film (not shown). Therefore, if any of the secondary unit cells 110 expands, the distance between the terminal members 113 and 113 of the adjacent secondary unit cells 110 and 110 increases. The terminal members 113 of the adjacent secondary cell 110 110 are made of a metal such as copper and are electrically connected by a bus bar (conductive member) 120 having a plate shape. The terminal member 113 and the bus bar 120 are joined by laser welding to constitute an electrical connection path 130. Of the electrical connection path 130, the joint 131 between the terminal member 113 and the bus bar 120 does not break due to the expansion of the secondary cell 110 when the SOC is 0% to 100%, and thermal runaway occurs. It breaks with expansion smaller than the expansion of the secondary cell 110 at the time of starting, and it is set as the weak part which interrupts | blocks the electricity supply between the adjacent secondary cell 110,110.
In addition, the fragile portion (joint portion 131) is not broken by the expansion of the secondary cell 110 when the SOC is 0% to 100%, and the battery case 111 of the secondary cell 110 is expanded and broken. It breaks by expansion smaller than the expansion of the secondary cell 110 when it is done, and also cuts off the energization between the adjacent secondary cells 110, 110.

In such an assembled battery 100, the expansion of the secondary cell 110 during normal use with an SOC of 0% to 100% does not break the electrical connection path 130 formed by the terminal member 113 and the bus bar 120. , Can be energized. Specifically, in the assembled battery 100 of the present embodiment, a stress of about 5 kgf / mm 2 at the maximum is applied to the electrical connection path 130 during the normal use, but within this range of stress, the electrical connection path 130 is Does not break.

On the other hand, at the time of abnormal expansion in which gas is generated in the secondary cell 110 for some reason such as overcharge, short circuit, reverse charge, overload, etc., and the battery internal pressure rises abnormally, as shown in FIG. Before the battery case 111 undergoes thermal runaway and before the battery case 111 expands and breaks, the fragile portion (joint portion 131) of the electrical connection path 130 is broken, and the energization between the adjacent secondary unit cells 110 and 110 is performed. Shut off. Therefore, further generation of gas in the secondary cell 110 can be suppressed, and further abnormal expansion and rupture of the secondary cell 110 due to thermal runaway can be prevented. Specifically, in the battery pack 100 of this embodiment, when the battery expands and a stress of about 75 kgf / mm 2 is applied to the electrical connection path 130, the weakened portion (joint portion 131) of the electrical connection path 130 Breaks and power is cut off.
Further, the assembled battery 100 according to the present embodiment does not require a current interruption mechanism in the battery as in the prior art, so that the secondary cell 110 can have a simple structure, and the secondary cell 110 and the assembled battery 100 Miniaturization can be achieved.

(Embodiment 2)
Next, a second embodiment will be described. Note that the description of the same parts as those in the first embodiment is omitted or simplified.
FIG. 3 shows a schematic view of the assembled battery 200 according to the present embodiment as viewed from above. In this assembled battery 200, a plurality of secondary unit cells 110, 110,... Similar to those in the first embodiment are stacked via an insulating film (not shown). Therefore, also in this assembled battery 200, if the secondary cell 110 expands, the distance between the terminal members 113 and 113 of the secondary cell 110 and 110 adjacent to it will become large.

  The assembled battery 200 of the present embodiment includes a bus bar (conductive member) 220 having a shape different from that of the bus bar (conductive member) 120 of the first embodiment, between the terminal members 113 and 113 of the adjacent secondary unit cells 110 and 110. They are connected to form an electrical connection path 230. The bus bar 220 is made of a metal such as copper and has a flat plate shape in which the central portion in the longitudinal direction is narrower than both end portions. Therefore, the central portion is a small cross-sectional area portion 231 having a smaller cross-sectional area than other portions. Further, the bus bar 220 and the terminal member 113 are fixed with high strength using bolts 223.

Among such electrical connection paths 230, the small cross-sectional area portion 231 of the bus bar 220 does not break due to the expansion of the secondary cell 110 when the SOC is 0% to 100%, and thermal runaway occurs. It is a fragile portion that breaks with an expansion smaller than the expansion of the secondary unit cell 110 at the start and blocks the energization between the adjacent secondary unit cells 110, 110.
Moreover, this weak part (small cross-sectional area part 231) is not broken by the expansion of the secondary cell 110 when the SOC is 0% to 100%, and the battery case 111 of the secondary cell 110 is not broken. It breaks with an expansion smaller than the expansion of the secondary cell 110 at the time of expansion failure, and the energization between the adjacent secondary cells 110, 110 is cut off.

In such an assembled battery 200, the expansion of the secondary cell 110 during normal use with an SOC of 0% to 100% does not break the electrical connection path 230 formed by the terminal member 113 and the bus bar 220. , Can be energized. Specifically, in the assembled battery 200 of the present embodiment, a stress of about 5 kgf / mm 2 at the maximum is applied to the electrical connection path 230 during this normal use, but within this level of stress, the electrical connection path 230 is Does not break.

On the other hand, at the time of abnormal expansion in which gas is generated in the secondary cell 110 for some reason such as overcharge, short circuit, reverse charge, overload, etc., and the battery internal pressure rises abnormally, as shown in FIG. Before the thermal runaway occurs and before the battery case 111 expands and breaks, the fragile portion (small cross-sectional area portion 231) of the electrical connection path 230 breaks, and the adjacent secondary unit cells 110 and 110 are separated. Shut off the power of the. Therefore, further generation of gas in the secondary cell 110 can be suppressed, and further abnormal expansion and rupture of the secondary cell 110 due to thermal runaway can be prevented. Specifically, in the assembled battery 200 of the present embodiment, when the battery expands and a stress of about 75 kgf / mm 2 is applied to the electrical connection path 230, the weakened portion (small cross-sectional area portion) of the electrical connection path 230 231) breaks, and the energization is cut off.
Further, the assembled battery 200 of the present embodiment also does not require a current interruption mechanism in the battery as in the conventional case, so that the secondary cell 110 can have a simple structure, and the secondary cell 110 and the assembled battery 200 Miniaturization can be achieved.

In the above, the present invention has been described with reference to the embodiment. However, the present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiment, and it is needless to say that the present invention can be appropriately modified and applied without departing from the gist thereof. .
For example, in the above-described embodiment, a plurality of secondary unit cells 110, 110,... Are stacked via an insulating film (not shown), but cooling fins or the like are interposed between adjacent secondary cells 110, 110, for example. Also good. Even if it is such a structure, the effect of this invention can be acquired.
Moreover, the secondary cell 110,110, ... which comprises the assembled batteries 100 and 200 is good also as direct connection, and good also as parallel connection. The effect of the present invention can be obtained regardless of the connection form.

FIG. 4 is a schematic view of the assembled battery according to Embodiment 1 when a part of the assembled battery during normal use is viewed from above. It is the schematic diagram which looked at a part of assembled battery at the time of abnormal expansion regarding the assembled battery which concerns on Embodiment 1 from upper direction. FIG. 6 is a schematic view of a part of the assembled battery in normal use as viewed from above with respect to the assembled battery according to Embodiment 2. It is the schematic diagram which looked at a part of assembled battery at the time of abnormal expansion regarding the assembled battery which concerns on Embodiment 2 from upper direction.

Explanation of symbols

100, 200 Battery pack 110 Secondary cell 113 Terminal member 120, 220 Conductive member 130, 230 Electrical connection path 131 Joint (fragile part)
231 Small cross-sectional area (fragile part)

Claims (4)

  1. It consists of a plurality of secondary unit cells having terminal members exposed to the outside, and the terminal members of the adjacent secondary unit cells are connected by a conductive member, and between the terminal members due to expansion of the secondary unit cells An assembled battery in which the secondary cells are arranged so that the distance of
    At least a part of the electrical connection path composed of the terminal member and the conductive member does not break due to stress due to expansion of the secondary cell when used with an SOC of 0% to 100%, and An assembled battery having a fragile portion that breaks due to a stress caused by expansion smaller than that of the secondary unit cell at the start of thermal runaway and interrupts energization between the adjacent secondary unit cells.
  2. It consists of a plurality of secondary unit cells having terminal members exposed to the outside, and the terminal members of the adjacent secondary unit cells are connected by a conductive member, and between the terminal members due to expansion of the secondary unit cells An assembled battery in which the secondary cells are arranged so that the distance of
    At least part of the electrical connection path constituted by the terminal member and the conductive member, the adjacent secondary cell connected by the conductive member at the time of use when the SOC is 0% to 100%. It does not break due to stress due to expansion, and breaks due to stress due to expansion smaller than the expansion of the secondary cell when the container of the adjacent secondary cell connected by the conductive member expands and breaks. The assembled battery which has a weak part which interrupts | blocks electricity supply between the said secondary cell which fits.
  3. The assembled battery according to claim 1 or 2,
    The weakened part is an assembled battery which is a joint part between the terminal member and the conductive member.
  4. The assembled battery according to claim 1 or 2,
    The conductive member has a small cross-sectional area part having a smaller cross-sectional area than the other part,
    The fragile portion is an assembled battery having a small cross-sectional area.
JP2004195821A 2004-07-01 2004-07-01 Assembled battery Expired - Fee Related JP5044884B2 (en)

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JP5078282B2 (en) * 2006-05-31 2012-11-21 三洋電機株式会社 Assembled battery
JP5122857B2 (en) * 2007-04-23 2013-01-16 株式会社東芝 Battery module and battery module connection method
JP5259152B2 (en) * 2007-09-28 2013-08-07 株式会社東芝 Battery cell, battery pack, and battery cell manufacturing method
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JP5231910B2 (en) * 2008-09-17 2013-07-10 富士重工業株式会社 Vehicle power supply
CN102150299B (en) * 2009-05-25 2014-05-28 丰田自动车株式会社 Secondary battery, battery pack, and vehicle and apparatus having the battery pack mounted thereon
KR101608694B1 (en) 2009-07-20 2016-04-05 에스케이이노베이션 주식회사 A Safeguard Apparatus Preventing Overcharge for A Secondary Battery
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US20130183574A1 (en) * 2010-09-30 2013-07-18 Yasuhiro Asai Battery system
JP5594079B2 (en) * 2010-11-17 2014-09-24 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Monitoring device for current interruption mechanism
KR101294168B1 (en) * 2011-09-26 2013-08-08 기아자동차주식회사 Apparatus for preventing overcharge battery
JP2013073929A (en) * 2011-09-29 2013-04-22 Gs Yuasa Corp Battery pack
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